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In July 2010, according to the amendments 3 in the Budget Code, the date of submission of the draft federal budget to the State Duma was moved from August 26 to October 1st. Such decision was made with a view to improve accuracy of the main forecast parameters of the federal budget when it is formed later in the year since by the first of October updated macro Resolution of the RF Government if December 31, 2010 No 1203.

Federal Law of 30.09.2010 No 245-FZ.

FZ of 27.07.2010 No 216-FZ On amendments in the Budget Code of the Russian Federation with regards to specification of the dates of compiling, reviewing and approving draft budgets and reports on their implementation.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks parameters are usually available, main directions of the tax policy approved, and the Federal Target program scope is corrected.

3. Legal framework for road funds activity. In December 2010, the State Duma reviewed the first version (reading) of a bill aimed at development of the legal framework for establishment (since January 1, 2011) of road funds both at the federal and regional levels 1.

The RF Government initiated creation of a target budget fund for road construction and repair back in May 2010. In particular, the road fund notion was suggested as a portion of the budget funds to be used for financing road activities2, and to set up Federal Road Fund as part of the federal budget.

To create this asset, the following revenues will be accumulated:

- excises on gasoline, diesel fuel and motor fuels;

- use of property that is part of the motor roads of general use of federal importance;

- tolls on motor vehicles registered in foreign states when they drive by motor ways in the Russian Federation;

- subsidies from the RF budget system to finance roads of general use of federal importance;

- uncompensated receipts from legal entities and individuals to finance road activity;

- other receipts from fines and damage compensations.

With account of increased rates on the said excisable goods, since 2011 this mechanism will help accumulating about RUR500 billion annually, according to the estimates of the RF Ministry of Finance.

The rationale of the creation and functioning of the road funds raises serious concerns by a number of reasons. Firstly, the Audit Chamber of Russia has systematically focused on nonefficient use of the budget funds of the federal and regional road funds that were functioning earlier. Secondly, a road fund having its own fixed sources of revenue does not meet the principle of general consolidated coverage of the budget expenditures stated in Article 35 of the Budget Code. Thirdly, with the creation of road funds, the issue of a single-channel model of financing the needs of the sector remains unresolved: there are still several channels of bringing budget funds to the road sector organizations. In particular, a sub-program Development of the Russias transportation system (2010 2015) of the Federal Target program is still being implemented as well as co-financing of auto-concession from the Investment Fund.

2.2.4. Analysis of the main parameters of the federal budget of the Russian Federation in 20112013.

The world economic crisis brought about significant changes in the environment of the formation of the government budget in Russia. First, a sharp reduction in budget revenues took place from 22.5% of GDP in 2008 to 18.7% of GDP in 2010 (see Table 11). Besides, in a long-term perspective a further reduction of the share of oil and gas revenues in the budget is expected which will not be compensated by high oil prices. This will occur due to several factors: non-raw material sectors will have an outrunning growth, greenfields subject Some subjects of the Russian Federation e.g. Tatarstan, Lipetsk and Samara regions announced their intention to set up regional road funds in 2011.

The road activity is activity for designing, construction, modernization, capital repair and maintenance of the motor roads (according to FZ of November 8, 2007 No 257-FZ "On the motor roads and the road activity in the Russian Federation, and amendments in separate legislative acts of the Russian Federation).

Section 2.

Monetary-Credit and Budgetary Spheres to tax holidays will increase in number as well as brownfields (exhausted) that also enjoy tax benefits, the ruble currency is expected to strengthen. A development scenario is likely to happen where budget revenues will decrease while GDP will continue growing. According to our estimates, in the near decade oil and gas revenues may fall down by 2% of GDP as a result of the said factors.

Secondly, during the crisis the federal government has assumed many additional expenditure obligations causing expenditure growth from 18.3% in 2008 up to 22.7% in 2010.

Though the implementation of the Anti-Crisis Program was quite justified and successful, currently optimization of the budget expenditure structure and reduction of redundant and inefficient areas of the budget finance has become a priority.

Thus, the Law on the Federal Budget for 2011 and for the planning period up to 2013 was developed in a revised context of the budget system, and this context predetermined the tasks:

to ensure financial stability of the budget system, to cut down the shortage of the federal budget and to improve efficiency of the budget expenditures. The main parameters of the said Law are given in Table 11.

Table Main parameters of the federal budget in 20082013 in % of GDP Actuals Budget Law 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Revenues 22,5 18,9 18,7 17,6 17,0 16, including from oil and gas 10,6 7,7 8,6 8,1 7,9 7,Expenditures 18,3 24,9 22,7 21,2 20,1 19,incl. tentatively approved 0,8 1,Deficit () /Surplus (+) 4,2 6,0 4,1 3,6 3,1 2,Other than oil and gas deficit 6,4 13,7 12,6 11,7 10,9 10,Source: Ministry of Finance of Russia, IEP calculations As the Table suggests, the federal budget deficit will reduce to 2.9% of GDP in 2013, however this reduction can be less due to a number of assumptions. Primarily, there are more optimistic estimates of the oil prices in the mid-term (when the budget was shaped, a conservative forecast was used with the prices at 75-78 $/bbl). A high dependency of the budget revenues on oil and gas revenues remains. Besides, a growth of the budget revenues is possible if the macro-economic situation improves in the mid-term and the world economy revives after the crisis, and the demand for goods on the Russian and international markets will increase together with the growth of foreign investments. Finally, a positive trend of reduction of the budget expenditures as a result of the implemented reforms of 2009 2010 may be expected.

It is also obvious that with a less favorable development of the economy and a change of the ratio between the basic parameters of the social and economic development (oil prices, GDP volume, inflation rates, the ruble exchange rate) the budget deficit can become so high that new issues may appear challenging the growth of the economy and the stability of the budget system as a whole.

For the near three years, receipts from the indirect taxes, MET and customs duties will remain the main sources of revenue for the federal budget (see Table 12). Note, that according to the forecast of the RF Ministry of Finance, in 2013, with comparable volume of the real GDP, the revenues of the federal budget will be by 5.7 pp. of GDP lower than in 2008. According to our estimates, approximately 2.5 pp. of GDP cuts are caused by changes in the tax RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks legislation (UST is replaced with insurance contributions, and the Profits Tax rate is reduced), 1.0 pp. caused by reduction of revenues from the oil producing sector (MET and export duty reliefs) and 2.1 pp. by reduction of revenues from taxes related to a lower (in 2013 vs 2007) level of profitability and changes in the economic activity structure.

During 2012 2013, a pin-point policy to increase fiscal burden on certain sectors of economy, especially, on the oil and gas sector, will be carried out. Since 2011 the MET rate on gas is expected to increase by 61% - from RUR147 to RUR237 for 1,000 cu. m, in the rate will be indexed for the expected growth of prices (5.9%) up to RUR251; while in 2013 by 5.5% up to RUR265/1,000 cu. m. The increase of the fiscal burden on the producing sector the national budget system is going to receive additional RUR50-70 billion every year in 2011 2013. (see Table 12). As for MET on oil, the MET rate will not change in 2011; however in 2012 it is expected to increase from RUR419 to RUR446 for one ton, and in 2013 - up to RTUR470. This measure will annually bring to the budget about RUR75 and RUR150 billion respectively. However, this measure may negatively affect the sector efficiency.

Abolishment of the reduced rate of the export customs duty on oil produced at the specific fields of East Siberia will ensure a surplus revenue to the federal budget of RUR97 billion in 2011 and about RUR30 billion in the following two years. Besides, last December the increase of the export duty on oil products continued to be discussed. Russia as a member of the Customs Union has reserved this right and can use it as early as in the mid-term period. Two options of the duty increase are considered:

gradual equation of the duties on light and dark oil products by bringing them to 60% of the duties on crude by 2013;

increase of the average weighted rate at the external border of the Customs Union.

If the export duties increase, the government will search for other methods of support of the national oil refining, meaning not primary treatment but deep crude conversion.

Regardless of the total increase of the tax burden on producing companies, a gradual reduction of oil and gas revenues (as shares of GDP) is expected caused by objective (lower rates of growth of the Urals prices and taxable exports vs GDP dynamics and ruble strengthening) and sector problems (reduced production volumes and lower profitability rates).

As for revenues other than those from oil and gas, an insignificant growth of the VAT receipts is expected related to the growth of sale volumes at the internal market and receipts from excises caused by the annual increase of the rates on excisable goods (mainly on tobacco and alcohol products) in the coming three years (see Table 12).

As for revenues other than from the taxes, their growth is forecasted as a result of setting tasks on dividends generated from the stocks of joint-stock companies being in federal ownership, and a portion of profits of federal unitary enterprises.

The federal budget expenditures show a tendency for reduction (in % of GDP), but their volumes in constant prices of 1998 and expressed as % of GDP remain at a sufficiently high level that obviously surpass the level reached in the successful 2008 (see Fig 13). Besides, in real terms the trend of their reduction will change for the opposite one as early as in 2013.

Section 2.

Monetary-Credit and Budgetary Spheres Table Actual and expected revenues to the federal budget of the Russian Federation from the main taxes in 20082013 (% of GDP) Actuals Law on budget 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Profits Tax 1,8 0,5 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,UST/Insurance contributions 1,2 1,3 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,VAT total: 5,2 5,3 5,6 5,6 5,6 5, internal production 2,4 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,1 3, imports 2,7 2,3 2,6 2,6 2,5 2,Excises total: 0,4 0,3 0,3 0,5 0,6 0, internal production 0,3 0,2 0,3 0,5 0,5 0, imports 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,MET 3,9 2,5 3,1 2,8 2,7 2,Customs duties total: 8,4 6,5 6,4 6,7 6,5 6, import duties 1,5 1,2 0,8 1,2 1,2 1, Export duties 6,9 5,3 5,6 5,5 5,3 5,The share of the said taxes and duties in the 93,3 86,5 85,6 92,0 93,4 93,federal budget revenues in % Source: Ministry of Finance of Russia, IEP calculations.

---200 -Revenues Expenditures Federal budget balance (right line) Source: Ministry of Finance of Russia, IEP calculations.

Fig. 13. Dynamic trend of the revenues, expenditures and deficit of the federal budget, in RUR billion, and in 1998 constant prices The growth of expenditures as GDP shares is planned in such sections as National defense and Servicing of the government debt 1 (see Table. 13), while in other sectors the expenditures are going to fall down vs GDP; this can be explained by GDP higher growth rates as compared to the growth rates of expenditures in absolute terms, measures taken to optimize the network of budget institutions, and reduction of the number of implemented federal target programs ( 43 in 2011 down to 37 in 2012 ) and the volumes of allocated funds (from RUR 1364.8 billion in 2011 down to RUR1 080.6 in 2013). The review of the expenditure structure for open federal target programs shows that with a general reduction of the allocations, in 2010 2013 an increase in expenditures is observed in Innovative development and upgrading of economy only (from RUR436.5 billion in 2010 to RUR 579.3 bln in 2013); this is in full line with the Budget Code provisions.

For the reasons of such growth of expenditures under Social policy see above.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Table Dynamics of the expenditure obligations of the federal budget in 20102013 in % of GDP 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Variance of 2013 vs2010, in %GDP Expenditures (without tentatively 18,3 24,9 22,7 21,2 20,1 19,7 3,approved) total including 1,7 1,7 1,6 1,7 1,4 1,2 0,General government issues Servicing municipal and federal 0,4 0,5 0,4 0,8 0,9 1,0 0,debts National defense 2,5 3,1 2,9 3,0 3,0 3,4 0,National security and law enforce- 2,0 2,6 2,4 2,4 2,1 1,9 0,ment National economy 2,5 4,3 2,7 3,4 3,0 2,5 0,Housing and utilities 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,4 0,2 0,1 0,Protection of natural environment 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,Education 0,9 1,1 1,0 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,Culture, cinematography, mass media 0,2 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,Health care and sports 0,7 0,9 0,8 1,0 0,9 0,7 0,Social policy* 0,7 0,8 0,8 6,0 5,8 5,6 4,Inter-budget transfers of general 6,5 9,3 9,3 1,1 0,8 0,7 8,nature * Tentatively approved 0,7 1,3 * Specifics of re-distribution of funds between these two items relate to the changes of the functional classification of the budget expenditures effected in 2011 (see above).

Source: RF Treasury, IEP calculations.

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