http://net-lang.net Other books (in french) from C&F ditions :
Libres savoirs, les biens communs de la connaissance Ouvrage collectif coordonn par l’association VECAM Mai 2011, ISBN 978-2-915825-06-0 Aux sources de l’utopie numrique De la contre-culture la cyberculture : Steward Brand, un homme d’influence Par Fred Turner Avril 2012, ISBN 2-915825-10-6 Dans le labyrinthe valuer l’information sur internet Par Alexandre Serres Avril 2012, ISBN 978-2-915825-22-0 Complete catalog and online bookstore :
http://cfeditions.com ISBN PDF edition 978-2-915825-24-4 C&F ditions, mars 2012 35C rue des Rosiers – 14000 Caen, France http://cfeditions.com This book is published under a Creative Commons license :
CONTENTS Credits 9 FOREWORDS 10 Irina Bokova General Director, UNESCO 13 Abdou Diouf General Secretary, La Francophonie 17 Jos Luis Dicenta General Secretary, Union Latine 21 Dwayne Bailey Research Director, ANLoc 23 Daniel Prado Executive Secretary, Maaya Network 27 PART 1 33 WHEN TECHNOLOGY MEETS MULTILINGUALISM Daniel Prado Language Presence in the Real World and Cyberspace 35 Michal Oustinoff English Won’t Be the Internet’s Lingua Franca 53 ric Poncet Technological Innovation and Language Preservation 69 Maik Gibson Preserving the Heritage of Extinct or Endangered Languages 75 Marcel Diki-Kidiri Cyberspace and Mother Tongue Education 89 PART 2 102 DIGITAL SPACES Stphane Bortzmeyer Multilingualism and the Internet’s Standardisation 105 Mikami Yoshiki & Shigeaki Kodama Measuring Linguistic Diversity on the Web 119 Joseph Mariani How Language Technologies Support Multilingualism 141 Vassili Rivron The Use of Facebook by the Eton of Cameroon Pann Yu Mon & Madhukara Phatak Search Engines and Asian Languages Herv Le Crosnier Digital Libraries Dwayne Bailey Software Localization : Open Source as a Major Tool for Digital Multilingualism Mlanie Dulong De Rosnay Translation and Localization of Creative Commons Licenses PART 3 DIGITAL MULTILINGUALISM :
BUILDING INCLUSIVE SOCIETIES Viola Krebs & Vicent Climent-Ferrando Languages, Cyberspace, Migrations Annelies Braffort & Patrice Dalle Accessibility in Cyberspace : Sign Languages Tjeerd de Graaf How Oral Archives Benefit Endangered Languages Evgeny Kuzmin Linguistic Policies to Counter Languages Marginalization Tunde Adegbola Multimedia and Signed, Written or Oral Languages Adel El Zaim Cyberactivism and Regional Languages in the 2011 Arab Spring Adama Samasskou Multilingualism, the Millenium Development Goals, and Cyberspace PART 4 MULTILINGUALISM ON THE INTERNET :
A MULTILATERAL ISSUE Isabella Pierangeli Borletti Describing the World : Multilingualism, the Internet, and Human Rights Stphane Bortzmeyer Multilingualism and Internet Governance Marcel Diki-Kidiri Ethical Principles Required for an Equitable Language Presence in the Information Society Stphane Grumbach The Internet in China Michal Oustinoff The Economy of Languages Daniel Prado & Daniel Pimienta Public Policies for Languages in Cyberspace CONCLUSION THE FUTURE SPEAKS, READS AND WRITES IN ALL LANGUAGES Adama Samasskou President of Maaya LAURA KRAFTOWITZ born in 1982 at Pittsburgh, splits her time between Paris and the Middle East. She is the author of numerous articles about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the forthcoming memoir The End of Abu Jameel Street, regarding her time as a human rights activist in the Gaza Strip. She is currently completing her Master’s Degree in Political Science and History at the cole des Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, where she is researching the past century of Israeli and Palestinian binational ideation.
HERV LE CROSNIER is a senior lecturer at the University of Caen Basse-Normandie, where he teaches Internet technologies and digital culture. He is currently working with ISCC, the Institute for Communication Sciences of the CNRS.
His research focuses on the impact of the Internet on social and cultural organization, and extending knowledge in the public domain. He is one of the founders of C&F ditions.
JOHN ROSBOTTOM was Principal Lecturer in Computer Science at the University of Portsmouth, UK, until retirement in 2010. He now pursues interests and activities in several areas that were precluded during a busy working life, but continues to enjoy working on computing projects and using his language skills in the translation of technical books and documents.
LAURENT VANNINI after working as a linguistic diversity activist for the Babels network, a journalist, and a telecommunications consultant, decided to travel the world and return to academe, where he is currently studying in Arts and Languages at EHESS. His work probes “the disappearance of the animal and oblivion”. In addition to his writing on ICTs, he penned the French translation of the book From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, by Fred Turner (C&F ditions, 2012).
CREDITS Maaya Scientific Committee Adama Samasskou Daniel Prado Daniel Pimienta Marcel Diki-Kidiri Louis Pouzin Yoshiki Mikami Evgeny Kuzmin Editing and Coordination Laurent Vannini Herv Le Crosnier Translation John Rosbottom Laura Kraftowitz Laurent Vannini Graphic Design and Page Layout Nicolas Taffin Kathleen Ponsard With the support of Unesco, communication and information sector La Francophonie Union Latine ANLoc, South Africa IDRC / CRDI, Canada FOREWORDS UNESCO works to create the conditions for dialogue among civilisations, cultures and peoples, based upon respect for commonly shared values. It is through this dialogue that the world can achieve global visions of sustainable development encompassing observance of human rights, mutual respect and the alleviation of poverty, all of which are at the heart of UNESCO’s mission and activities.
UNESCO’s mission is to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information.
http://unesco.org PRESERVING AND PROMOTING LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY BY IRINA BOKOVA General Director, UNESCO Languages are essential components of individual and common human heritage. They are the first and foremost vehicle for expressing identity, communicating ideas, attaining educational, economic and political autonomy, and promoting peace and sustainable human development.
Languages are important for sharing information and knowledge and for transmitting unique cultural wisdom, including across generations and nations. They form an intrinsic part of the identity of individuals and people, and they are of vital importance to manage the cultural diversity of our world. They open opportunities for dialogue, cooperation and mutual understanding. In this perspective, a plural and diverse linguistic space can expand the conditions for such dialogue by allowing each and every individual to contribute freely in the languages of their choice.
At the same time, languages are a fragile resource which requires endorsement, revitalization and promotion. Today, a significant number of languages are at risk of disappearing. About 97 per cent of the world’s population speaks about 4 per cent of the world’s languages. Conversely, about 96 per cent of the world’s languages are spoken by only about 3 per cent of people around the world. This means that at least half of more than 6,000 languages worldwide are losing their speakers. It is estimated that about 90 per cent of the languages may be replaced by dominant languages by the end of the twenty-first century.
Irina Bokova As the information and communication technologies (icts) became central to all aspects of social, cultural, economic and political life, it is important to ensure that everyone has access and can contribute with their own content to the multilingual internet. icts can be a powerful tool for the safeguarding and promotion of linguistic diversity. In principle, the internet is open to all languages of the world, but only when certain conditions are met, and when the necessary human and financial resources are in place. A multilingual internet is essential for nations, communities and individuals to access, share and use information and resources which are critical for sustainable development and for managing innovation and change.
unesco is strongly committed to promoting multilingualism on the internet. A plural linguistic cyberspace allows the wealth of diversity to be put in common. These goals guide the Organization in its work with the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (icann). They are also debated in the various meetings of the Internet Governance Forum (igf) as well as in the World Summit on Information Society Forums.
unesco’s partnership with the International Telecommunications Union (itu) in the Broadband Commission for Digital Development has also placed emphasis on the need for rich, culturally and linguistically diverse local content and applications as a key target in world leaders’ commitment to broadband inclusion for all.
The importance of cultural and linguistic diversity is also echoed in the Recommendation concerning the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace, adopted by the General Conference of unesco in 2003. This Recommendation calls for urgent and concrete measures to promote linguistic diversity, especially through a multilingual internet, and the preservation of languages, including endangered ones. It encourages pilot projects and the development of multilingual content management tools and resources. It calls also for a wider and more equitable access to information networks and services, while reaffirming the need for a balance between the interests of the rights-holders and the public interest.
Since a decade, unesco has promoted the concept of knowledge societies that are open, pluralistic, equitable, and participatory. Internet and social networks have a key role to play in fostering such inclusive societies. In order for Internet to be such an open and equitable global platform, it Irina Bokova Irina Bokova must be guided by principles of openness, freedom of expression, cultural diversity and multilingualism.
I hope that this publication, supported by unesco, will contribute to interdisciplinary dialogue among various stakeholders, open up new horizons for better understanding the importance of linguistic diversity, raise awareness about new developments linked to the Internet, and most importantly, convey the message that multilingualism contributes to wealth creation, social transformation and human development.
Irina Bokova ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE LA FRANCOPHONIE With a population of over 890 million inhabitants, and 220 million French speakers worldwide, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie’s (OIF) mission is to embody an active solidarity between the 75 countries and governments that compose it (56 members and 19 observers) – which represents over a third of UN Member States.
It operates with respect for cultural and linguistic diversity and to the service of promoting the French language, peace, and sustainable development.
http://www.francophonie.org/ PROMOTING CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE DIGIVERSE BY ABDOU DIOUF General Secretary, La Francophonie Much of our common destiny plays out in the Information Society. In every direction, not only are our modes of information, communication, production and consumption changing form, but also our ways of thinking, being creative and accessing knowledge. Digital technology is opening up all of us, especially our youth, to new perspectives.
Faced with today’s global challenges, La Francophonie, an international organization with 75 states and governments members and observers, representing over a third of un members, grasped early the need to mobilize in coordination to meet the challenges of the Information Society.
Taking a concerted activist presence in international decision-making has lent resonance to its positions and force to its proposals, and has allowed the organization and its member states and governments to weigh in on international decisions.
Today, the appropriation of digital culture is fomenting an intense proliferation of creativity in all fields. The digital switchover poses as much a risk as it does opportunity for French and other linguistic expressions on the web. Furthermore, the question of languages’ respective weight in the web’s various formats is quite poorly documented. Since 2002, our organization, through the Direction de la Francophonie Numrique (Direction for a Digital Francophonie) and the Observatoire de la Langue Franaise (French Language Observatory), has supported frequent studies by Funredes about the French’s place on the internet. Taking into account cyberspace’s constant evolution, oif (Organization internationale de la Francophonie) also supports all ongoing initiatives to establish new indicators for measuring linguistic diversity in the digital world.
The Francophone commitment aims to ensure the necessary preconditions for cultural diversity and linguistic pluralism in the information society. Our objective is for the Francophone community to express its specificity, thereby appropriating digital culture in all its diversity. In this context, free access to digital content and innovative technologies is a priority.
Abdou Diouf With the cultural domain as with the digital, La Francophonie works to oppose uniformity and preserve the values that allow a society to maintain both its identity and the seeds of its development and rejuvination.
oif’s support to this publication falls under this work, demonstrating the synergism of cultural and linguistic diversity that La Francophonie has been cultivating for years, together with intergovernmental and international civil society actors, notably Unesco, the Maaya Network and the Union Latine.
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