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Section Institutional Issues contd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0206 Nuclear arms 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0207 Implementation of international obligations in the area of 45,22 46,90 50,65 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,military and technical cooperation 0208 Applied research in the area of national defense 98,37 93,94 93,69 93,20 92,85 91,32 92,0209 Other issues of national defense 2,49 8,79 24,38 29,21 34,64 42,03 37,0300 NATIONAL SECURITY AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT 28,52 31,64 31,07 31,84 30,82 32,12 31,0302 Internal Affairs agencies 4,76 6,31 5,16 4,97 3,70 4,30 3,0303 Internal troops 11,76 10,31 9,80 10,25 8,19 8,28 5,0306 Security agencies 97,80 95,49 97,31 99,05 99,61 97,05 99,0307 Border service agencies 100,00 98,97 97,62 100,00 99,47 98,61 99,0309 Protection of the population and territories in emergencies 59,02 62,39 50,65 51,39 51,00 51,28 49,of natural and technogenic nature, civil defense 0313 Applied research in the area of national security and law- 73,95 66,41 64,43 75,49 79,35 92,09 87,enforcement efforts 0314 Other issues in the area of national security and law- 8,26 50,71 39,95 56,32 68,37 67,94 88,enforcement efforts 0400 NATIONAL ECONOMY 0,05 0,02 0,44 0,64 0,55 1,56 1,0411 Applied research in the area of national economy 5,23 5,84 4,49 5,61 12,0412 Other issues in the area of national economy 0,12 0,06 < 0,01 0,31 0,72 4,47 2,0500 HOUSING AND UTILITIES 3,42 0,85 6,96 10,09 19,26 17,0501 Housing 4,22 5,69 15,97 12,91 20,79 25,0700 EDUCATION 2,76 2,69 2,39 2,55 3,06 3,59 4,0701 Pre-school education 2,03 2,17 2,44 2,48 2,45 3,91 5,0702 general education 1,51 1,91 2,14 2,00 2,75 3,45 0,0704 Intermediate vocational education 1,06 1,03 1,02 0,86 0,99 0,0705 Professional training, re-training and qualifications im- 16,85 15,78 17,22 1,80 2,54 9,40 18,provement 0706 Higher and post-higher education 3,15 2,93 2,53 3,08 3,64 4,08 5,0709 Other issues of education 0,30 0,33 0,28 0,29 0,48 0,61 0,0800 CULTURE, CINEMATOGRAPPHY, MASS MEDIA 0,17 0,17 0,21 0,17 0,18 0,17 0800 CULTURE AND CINEMATOGRAPHY 0,0801 Culture 0,14 0,10 0,16 0,10 0,14 0,09 0,0804 Periodic press and publications 13,46 7,45 2,57 2,62 3,14 3,59 0806 Other issues of culture, cinematography and mass media 0,02 0,15 0900 HEALTHCARE, PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS 4,30 3,99 2,57 4,14 3,54 3,01 0900 HEALTHCARE 8,0901 Stationary medical help 5,61 4,66 2,94 3,24 2,77 2,41 2,0902 Outpatient care n/a1 n/a n/a 13,94 4,34 3,75 21,0905 Health-building care n/a n/a n/a 14,07 15,88 10,73 11,0907 Sanitary and epidemiological health n/a n/a n/a 2,09 0,63 0,64 0,0908 Physical culture and sports 0,28 0,26 0,24 0,42 0,32 0,62 0910 Other issues of healthcare, physical culture and sports 1,74 1,07 1,01 0910 Other issues of healthcare 0,1000 SOCIAL POLICY 0,01 0,01 1003 Social security 0,02 0,02 1100 PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS 0,1101 Physical culture 53,1200 MASS MEDIA 0,1202 periodical press and publications 3,1400 INTER-BUDGET TRANSFERS TO THE BUDGETS OF 0,16 0,THE RF SUBJECTS AND MUNICIPAL ESTABLISHMENTS OF GENERAL NATURE 1401 Subsidies to align budget cover of the RF subjects and mu- 0,50 nicipal establishments 1403 Other inter-budget transfers to the budgets of the RF sub- 1,jects and municipal establishments of general nature Source: the IEP estimates based on the federal budgets data for 20052011 (20032007 data linked to the respective sections and sub-sections of the budget classification effected since January 2008.) The classification that has been out of the effect since 2011 and preliminary estimates are shown in italics.

Non-applicable due to the changes in the budget classification.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Absolute and relative values of the main components of direct military allocations in the federal budget and their changes vs 2010 according to the final, November version of the Federal Budget Law for 2011 are shown in Table 36. The 2010 prices have been recalculated by using the first estimate1 of the GDP index-deflator for 2011 (115.4%) used by Rosstat.

Table Direct military allocations of the federal budget under section National defense 2011 in Rb Allocation share % / change vs 2010 in Changes in 2011 vs mn / same in points Section/subsection title 2010, Rb mn / growth, prices of % 2011 federal budget GDP 1 2 3 4 NATIONAL DEFENSE 1 537 444 54 247 13,82 2,1 332 274 4,24 1,36 Armed Forces, Russian Federation 1 140 915 29 098 10,26 2,988 661 3,03 0,90 0,Mobilization and paramilitary training 6 700 3 199 0,06 0,5 806 122,73 0,03 0,Mobilization preparation of the economy 4 895 653 0,04 0,4 242 13,34 Preparation for and participation in 421 10 722 <0,01 <0,collective security and peace-making 365 96,71 0,10 0,efforts Nuclear arms 29 968 4 614 0,24 0,23 369 24,60 0,06 0,Implementation of international obliga- 4 447 357 0,04 0,tions on military and technical coopera- 3 854 8,47 tion Applied research in the area of national 161 346 8 866 1,45 0,defense 139 815 5,96 0,Other issues of national defense 191 752 37 934 1,72 0,166 163 29,58 0,47 0,Source: the IEP estimates.

Military allocations from other sections of the federal budget are given in Table 37 (by italics, secret allocations are shown on the basis of the draft law on the federal budget). Note that to improve comparability of the data of the Russian military expenditures according to the international practice, since 2011 expenditures on security agencies have not been accounted for as military, and the respective amendments have been made in our published perennial dynamic rows.

Table Direct and indirect military allocations under other sections of the federal budget 2011 in Rb mn / Changes in 2011 vs Allocation share % / change vs 2010 in points Section title or same in prices of 2010, Rb mn / allocations for 2011 federal budget GDP 2010. growth, % 1 2 3 4 in section National security and law-enforcement efforts Internal troops 73 225 2 980 0,66 0,63 454 4,49 0,01 0,Border service 82 153 6 237 0,74 0,71 190 8,06 0,02 0,EMERCOM troops and civil defense 51 018 1 930 0,46 0,44 210 4,18 0,01 0, On the production and use of GDP for 2011 .: Rosstat, February 21, 2011 See.: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/ free/b04_03/Isswww.exe/Stg/d03/20vvp31.htm.

Section Institutional Issues contd 1 2 3 4 In section National economy Alternative civil service 6 1 <0,01 <0,5 13,34 President Program Destruction of 768 404 0,01 <0,chemical weapons in the RF 666 37,74 Subsidies to transportation companies 55 7 <0,01 <0,that purchase motor vehicles for mili- 48 13,34 tary convoys Subsidies to functioning of Russia- 33 7 <0,01 <0,NATO Center 28 34,85 Construction of special and military 11 433 5 224 0,10 0,facilities 9 907 34,53 0,04 0,Federal target program Industrial 91 42 <0,01 <0,utilization of weapons and military 79 116,91 equipment (20052010) Contributions to charter capitals and 31 328 3 962 0,28 0,subsidies to organizations of defense- 27 147 17,09 0,06 0,industrial complex Stipends to young employees of the 234 defense-industrial complex 221 Secret/classified expenditures 33 998 7 179 0,31 0,29 461 32,22 0,09 0,In section Housing and utilities President Program Destruction of 659 847 0,01 chemical weapons in the RF 571 59,70 0,01 Provision of office and permanent hous- 126 344 16 433 1,14 0,ing accommodations too servicemen 109 483 13,05 0,09 0,Secret/classified expenditures 42 749 1 335 0,38 0,37 044 3,74 0,04 In section Education MoD expenditures 47 798 3 092 0,43 0,41 419 6,95 0,Secret/classified expenditures 22 465 4 891 0,20 0,19 468 33,56 0,06 0,In section Culture and cinematography MoD expenditures 2 491 1 535 0,02 <0,2 158 41,56 0,01 Secret/classified expenditures 208 28 <0,01 <0,189 13,34 In section Healthcare MoD expenditures 38 940 922 0,35 0,33 744 2,81 0,03 Secret/classified expenditures 40 993 25 337 0,37 0,35 523 248,74 0,27 0,In section Social policy MoD pension provision 149 598 15 090 1,35 0,140 998 11,98 0,12 Pension provision to Border troops, 28 143 3 861 0,25 0,Internal troops and EMERCOM troops 26 525 17,03 0,03 Material security to specialists of the 5 095 637 0,05 0,RF nuclear weapons complex 4 802 15,29 0,01 Acquisition of housing for retired ser- 19 770 916 0,18 0,vicemen 17 132 5,08 Additional monthly material security to 1 041 336 0,01 <0,disabled after a service-related trauma 981 52,04 Repairs of individual housing units 307 135 <0,01 <0,owned by servicemen family members 266 33,72 who lost their bred-winner RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks contd 1 2 3 4 Compensatory payments to the family 1 245 198 0,01 <0,members of the deceased servicemen 1 174 20,35 Allowances and compensatory pay- 8 644 3 079 0,08 0,ments to servicemen, persons equivalent 8 147 27,43 0,03 0,to servicemen, and retired servicemen On-off allowance to a pregnant wife of 2 238 133 0,02 <0,a convicted serviceman under call-up 2 109 6,72 liability, and a monthly allowance for the called-up servicemans child In section Mass media MoD expenditures 1 500 100 0,01 <0,1 300 8,32 Secret/classified expenditures 168 146 In section Inter-budget transfers to the budgets of the RF subjects and municipal establishments of general nature Transfers to the budgets of Closed 8 876 1 185 0,08 0,Administrative territorial Units (ZATO) 7 692 13,34 0,01 Development and support to ZATO 2 690 359 0,02 >0,social and engineering infrastructure 2 331 13,34 Migration from ZATO 527 70 >0,01 <0,457 13,34 Secret/classified expenditures 820 711 Source: the IEP estimates. Pensions, allowances, compensations and stipends are deflated for CPI.

Let us analyze the dynamic trend of the federal budget and its corrections in the course of the year.

In 2011, the allocations for MoD housing construction in the section National defense (Rb 17bn 639 mn) increased vs the previous year by 140 % (in real terms) also as a result of re-allocation of Rb 12bn in the budget year from the target item expenditures Construction of military and special facilities, while in section housing and utilities (Rb 95bn 82mn) the allocations fell down by 23%. The federal budget allocations for the savings and mortgage system of housing provision to the MoD servicemen went up by 21% (in real terms) reaching Rb 29bn 740mn.

In 2011, allocations to motor fuels/lubs reduced by 10% (in real terms) down to Rb 51bn 57mn vs 2010 as a result of considerable carry-overs of the motor fuels. Thus, according to the Accounts Chamber1, the cost of the surplus stock of motor fuels was evaluated at Rb 13bn 287mn as of June 1, 2011; during the last three years 15% up to 20% of the motor fuels (vs the established annual limits) have not been used. The shortage of motor fuels is no more a cause of low combat training since the actual average flying hours in the military aviation was about 90 hours against the 100 planned hours in 20112.

The federal budget allocations to MoD subsistence support continued growing by 27% in real terms vs 2010. Unlike the previous year, in 2011, allocations to MoD material support grew up by 12.4% in real terms. The MoD healthcare allocations demonstrated an interesting trend having reduced by Rb 2bn 901mn in June and increased again in November by Rb2bn 991mn (about 7.7% of their total).

In 2011, the MoD allocations to MA and additional incentives reduced in real terms by 12.5% vs 2010 down to Rb 262bn 578mn in spite of the actual increase of the money allow Conclusive statement of the Accounts Chamber regarding draft federal law On the federal budget for and the planning period 2013 and 2014. No. ZAM-23/1. ., October 7, 2011. P. 129130.

Independent Military Review. 2012. 1623 March (No 8).

Section Institutional Issues ances by 6.5% since April 1st. Simultaneously, the military personnel allocations to the MoD healthcare system reduced by 58% in nominal value during the year.

In 2011, allocations to MoD pension provision went up by 12% vs 2010 (in real terms) thus ensuring the 6.5% increase of the military pensions since April 1st, and pension provision to newly retired servicemen.

As a result, in 2011, direct military allocations from the Russian federal budget (Table 38) calculated according to the UN standard for military expenditures amounted to 4% of GDP while general military allocations with account of costs related to previous military functions (retirement pensions, destruction of chemical weapons, etc.) made 4.4% of GDP.

Table Total military and military-related allocations from the federal budget Allocation share in % /its change vs Allocation items Allocation amount, in Rb mn, in 2011 federal budget. in GDP Total direct military allocations 2 157 078 19,40 3,1,70 0,Cumulative direct & indirect military 2 375 205 21,36 4,allocations related to the previous and 1,82 0,current military activities Total allocations for sections National 2 779 552 24,99 5,defense and national security and 1,92 0,law-enforcement efforts Source: the IEP estimates.

The 2011 federal budget implementation with regards to the military spend was more uniform than in 2010. According to our estimates, the excess over the limit of expenditure under National defense item reached its maximum of Rb5bn 866mn in July but did not exceed the limit of Rb 7bn 58mn established by part 7 Article 24 of the Law on federal budget for 2011, for the growth of military allocations at the expense of above plan budget revenues according to the consolidated budget plan.

After this the said excess went to zero in November, and by the year end the consolidated plan envisaged Rb13bn of savings in section National defense as compared to the allocation amount sated in the budget law.

The dynamic trend of monthly execution of expenditures for major subsections of section National Defense in 2009-2011 is shown on Fig. 3739. The expenditures of subsection Armed Forces of the Russian Federation that are used to fund the greater part of the MoD state military order failed to meet the two-month standard in 2011 while the December budget tent decreased but slightly (Fig. 37). The situation with expenditures in two other sections (Fig 38, 39) probed to be even worse and quite considerably in the last case.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Source: the IEP estimates based on the Federal Treasury data.

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