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According to the Bank of Russia, in 2010 the share of imports in retail trade commodity resources rose on 2009 by 3.0 percentage points to 44%. In the first half-year of 2011, their share dropped to 42%, while the share of non-food imports amounted to 50.5%, having remained at the same level as in the corresponding period of 2010. The share of food commodity imports decreased by 1 percentage point to 34%. At the same time, according to the RusSection The Real Sector of the Economy sian Federal Statistics Service (Rosstat), the share of meat and poultry imports in retail trade commodity resources rose from 29.7% in 2010 to 30.4% in 2011, the share of butter imports rose from 29.8% to 32.6%, and the share of vegetable oil increased from 20.7% to 26.2%.

Table Changes in the Output of Some Russian Industries and the Behavior of the Corresponding Imports (as a Percentage of the Corresponding Period of the Previous Year) 2010 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 year Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 year Output of food prod- 103.8 106.4 105.4 105.9 105.4 101.7 100.5 99.3 102.5 101.ucts, including beverages & tobacco Imports of food 124.0 125.2 118.1 118.4 121.5 131.4 183.2 123.8 119.5 116.commodities & agricultural raw materials (excluding textile ones) T textile & apparel 110.2 115.6 111.4 111.3 112.1 107.7 102.8 103.1 97.1 102.output Leather, leather arti- 126.3 120.0 111.4 118.4 118.7 112.8 107.8 109.3 104.0 108.cles & footwear output Imports of textile, 114.7 138.1 151.3 150.3 149 141.4 215.7 119.9 117.4 117.textile articles & footwear Timber processing & 111.1 112.6 111.4 110.5 111.4 106.9 106.2 103.8 99.0 104.wood articles production Pulp & paper produc- 106.7 111.7 106.7 97.8 105.9 99.5 100.5 100.4 107.0 101.tion; publishing & graphic arts activities Imports of timber & 119.0 120.8 115.6 114.8 115.6 128.0 199.2 122.8 115.1 113.pulp-and-paper articles Chemical industry 123.8 115.7 112.5 108.1 114.6 108.0 105.8 105.9 101.0 105.output Imports of chemical 137.2 136.0 139.9 134.2 133.6 129.8 204.1 123.7 123.7 122.products & rubber Metallurgical and 118.8 119.6 107.3 104.8 112.4 109.1 96.5 102.4 102.8 102.metal product output Imports of metals & 138.4 152.6 157.1 153.4 155.1 143.8 222.4 133.9 130.5 128.metal products Machinery & equip- 109.1 130.5 101.4 110.5 112.2 111.6 113.2 112.5 103.8 109.ment output Imports of machin- 109.5 127.8 137.3 139.2 140.1 160.6 264.0 151.8 146.6 143.ery, equipment & transport vehicles Source: RF Ministry of Economic Development, RF Federal Customs Service.

4.6.4. The Geographical Profile of Russias Foreign Trade In 2011, the European Union continued to be the main trading partner of the Russian Federation. Its share in Russias foreign-trade turnover amounted to 48%, which represented a p.p. drop on 2010 (Fig. 72). The leader in European trade with Russia was Germany, whose share in Russias foreign trade turnover increased from 8.4% in 2010 to 8.7% in 2011. The Netherlands, whose share dropped by 1 p.p. to 8.3%, ranked second. By the volume of trade with Russia, Italy remained in third place, while her share in Russias foreign-trade turnover increased to 5.6%, which represented a 0.4 p.p. rise on 2010. On the whole, over the course of RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks 2011, the EU countries increased their volume of trade with Russia by 28.3% on 2010. Russias exports to the EU rose by 26%, while her imports from the European Union grew by 33.5%.

The share of OPEC (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum) member countries in Russias foreign trade turnover climbed from 23.2% to 23.9%. Over the course of 2011, Russian exports to OPEC countries surged by 38.3% on 2010, while Russias imports from them jumped by 32.7%. Russias biggest trading partner belonging to the APEC was China, whose share in Russian foreign trade turnover increased by 0.7 p.p. to 10.2%. As before, second place in this group of countries went to the USA, whose share in Russian aggregate foreign trade turnover rose from 3.7% in 2010 to 3.8% in 2011. Over the course of 2011, Japans share declined by 0.1 p.p. to 3.6%.

The share of CIS countries in Russian foreign trade turnover climbed from 14.6% in to 14.9% in 2011. Russias top trading partners in the CIS were Ukraine and Belarus, whose shares in Russian foreign trade turnover amounted, in 2011, to 6.2% and 4.7% respectively.

On the whole, Russias foreign trade turnover with the CIS rose by 34.2% on 2010, with imports having increased by 39%.6%, and exports by 31.3%.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 EC APEC CIS Other Countries Source: RF Federal Customs Service.

Fig. 72. The Geographical Pattern of Russias Foreign Trade Turnover The balance of Russias foreign trade with all groups of countries (excepting the APEC) was positive. In 2011, Russia registered a trade deficit with 24 countries, whose share in Russian aggregate trade turnover amounted to 51% (in 2010, Russia ran a trade deficit with countries, whose share amounted to 45%). The biggest contributors to Russias trade deficit were China (-$ 13.0bn), Germany (-$ 3.5bn), Brazil 9-2.3bn), Canada (-$1.2bn) and Malaysia (-$ 1.1bn).

Section The Real Sector of the Economy 4.6.5. Regulation of Russian Foreign Trade In 2011, the main legal documents regulating Russias external economic activities were the RF Customs Code that came into force on 1 July 2010, and RF Federal Law of 27 November 2010, No. 311-FZ On Customs Regulation in the Russian Federation.

The RF Customs Code envisages that:

- the period for customs clearance and the release of goods should be reduced from three days to one day;

- the number of required documents for export of non-primary goods should be reduced from 25 to 7;

- the amount of security payment should be reduced for a customs representative from Rb 50m to Rb 40m, or by 20%, and for a customs carrier from Rb 20m to Rb 8m, or by 60%;

- the deadline for payment of customs duties should be extended from 15 days to 4 months.

The Federal Law On Customs Regulation in the Russian Federation also contains a number of provisions simplifying the conduct of export-import transactions. Thus, the newly introduced Law:

- establishes the list of documents that external economic activity participants may be required to submit to customs authorities (previously such lists were to be established by departmental acts issued by the RF Federal Customs Service);

- reduces the number of documents for the release of non-primary goods from 14 to 7, and reduces the deadline for the release of goods from 20 to 4 hours;

- simplifies the procedure for importing and exporting scientific and commercial samples;

- establishes special procedure simplifications for the authorized economic operator;

- legislatively establishes the list of grounds for extending the deadline for the release of goods from 1 to 10 days.

The recent changes to Russian customs legislation feature prominently in Doing Business 2012: Doing Business in a More Transparent World1, a joint report issued by the International Financial Corporation and the World Bank. The report assesses regulations that affect domestic firms in 183 economies, and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, including international trade.

The report notes that, over the past six years, 163 economies have made their regulatory environment more business-friendly. The Russian Federation is among the 30 economies that have improved the most over time.

In 2011, the Russian Federation improved its ranking in the Trading Across Borders indicator, coming in at 160th in 2011 (in 2010, Russia ranked 166th). This means that, although Russias rating has slightly improved, Russian customs regulation continues to be unjustifiably restrictive both for exports and imports. Unfounded administrative pressure, nontransparent and cumbersome customs control, red tape and corruption are still making life difficult for external economic activity participants.

It takes at least 3 weeks for a cargo to be processed at the border in accordance with Russian legislative requirements (including the time spent whilst preparing all the necessary documents), while in the majority of countries this process takes three days at most. In Rus http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/FPDKM/Doing%20Business/Documents/Annual-Reports/English/DB12- FullReport.pdf RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks sia, the time frame for customs processing of cargo at a border crossing point is legislatively set at 2 days, while in many countries this procedure usually takes only a few hours or even minutes. Thus, Russias current approach to customs process organization is clearly counterproductive to the aims of innovation-driven development.

Doing Business 2012 emphasizes that international trade facilitation is becoming an ever more important factor of business development. The rules prescribing the submission of an excessive number of documents, burdensome customs procedures and red tape inevitably result in some additional costs and delays for exporters and importers alike, to the ultimate detriment of an economys trade potential.

In 2011, in accordance with Article 3 of the RF Law On the Customs Tariff, the RF Government adopted 12 decrees establishing the rates of export customs duties on oil and petroleum products. The export customs duty on crude oil and petroleum products obtained from bituminous minerals exported from the territory of the Russian Federation beyond the borders of the member states of the agreements on the Customs Union was changed monthly on the basis of price monitoring for Urals crude from the 15th day of one calendar month to the 14th of the next month.

In response to the serious fuel shortages having erupted in a number of Russias regions, RF Government Decree of 28 April 2011, No. 238 On the Introduction of Alterations to Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 27 December 2010 No. 1155 adjusted the procedure for calculating the rates of export customs duties on commercial petrol. Previously, they were determined on the basis of the rate of the export customs duty on crude oil and the coefficient 0.67. The Decree of 28 April 2011 put an end to this practice. From 1 May 2011, the rate of the export customs duty on commercial petrol was increased from $ 283.per ton to $ 408.3 per ton.

Between 1 February 2011 and 1 October 2011, the rates of export customs duties on dark and light petroleum products were calculated in compliance with the methodology approved by RF Government Decree of 27 December 2010, No. 1155. In accordance with that document, export customs duties on dark petroleum products and light petroleum products were to be set at 46.7% and 67% respectively of the export customs duty on crude oil.

From 1 October 2011, Russia introduced a new procedure for calculating the rates of export duties on oil and petroleum products (Table 55) the so-called 60-66 oil regime. The new regime envisages that the rate of the export customs duty on crude oil should be set at 60% of the difference between the average crude oil price revealed by monitoring and a crude oil price of $ 182.5 per ton, and not at 65%. At the same time, the rates of export customs duties on light and dark petroleum products should be equalized: in accordance with RF Government Decree of 27 December 2010, No. 1155 On the Introduction of Alterations to Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 27 December 2010 No. 1155, during the period from 1 October through 31 December 2014, the rate of the export customs duty on any petroleum product except petrols should amount to 66% of the rate of export customs duty on crude oil. The new regime has introduced a prohibitive export duty on petrol in the amount of 90% of the export duty on crude oil. Thus, petrol exports become unprofitable, while fuel oil exports less profitable. It is planned that, from 1 January onwards, the coefficient for dark petroleum products will be increased to 1.

RF Government Decree No. 840, of 17 October 2011, has introduced a new procedure for calculating the rate of the export customs duty on refined copper: the flat 10% export duty rate has been replaced by a progressive one. In accordance with the Decree, the rate of the Section The Real Sector of the Economy export customs duty on refined copper should be determined on the basis of the average price of copper registered at the London Metal Exchange (LME) over a monitoring period. It should be calculated by different formulae depending on the average price. When the average price for a ton of copper is below $ 6,000, the rate should be zero. When the average price is $ 6,000 to 8,000, the rate should be calculated as follows: $ 800 + 30% of the difference between the current price and $ 8000.

Table The Rates of Export Customs Duties on Crude Oil and Petroleum Products in 2011 (USD/ton) Petroleum Products Crude Oil light dark 1 January 317.5 226.2 121.1 February 346.6 232.2 161.1 March 365.0 244.6 170.1 April 423.7 283.9 197.1 May 453.7 304.0 211.1 June 462.1 309.0 215.1 July 445.1 298.2 207.1 August 438.2 293.6 204.1 September 444.1 297.5 192.1 October 411.4 271.1 November 393.0 259.1 December 406.6 268.Source: RF Governments decrees.

The monitoring of prices should be carried out by the RF Ministry of Economic Development. The length of the period of monitoring is equal to 1 quarter (3 months). No later than on the 20th day of the calendar month following the end of each period of monitoring, the RF Ministry of Economic Development should submit its proposals concerning the rate to the RF Government. The rate of the export customs duty on copper should come into effect from the fifth day of the third calendar month following the end of a monitoring period.

The progressive export customs rate on nickel set at $ 2,178 per ton has come into effect from 5 December 2011. The relevant decree of the RF Government (Decree No. 875) was signed on 1 November 2011. The previous export customs duty rate for nickel was set at 10% of the declared customs value.

The new method for calculating the export customs rate on nickel based on the quarterly monitoring of nickel prices on the London Metal Exchange (LME) came into effect on 28 May 2011. The cut-off price for determining the rate of export duty on nickel is $ 12,per ton. When this price is exceeded, calculation should be based on special formulae with coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.3. The length of the period of monitoring is equal to one calendar quarter (3 months).

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