Jane Perlez, УVideo Hints at Executions by Pakistanis,Ф New York Times, September 29, 2010, https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/world/asia/30pstan.htmlpagewanted=1&_r=2; УExtrajudicial Killings by Pakistan Army,Ф blog post, Teeth Maestro, October 3, 2010, http://teeth.com.pk/blog/2010/10/03/extra-judicial-killings-bypakistan-army.
УIn Pictures: Lawyers Protest,Ф British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), March 12, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/6442747.stm.
Issam Ahmed, УPakistan Floods: How New Networks of Pakistanis are Mobilizing to Help,Ф Christian Science Monitor, August 19, 2010, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-South-Central/2010/0819/Pakistan-floods-How-new-networks-of-Pakistanisare-mobilizing-to-help.
The Constitution of Pakistan and Fundamental Rights http://www.sdpi.org/know_your_rights/know%20you%20rights/The%20Constitution%20of%20Pakistan.htm.
УPresident Signs Convention on Civil, Political Rights,Ф Daily Times, June 4, 2010, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asppage=2010\06\04\story_4-6-2010_pg7_18.
Maheen Gul-Malik, УICCPR and the Sialkot Incident,Ф Daily Times, September 9, 2010, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asppage=2010\09\09\story_9-9-2010_pg3_2.
УWikileaks Exposing People, not Damaging Nation,Ф Dawn, December 11, 2010, http://www.dawn.com/2010/12/11/wikileaks-exposing-people-not-damaging-nation-lhc.html.
PAKISTAN FREEDOM HOUSE Freedom on the Net Several pieces of legislation are used to restrict freedom of expression, including online. In 2008, former president Pervez Musharraf introduced a draconian Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance (PECO).65 The ordinance called for long prison terms for offenses involving vaguely worded terms like УlewdФ and Уimmoral,Ф and declared as cyber crimes actions such as sending unsolicited text-messages and circulating photos without the permission of the person who was photographed. The ordinance was widely viewed as an effort to curb the use of digital media in organizing protests or circulating criticism of Musharraf.66 The regulation lapsed in 2009, but was later tabled before the national assembly for approval to reactivate it. However, in November 2009, the Prime Minister returned it to the National AssemblyТs Standing Committee on Information Technology for further consultation and development of a new draft. In doing so, he cited its restrictive approach to free expression as the reason.67 As of December 2010, the bill was pending and a new draft was still awaited.
Section 124 of the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) on Sedition is extremely broadly worded, and the 2004 Defamation Act allows for imprisonment of up to five years, though neither is frequently used to punish journalists and has yet to be used to punish online speech.68 Rather, another section of the penal code, Section 295(c), which addresses blasphemy, was used by police in 2010 to initiate proceedings against Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg after a user of the social-networking tool created a group hosting a competition to draw the prophet Muhammad, a task considered offensive by many Muslims.69 The maximum punishment under the law is life imprisonment or the death penalty. Following a wave of jokes about the president that circulated over e-mail, in July 2009 the government announced that several agencies had been tasked with tracing electronically transmitted jokes, and that offenders could face a 14-year prison sentence.Despite such threats and the harsh legal environment, there were no Pakistani bloggers or activists imprisoned for online activities as of the end of 2010.
УPresident Promulgates Ordinance to Prevent Electronic Crimes,Ф Associated Press of Pakistan (APP), November 6, 2007, http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.phpoption=com_content&task=view&id=58277&Itemid=1.
Irfan Ahmed, УNew Cyber Law in Pakistan Restricts Free Speech,Ф OneWorld South Asia, January 24, 2008, http://southasia.oneworld.net/Article/new-cyber-law-in-pakistan-restricts-free-speech.
Khawar Ghumman, УGovernment Fails to Form Body on Electronic Crimes Bill,Ф Dawn, January 6, 2010, http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/the-newspaper/national/govt-fails-to-form-bodyon-electronic-crime-bill-610.
УPPC Section 124-Sedition: Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Federal or Provincial Government established by law shall be punished with imprisonment for life to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment which may extend to three years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.Ф http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/1860/actXLVof1860.html; Karin Deutsch Karlekar, ed., УPakistan,Ф in Freedom of the Press 2010 (New York: Freedom House, 2010), http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfmpage=251&year=2010.
Maija Palmer, УFacebook Founder Faces Pakistan Probe,Ф Financial Times, June 17, 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3aaf867e-7a42-11df-aa69-00144feabdc0.html.
УSMS Joke on Zardari May Land you in Pak Jail,Ф NDTV, July 20, 2009, http://www.ndtv.com/news/world/sms_joke_on_zardari_may_land_you_in_pak_jail.php; Karlekar, ed., УPakistan.Ф PAKISTAN FREEDOM HOUSE Freedom on the Net Fear of government surveillance is not a significant concern among most bloggers and online activists in Pakistan, with the exception of individuals in Baluchistan. Nevertheless, the Pakistani authorities and particularly intelligence agencies have some monitoring capacity. Before providing services, ISPs, telecom companies, and SIM card vendors are required to verify the National Identity Card details of prospective customers and to authenticate them with the National Database Registration Authority.71 Although the Electronic Crimes ordinance expired in 2009, ISPs and telecom companies were reported to be continuing to keep logs of customer communications and convey them to security agencies as needed under directives from the PTA. In recent years, provincial authorities have pressured the central government to grant greater surveillance powers and location tracking ability to local police as part of efforts to curb terrorism and violent crime.72 As of the end of 2010, it was unclear how much the authority had been broadened. According to some reports, the PIE positioned at the international internet gateway has the capability to monitor all incoming and outgoing traffic, as well as store all e-mails. In addition, Pakistan is reported to be a customer of Narus, a U.S.-based firm known for designing technology that allows for monitoring of traffic flows, as well as deep-packet inspection of internet communications. Although Pakistan is one of the most dangerous environments for traditional journalists, with at least 12 being murdered in 2009 and 2010,74 no bloggers or online activists have been killed to date. However, during the internet crackdown that occurred in May 2010, there were several incidents of non-state actors, particularly Islamic extremists, attacking or threatening bloggers and others who were advocating against the blocking of online resources. In one instance, a mob attacked75 a press conference76 organized at the Karachi Press Club, though the clubТs personnel were able to disperse the tensions. During National Database Registration Authority (NADRA), www.nadra.gov.pk ; УVerification of CNICs: Nadra Signs Contract with Three Cell Phone Companies,Ф NADRA, July 29, 2009, http://www.nadra.gov.pk/index.phpoption=com_content&view=article&id=111:verification-of-cnics-nadra-signs-contractwith-three-cell-phone-companies&catid=10:news-a-updates&Itemid=20; Bilal Sarwari, УSIM Activation New Procedure,Ф Pak Telecom, September 3, 2010, http://www.paktelecom.net/pakistan-telecom-news/pta-pakistan-telecom-news/sim-activationnew-procedure/.
Masroor Afzal Pasha, УSindh Police To Get Mobile Tracking Technology,Ф Daily Times, October 29, 2010, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asppage=2010\10\29\story_29-10-2010_pg7_18;
УPunjab Police Lack Facility of СPhone LocatorТ, PA Told,Ф The News, January 12, 2011, http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspxID=25244&Cat=2&dt=1/14/2011.
Timothy Carr, УOne U.S. CorrespondentТs Role in EgyptТs Brutal Crackdown,Ф Huffington Post, January 28, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/timothy-karr/one-us-corporations-role-_b_815281.html; УNarus: Security Through Surveillance,Ф Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, November 11, 2008, http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/surveillance/2008/11/11/narus-security-through-surveillance/.
УJournalists Killed in Pakistan Since 1992,Ф Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), http://cpj.org/killed/asia/pakistan/, accessed February 24, 2011.
Farieha Aziz, УCritics of Facebook Ban Face Nasty Battle,Ф Newsline Magazine, May 21, 2010, http://www.newslinemagazine.com/2010/05/critics-of-facebook-ban-face-nasty-battle/.
Samia Saleem, УConference on Internet Censorship Ends on Sour Note,Ф The Express Tribune, May 20, 2010, http://tribune.com.pk/story/14763/conference-on-internet-censorship-ends-on-sour-note/.
PAKISTAN FREEDOM HOUSE Freedom on the Net the same period, several free expression activists and bloggers received anonymous death threats. Most such messages were sent via text message from untraceable, unregistered mobile-phone connections, usually originating from the tribal areas of the country, and several had very specific details related to the individualsТ profile or recent activities.
Similarly, as some militant Islamic groups consider cybercafes to be sites of moral degradation, they have initiated attacks and bombings of such access points. Most attacks have occurred in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and FATA, but in July 2010, bomb blasts also struck two cybercafes in Lahore, injuring six people. Mohammad Faisal Ali, УSix Injured in Two Lahore Blasts,Ф Dawn, July 18, 2010, http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/metropolitan/03-explosionreported-in-garhi-shahu-lahore-ss-08.
PAKISTAN FREEDOM HOUSE Freedom on the Net RUSSIA 2009 POPULATION: 141.9 million INTERNET FREEDOM Partly Partly INTERNET PENETRATION: 33 percent STATUS Free Free WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS BLOCKED: No Obstacles to Access 11 SUBSTANTIAL POLITICAL CENSORSHIP: No Limits on Content 16 BLOGGERS/ONLINE USERS ARRESTED: Yes Violations of User Rights 22 PRESS FREEDOM STATUS: Not Free Total 49 INTRODUCTION After the elimination of independent television channels and the tightening of press regulations in 2000Ц01, the internet became RussiaТs last relatively uncensored platform for public debate and the expression of political opinions. However, even as access conditions have improved, internet freedom has corroded. In the last two years there have been several cases of technical blocking and numerous cases of content removal. The authorities have also increasingly engaged in harassment of bloggers. At least 25 cases of blogger harassment, including 11 arrests, were registered between January 2009 and May 2010, compared with seven in 2006Ц08. In addition, dozens of blogs have reportedly been attacked in recent years by a hacker team called the Hell Brigade.Since the internet was first launched in Russia in 1988, the country has made significant gains in the expansion of its information infrastructure. Most Russians access the internet from their homes (94 percent of users) and workplaces (48 percent), and use of cybercafes has consequently dropped off.2 Internet access via mobile telephones and similar devices has gained popularity since 2006, and 9.4 million people report using this method.Faster and more credible than conventional media, online outlets are becoming the main Vladimir Pribylovski, У—писок взломанных бригадой хелла ∆∆-блоговФ [List of LiveJournal Blogs Hacked by Hell Brigade], LJ.Rossia.org, http://lj.rossia.org/users/anticompromat/769184.html (in Russian), accessed January 2011.
Public Opinion Foundation, УЌовый выпуск бюллетен€ С»нтернет в –оссии, «има 2009/2010ТФ [New Issue of the Bulletin СInternet in Russia, Winter 2009/2010Т], news release, March 24, 2010, http://bd.fom.ru/report/cat/smi/smi_int/int240310_pressr (in Russian).
Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS), Ујудитори€ мобильного интернета приблизилась к 10 млнФ [Mobile Internet Audience Has Reached 10 Million], RuMetrika, November 22, 2010, http://rumetrika.rambler.ru/review/0/4578 (in Russian).
RUSSIA FREEDOM HOUSE Freedom on the Net information source for a growing number of Russians, and certain websites have larger audiences than television channels.
OBSTACLES TO ACCESS Internet and mobile-phone penetration in Russia continue to grow, and the government largely supports the dissemination of these technologies, both directly and through statecontrolled internet-service providers (ISPs) that offer relatively low broadband prices. The number of internet users jumped from 1.5 million in 1999 to 46.5 million in 2010,4 and grew by more than 13 million in the last two years, though this still leaves RussiaТs penetration rate at 33 percent, lower than the rates in Central European countries. The level of infrastructure differs significantly from place to place, and gaps are evident between urban and rural areas as well as between different types of cities. The worst access conditions can be found in the North Caucasus and the industrial towns of Siberia and the Far East. In 2009, broadband penetration reached approximately 31 percent of internet users, or 15.7 million households, up from 8.3 million in 2008.5 Unlimited-plan prices in the different federal districts vary from US$10 to US$69 a month.6 By the end of 2008, the majority of schools were connected to the internet, but connection speeds are sometimes low. Libraries have been connected less extensively. Internet cafes are present in almost every city.
Mobile-phone penetration has grown rapidly in recent years, and there were subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 2009.7 Third-generation (3G) mobile-phone infrastructure began developing relatively late due to resistance from military officials, who claimed that the technology might weaken national security.8 Now approximately percent of mobile subscribers, mostly in the largest cities, own 3G phones, and the 3G network is expanding rapidly.
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