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to be filled by soldiers and sergeants should be given, in the mili- The normative-legal backing of the FTP contradicted its goals and tary units being switched over to the new system of manning, to the RF Governments instruction. The draft law on reducing the servicemen enlisted for military service under contracts; term of service was submitted with a delay and in one package with other draft laws, which resulted in it having been considered, behind closed doors, in haste and without a preliminary discussion by ex perts. Also, a number of drawbacks were revealed, including, in particular, the violation of the right of citizens who have completed one or two terms of service under contracts to labor pensions, which should have taken into account their money allowances during the - the information support for the Program; period of service. The abolition of the draft in Chechnya, thus sinthe creation of a stable and centralized system of manning the gled out from the rest of Russian regions, was implemented without Armed Forces, other troops, military formations and organs having been duly substantiated by the adoption of a corresponding law, which can have negative consequences. From the legal point of view, the Regulation on Military Service does not eliminate the possibility of servicemen enlisted for compulsory military service being dispatched to the hot spots.

The information support for the Program turned out to be of low efficiency. A number of publications contained disinformation, which inspired justified criticism on the part of citizens and human rights organizations Section Institutional Problems The Programs measures aimed at ensuring the attractiveness of The 3,300 rubles / month bonus, calculated in late 2003, was too military service under contract envisage the following: small, even at that time, for the contractees money allowance to - payment of differentiated bonuses for special conditions of com- exceed the average national wage, which has always been the necesbat training; sary precondition to creating a volunteer army. And it had become less than scanty by the end of the FTP, because it had not been - payment of compensations, to the afore-noted servicemen with adjusted for inflation, which shot up to more than 40% over this families, for renting a dwelling, in accordance with the norms period.

stipulated by RF legislation; The size of compensation for renting a dwelling also turned out to - bringing the level of providing the afore-said servicemen with be insufficient and well below the minimum required level in the clothing and small stores into correspondence with the norms set majority of RF regions.

by RF legislation; The drawbacks in providing all the servicemen with clothing and - ensuring the following rights of the afore-said servicemen: small stores are forcing the new Defense Minister to start revising to medical support, including the setting of compensations for the norms and reconsidering the design of the uniform.

sanatorium and spa treatment; The ensuring of the rights to medical support and the payment of the to the payment of the cost of travel of a serviceman and members cost of travel had a positive effect, but these measures cannot comof his family to another place of service, including the compensa- pensate for the low level of money allowance.

tion for the expenses for travel to the place of use of leave and Unfortunately, the payment of field and combat bonuses lacked back; due control, which led to financial fraud and court proceedings.

- the encouragement of fulfillment of battle tasks and military The right to free higher education or secondary special education is training tasks in special (field) conditions; now envisaged by a corresponding law. This measure is useful.

- granting the right to free higher education or secondary special However, its efficiency has failed to duly manifest itself so far, due education to the low initial educational level of the contractees being enrolled, and, first of all, due to the fact that many of them are disinterested in improving this level; in the future, the efficiency is expected to be low because it is planned to draft mainly graduates of higher educational establishments The measures aimed at solving the housing problems of contrac- As regards the construction component of the measures, it should be tees envisage a noted that expenditures on it were steadily growing during the pechange in the billeting of servicemen enlisted for military service riod of implementing the FTP. Despite some undisputed achieveunder contracts in the positions which should be filled (see ments, even the Supreme Commanders assessment points to the above); to this end, it is planned to carry out: fact that the results of construction are not totally adequate to the - reconstruction (or refitting) of the existing barracks, in order to said expenditures. The housing problem was resolved most successconvert them into military hostels of a simplified type; fully in the military units and formations quartered in the North - construction of new military hostels; Caucasian Military District.

- upgrading of objects in the barracks sphere, in order to bring During the period of implementing the FTP, the authorities develthem into line with the authorized standards; oped the Law on the Funded Mortgage System for Providing Ser- and development of the social and engineering infrastructure, in vicemen with Housing. Also included in the system were those order to ensure the functioning of both the existing objects of the privates and noncommissioned officers serving under contracts who barracks sphere and those being put into commission were going to sign a second contract for continuation of military service. However, this incentive not only formally exceeds the bounds of the FTP, but also has failed to become an operative factor, because the new system has not been put into operation as yet The Programs measures aimed at improving the combat train- As regards the attainment of the normative level of combat training ing and the material and technical support for military units and of the material and technical support for military units and envisage: formations of permanent readiness, it should be noted that these - the relief of servicemen, enlisted for military service under con- measures, in fact, have little to do with the principle of manning, as tracts in the military positions which should be filled by soldiers it was repeatedly pointed out already during the period of feasibility and sergeants in the military units being switched over to the new studies for the FTP. It is not very rational, irrespective of the type of system of manning, from the fulfillment of duties unrelated to a system of manning, to continue the upkeep of the military units combat (or special) training and their official duties; not engaged in combat training. This problem should be approached - the improvement of the educational-material and technical base with regard to all regular forces. Otherwise, it would be unclear why for combat training; they should be kept at all - organization of combat training in accordance with the demands set by RF legislation;

- the ensuring of exploitation of objects constituting the educational-material and technical base for combat training, and of an increased number of objects of infrastructure;

- and the ensuring of the most sophisticated forms of combat training to be carried out RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks The Programs measures aimed at ensuring that military units The relief of servicemen from the fulfillment of duties unrelated to are adequately equipped with technological means envisage: combat (or special) training and to their official duties is being the maintenance of weapons and military equipment in good repair successfully practiced in a number of military units by way of at(the current maintenance and repair of weapons and military tracting, wherever possible, services from the outside, which are equipment, made necessary by an increased intensity of exploita- provided by commercial organizations at the localities where these tion in the course of combat training); military units are quartered. At the same time, human rights activists maintenance of the objects of infrastructure of military units at a have exposed, and offices of military prosecutors have confirmed level ensuring the strengthening of combat readiness and the con- numerous instances of illegal employment of servicemen for perduct of combat training forming work unrelated to their official duties, in commercial and other structures, outside their military units. In order to put an end to such violations, a special order of the Minister of Defense was issued, which, according to human rights activists, has failed to produce any palpable changes to the better as yet The Programs measures, aimed at creating the conditions ensur- The High Command of the Land Forces has developed a number of ing the strengthening of combat and mobilization readiness of combat-training programs for the formations and units manned by the Armed Forces, border troops and Interior troops during the servicemen enlisted for military service under contracts; from the military units switchover to the new system of manning, envisage academic year 2008 onward, the subunits are switched over to the the following: one-year cycle of training.

- ensuring the purchasing and assembly of additional security and The implementation of the FTPs measures has made it possible for alarm systems; the majority of objects of the educational material and technical - the preliminary training at training centers and units, of the ser- base to be put in line with the demands stipulated in the guiding vicemen enlisted for military service under contracts in the mili- documents, and for the educational base to be in due time prepared tary positions which should be filled by soldiers and sergeants in for the beginning of a full-scale one - year combat training cycle.

the military units being switched over to the new system of man- According to the army mass media, the measures are being implening. mented without any visible violations that could have caused public concern.

- ensuring that the afore-said formations and military units are A number of publications in the army mass media have confirmed adequately equipped with technological means that these measures are indeed being implemented.

It is worth mentioning that state-of-the art security and alarm systems, as well as other means of automation and mechanization, are being successfully applied, especially in the RF frontier service.

The equipment of a number of training centers and the quality of training have been improved. A number of simulators and technical means of education have been developed and purchased Financing: In spite of the fact that in the feasibility study concerning the FTP The funds to be allocated to the implementation of the Program (and also that regarding its subsequent adjustments) the 2003 prices amount to 98,913.31 million rubles (in 2003 prices) (as written were applied, in the course of the FTPs actual implementation the in the version of the RF Governments Decree, of 07 September expenditures were initially not adjusted by the inflation growth 2006, No. 549). index, and later on were adjusted only with delays.

Initially, it was planned to allocate 79,091.65 million rubles. The distribution of the aggregate amount of the funds was adjusted The share of capital investments in the total volume of expendi- mainly in terms of increasing capital expenditures.

tures in the years 200407 amounts to 44 percent (43,577.52 Out of the total amount of the expenditures increase (about million rubles). billion rubles in 2003 prices), virtually nothing was allocated to In the first version of the FTP, their share was 34 percent increasing the money allowances special increment, introduced in (27,178.28 million rubles). order to increase the attractiveness of service under contract, which The volume and structure of the budget financing of the Programs significantly hampered the initiative of manning the Armed Forces measures is subject to annual adjustment in accordance with the on the voluntary basis.

actual capacity of the federal budget and the degree of actual im- Judging from the numerous limitations producing a negative effect plementation of the Programs measures on the FTPs ultimate results, any increases in expenditures on research appear to be unmotivated and groundless Table 26 presents a comparison of the expected results of the FTP to the estimations based on its actual preliminary results of the Program.

Section Institutional Problems Table Comparison between the Expected and Actual Results of the FTP Expected results, according to FTP certificate Estimation of preliminary results 1) the creation of adequate conditions for switching over to the According to the actual data and the public statements made by a system of manning the armed forces with volunteers enlisted for number of high-rank officers, the conditions necessary for the sucmilitary service under contracts in the military positions which cessful manning of military units on the contractual basis have not should be filled by soldiers, sailors, sergeants, and petty officers been created, which became the main obstacle to achieving success 2) the regular filling, in these formations and military units, of The filling of a smaller number of positions at a higher cost does the military positions which should be filled by soldiers, sailors, not attest to the successfulness of the FTP. Also, this process can sergeants, and petty officers by servicemen enlisted for military hardly be characterized as regular, because the plans were service under contracts adjusted towards weakening the demands.

(primarily in the military units fulfilling missions in the hot spots The exception is the Frontier Service of the FSB.

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