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The new export customs duties were to be introduced in mid-November of last year, but then their introduction was postponed until the fifth day of the third calendar month following the end of the accounting period.

Over the course of 2011, the Customs Union Commission adopted 25 decisions on the adjustment of import customs duties. Thus, the Commission reduced the rates of import duties on coking coal, heparin and its salts, some types of paper and cardboard, high resolution digital cinema projector systems, and ski-track-laying caterpillar tractors. Zero rates were temporarily introduced for import duties on some types of milled cereal products, some types of cereals (wheat and meslin, rye, barley, seed corn and oats), some types of vegetables (carrots, RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks beets, onion), soy shrot, milled phosphates, some types of juice and mash concentrates for juice manufacturing, some kinds of apple puree, including compotes, and some kinds of concentrated apple juice.

There was an increase in the rates of Customs Union import duties on continuous-action elevators and conveyors, molded fabrics, drill machines for coal or rock mining to the depths of not less than 200 meters, and some types of agricultural machinery.

On having acceded to the World Trade Organization, the Russian Federation will not be able to efficiently protect its domestic market by merely increasing the rates of import duties, because Russias import tariff is pegged to the level fixed in the process of the accession negations. The only efficient instrument for protecting the domestic market of a country acceded to the WTO is the special protective, anti-dumping and compensatory measures permitted thereby.

The list of the special protective and anti-dumping measures introduced in the customs territory of the Customs Union is posted on the official web site of the Customs Union Commission1.

By the Commissions decisions, the following anti-dumping duties are established:

until 13 May 2012 in the amount of 21.8% of the customs value of Ukraine-made machine-building fasteners imported into the CU countries. These include bolts and nuts manufactured by the methods listed in the Commissions decision, with specified thread diameters;

until 20 January 2013 in the amount of 31.3% and 41.5% of the customs value of goods (specified depending on their manufacturers) on China-made ball bearings imported into the CU countries;

until 16 June 2013 in the amount of 19.4% of the customs value of China-made bearing tubes imported into the CU;

until 24 September 2013 in the amount of 11.6% of the customs value of Ukraine-made synthetic nylon threads with linear density of 29 to 250 tex imported into the CU;

until 25 December 2013 on nickel-containing corrosion-resistant rolled steel (in sheets and coils) made in Brazil, China, Korea, and South Africa. The size of duty depends on a products country of origin and may amount to 4.862.8% of its customs value;

until 26 June 2014 in the amount of 26% of the customs value of Ukraine-made forged steel rolls for rolling mills, imported into CU territory;

until 18 November 2015 on some types of Ukraine-made steel pipes imported into the CU. The size of duty depends on the pipe type and its manufacturer, and may amount to 18.9 37.8% of its customs value;

By the Commissions decisions, the following special duties are established:

until 1 November 2012 in the amount of 9.9% of the customs value (but no less than $ 1500 per ton) on corrosion-resistant steel pipes with outer diameter of up to 426 mm imported into the CU. That duty is not to be levied on corrosion-resistant steel pipes originating from developing countries, except Brazil and China;

until 26 December 2012 in the amounts of $ 1.4 per kg on corrosion-resistant steel cutlery imported into the CU, which are to be coded in accordance with the Commissions decision;

http://www.tsouz.ru/db/spec_measures/Pages/,.aspx Section The Real Sector of the Economy until 17 March 2014 in the amounts of $ 282.4 per ton on some types of fasteners imported into the CU. This special duty is not to be levied on imported fasteners made in the developing countries applying the CUs Common System of Tariff Preferences. China is an exception;

until 7 July 2014 in the amounts of $ 294.1 per ton on caramel imported into the CU.

The Russian Federations accession to the World Trade Organization On 16 December 2011, the Ministerial Conference held by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva approved the package of documents concerning the accession of the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation will be obliged to ratify that package within the period prior to 15 June 2012. Thirty days after the WTO being notified of its ratification, the Russian Federation will become its fully-fledged member. As follows from the information posted to the WTOs official website1, Russia has agreed to ensure a free trade regime and speed up its integration in the world economy, as well as to create transparent and predictable conditions for trade and foreign investments. The Russian Federation has undertaken the following commitments.

Access to Commodity Markets. Access Commitments Relating to Tariffs and Quotas The ultimate legislatively consolidated rate of bound tariffs on all types of products will amount to 7.8% against the average weighted rate of 10% applied in 2011.

The average bound tariff rates on agricultural commodities will be set at 10.8% against the current average weighted tariff rate of 13.2%.

The average bound tariff on industrial commodities will be set at 7.3% against the current average weighted tariff of 9.5%.

Russia has agreed to lower her tariffs on a broad range of products. After this commitment is fully implemented, the tariff rates will be as follows:

- on dairy products 14.9% (against the current tariff rate of 19.8%);

- on grain products 10.0% (against the current tariff rate of 15.1%);

- on vegetable oils, fats and butter 7.1% (against the current tariff rate of 9.0%);

- on chemical products 5.2% (against the current tariff rate of 6.5%);

- on automobiles 12.0% (against the current tariff rate of 15.5%);

- on electric equipment 6.2% (against the current tariff rate of 8.4%);

- on timber and pulp-and-paper products 8.0% (against the current tariff rate of 13.4%);

- on sugar $ 223 per ton (against the current tariff rate of $ 243 per ton).

The bound tariff rates on cotton and information & communications products will be reduced to zero (the current tariff rate on information & communications products is 5.4%).

The finally established bound rates of customs tariffs will be applied, from the date of Russias accession to the WTO, to more than one-third of the existing tariff items; the tariffs on another one-quarter of items will be reduced three years after the accession. The longest transition period (with maintaining the current tariff rates) is established for poultry and game meats 8 years, followed by 7-year period for motor cars, helicopters and civil aircraft.

http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news11_e/acc_rus_10nov11_e.htm RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Tariff quotas will be applied to beef, pork, poultry and game meats, and some whey milk products. Import duties on products within the limits of these quotas will be levied at lower rates than those levied on other imported goods.

The rates within the quotas are as follows (the corresponding rates outside the quotas are shown in brackets):

- beef 15% (55%);

- pork zero (65%). The tariff quotas on pork from 1 January 2020 will be replaced by a flat rate of 25%;

- on some poultry products 25% (80%);

- on some whey milk products 10% (15%).

Some of the aforesaid quotas are also subject to the norms established for certain members of the WTO.

Access to Services Markets The Russian Federation assumed certain responsibilities with regard to 11 sectors and subsectors in the services sphere.

Four years after Russias accession to the WTO, the restriction on the participation of foreign capital in the sphere of telecommunications will be lifted (at present it is set at 49%). Besides, the Russian Federation agrees to implementing the terms and conditions stipulated in the WTO Basic Telecommunications Agreement. Nine years after the accession, foreign insurance companies will be allowed to establish their affiliations in this country.

Foreign banks will be allowed to open their affiliated structures. The restriction on foreign capitals participation in each individual banking entity will be lifted, but on the whole the share of foreign capital in the Russian Federations banking system will be limited to 50%.

(excluding foreign capital invested in potentially privatized banks).

In the sphere of transport services, the Russian Federation made certain commitments in regard of sea and road transport, including passenger and cargo carriage services.

In the distribution services sphere Russia, after her accession to the WTO, will allow companies with 100% foreign participation to operate in the wholesale, retail and franchising sectors.

Export duties Export duties will be bound with regard to more than 700 tariff items, including some specific types of products in certain sectors, in particular fish and seafood products, fuel and lubricants, leather raw materials, timber and pulp-and-paper products, and base metals.

General Commitments Ensuring Access to Markets Those quantitative restrictions with regard to commodity imports that cannot be justified under the existing WTO provisions, such as quotas, bans, import permissions, requirements that relevant permissions should be obtained prior to the start of supply, licensing requirements and/or other requirements or constraints imposed on commodity imports, are not to be renewed or are to be altogether abolished.

The fees for transit cargo shipments via railway transport from July 2013 onwards will be regulated by the WTO provisions. The Russian Federation will apply to product imports the same railway transport fees as those that are established with regard to domestic shipment of Section The Real Sector of the Economy the same types of products. The regulated railway shipment tariffs are to be published prior to their actual introduction.

From the date of Russias accession to the WTO, the importers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals and products manufactured with the use of cipher technologies will no longer be required to obtain import licenses with regard to these commodities.

After the accession to the WTO, the Russian Federation will apply the Generalized System of Preferences for the customs union of developing and underdeveloped countries which is currently applied by 152 states.

Within that systems framework, the import duties applied to those goods originating from developing countries that are subject to tariff preferences were at the level of 75% of the customs duties established for most favored nations, and 0% of the customs duties established for least developed countries.

In 2012, the Russian Federation will reform her national tariff regime for sugar imports, with its subsequent further liberalization.

By the date of Russias accession to the WTO, any exemptions from the tariffs established for space products will be granted on the basis of most favored nation treatment.

No import licensing will be required for more than ten types of products based on cipher technologies (this list includes devices for developing electronic digital signatures, smart cards and wireless equipment). With regard to these types of products, all the currently existing restrictions on imports will be lifted, and no new constraints will be introduced, including experts estimations, permissions and licenses. For those cipher-technology-based products that may be imported only on the basis of mandatory licenses, experts estimations or permissions, these procedures will be applied on a one-time basis only.

Some products, including alcohol, timber products and meats, will become subject to measures that require customs declarations and/or entry through specially designated customs control points. As of the date of Russias accession to the WTO, any measures that are contrary to the WTO Accession Agreement will have to be abolished. The Russian Federation will no longer apply the national customs procedures.

The Russian Federation is to apply all the relevant legislative, regulatory and other measures pertaining to the transit of commodities (including energy products) in accordance with GATT and WTO provisions. From the moment of her accession to the WTO, all the laws and regulatory norms applied to customs duties and other fees levied on transit of goods will have to be published.

The Russian Federation will revise the requirements in regard to access to markets that are applied to the affiliations of foreign banks and companies engaged in operations with securities, so as to make them acceptable in the context of the future negotiations on the Russian Federations accession to the OECD or the next round of the WTOs multilateral trade negotiations.

When participating in preferential trade agreements, Russia will comply with the provisions stipulated in the WTOs Agreements, without making any distinctions between those agreements that will come into force after her accession to the WTO and those that will be adopted in the future.

Agreement on Government Procurement The Russian Federation intends to join the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, and so during her accession to the WTO will accordingly notify of that intention the WTO RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Committee on Government Procurement. After the signing of that Agreement, Russia will acquire the status of observer, and within four years from the moment of accession to the WTO she will start negotiations concerning her joining that Agreement. After the accession to the WTO, the Russian government bodies will determine the winners in government procurement tenders in a transparent procedure.

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