A.6.3 Certain abbreviations are prescribed in specific stipulations (e.g. 4.1.16, 4.2.13).
A.6.4 In various stipulations, provision is made for the use of “standard abbreviations” (e.g. in the edition statement, see 2.1.2) without specifying the forms of the abbreviations to be followed. These 850 abbreviations are not prescribed, but it is recommended that international or national standards be used (see Appendix C).
The abbreviations used throughout in the examples, other than those prescribed above in A.6.2 and A.6.3, are illustrative and not prescriptive (see also Appendix D). Certain Latin abbreviations are used in order to facilitate the international exchange of bibliographic records and to avoid the need for bibliographic agencies to supply equivalent terms to match the text in any possible language.
A.6.5 Initials and acronyms are recorded without internal spaces, regardless of how they are presented on the resource.
Examples Pel battesimo di S.A.R. Ludovico...
A ISBD 860 KL Ianuarius habet dies xxxi Secundum usum S.R.E.
Prediche del M.R.P.C.M.
Abbreviations consisting of more than a single letter are treated as distinct words, separated with spaces from preceding or following words or initials.
Examples Ph. D.
Mr J.J. Rousseau When two or more distinct abbreviations, initialisms, etc., appear in juxtaposition, each is separated from the other by a space.
870 Examples par R.F. s. d. C.
M. J.P. Rabaut A.7 Capitalization In general, in those scripts where capitalization is relevant, the first letter of the first word of each area should be a capital; the first letter of the first word of some elements or subelements should also be a capital (e.g. parallel title, alternative title, section title). Other capitalization should follow the appropriate usage for the language and script used in the description (see A.5 for the language, script, and form of letters to be used for transcription). When more than one language or script appears in the description, each should be capitalized in accordance with the usage of that language or script even when this produces 880 an inconsistent pattern of capitalization for the description as a whole.
For older monographic resources:
Letters of numerical value in a chronogram in the title or in the publication, production, distribution, etc., area, or in an acrostic in the text of a poem are given in capitals.
Interpolations used by the cataloguing agency should follow modern practice.
Example Anno Vt speraMUs, pace CoronanDo  A final larger capital I in Latin words is a ligature representing ii or ij. It can be expanded (see A.6.1) or it may be left as it stands.
Early type founts provided only one letter for upper case I and J and one for U and V.
890 (Lower case i/j and u/v were used mutually as well, the differences follow the founts used and graphical conventions rather than spelling conventions, but both letters were extant in ISBD 2010 A.most type founts.) The capital letters U and V began to be differentiated in the early 16th century, distinction between I and J, i and j, u and v came later in the 16th century.Several slightly different transcription conventions for I and J and for U and V are applied in the international cataloguing community. These may range from recording the actual capitalization of the originals to converting V to u in most cases. One consistent conversion method as chosen by the cataloguing agency is to be applied.
For example, if the capitalization of the original is not recorded, alternating I and J, U and V, and VV or UU representing W are transcribed as they appear, that is:
900 I or J as i or j, final IJ as ij, U and V as u and v, VV as vv.
or, I or J may be converted to i or j, U and V to u or v, and VV to w, according to modern spelling conventions.
If it is not possible to identify a capital letter as one or the other (e.g. I/J or U/V in Gothic type), it should be normalized according to modern orthography in the language of the resource.
Examples JOHANNES as Johannes JSAK as Isak A.8 Misprints 910 Inaccuracies or misspelled words are transcribed as they appear on the resource. They may be followed by “sic” enclosed in square brackets that are preceded and followed by a space ( [sic] ) or the correct version may be added, enclosed in square brackets, the correction being preceded by “i.e.” (id est), or its equivalent in another language or script.
Examples Chansons crs et interprts [sic] The world in anger [i.e. danger] Looser [i.e. Loser] takes all The notted [i.e. noted] history of Mother Grim Barcelonette [i.e. Barcelonnette] 920 Golden Vienese [sic] waltzes compuesto por Luis de Bricneo [i.e. Briceo] Small busines [sic] encyclopedias An hnmble [sic] address Consistent use of these types as different letters was not established until well into the 19th century, however. See D.B. Updike, Printing types: their history, forms and use. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1937), p. 22, note.
A ISBD To my loaing [sic] friend Antiqvtates [i.e. Antiqvitates] Alstetenses et Palatinatvs Saxonici For older monographic resources:
When the printer has left a blank space for an initial letter to be inserted by hand, the letter is supplied, enclosed in square brackets, and the interpolation is explained in area 7.
Example 930 [T]he true history of recent events Note: Initial letter space left blank by printer Spaces that are intentionally left blank, to give room for dates or names, etc., entered later by hand, are recorded enclosed in square brackets. The term “blank space” or an appropriate equivalent in the language chosen by the cataloguing agency is recorded.
Additions by hand in such spaces are recorded in area 7 or given enclosed in square brackets in area 1 with an explanation in area 7.
Example Kungrelse, Angende Ngon tilrnad Entreprenade, af tndningen och underhllandet af Stadsens enskilte Lycktor. Gifwen Stockholms 940 Rdhus den [blank space] Junii 176[blank space] Note: Date "19 Junii 1767" filled in by hand on title page and on the last page of copy x in collection y or Kungrelse, Angende Ngon tilrnad Entreprenade, af tndningen och underhllandet af Stadsens enskilte Lycktor. Gifwen Stockholms Rdhus den  Junii 176 Note: Dates between brackets filled in by hand on copy x in collection y When copies with a misprint corrected are known and both variants are described in one record, the later variant is used as the basis for description. Information about the misprint 950 is given in area 7.
Example Den sluga och frstndiga gubben, som lrer de ofrfarna bde i stderna och p landet, at igenom hwarjehanda hus-curer, hela och bota mngfaldiga sjukdomar, s wl hos mnniskor som fnad; jmte mycket annat, som kan tjena til frmon och nytta i tskilliga hushllsstycken.
Note: Variant state has misprint in title: "sjukdo-"/"domar". – Stockholm, : gedruckt bey Henr. C. Merckell, knigl. Buchdr. im GroszFrstenthum Finland., Anno 1721.
960 Note: Statement of publication taken from colophon. Variant state has misprint in colophon: "Stocholm" Turned letters are transcribed as intended and an explanatory note is given.
ISBD 2010 A.Example … virtue … Note: The “r” in “virtue” is turned the wrong way For continuing resources:
Inaccuracies or misspelled words are not transcribed in the title proper (see 188.8.131.52).
A.9 Symbols, etc.
A symbol or other matter that cannot be reproduced by the facilities available is replaced by its description 970 or its equivalency in letters or words, as appropriate. The substitution is enclosed in square brackets and an explanatory note is made if considered important to users of the catalogue. A copyright symbol that cannot be reproduced may be replaced by an abbreviation without square brackets.
A.10 Imperfections For older monographic resources:
The ISBD is concerned with the recording of copies of library materials as issued, and makes no provision for situations where no complete copy exists or when an imperfect copy has to be catalogued without the help of a bibliographic record for a complete 990 example.
In the first case, compilers and users of databases, whether manual or machine-based, should realize that descriptions taking account of alterations during printing, special dedication copies, the presence of cancel leaves, etc., may not apply to all copies of the same edition.
In the second case, a record for a complete copy should first be sought and imperfections and other peculiar characteristics described in area 7; but when no details of a complete copy can be found, information supplied by the cataloguer from inference in the title and statement of responsibility area is given in square brackets with an explanatory note.
A ISBD Alternative possibilities are linked by “or”. When such information cannot be supplied, 1000 lacunae are indicated by the mark of omission with an explanatory note. The extent of an imperfect copy when the complete extent cannot be inferred is given according to the provisions of 184.108.40.206.5.
A.11 Examples The examples given throughout this document are illustrative and not prescriptive except when the stipulations specify that the form found in the example or examples is to be followed. Most examples are based on the description of existing resources.
ISBD 2010 SPECIFICATION OF ELEMENTS 0 CONTENT FORM AND MEDIA TYPE AREA 1010 Mandatory Introductory note The purpose of the content form and media type area is to indicate at the very beginning of the description both the fundamental form or forms in which the content of a resource is expressed and the type or types of carrier used to convey that content so as to assist catalogue users in identifying and selecting resources appropriate to their needs.
The content form and media type area comprises three elements, each taken from closed lists: (1) the content form, one or more terms reflecting the fundamental form or forms in which the content of a resource is expressed; (2) the content qualification, specifying the type, sensory nature, dimensionality, and/or presence or absence of motion for the resource being described; and (3) the media type, indicating 1020 the type or types of carrier used to convey the content of the resource.
Contents 0.1 Content form 0.2 Content qualification 0.3 Media type Prescribed punctuation A. Content qualification terms are enclosed in parentheses immediately following the content form term ( ( ) ).
B. When different content qualification terms are applicable to one content form, each subsequent content qualification term is preceded by a space, semicolon, space ( ; ).
1030 C. The media type term is preceded by a space, colon, space ( : ).
D. When different content forms are contained in one media type, each content form term after the first is preceded by a point, space (. ).
E. When a resource consists of different media types and contains different content forms, each subsequent content form : media type statement is preceded by a space, plus sign, space ( + ).
Punctuation patterns Content form (content qualification) : media type Content form (content qualification ; content qualification) : media type Content form. Content form (content qualification) : media type Content form (content qualification). Content form (content qualification) : media type 1040 Content form (content qualification) : media type + Content form (content qualification) : media type 0-0 ISBD Prescribed source The resource itself 0-ISBD 2010 0.0.1 Content form Mandatory Content form categories reflect the fundamental form or forms in which the content of a resource is expressed. One or more terms from the following list is given in the language and script chosen by the cataloguing agency. For works of mixed content where there is no predominant part of the resource (i.e. all parts are equally prominent or important), as many terms as are applicable to the resource being described 1050 are recorded, in alphabetical order. Alternatively, for resources comprising mixed content where three or more forms are applicable, the term “multiple content forms” may be given. For works of mixed content where one part of the resource is predominant and other content is considered accompanying material (see 5.4), the term corresponding to the predominant part of the resource is recorded.
Content Form Terms Content Form Term Definition and Scope of Term dataset Content expressed by digitally-encoded data intended to be processed by a computer. Examples include numeric data, environmental data, etc., used by applications software to calculate averages, correlations, etc., or to produce models, etc., but not normally displayed in its raw form. Excluded are digitally recorded music [see music], language [see spoken word], sounds [see sounds], computer-reproduced images [see image] and text [see text].
image Content expressed through line, shape, shading, etc., intended to be perceived visually. An image can be still or moving, in two or three dimensions. Examples include art reproductions, maps, photographs, remote-sensing images, stereographs, motion pictures, and lithographs.
movement Content expressed through motion, i.e. the act or process of changing the position of an object or person. Examples include dance notation, stage actions, or choreography, but exclude moving images, such as motion pictures [see image] music Content expressed through ordered tones or sounds in succession, in combination, and in temporal relationships to produce a composition.
Music can be written (notation), performed, or recorded in analogue or digital formats as vocal, instrumental, or mechanical sounds having rhythm, melody, or harmony. Examples include written music, such as scores or parts, and recorded music, such as concert performances, opera, and studio recordings.
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