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DEFINITIONS ON CIVIL SERVICE REFORM The following definitions on Civil Service are used in Chapter 2.

Federal Civil Service includes all employees of the federal executive, legislative, judiciary and other federal bodies (these bodies include the Accounting Chamber, Central Election Commission, and the Apparatus of the Plenipotentiary on Human Rights) that enjoy the status of federal civil servants and are financed from the federal budget. Employment of federal civil servants is regulated by the framework Law on State Service System enacted in May 2003.

Subnational Civil Service includes all employees of the regional and municipal executive, legislative, judiciary and other regional and municipal bodies that have the status of civil servants of subjects of Federation and are financed from the regional and municipal budgets91. Employment in subnational civil service is regulated by civil service and municipal service legislation (including federal legislation on municipal service and regional legislation on civil service at the regional level).

Categories of Civil Servants refer to the groups of civil service positions used, inter alia, for determination of cash compensation, in-kind benefits, and the like. A detailed table on the existing categories of federal civil servants is presented in Annex 2.2.

Core Government Administration Employment includes federal and subnational civil service, as well as other employees of the executive, legislative, judiciary and other authorities that do not have the status of federal/subnational civil servants (employment of such employees is usually regulated by Labor Code)92 that are performing functions not related to maintaining public order and internal security. Core government administration employment includes employees of the federal authorities that are either headquarterbased or deconcentrated (but in any case financed directly from the federal budget) and employees of regional and municipal authorities (financed from subnational budgets).

Civilian Public Sector Employment includes employees of health, education, research and development, and other social sector branches financed from the federal, regional, and municipal budgets. Staff of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, etc., is not The term includes both civil service of a subject of the Federation a category used in accordance with the new Law On the System of State Service in the Russian Federation No.58FZ dated May 27, 2003 and municipal service. Civil service of a subject of the Federation is to be financed from the regional budgets. Civil servants of the subjects of the Federation may also be financed from the federal budget, if there is an appropriate provision to this effect included in a federal law. Municipal servants are financed from sub-national budgets.

In some cases, government employment may be regulated by specific legislation, such as a Law on Customs Service. For example, all uniformed and managerial staff (division heads and above) in the State Customs Committee are not counted as civil servants, but as customs servants. At the same time, some technical and support staff, as well as temporary employees working in the government agencies are not considered civil servants, and their employment is regulated by the Labor Code. It is expected that during the implementation of civil service reform, the legal framework would become simpler and more systematic.

included in this category as they are part of the above mentioned category of core government administration employment.

Police Service includes all employees of the authorities responsible for maintaining public order and internal security. Police service includes, inter alia, Federal Security Service, Ministry of Interior, etc.

Armed Forces include all personnel employed by military authorities (i.e., Ministry of Defense, military officers and solders).

General Government Employment includes core government administration employment, civilian public sector employment, police service and armed forces93.

Total Public Employment includes general government employment and SOE employees (employees of enterprises that are majority-owned by the government). SOE employment and wages are beyond the scope of this Chapter. The definition is listed here primarily for the purposes of cross-country comparisons.

This definition corresponds to the one adopted in the International Standard of Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). According to the ISIC, General Government refers to employment in all government departments, offices, organizations and other bodies which are agencies or instruments of the central or local authorities whether accounted for or financed in ordinary or extraordinary budgets or extrabudgetary funds. They are not solely engaged in public administration, but also in defense and public order, in the promotion of economic growth and in the provision of education, health, cultural and social services. (International Standard of Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Series M No.4, Rev 3 1990).

The main components of the government employment are illustrated in Figure A2.1.

Figure A2.1: Total Public Employment in the Russian Federation TOTAL PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT General Government SOE Employees Employment Civilian Public Core Government Police Service Sector Administration Empolyment Employment Health, Physical Federal Culture and Sports, Authorities Armed Forces Social Services HQ - based Education Culture and Arts federal civil servants other employees Research and Deconcentrated Development federal civil servants other employees Regional and Municipal Authorities subnational civil service other employees General Government Sectors Analysed in this Note Notes: Sectors in Civilian Public Sectors are divided in accordance with Roskomstat (2002b).

Sectors of the general government analyzed Chapter 2 are depicted inside the dot line area.

Cash Compensation refers to an average monthly amount of the base salary and all other payments in cash received by an employee for services rendered, including payroll taxes.

Wage Bill refers to the total annual amount of cash payments to all public employees in return for services rendered before deduction of payroll taxes. It is calculated by multiplying cash compensation by the number of employees and by twelve (the number of months).

Non-Monetary Benefits refer to all in-kind benefits, such as transportation, housing, meals, travel, but do not include intangible rewards, including job security, prestige, social privileges, training, trips abroad (see Annex 2.3 for classification of public servants both contractually provided and intangible rewards).

Non-Wage Expenditures refer to overhead costs of providing public services and include costs of office maintenance, equipment, staff training, etc. For purposes of this Chapter, these expenditures are calculated for core government administration only and represent a difference between total expenditures on core government administration and the sum of the wage bill, payroll taxes, and identifiable non-monetary benefits.

Compression Ratio for Federal Executive HQ-Based Civil Service is estimated as a ratio between the average pay to federal executive HQ-based servants holding positions classified as Category C Top Group and average pay to federal executive HQ-based servants holding positions classified as Category C Junior Group. In this case, pay includes all monetary payments to civil servants.

Compression Ratio for Federal Executive Civil Service is estimated as a ratio between the average pay to federal executive HQ-based servants holding positions classified as Category C Top Group and average pay to federal executive servants employed in deconcentrated units and holding positions classified as Category C Junior Group. In this case, pay includes all monetary payments to civil servants.

Internationally, there is no methodological consensus for estimation of compression ratios. The World Bank website and database estimate the compression ratio as a ratio of the highest salary to the lowest on the central government's main salary scale. The OECD measures wage compression in OECD countries as the mean of ninth decile salaries divided by the mean of first decile salaries. The OECD's approach ensures that a handful of salaries will not dramatically skew the compression ratio. Given that the base salary paid to the civil servants in Russia represents only a part of total monetary payments made to civil servants and the provisions of the draft Federal Law On State Civil Service of the Russian Federation suggest that this situation would continue to be the case in the future (see HSE (2003) for more specific analysis), for the purpose of this Chapter the compression ratios were estimated based on the average monetary payments to the officials holding positions in Category C Top Group (a proxy for high level officials) as compared to the average payment in Category C Junior Group (a proxy for the lowest grades in the service). Because of this methodological difference, the cross-country comparisons in this Chapter may be used primarily for reference rather than for policy deliberations Civil Service Reform includes all reform efforts affecting the functions, structure, and employment of core government administration employees. In Russia, unlike in most other countries, the government makes a clear distinction between civil service and public administration reforms, which derives from the division of responsibilities for preparation of these two reform packages among different commissions within the Government.

However, the two are interrelated (in fact, the pay reform, which forms an integral part of civil service reform, is an important condition of implementation of the administrative reform, as it would supposedly reduce the internal opposition within the civil service to restructuring efforts). For the purpose of this Note, administration reform is considered as a component of the overall civil service reform agenda.

Attrition denotes the amount of actual staff reduction and is estimated as a difference between the staffing levels at the beginning of the reform and staffing levels at the end of the reform.

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