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организацией в области стандартизации или признанным в отрасли консорциумом, принятые в ходе открытой процедуры, не содержащие технологических и юридических препятствий к реализации. Если членство в GNU (GNU is Not Unix, GNU — это не UNIX) — организация, учрежденная организации, утверждающей стандарт, не является общедоступным, про- в 1983 г. американским программистом Ричардом Столлманом, целью цедуры принятия стандарта не открыты для всех участников и не осно- которой стало создание свободной операционной системы. В рамках ваны на достижении консенсуса, а использование стандарта связано с проекта GNU был создан ряд важнейших свободных программ и наиботеми или иными ограничениями, это делает стандарт менее открытым. лее распространенные свободные лицензии GNU GPL, GNU LGPL и GNU FDL.

Достаточные права на программу для ЭВМ — объем прав, необходимый пользователю (заказчику) для полноценного использования программно- GNU General Public License (GPL) — наиболее популярная на сегодняшго обеспечения, включая права на внедрение, эксплуатацию, поддержку ний день свободная лицензия, разработанная Фондом свободного прои развитие, в том числе с возможностью привлечения к этим процессам граммного обеспечения. GPL является официальной лицензией проектретьих лиц. Для большинства случаев, чтобы считать права «достаточ- та GNU. GPL — первая лицензия, содержащая условие копилефта.

ными», лицензионный договор на ПО должен разрешать:

На условиях GPL (и ее специальной версии LGPL, допускающей в отдельных случаях сочетание с несвободными программами) были опу перерабатывать, переводить или модифицировать программу;

бликованы такие важные разработки, как ядро операционной системы воспроизводить и распространять программу в неизменном, перерабоLinux, среда разработки Emacs, набор компиляторов gcc и многие друтанном или модифицированном виде, возмездно или безвозмездно;

гие.

передавать перечисленные права третьим лицам.

Совместимость с GPL — наличие юридической возможности объединения Использование программы для ЭВМ — это «выпуск в свет, воспроизведепрограмм, распространяемых на условиях некоторой лицензии, в одно ние, распространение и иные действия по введению программ в хозяйпроизводное произведение с GPL-программами. Поскольку лицензия ственный оборот» (Закон «О правовой охране программ для ЭВМ и баз GPL предъявляет требование, что производное произведение обязаданных» от 23 сентября 1992 г. № 3523-I, ст. 1). Выполнение правомертельно должно распространяться на условиях GPL, свободная програмным владельцем программы для ЭВМ или базы данных любых действий, ма, условия распространения которой не допускают такого сочетания, связанных с ее функционированием в соответствии с ее назначением, не является не совместимой с GPL.

является «использованием» в терминах законодательства и не требует Примером совместимых с GPL лицензий является большинство липринятия им условий лицензионного договора (там же, ст. 15).

цензий семейства BSD.

100 INFO-FOSS.RU GNU Free Documentation License subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, VERSION 1.2, NOVEMBER a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

The «Invariant Sections» are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.

this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The «Cover Texts» are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front0. PREAMBLE Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

functional and useful document «free» in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, A «Transparent» copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.

represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for modifications made by others.

drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable This License is a kind of «copyleft», which means that derivative for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.

format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image license designed for free software.

format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for is not «Transparent» is called «Opaque».

free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;

available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/ or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, The «Title Page» means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work page as such, «Title Page» means the text near the most prominent appearance under the conditions stated herein. The «Document», below, refers to of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and A section «Entitled XYZ» means a named subunit of the Document whose title is addressed as «you». You accept the license if you copy, modify or either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned A «Modified Version» of the Document means any work containing below, such as «Acknowledgements», «Dedications», «Endorsements», or the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with «History».) To «Preserve the Title» of such a section when you modify the Document modifications and/or translated into another language.

means that it remains a section «Entitled XYZ» according to this definition.

A «Secondary Section» is a named appendix or a front-matter The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards 102 INFO-FOSS.RU GNU Free Documentation License Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control gives permission.

the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at may publicly display copies.

least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed the publisher.

covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited other copyright notices.

to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the I. Preserve the section Entitled «History», Preserve its Title, and add to it stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document «History» in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item provide you with an updated version of the Document.

describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

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