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- entering in single state registers knowingly inaccurate data1.

Rossiyskaya ekonomika v 2009 g.: tendentsii i perspektivy, M., IEPP, 2010, p. 575.

Federal Act of 01.07.2010 147-FZ On introducing amendments to the Criminal Code of Russian Federation and Art. 151 of the Criminal-Procedural Code of Russian Federation.

Section 6.

Institutional Problems In tandem with the adopted corporate regulation measures, the above novelties can be regarded as quite anti-raiding ones. The regulation of problems in the area of running the shareholder registers, holding extraordinary shareholder meetings may basically block opportunities to try certain ways of seizure of corporate assets, but there remain other means and ways.

Besides, the measures in question should have been implemented long ago, for it was in the early 2000s that the respective challenges were really pressing. Retention of the opacity of corporate governance across a number of directions (the problem of conflict of interest, regulation of operations of groups of companies, in particular, in the tax sphere, affiliated entities, profit allocation, to name a few) also gives no grounds to assert there has been any notable progress in this particular sphere.

6.3. Land Use and Land Market in Russia: Situation, Legal Framework, Problems and Outlook Land use remains such a sector of Russian economy with significant development and improvement capacity at the expense of private property segment growth including onerous acquisition of land plots from the state; state and municipal revenues growth due to improvements in state lands management; increase in housing provision to citizens, etc.

Efficient comprehensive change in regulation and control of land resources turnover seems to have very low probability in the current environment due to both systemic problems in this sphere and to the scale of issues remaining unresolved for many previous years. However, even if only certain changes are implemented with regards to granting the right of ownership for land plots, expansion of permitted use, etc., they may provide for tangible results and multiplier effect.

6.3.1. Land Titles and Land Plots Turnover Structure As of January 1 2010, Russian citizens owned 123,190.7 thousand ha (7.205%) of land.

10,286.9 thousand ha (0.602%) was owned by legal entities (Tables 17 and Table 18).

Table Russian Federation Lands Profile by Form of Ownership, thousand ha Owned by private titleholders, thousand ha Owned by the state Total area, including:

Year and by municipalithousand ha Total Owned by indi- Owned by ties, thousand ha viduals legal entities 1 2 3 4 5 6 Russia 2008 1,709,824.2 132,939.7 124,273.7 8,666.0 1,576,884.2009 133,477.6 123,190.7 10,286.9 1,576,346. Central Federal District 2008 65,020.5 24,488.2 21,988.4 2,499.8 40,532.2009 24,518.8 21,364.9 3,153.9 40,501. Moscow Region 2008 4,579.9 1,241.5 787.1 454.4 3,338.2009 1,259.9 765.1 494.8 3,320.Moscow 2008 109.1 2.2 0.1 2.1 106.2009 2.2 0.1 2.1 106.North-Western Federal 2008 168,696.8 4,931.8 4,510.8 421.0 163,765.District 2009 4,949.6 4,484.4 465.2 163,747.Saint-Petersburg 2008 139.9 23.6 4.7 18.9 116.2009 24.2 5.3 18.9 115. Southern Federal District 2008 59,131.5 23,487.7 22,219.3 1,268.4 35,643.(2009) 2009 23,821.3 22,370.9 1,450.4 35,310. Gosduma prinyala zakon o borble s reiderstvom.,- Rossiyskaya gazeta, 16.06.10.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks (continued) table 1 2 3 4 5 6 Southern Federal District 2008 42,087.(2010) 2009 19,205.6 18,048.7 1,156.9 22,882.Northern-Caucasus Federal 2008 17 043.District 2009 4 615.7 4 322.2 293.5 12,428. Privolzhsky Federal Dis- 2008 103,697.5 35,650.0 33,025.6 2,624.4 68,047.trict 2009 35,783.2 32,553.4 3,229.8 67,914. Urals Federal District 2008 181 849.7 9,851.7 9,388.2 463.5 171,998.2009 9,910.4 9,391.0 519.4 171,939. Siberian Federal District 2008 514 495.3 32,168.8 30,910.2 1,258.6 482,326.2009 32,122.1 30,818.0 1,304.1 482,373. Far-East Federal District 2008 616 932.9 2,361.5 2,231.2 130.3 614,571.2009 2,372.2 2,208.1 164.1 614,560.% of total area Russia 2008 7.775 7.268 0.507 92.2009 7.807 7.205 0.602 92. Central Federal District 2008 37.662 33.818 3.845 62.2009 37.709 32.859 4.851 62. Moscow Region 2008 27.108 17.186 9.922 72.2009 27.509 16.706 10.804 72.Moscow 2008 2.016 0.092 1.925 97.2009 2.016 0.092 1.925 97.North-Western Federal 2008 2.923 2.674 0.250 97.District 2009 2.934 2.658 0.276 97.Saint-Petersburg 2008 16.869 3.360 13.510 83.2009 17.298 3.788 13.510 82. Southern Federal District 2008 39.721 37.576 2.145 60.(2009) 2009 40.285 37.832 2.453 59. Southern Federal District (2010) 2009 45.632 42.884 2.749 54.Northern-Caucasus Federal District 2009 27.081 25.359 1.722 72.Privolzhsky Federal Dis- 2008 34.379 31.848 2.531 65.trict 2009 34.507 31.393 3.115 65. Urals Federal District 2008 5.417 5.163 0.255 94.2009 5.450 5.164 0.286 94. Siberian Federal District 2008 6.252 6.008 0.245 93.2009 6.243 5.990 0.253 93. Far-East Federal District 2008 0.383 0.362 0.021 99.2009 0.385 0.358 0.027 99.Source: Federal Service of State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography.

The following changes in the land property profile took place in 2009: the total area owned by individual citizens decreased, as well as the area of land in state and municipal ownership;

the total area of land owned by legal entities increased respectively overall by 1,620.9 thousand ha versus the preceding year (see Table 17). The share of land owned by individual citizens (percentage to the total area) decreased from 7.268% in 2008 down to 7.205% in 2009.

Nevertheless, the total area of privately owned land increased in 2009 by 537.9 thousand ha, i.e. by 0.4% versus 2008.

Overall during the 11-year period 11.1 mln ha of agricultural land were allotted and registered as private, state or municipal property (see Table 18).

Section 6.

Institutional Problems Table Land of reorganized agricultural enterprises transferred to individual citizens with a title for individual share in land 1998 vs. No. 1998 ( decrease ) 1 Overall area of individual shares in land (mln ha) 115.4 104.3 11.2 Number of citizens holding titles for individual shares in land (mln) 11.8 9.8 2.Source: Federal Service of State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography.

In 2009 the number of land plots related transactions between individuals and legal entities in the RF grew by 25.37% versus 2008 (see Table 19). Only in Siberian Federal District the decrease made 31.54%.

Table Number of transactions with land registered as private property in 2009 (number of agreements, second in line growth /decrease of the indicator in % to 2008) Total transacSelling land plots Transfer by way tions between by individuals Inheritance Pledge of gift individuals and and organizations legal entities The Russian Federation 520,209 117,776 314,556 43,921 996,9.94% 60.60% 44.13% 46.29% 25.37% Central Federal District 161,573 43,543 138,806 12,264 356,6.90% 80.33% 77.67% 126.90% 37.62% North-Western Federal 68,077 9,748 27,203 5,724 110,District 237.37% 44.31% 74.89% 28.54% 135.94% Southern (combined) 81,799 14,218 30,356 2,128 128,Federal District 13.92% 43.86% 11.53% 15.22% 15.34% Southern (2009) Federal 42,013 5,822 16,934 1,274 66,District Northern-Caucasus Fed- 39,786 8,396 13,422 854 62,eral District (2009) Privolzhsky Federal 104,234 28,497 77,558 9,293 219,District 22.96% 96.03% 7.26% 43.08% 23.29% Urals Federal District 46,421 6,633 19,494 3,416 75,2.46% 11.87% 52.34% 21.91% 13.66% Siberian Federal District 47,283 12,814 14,210 9,498 83,48.97% 12.98% 36.23% 18.89% 31.54% Far-East Federal District 10,822 2,323 6,929 1,598 21,47.56% 213.07% 282.40% 331.89% 111.27% Source: Federal Service of State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography.

In 2008 selling of land had the leading share in the profile of all transactions associated with land plots (44.19% of total area subject to transactions), but in 2009 the majority of land transactions were transfer by way of gift (56.41%) (Table 20). The total area of land plots subject to transactions between individuals and legal entities grew 7.77 times in (Table 20).

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Table Area of privately owned land subject to transactions by Federal Districts of the Russian Federation in 2009, ha Selling land plots Total transactions by individuals Transfer by way between individu Inheritance Pledge and organiza- of gift als and legal entitions ties The Russian Federation 3,159,634.4 10,582,962.53 4,116,337.8 902,674.9 18,761,609.Central Federal District 577,856.6 9,481,825.912 1,262,307.1 235,325.9 11,557,315.North-Western Federal 439,585.9 24,262.80 26,357.3 23,432.5 513,638.District Southern Federal District 487,155.1 107,301.52 29,356.6 25,417.1 649,230.Northern-Caucasus Federal 27,312.3 5,635.76 8,747.3 1,988.0 43,683.District Privolzhsky Federal 842,604.571 821,371.50 863,658.9 451,968.244 2,979,603.District Urals Federal District 394,632.8 28,112.89 144,160.1 15,103.9 582,009. Siberian Federal District 385,329.8 113,943.30 1,777,307.683 122,758.1 2,399,338. Far-East Federal District 5,157.2 508.85 4,442.8 26,681.3 36,790.Private land transactions 16.84% 56.41% 21.94% 4.81% 100.00% profile in 2009, % Private land transactions 44.19% 13.87% 24.69% 17.25% 100.00% profile in 2008, % Incremental area in private 2.96 31.59 6.90 2.17 7.land transactions in 2009,% including 593.27 thousand ha in Orenburg Region, out of which 581.00 thousand ha was agricultural lands;

including 9,371.59 thousand ha in Moscow Region;

including 1,721.90 thousand ha in Kemerovo Region, out of which 1,433.59 thousand ha were agricultural lands;

including 241.97 ha in Penza Region, 239.81 ha were agricultural lands.

In total, 350,685 plots of state and municipal land of overall area of 610.74 thousand ha were sold in the Russian Federation in 2009 (see Table 21). The number of sold land plots increased by 57,838 plots versus 2008 (their area was 106.93 thousand ha).

Table Profile of land transactions in the Russian Federation Number of transactions, transactions (area, ha) Types of transactions 2006 2007 2008 1 2 3 4 1. Lease of state and municipal lands, 3,737,574 3,628,109 3,677,315 3,514,including: (104,827,034) (114,103,370.5) (114,531,856.7) (113,081,763.97) 1.1 Transactions closed in the reporting 522,487 472,732 441,842 410,year (5,775,551) (19,941,4501) (15,698,127.8) (26,274,903.12) 2. Selling tenancy rights for state and 7,068 13,835 15,684 22,municipal lands (124,954) (149,275.9) (315,888.9) (326,358.96) 3. Selling state and municipal lands, 176,751 233,706 292,847 350,including: (262,791) (369,382.7) (503,813.3) (610,740.26) 3.1. via tender 10,793 16,337 22,916 41,(57,406) (138,019.6) (164,477.7) (133,028.02) Total effective transactions with state 3,921,393 3,875,650 3,985,846 3,887,and municipal lands, (105,214,779) (114,622,029.1) (115,351,558.9) (114,018,863.19) including closed in the reporting year 706,306 720,273 750,373 783,(6,163,296) (20,460,108.6) (16,517,830) (27,212,002.34) 4. Sales and purchase of land by indi- 400,075 405,670 473,190 520,viduals and legal entities (467,686) (560,285.5) (1,067,302.6) (3,159,634.35) 5. Transfer by way of gift 43,437 49,715 73,334 117,(70,355) (126,596.4) (335,042.22) (10,582,962.53) 6. Inheritance 165,847 162,151 218,244 314,(524,352) (336,091.7) (596,197.3) (4,116,337.75) Section 6.

Institutional Problems (continued) table 1 2 3 4 7. Pledge 14,388 25,907 30,024 43,(169,437) (198,856) (416,637.0) (902,674.90) Total transactions between individuals 623,747 643,443 794,792 996,and legal entities (1,231,830) (1,221,829.6) (2,415,179.1) (18,761,609.533) Total transactions in the reporting year 4,545,140 4,519,093 4,780,638 4,884,with account of all effective leases (106,446,090) (115,843,858.7) (117,766,738.0) (132,780,472.72) out of them 1,330,053 1,363,716 1,545,165 1,780,closed during the reporting year (7,395,126) (21,681,938.2) (18,933,009.1) (45,973,611.87) In 2007 significant areas of agricultural lands occupied mainly by deer pastures were leased in Nenetsky Autonomous District (6,350.8 thousand ha) and in Yamalo-Nenetsky Autonomous District (6,824.0 thousand ha).

In 2008 significant areas were transferred by way of gift in Orenburg Region 98,998.5 ha, and in Krasnoyarsk Region 71,950.2 ha.

In 2009 the number of transactions between individuals and legal entities increased significantly: major part of land transferred by way of gift was in Moscow Region 9,371,592.88 ha; significant areas of inherited land were in Kemerovo Region 1,721,897.97 ha.

Source: Federal Service of State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography.

According to Federal Service of State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography1 in 2009 citizens of Russia bought out 243,000 land plots with total area of 160.37 thousand ha for individual homes construction, for personal subsidiary farming, gardening and animal breeding, including 234,677 land plots with total area of 158.18 thousand ha in residential boroughs. 40,132 plots more were sold to individuals versus 2008; the average area of land plot bought by an individual increased from 0.15 ha up to 0.66 ha.

In 2009 17,041.9 thousand transactions closed by both individuals and legal entities were registered at land auctions. The prices at the auctions were in the great majority of cases higher than when lands were bought out of state and municipal property according to the norms (Table 22).

Table Average prices for state and municipal land plots sold to individuals and legal entities in 2009 (RUR / sq. m), and average prices increment versus the preceding year (%) To citizens and their associations for:

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