.2.3 Agricultural machinery Table 6. Efficiency of the support programs of the purchase of machinery for agricultural enterprises in the sample regions, Rostovskaya oblast Ivanovskaya oblast Nizhegorodskaya oblast The authorities regulate +/+ - /+ suppliers/nomenclature Price through all channels, tractors, rubles/1 tractor 376169 316780 Leasing price, tractors, rubles/tractor 357089 316780 Correlation of the leasing prices with the prices of purchase through all channels, tractors 95% 100% 146% Price through all channels, 839022 347708 harvesters, rubles/1 harvester Leasing price, harvesters, rubles/1 1239759 664000 harvester Correlation of the leasing prices 148% 191% with the prices of purchase through all channels, harvester Price for harvesters in the open 1124000 - joint-stock company “Rostselmach” subsidized from the budget, rubles/1 harvester Correlation of the prices following 134% - the Rostov program with the prices through all channels for surveyed enterprises The share of subsiding from the 25% 0 regional budget The share of leased tractors (up to 8 9% 15% 3% years) The share of leased harvesters (up 15% 20% 4% to 8 years) Source: own calculations according to the data of the investigations and Goskomstat of the RF.
In the Ivanovskaya oblast, any organization that possesses the corresponding license can be a leaseholder, however, the authorities determine nomenclature of the supplying. The investigation showed that the share of leased machinery in the Ivanovskaya oblast was higher than in two other regions. Subsequently, there is no monopoly of the sole leasing company in the region.
In the Rostovskaya oblast, the regional leasing program demands from producers of machinery to coordinate the nomenclature of leased production, as well as its prices with the regional Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
Table 6 shows that the price for harvesters produced in the open joint-stock company “Rostselmach” for which purchase the budgetary credit is given to producers is higher by 34% than the average price in the region. At the same time, on the average 25% of the value of harvesters is subsiding from the regional budget, i.e., such a scheme of the “support” is not profitable for agricultural producers even not taking into account the interests on credit and the distortion of the price proportions by its return in the form of production.
In the Nizhegorodskaya oblast, the prices for leased tractors are raised too high, and the share of machinery leased by agricultural producers is low, that shows the non-attractiveness of the federal leasing program for producers.
On the whole, the correlation of the leasing prices for machinery with the prices of purchase through other channels shows the inefficiency of the leasing schemes.
3. The grouping of regions by the type of the agrarian policy.3.1 The main factors of the grouping of regions by the type of the agrarian policy To analyze the efficiency of the regional programs we propose to pick out the groups of regions with the similar type of the regional agro-food policy. Suggested grouping of regions is based on the analysis of measures aimed to the support of agricultural producers in seven regions of the RF (Chelyabinskaya oblast, the Chuvash Republic, Vologodskaya oblast, Nizhegorodskaya oblast, Ivanovskaya oblast, Rostovskaya oblast, Permskaya oblast) and makes provision for two main directions of differences between regions: by the level of ability of a regional budget of supporting agriculture (its financial state) and by liberality of the regional agrarian policy (i.e., by the level of the administrative interference by its realization).
To group regions by clusters according to these two directions there were chosen six indices (Table 7). Three variables determine the place of a region among other ones by the level of expenditure ability and three of them — by the type of the agrarian policy.
Table 7. Variables for clusterization of the regions by the level of ability of a regional budget of supporting agriculture and the type of the agrarian policy, Index Prescription of variables 1. The share of transfers from the federal determines the financial 1,9 16,6 0 0 11,1 26,7 1,budget in the income of the regional budget, % state 2. Gross regional product per capita, determines the financial 417 249 536 635 292 185 rubles/apiece state 44 96 99 52 03 38 3. Correlation of the per capita income and the determines the financial 1,54 1,18 1,96 2,00 1,68 0,84 1,rate of living wage, % state 4. Number of the general services support determines the type of 5 4 12 4 3 4 programs the agrarian policy 5. The share of expenditure for the formation determines the type of 34,4 21,8 0 0 1,3 0 1,of the food reserves in the agrarian budget, % the agrarian policy 6. Number of restrictions of the authorities and determines the type of 19 13 7 3 11 12 executive power bodies of the region in the the agrarian policy field of regulation of the agri-food sector Source: Consultant Regions, Goskomstat of the RF, the Ministry of Finances of the RF Within the framework of this investigation there was the task to determine by what criteria it was possible to estimate liberality of the agrarian policy. We have chosen the following variables. The number of the general services support programs testifies as far as the regional authorities aim at the creation of conditions and rules of a play in the market to counterbalance the direct interference in the market processes.
The share of expenditure for the formation of the regional food reserves is used as approximation of the share of means re-distributed by the authorities because in the most regions the reserves are the less transparent item of expenditure and the food corporations that dispose of this fund relate to the market least of all.
The last variable — the number of restrictions of the authorities and the subject in the field of regulation of the agro-industrial complex — is formed from the sum of restrictions in the markets of inputs and other restrictions of trade and competition. The point for restrictions in the markets of inputs was calculated by the following way. In the regions, where the programs of the support of inputs purchase are used with the high level of the administrative interference in the determination of the sources of inputs purchase, the direct distribution of subsidies between agricultural producers, and restrictions of competition, one point was given for every restriction. The point was subtracted for each program that retained the opportunity to purchase inputs in the free market with the next subsiding for expenditure independently from the source of purchase.
Other restrictions include direct and indirect restrictions of trade used under the implementation of the agrarian policy, in particular, the coordination of subsidies with the delivery of production for the regional funds as well as payment of subsidies by the delivery of production within a region.
In the figure (Figure 1), it is shown the negative dependence between the type of the agrarian policy and the level of expenditure ability. It means that rich regions with high expenditure for the support of agriculture conduct more liberal agrarian policy. Subsequently, the poorer oblast oblast oblast oblast oblast a oblast Chuvash Republic Permskaya Ivanovskaya Rostovskaya Vologodskaya Chelyabinskaya Nizhegorodskay region and the less opportunities to spend budgetary means for the support of agriculture the region has, the more measures of the support that result in the administrative interference in the market relations are used in the region.
Thus, basing on the figure it is possible to make a conclusion about the existence of two types of regions. The first type (Group 1) consists of rich regions with the liberal agrarian policy.
Such regions are characterized by the low dependence from the federal transfer, high standards of living, great number of the general services support programs, by the low share of purchase in the regional food funds and little quantity of agricultural support programs that result in the formation of monopoly or the restriction of competition. The second type (Group 2) consists of poor regions where the agrarian policy is based on the extreme interference of the regional authorities in the functioning of the agrarian sector.
In the figure, the Chelyabinskaya oblast does not keep within the trend of the negative dependence between the type of policy and financial state (Group 3). In this region, the highest level of the administrative interference is combined with considerably high indices of the budget provision. It makes to assume that the Chelyabinskaya oblast is a representative of the third type of the regions where the high level of regulation is not connected with the lack of the budgetary means but it is determined by the general formed structure of the regional economy that relates to the administrative, not market type.
Figure 1. Grouping of the regions by the type of the agrarian policy 3,Permskaya Group Group oblast Chelyabinskaya 2,Vologodskaya Nizhegorodskaya oblast oblast oblast Rostovskaya 1,oblast The Chuvash Group Republic 0,Ivanovskaya oblast 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 Level of the administrative regulation Source: own calculations To check the existence of three types of the regions that we can see in the figure the cluster analysis was conducted. The results of clusterization confirmed the grouping of the regions.
As far as only seven regions are investigated, each group is represented by small quantity of regions. However, we made an attempt to choose the system of stable criteria according to which a region belongs to the certain type. That is why there are grounds to suppose that by the increase in number of investigated objects they will keep within the chosen system of classification and belong to one of the three described types.
One of the factors according to which a region belongs to a certain type of the agrarian policy was the degree of the distorting interference on the market of the support programs of the use of inputs. Let us consider how the conclusions of the previous part regarding the efficiency of such programs and the results of the grouping cross.
Level of expenditure ability The Nizhegorodskaya oblast turned to be in Group 1. In this region, the support programs of the purchase of fertilizers, subsidies for the rates of interest on credit for fuels and lubricants purchase and the support program of the agricultural machinery producers act more effectively than other programs.
In the Ivanovskaya oblast, the programs have ineffective structure: the commodity credit with the coordination of the delivery for the regional funds and restrictions of the nomenclature of leased machinery. Under the conditions when the quantity of inputs is limited, its effective use is especially important and the significant step toward the increase of efficiency is the substitution of the regional leasing and commodity credit for compensation from the budgetary means for the rates of interest on the commercial credit.
The Rostovskaya oblast turns to be in the second group of the regions with the high level of the administrative interference in the markets. In this region, the efficiency of the support programs of purchased inputs is considerably lower than in the first group. As far as the level of expenditure of the Rostovskaya oblast does not cause such serious restrictions on the programs of the agro-food policy, as in two other regions of the second group, it is necessary to develop the support of the budgetary services, to reject from the direct participation of the authorities in the distribution of subsidies and to improve the programs that stimulate the development of the market relations and competition in the markets of agricultural machinery and fertilizers, but not to suppress them.
Thus, by the example of three regions it is shown that more liberal agrarian policy will result in the growth of efficiency of the regulation programs.
4. Conclusions The regional programs of the state regulation of inputs have a common defect: the suppliers of purchased inputs are the final beneficiaries of such programs to a greater degree than agricultural producers.
The main reason of such a situation is the participation of the regional authorities in the distribution of subsidies that results in the raising the administrative expenditure too high and corruption. As the result, the programs do not reach their aims.
Thus, in spite of the difficulties with re-equipment of production an extremely small share of surveyed enterprises used the state leasing programs to purchase machinery.
Suggested grouping of the regions by the type of the agrarian policy shows the connection between the level of the administrative interference in the markets and the efficiency of the programs of regulation of the agro-industrial complex, in particular, that permits to work out single recommendations on the improvement of the policy for all regions from each group.
The limited nature of the nomenclature of inputs granted with the state subsidy, the administrative approval of agricultural enterprises that have access to the program as well as the allotment of a restricted range of producers with the right to supply inputs within the framework of the program result in the setting prices too high and deterioration of the stimulating effect of the state regulation.
The schemes under which the regional authorities do not take part in the direct distribution of subsidies but subsidy producers for a share of expenditure for purchase of inputs independently of the source of purchase, nomenclature of production and the form of agricultural enterprise are considerably more effective. Such forms of the state regulation are more effective both from the standpoint of the fall in prices for inputs and from the standpoint of the increase of the efficiency of production.
5. Bibliography MAY V., ZAVORONKOV S., YANOVSKY K. (2003) Politichaskie i Pravovye Factory Economicheskogo Rosta v Rossiiskih Regionah. V kn. Economica Perehodnogo Perioda.
Sbornik izbrannyh rabot 1999-2002. М.: Дело.
RYNKI FACTOROV PROIZVODSTVA V APK ROSSII: PERSPECTIVY ANALYSA. (2002) Proceedings of Conference June, 6-7 2001 Golitzino - II. M, IET.
SEROVA E., KARLOVA N., MELYKHINA O., KRAMOVA I., TIKHONOVA T., TARASOV A. (2000) Povyshenie Effectivnosty Ispolzovaniya Budzetnyh Sredstv v APK Rossii.
www.iet.ru/afe/projects/budget.pdf VALDES A. (1999) Agricultural Support Policies in Transition Economies. Report Prepared under the Regional Studies Program. World Bank.
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