There are no significant changes in the structure and content of the Program as compared with earlier relevant documents. Within 2008-2010, packages of shares of joint-stock companies will be available for sale, which have been established as a result of corporization of federal public unitary enterprises, with the exception of joint-stock companies, included in the list of strategic enterprises and company-members of integrated structures. Annual budget revenues from privatization in 2008-2010 are estimated at approximately RUR 12 billion.
In particular, the following property objects will be offered for privatization in 2008:
– packages of shares within the limit of 50 per cent of the joint-stock companies authorized capital, with the exception of joint-stock companies, included in the list of strategic companies or company-members of corporate structures, as well as the shares, which will be brought out to the market with the aim to replenish the federal budget in 2008-2010 in accordance with the estimated financial plan;
– Shares of joint-stock companies, engaged in fuel and energy or construction industry, external economic relations, civil aviation, healthcare, chemical, petrochemical, printing industries, geology, fishery, poultry and cattle breeding, crop production, lumber industry, medical industry, machine building, with the exception of the strategic joint-stock companies (557 companies);
– Federal public unitary enterprises, engaged in transportation, construction industry, civil aviation, geology, oil and gas sector, fuel production, sea and river transport, printing industry, healthcare, crop, livestock and poultry production (573 federal public unitary enterprises);
– Property of the RF Treasury, not supporting government functions (101 objects) and shares in authorized capital of limited liability companies (12 blocks of shares).
Among the major objects of federal property it is planned to let for privatization in 2008 the shares of OAO "VO Technopromexport" and "Lenfilm" movie producing business.
In 2008-2010 the activities on establishment integrated businesses will be continued in military-industrial complex, in aviation, shipbuilding, nuclear and space industries. In 2009-2010 privatization is anticipated in regard to all federal public unitary enterprises, not involved in the direct support of the RF government functions, as well as the shares of open joint-stock companies, established as a result of federal public unitary enterprises corporization.
As concerns the actual privatization process in 2007, like in preceding year, there were no privatization transactions with the assets of national importance.
The greatest publicity has won the sale of "Yakutugol" package of shares (75 per cent minus 1 share) and "Elgaugol" shares (68.8 per cent) for RUR 58196 billion, although the objects of sales were not in federal property: "Yakutugol" package of shares, as well as 39.4 per cent of "Elgaugol" shares were in the Republican property, included earlier in authorized capital of "Republican Investment Company", and the owner of other 29.5 per cent of shares was OAO "Russian Railways".
By the beginning of 2007 26, the structure of the shares in federal property was as follows: packages up to 25 per cent of the capital made less than 1/4 of the total number of shareholding companies with public participation, blocking minority ownership packages (from 25 per cent to 50 per cent of the capital) made some more than 1/5, and in more than 54 per cent of all those companies the government has either majority ownership or full control. Herewith, the share of the latter companies (with 100 per cent of government capital) is 44.6 per cent, i.e., it exceeds 4.5 times the share of those joint-stock companies, where the government, as a majoritarian shareholder, had less than 100 per cent of the shares (9.6 per cent). The major variance that occurred in 2006-2007 was the expansion of the companies with 100 per cent of federal property share by p.p. (from 32.6 per cent to 44.6 per cent). The share of all other companies has been reduced, especially the shares of minority-holding companies (from 30.5 per cent to 24.4 per cent).
Therefore, in 2007 the total share of joint-stock companies, in which the State may exercise full control as a majority shareholder or the owner of 100 per cent package, for the first time since the late 90-s has exceeded half of all businesses with public participation.
The overall dynamics of the public sector in the Russian economy in the past 2007 was characterized by the same basic trends as in the previous three years:
– continued integration of federal assets in corporate holdings: integration of "Transnefteproduct" with “Transneft” and "Novoship" with "Sovcomflot" through acquisition of additional issues of shares, establishment of OAO "Joint Shipbuilding Company" and "Nuclear Power Engineering Complex", integration of public and private assets of five airlines, members of Air Union corporation, through establishment of OAO "AirUnion", a new, one of top three domestic carriers; adoption of long-expected decisions on the establishment of tank-construction and engine-manufacturing holdings, etc.;
Ref.: G.N. Malginov, A.D. Radygin “Public Sector of the Russian Economy: Quantitative Indicators Dynamics and Major Trends in Development” in: “Economic and Political Situation in Russia”, June 2007, М., IET, 2007, pp. 43-48.
– continued activity of existing holdings with the State participation on expansion of their business scope and diversification through acquisitions and mergers, vertical and horizontal integration: “Rosneft” acquisition of the majority of former Yukos assets as a result of bankruptcy proceedings, the transfer of Kovyktinskoye gas field, located in the Irkutsk region, under "Gazprom" control, an expressed interest of “Russian Railways” to purchase shares in the largest sea ports and in "Transmashholding", the top railway vehicles manufacturer.
In the background of the overall trend to expansion of public sector in economy and the transparency of the above-mentioned developments, such extraordinary transactions are worth mentioning, as acquisition in trust management of “Transneft” and two corporate operators of "Caspian Pipeline Consortium", located in Russia and Kazakhstan27, avoiding a tender for the State-owned packages of shares (24 per cent each). In this situation, deliberate restriction of the State ownership in the new "AirUnion" airline to a minority package (only 45 per cent) is explicitly in contrast with the common trend, prevailing in incorporation of integrated businesses in the recent years.
Beyond all doubts, the most important events, that occurred in the public sector of the Russian economy were IPO of the two largest banks with the State participation (Sberbank and Vneshtorgbank) 28 and the completion of the basic organizational framework development for the new structure in the electric power sector in the framework of "RAO UES of Russia" restructuring. At the meeting on October 26, 2007, the shareholders of “RAO UES of Russia” have approved the company restructuring. By July 1, 2008 structural changes of the energy holding assets should be completed, all companies of the industry (FSK, WGC, THC, etc.) will become independent businesses from OAO "RAO UES of Russia", and the OAO "RAO UES of Russia" headquarters will terminate its activity 29. The liquidation, planned for the summer of 2008, should be accompanied with the transfer of shares to shareholders of 23 major electric power companies (WGC, TGC, FSK, etc.). As opposed to that, no dramatic reorganization measures (separation, etc.) are planned in regard to OAO "Gasprom" in the medium term.
The fundamentally new in the national property policy in 2007 has been the establishment of several public corporations, some of which are regarded as development institutions, along with special economic zones and the Investment Fund.
The following corporations were established by special federal laws: “Vnesheconombank” (by Federal Law N 82 as of May 17, 2007), "Rosnanotech" (by Federal Law N 139 as of July 19, 2007), "Foundation for the Reform of Housing Utilities" (by Federal Law N 185 as of July 21, 2007), "Olympstroy" (for construction of Olympic facilities for the 2014 winter Olympics in Sochi and further development of the area as a mountain health resort) (by Federal Law N 238 as of October 30, 2007), "Rostehnologii" (by Federal Law N 270 as of November 23, 2007), "Rosatom" (by Federal Law N 317 as of December 1, 2007).
Naturally, those structures are explicitly different in nature of their prospective objectives. "Olympstroy" and the "Foundation for the Reform of Housing Utilities" are targeted projects with predefined time frames.
"Rosnanotech" should perform certain functions in the framework of innovation program and Vnesheconombank in its new status should promote exports of processing industry products and to launch capitalintensive infrastructure projects. "Rosatom" is a purely industry-targeted structure. "Rostehnologii" is an evident conglomerate, as according to the Decree of the RF President N 1577, dated November 26, 2007, 100 per cent of FGUP ”Rosoboronexport” shares should be transferred to "Rostehnologii" upon corporization of the company. The latter, as is known, includes a lot of businesses in a wide range of industries (helicopter-construction holding, "AvtoVaz, "VSMPO-Avisma", "Motovilihinsk Plants", etc.). At various stages of implementation are "Rosoboronexport” projects on establishment of "Russspetsstal" holding, one of engine-manufacturing holdings, as well as an explosives-production holding.
At the same time, as D.A Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia has officially announced in January 2008, the establishment of public corporations does not mean the change in the government policy and the refusal of Russia from market economy, as the State capitalism is a way to nowhere30. The need to support those priorities, in which Russia is starting to lose former leading positions (nuclear industry, ship-building and aircraft construction) is presented as an incentive for establishment of commercial structures with public participation. Nevertheless, the boundaries of private business participation are quite clearly defined: if in It is worth noting that the latter event is one of the few examples of 2007, demonstrating the way of shares management trough the transfer of the state-owned shares in trust management.
See in detail: “Russian Economy in 2006. Tendencies and Perspectives. М., IET, 2007.
«Gasprom» will not be split. Vesty Ru, January17, 2008.
most cases private capital can have considerable share, there is no alternative to full control of the government in the defense sphere.
Nevertheless, in 2007 a distinctive trend to establish public corporations (pursued in at regional level as well) is provoking various economic and financial risks. First of all, it is worth noting that the procedure of public corporations establishment is based on specific approach, which brings them outside the general legal standards, set by the law for the forms of legal entities incorporation (joint-stock companies, unitary enterprises, not-for-profit organizations).
Indeed, the status of public corporations either in explicit, or in disguised form combines the features of various forms of incorporation, not speaking of the inevitable confusion, arising from the use of "corporation" notion. The word is found in the names of a number of other entities, for instance, the companies, established for the purposes of structural and industrial policy, like public corporations, emerged in 2007, which, however, have the status of OAO or unitary enterprises.
Another important question is what should be the real mechanism to monitor the activities of such corporations and how it should be defined in detail in applicable documents of incorporation, especially in terms of national property and assets security, their targeted utilization, transparency and consistency of the declared activities with the corporation objectives.
In general, as per quantitative estimates, the share in the Russian companies, owned by the State, made 29.6 per cent in 2006 and 35.1 per cent in early 2007 31. By early 2008, the "extent of government ownership” made about 40-45 per cent according "Expert-400" list. Whereas in 2004 the government controlled businesses of the 400 largest companies (with the total revenues of USD 145 billion), in 2006 that number has reached already 103 companies (with the total revenues of USD 283 billion) 32. While in 2004 there were 34.7 per cent of the total revenues of the top 400 companies in Russia under government control, at the end of 2007 the State was in control of around 40 per cent of those revenues 33..
At the beginning of 2008, there was observed a qualitative shift in expert assessments: they were changing from the statement on expansion of the direct State involvement in business to the efforts to assess the quantitative scope of government business expansion. In our view, neither the above (even highly conditional) quantitative estimates for 2004-2007, nor the new trends in the State business property policy and activities of public economic structures in 2007, do not provide sufficient grounds for overall conclusion, that the expansion of government expansion is getting reduced.
Herewith (other things being equal, which include political and corruption conditions), qualitative threshold of such expansion is rather evident: the larger is the scope of public sector, the less is the capacity for its effective management and control. This is evidenced, among other things, by the experience of introduction (attempts to apply) of any new management and control instruments for unitary enterprises and joint-stock companies with the State participation in late 90-s – 2000-s. Similar to the evolution of private Russian business groups of the late 2090-s – early 2000-s 34, in medium term one should expect some transformations, aimed at optimization of the acquired assets structure, as well as functional framework and management aspects of public companies (and/or groups of companies). Time will show, how effective will they be in regard to public companies and what would be the incentives for such a transformations after March 2008.
Meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation in January M. Goldin In January the following issue was discussed at the meeting of the government of the Russian Federation:
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