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Grains and grain legumes 24,Industrial crops Potatoes 0,57,2,Open-ground vegetables (less grown for seed) 14,Feed crops Fig. 53. Structure of acreage planted in basic farm crops in 2011, % While the total acreage planted in grains reduced by 36% as compared with 1990, acreage under wheat increased by 10%, acreage under corn by 63%. Meantime, areas under rye and barley experienced the sharpest decrease by 78% and 68%, accordingly. Areas under feed crops fell by 59%, of them areas under root crops by 93%, under perennial grasses by 63%, under fodder corn by 85%. So, the shrinking of acreage and consequently gross output was primarily observed in production of crops that were used for feeding cattle. The exception was rye. The reduction of fodder crop areas was due to the drop of cattle inventories that decreased 2.85 fold between 1990 and 2011 and started to grow slightly only in 2011.

Wheat holds the first place in the structure of areas planted (35.4%)1. Perennial grasses continue to rank second (15.2%). The shares of barley and sunflower seeds are approximately the same 9.6% and 9.5%, accordingly. The areas under potatoes (as one of the basic food items) and sugar beets (as input for production of sugar) are rather small respectively 1.5% and 2.9% of the total areas planted. Acreage under food crops produced primarily in corporate Hereinafter the data relates to 2011 if no other year is indicated.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks farms didnt demonstrate any notable reduction and acreage under sunflower seeds grew sustainably (Fig. 5456). Yields of these crops increased in all regions.

35,0 26,24,30,22,20,25,18,20,16,14,15,12,10,0 10,Area pl anted Yield Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 54. Wheat: areas planted and yields 2,2,1,1,0,6 Area planted Yield Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 55. Sugar beets: areas planted and yields 8,0 14,7,0 12,6,0 10,5,0 8,4,0 6,3,0 4,2,0 2,Area planted Yield Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 56. Sunflower seeds: areas planted and yields million ha 100 kg per ha million ha 100 kg per ha million ha 100 kg per ha Section The Real Sector of the Economy Acreage under potatoes dropped notably but this reduction (2011 indicator being only 66% of the 1991 level) is largely compensated by higher yields (with the index of yields amounting to 1.42). 2011 output equals 94% of the 1991 indicator (Fig. 57).

3800 2000 area planted yield Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 57. Potatoes: areas planted and yields Production of vegetables is still primarily concentrated in smallholder farms. The total acreage under them demonstrates a steady downward trend since 1999 (index of its change equaling 0.98). However, vegetable yields are also growing (in 2011 the respective index amounted to 1.44 relative to 1991) which ensures the general growth of output that in was 1.41 fold larger than in 1991 (Fig. 58).

780 720 660 600 area planted yield Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 58. Open-ground vegetables: areas planted and yields Developments in livestock production continued the trends of recent years: slow decline of cattle inventories (the reflection of this trend is the restructuring in crop production areas under crops used for feeding cattle are shrinking) and growth of pig and poultry population.

1, 000 ha 100 kg per ha 1, 000 ha 100 kg per ha.) im l e pr ( RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks The trend of cow population is shown at Fig. 59. By the end of 2011 its overall decline in all categories of farms reached 57% as compared with 1991. In corporate farms this indicator was as high as 75%, in smallholder farms about 10%. In corporate farms the biggest losses in cow population were observed between 1992 and 1998 (annual losses ranging from -7% to -13%) and from 2002 to 2005 (within the interval from -7% to -9% a year). The number of cows kept in smallholder farms notably increased in the first years of reform but then it declined. However, this decline was not as dramatic as the one in corporate farms. The biggest losses took place in 2006-2008 (the annual reduction reaching -4%) and in 2003-2005 (within the interval from -4% to -6%). 58% of all cows are still kept in household farms and few individual private farms engaged in dairy production. The sharp decrease of cow population was partially compensated by higher animal productivity in 2011 it was 55% higher than in 1991, the average milk yield per cow in 10 months 2011 approaching 4 tons. The result of these opposite trends was the decrease of total milk production down to 67.5% in 2011 as compared with 1991.

Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 59. Cow population, 1,000 head The trend of feeder cattle population largely repeats the one of cow population (Fig. 60).

By the end of 2011 the number of animals was slightly over 32% of the 1991 level.

Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 60. Feeder cattle population, 1,000 head Corporate farms lost 81% of their feeder cattle inventories by the end of 2011. From to 1998 annual losses ranged from -9% to -16% of the previous year level. The second period of maximum losses was 2003-2005 when they ranged from -9% to -11% annually.

Section The Real Sector of the Economy On the contrary, in household and individual private farms the population of feeder cattle within these two decades increased: by the end of 2011 there were 11.5% more animals than in 1991. For this type of producers difficult years were 1994-1998 (annual losses ranging from -5% to -7%) and 2004-2005 (annual losses being about -3%). Despite the government measures to support beef cattle breeding, no increase of animal population is observed in the sector beginning from 2008 and in 2010 it even fell by 5%.

Pig population also decreased in 2011 it was down 45% as compared with 1991. By corporate farms lost 73% of their inventories. Beginning from 2005 a stable growth trend formed in the sector: by the end of 2011 the increase of pig population reached 60% (being encouraged by government support and rates of customs duties); in some years (2006, 2009) annual increases amounted to 15% but in the last two years (2010 and 2011) they equaled 2% and 4%, respectively. Pig raising has firmly shifted to the sector of corporate farms that now keep 65% of animals (Fig. 61).

Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 61. Pig population, 1,000 head The number of pigs in household and individual private farms was growing: it more than doubled by 2005 when corporate farms lost about 2/3 of their pig population. As pig raising in corporate farms developed, the number of animals in smallholder farms reduced but even now they keep 1.5 fold more pigs than in 1991.

The population of sheep and goats by 2011 dropped down to about 40% of the 1991 indicator (Fig. 62). In corporate farms it stopped falling and stabilized at the level of 21.9m head, or 56% of the total population in all types of farms1. Population of animals in household and individual private farms has restored up to the pre-crisis level.

In most corporate farms animals are only listed but are actually passed over to families of employees on contract terms.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 62. Population of sheep and goats, 1,000 head The population of poultry is steadily growing after the fall by 55% between 1991 and 2000. At present it amounts to 71% of the 1991 level with 80% thereof concentrated in corporate farms. This is a rare sector of farming being evidently abandoned by smallholder farms (Fig. 63). The quality, availability and prices for poultry products in retail stores must have become acceptable for households. In the period between 2001 and 2011 the annual increases of poultry population in corporate farms were below 5% only 4 times; in all the other years they ranged from 7% to 11%.

Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 63. Poultry population, 1,000 head The analysis of trends in different types of farms shows that livestock population is restoring except for feeder young stock. The population of cows has stopped falling. Household and individual private farms are important producers of beef, milk and sheep products1. Corporate farms became principal producers of pork and poultry products. Household and individual private farms either preserved livestock population at the pre-reform level of 1991 or have already restored it after the fall. The only exception is poultry breeding that smallholder farms abandon despite its seeming simplicity and switch to buying respective products. At present there are some constraints to the development of livestock production in household farms.

Including production of contract sheep breeders.

Section The Real Sector of the Economy First of all, the size of household plots has natural limits in build-up areas; consumer cooperation that could help to form wholesale lots for trade networks and independent stores is not developed; there are no stable links with buyers of raw agricultural products; population that was traditionally engaged in livestock farming is getting older. Until recently rural residents could use plots outside settlements for haying and pasturing as well as for growing feed crops for their farms. The possibility to get such plots appeared at the very start of land reform. But in the middle of 2011 the law was adopted1 that undermines the basis for performance of large household farms: at the federal level the total area of such a plot is limited to 0.5 hectares; regions-constituents of the Russian Federation are granted (but may not use) the right to enlarge it up to 2.5 hectares. These constraints directly affect more than two million rural families (with over six million members) that cultivate about 70% of all lands entitled to household farms2. Institutional restrictions of this kind force agricultural business out to individual private and corporate farms. Despite the attractive goal of the law to draw agricultural production out to the entrepreneurial field it brings about more negative than positive effects. Not less than 2 hectares of land are required for keeping one cow and rural families will either use them illegally or will stop keeping cows; the formal abandoning of additional plots will decrease incomes of municipal budgets from land tax, etc.

The aim of this detailed analysis of trends in livestock population was to provide a better understanding of developments in production of basic livestock products. Figure 64 shows dynamics of meat production. It can be seen that after the decline between 1991 and 19981999 production of different kinds of meat (except beef) displays an upward trend and the output of poultry meat in 2011 even exceeds the 1991 level 1.8 fold. Production of beef stabilized at the 2007 level.

Figure 65 shows trends in production of milk and eggs. Beginning from 2004 production of milk stabilized at the level of 31-32m tons and in 2011 equaled only 61% of the 1991 indicator.

In 2011 the trend towards restoring production of eggs (that began since 1996) continued.

At present their output reaches 87% of the 1991 level. Table 41 contains data on production of basic livestock products.

Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 64. Production of meat Federal Law No. 147-FZ On introducing amendments to Article 217 of Part Two of the RF Tax Code and to Article 4 of the Federal Law On household farm of June 21, 2011.

V.Ya.Uzun. http://www.agronews.ru/news/detail/116750/ RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Source: Rosstat.

Fig. 65. Production of milk and eggs Table Production of basic livestock products in farms of all types 1986-1990 19991-1995 1996-2000 2005 2008 2011* 2011/1991% Livestock and poultry, 9.7 7.5 4.7 4.9 6.3 7.2 million tons slaughter weight Milk, million tons 54.2 45.4 33.6 32.3 32.4 31.8 Eggs, million pieces 47.9 40.3 32.8 37.1 38.1 40.6 *estimate.

Source: Rosstat.

The increase of meat output after its sharp drop since the start of reform is due to the growing production of, firstly, poultry meat and, secondarily, of pork. These shifts notably change the structure of meat production and consequently consumption. In 1991 the share of beef in the total for the three major types of meat was about 44.7%, the share of pork 35.7%, of poultry meat 22.5%. In 2011 the share of beef dropped down to 21.2% while the share of poultry meat more than doubled up to 43.7% and the share of pork reduced slightly.

The pre-reform level of egg production hasnt been restored as yet but will be attained in the medium term. The output of milk is still far below the pre-reform indicators. However, there form conditions for positive developments in dairy and beef cattle breeding the structure of animal population is improving, although the rate of change is very slow and the extent is limited. In the last two years the share of pedigree beef cattle stock grew up to 60% of the total beef cattle herd (1.488m head). In the dairy herd the share of pedigree stock increased up to 12.3% which is almost twice above the 2005 indicator1. However, production costs havent been reduced yet and this is a hindrance to larger production of these products, and first of all beef 2.

Report of RF Minister of agriculture E.Skrynnik at the meeting with top officials of regional bodies administering agrifood sector and rectors of higher education institutions on January 12, 2012, Moscow.

http://mcx.ru/news/news/show/5198.195.htm Production of beef is falling everywhere except three territories: Dagestan, Kalmykiya and Republic Altai. In these regions production is growing since there are local breeds of beef cattle and traditional technologies of its pasture raising with maximum utilization of forage lands which allows to reduce production costs. However, the scale of production here is very small.

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