1) for self-employed, attorneys-at-law and notaries – 31.1%;
2) for domestic corporations and self-employed individuals involved in production and publication of printed media, UST payers producing food staffs, footwear, rubber and plastic items, furniture, means of transportation, equipment, etc. – 26%;
3) for corporations operating in IT, economic companies established by public research institutions and universities after 13 August 2009; residents of special R&D economic zones, participants in the Skolkovo project – 14%.
http://opora.ru/legal/analysis/research/polls/#survey/25/ According to Rosstat data, in 2008-11 the share of labor compensations in residents’ incomes less social contributions was steadily at a level of 78–83%.
RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks According to the RF MinFin, the overall volume of revenue shortfalls by exemptions and benefits accounted for some Rb 300bn, or some 9% of the 2011 aggregate volume of revenues from insurance contributions.
As to oil-and-gas budget revenues, they posted a notable growth compared with 2010 (see Table 8). More specifically, the year of 2011 saw a 0.7p.p. of GDP surge in tax revenues from the mineral tax, fueled both by a notable rise of the tax rate on natural gas and a favorable state of affairs on the global market for energy sources (the 2011 average price of Urals was USD 109.6/b vs. 78.1 in 2010).
That said, despite soaring natural indicators of oil production and a significant price rise for oil, the 2011 level of mineral-tax withdrawals proved to be below the 2008 one. This can be ascribed, first, to the raising in 2009 of the non-taxed threshold with regard to the mineral tax from USD 9/b to USD 15/b and, second, to introduction in the same year of the decreasing coefficient to the mineral tax rate at fields with a high degree of depletion of reserves.
Table Volume of Oil-and-Gas and Mineral-Tax Revenues in 2008–2008 2009 2010 Oil-and-gas revenues, % to GDP 10.6 7.7 8.6 11.Mineral tax, % to GDP 4.1 2.7 3.1 3.Oil output, including gas condensate, m.t. 488 494 507.2 509.The average annual price level for Urals, USD/b. 94.0 60.7 78.1 109.Source: Rosstat, FTS of Russia, IEP calculations.
The price rise for energy sources and growth in output had a positive effect on the dynamic of export duties on energy sources. In 2011, the aggregate revenues from export of energy sources practically caught up with their 2008 level (see Table 9). The share of export duties on energy sources in the overall amount of tax duties was oscillating around 76-78% over the period between 2008 and 2011.
Table Collection of Customs Duties in 2008–2011, as % of GDP 2008 2009 2010 Export duties on:
– crude oil 4.3 3.1 3.7 4.– natural gas 1.2 1.1 0.4 0.– goods manufactured of oil 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.Customs duties and fees, total 8.6 6.8 7.0 8.Source: Rosstat, the Federal Treasury data, the IEP calculations.
As concerns non-oil-and-gas revenues, those from the corporate profit tax were on the rise primarily because of a more robust business activity in Russia. Specifically, the specific weight of loss-making organizations in the economy was down, while net balance of corporate financial performance (less small-sized businesses) in shares of GDP equivalent was up compared with the same period of 2010, thus evidencing the expansion of the corporate profit tax (see Fig. 14). As a result, the 2001 corporate profit-tax revenues stood at 4.2% of GDP, or at 0.3 p.p. of GDP above the prior year’s level.
Section The Monetary and Budget Spheres 20% 35% 18,17% 32,00% 18% 29,90% 30% 16% 28,10% 14,02% 25,50% 28,30% 13,34% 25% 14% 11,42% 12% 20% 9,21% 10% 15% 8% 6,60% 6,10% 6% 10% 4,18% 3,93% 3,30% 4% 5% 2% 0% 0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 Corporate profit tax Balance of results of organizations’ financial performance* Specific weight of loss-making companies (right axis)* * According to preliminary estimates by Rosstat.
Source: FTS of RF, Rosstat.
Fig. 14. Dynamic of Corporate Profit Tax Collection into the Budget System of RF, Balance of Corporations’ Financial Performance and the Specific Weight of Loss-Making Enterprises in 2007–Reinvigoration of Russia’s economy also led to growth in volume of final consumption which forms the tax base of indirect taxation. Thus, in 2011, the tax base of VAT kept on reviving after its compression during the crisis period. That fueled an increase in collection of this tax up to 6.0% of GDP vs. 5.5% in the previous year. Yet another explanation of the increased collection of VAT is an improved quality of its administration: specifically, the VAT collection ratio1 posted a 6 p.p. increase vis--vis the 2010 figure and hit the 53% level, thus basically having closed the gap with its pre-crisis values (See Table 10).
Table Dynamic of Final Consumption, Import and VAT Collection in the Budget System of RF in 2005–2011, as % of GDP 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Revenues from VAT (less revenues from YUKOS) 6.17 5.62 6.13 5.17 5.28 5.53 5.VAT on goods sold within RF 4.11 3.44 3.51 2.42 3.03 2.94 3.VAT on goods imported in RF 2.06 2.18 2.62 2.75 2.25 2.59 2.Tax collection ratio, % 57.0 51.5 56.7 46.6 42.3 47.0 53.Import* 12.9 13.9 15.3 16.1 13.7 15.4 16.* The share of import in GDP was defined as the value of import data by the customs statistical data to the USDequivalent GDP value ratio, on the basis of values of the average nominal USD/Rb nominal rate over the respective year.
Source: Rosstat, the RF Ministry of Finance, IET calculations.
VAT receipts This index is calculated as and shows which share of the base (final consumpVAT rate x (final consumption) tion less the tax) is effectively taxed. A more detailed discourse on economic interpretation of the index in question can be found in: Kazakova M., Knobel A., Sokolov I. The Quality of VAT Administration in OECD Countries and Russia. Reforming the Russian System of Collection of the Tax/ed. by S.G. Sinelnikov-Murylev. M.:
RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks It is taxation of imported goods which still secures nearly a half (46%) of the structure of VAT collection. The figure remained at the previous year’s level, which evidences a match between the dynamic of revenues from VAT on imported in RF goods and the dynamic of import of goods.
In 2001, revenues to the budget system from excise taxes were on the rise – from Rb 501.5bn to Rb 650.5bn in current prices, which in relative terms secured an increment equivalent to 0.2p.p. of GDP. It should be specifically noted that, as evidenced by Fig. 15, the increment in question was driven by soaring revenues from excise taxes on oil products (from 0.37% of GDP in 2010 to 0.52% in 2011). Collection of revenues from liquors and spirits plunged in relative terms (from 0.46% of GDP in 2010 to 0.37% of GDP in 2011), while revenues from taxation of sales of two other excised categories of goods stabilized at the level: the increase with respect to tobacco goods was negligible (from 0.24% up to 0.26% of GDP) and the same can be reckoned with respect to excise revenues from sales of passenger cars and motorcycles (up from 0.03% to 0.05% of GDP).
0,60% 0,50% 0,40% 0,30% 0,20% 0,10% 0,00% Excises on liquors Excises on tobacco Excises on oil products Excises on passenger goods cars and motorcycles 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: FTS of RF.
Fig. 15. Collection of Excise Taxes over 2007–2011 by Groups of Excised Goods, as % of GDP The rise in collection of excise taxes on oil products was caused by a fairly considerable raising of their rates – from 30 up to 100%, depending on a specific kind of the il product, vis-vis the 2010 level. The tax base changed insignificantly relative to the 2010 level, while oilrefining plants reported a 1.7% increase in shipments of gasoline, 0.9% – diesel fuel and 4.9% – of fuel oil.
The average value of indexation of excise rates with regard to tobacco products accounted for 17-43%, the one of excise rates for liquors – 12-23%. In 2011, consumption of all kinds of liquors changed insignificantly, while consumption of tobacco goods was in decline (see Table 11). The increase in excise rates for tobacco products compensated for the fall in the volume of their consumption, while a poorer administration of excise taxes on liquors, even under indexation of the rates above the inflation rate and the volume of consumption remaining on its 2010 level, resulted in the dynamic of collection falling behind the GDP one.
Section The Monetary and Budget Spheres Table Volume of Consumption of Liquors and Tobacco Goods in RF in 2005–Type of product 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Liquors, as dcl m Vodka and liquors 203.5 197.2 184.6 177.2 166.1 157.8 159.Grape and fruit wine 84.9 81.1 94.9 102.9 102.5 103.4 103.Cognacs 6.8 7.6 8.9 10.8 10.6 11.1 12.Champaign and sparkling wine 19.4 20.6 24.1 26.0 25.5 27.3 29.Beer 892.1 1002.8 1155.3 1138.2 1024.7 1004.0 1077.(Russian cigarettes), bn. pcs 395.8 424.1 398.2 393.6 394.3 370.6 366.Source: Rosstat.
2.2.3. Budget System Expenditures The year of 2011 saw expenditures contract by 1.7 p.p. of GDP vs. the prior year by section “Social policy” and by 0.1–0.2 p.p. of GDP across each of the following sections: “General public administration matters”, “National security and law-enforcement activity”, “Housing and utilities”, “Education” and “Culture, motion picture industry, and mass media” (see Table 12).
Table Expenditure of the Enlarged Government Budget in 2008–2011, as % of GDP 2011 figures bias from 2010, p.p.
2011 2010 2009 of GDP EXPENDITURE 36.8 39.0 41.3 34.3 –2.General public administration matters* 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 –0.National defense 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.5 0.National security and law-enforcement activ2.8 3.0 3.2 2.6 –0.ity National economy 5.1 5.1 7.1 5.5 0.Housing and utilities 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 –0.Environmental protection 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.Education 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.0 –0.Culture, motion picture industry, and mass 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 –0.media Health care, physical culture and sports 3.9 3.8 4.3 3.7 +0.Social policy 12.0 13.7 12.1 9.1 –1.Public debt servicing 0.6 0.6 0,6 0.5 0.* Except for expenditures on public debt servicing.
Source: The RF ministry of Finance, IEP calculations.
The volume of expenditures across sections “Public debt servicing”, “National defense” and “National economy” in shares of GDP remained unchanged in 2011. The past two years saw volumes of financing by the section “National security and law-enforcement activity” contract by 0.2 p.p. of GDP annually. Despite that, Russia is still ahead of all the OECD member states in terms of level of spending on domestic security and law-enforcement activity, as well as by the number of law-enforcement personnel (for reference: In Russia, this index is 9.8 per 1,000 residents, while in second to Russia Turkey – twice as low). So, there is a certain potential to further reduce spending by this particular expenditure item.
When it comes to the section “National defense”, the 2011 volume of the enlarged government budget expenditure relative to GDP remained at the prior year’s level – that is, 2.8% of GDP. That said, Russia’s defense spending is one of the highest worldwide and second to RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks the US and Israel’s1. A high level of defense spending in the US has been steadily in decline over the past fifty years, except for periods of the US’s military engagement2.
There was an insignificant increase by 0.1p.p. of GDP in 2011 vs. 2010 by the section “Health care, physical culture, and sports”, which should be ascribed to the bolstering of the volume of funding of objects for the World Student Games-2013 and Olympics-2014. By the Accounting Chamber’s estimates3, the initial budget of the latter event was nearly 4-fold greater than those of the Vancouver Olympics-2010 and Torino Olympics-2006, while the cost overrun exceeded all reasonable limits, as costs surged 3-fold and hit USD 29.8bn (the ultimate budgets of the Vancouver and Torino Olympics were USD 6bn and 3.6bn, respectively). That said, there are grounds to assume that the construction budget and, accordingly, volumes of budget outlays for implementation of the Sochi-2014 project in 2012-13 may likewise be increased more than once.
The 2011 volume of spending on health care per se remained on the prior year’s level and posted some growth vis--vis the 2008 figures, which can be explained by a greater spending on financing health care modernization programs. The RF Subjects’ 2011 consolidated budget expenditures on this item posted a 0.07p.p. of GDP increase vs. the previous year thanks to a 0.3 p.p. of GDP increase in expenditures on physical culture and sports, a 0.1p.p. of GDP increase in spending on the ambulance service and a 0.3 p.p. of GDP increase in spending on other kinds of medical assistance. In the structure of the enlarged government spending, the share of expenditures across this item surged up to 10.6% of all the expenditures of the enlarged government vs. the previous year’s 9.7%.
The enlarged government budget expenditures on the section “National economy” in were on the level of 2010, that is, 5.1% of GDP, but when compared with the 2009 figures, they slid considerably – by 2.0p.p. of GDP, because of scaling back on volumes of anti-crisis support to the economy.
Expenditure item-wise, spending was boosted across the following sectors: the fuel and energy complex – by 0.2 p.p. of GDP, agriculture and fishery – by 0.3p.p. of GDP, forestry – by 0.1p.p. of GDP, the public road system – by 0.1p.p. of GDP and subsections “General economic matters” and “Other matters in e the national economy area” – by 0.2p.p. of GDP. The volume of budget appropriations for applied research in 2011 remained at the prior year’s level of 0.3p.p. of GDP. As to other subsections, including “Exploration and use of space”, “Reproduction of the mineral base”, the 2011 enlarged government budget expenditures in shares of GDP equivalent contracted vis--vis the previous year.