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comprehensiveness of information for identification: the source that gives the fullest, clearest, and most authoritative information 660 proximity of the source to the information: the source that is nearest the content of the resource, such as an internal source, and persistence of the source of information: the source that is the most enduring.

If there is more than one source of information that is qualified as the preferred source of information for a resource, the first occurring of those sources is selected, unless one of the following conditions applies:

If the resource contains preferred sources of information in more than one language or script, the preferred source of information is selected as follows:

1) The source in the language or script that corresponds to the language or script of the content or the predominant language or script of the content of the resource.

2) The source in the language or script of translation if the translation is known to be the 670 purpose of the resource 3) The source in the original language or script of the content 4) The first occurring source.

If the resource contains preferred sources of information bearing different dates, the source bearing the later or latest date is selected.

ISBD 2010 A.4.2.1.A.4.2.1 Printed resources A.4.2.1.1 Resources in roman script The preferred source of information is the title page, or, for resources lacking a title page, the title-page substitute. A title-page substitute is selected according to the criteria in A.4.2. Sources such as a cover, spine, etc., are not treated as a preferred source of information unless they were issued with the resource.

680 If information traditionally given on the title page is given on facing pages, with or without repetition, the two pages are treated as the preferred source of information.

Title pages not selected as the preferred source of information or as part of a collective single source of information are considered to constitute other preliminaries.

For resources lacking a preferred source of information applying to the whole resource, see A.4.2.5.

For monographic resources:

When for a single-part monographic resource there is more than one title page, the one selected is the one specific to the resource being described (e.g. for a monograph in a series, the analytical title page; for a facsimile reproduction, the title page with the reproduction details) (see also 1.1.4.2).

690 When a multipart monographic resource is catalogued as a whole, the title page common to the parts is used as the preferred source of information.

For older monographic resources:

If a title-page substitute cannot be selected according to the criteria in A.4.2, sources are considered in the following order: colophon, half-title, other preliminaries, caption title, docket title, running title, incipit, explicit, opening words of the main text, opening words of the resource. In each description only one page, portion of page, or part of the resource can be designated as a title-page substitute.

For continuing resources:

The preferred source of information is the title page or the title-page substitute of the issue 700 used as the basis of the description (see A.4.1). The title-page substitute for a continuing resource lacking a title page is taken from certain sources in the following order of preference:

1) the analytical title page, cover, caption, masthead, editorial pages, colophon;

2) the other preliminaries and information to be found on the wrappers and top and bottom of text pages (such as running title);

3) the rest of the continuing resource: prefaces, forewords, tables of contents, text, appendices, etc.;

4) reference sources outside the resource and not associated with it (e.g. bibliographies, publishers lists).

A ISBD 710 A.4.2.1.2 Resources in non-roman scripts The colophon is the preferred source of information when one or more of the following conditions is true:

a) a leaf standing in the position of a title page bears only the title proper in the manner of a half-title page;

b) a leaf standing in the position of a title page bears the title proper, with or without other bibliographic information, in a calligraphic version (the full bibliographic details in the colophon being given in conventional forms of Chinese characters as used in modern Chinese, Japanese and Korean printing);

c) a leaf standing in the position of a title page bears only a Western-language version of the title and/or publication details.

720 A.4.2.2 Cartographic resources and still images The preferred source of information for a cartographic resource or a still image is chosen in the following order of preference:

a) the resource itself;

b) the container (portfolio, cover, envelope, etc.) or case, the cradle and stand of a globe, etc., issued by the publisher or manufacturer of the resource;

c) an accompanying text or brochure.

d) sources outside the resource, such as a catalogue, bibliography, etc.

The preferred source for an atlas is selected according to the criteria for monographs or continuing resources, as appropriate (see A.4.2.1.1).

730 A.4.2.3 Multimedia and audiovisual resources Many multimedia resources, sound recordings, videorecordings, and moving images lack a single source of information for creating a bibliographic description. In describing a resource it may therefore be necessary to select from such disparate sources of information as the content of the resource itself (where the data may be given in a visual or auditory form or both), an affixed label, a container or an enclosure or other accompanying textual matter such as a manual.

The preferred sources of information are:

a) a source that collectively identifies the work or works contained in the resource and is permanently associated with the resource, such as the title frames of a motion picture or the label on a disc b) a source that collectively identifies the work or works contained in the resource and accompanies 740 the resource, such as a descriptive insert issued with a disc Textual sources will normally be preferred to sound sources. However, when textual information is deficient or clearly erroneous and the integral sound source is more adequate, the latter may be preferred.

A.4.2.4 Electronic resources The preferred sources of information are:

a) a source that identifies the resource as a whole and is internal to the resource itself, such as a title screen, main menu, program statements, the header to the file including Subject: lines, home page, or encoded information (e.g. TEI header, HTML title) ISBD 2010 A.4.b) a source that identifies the resource as a whole and appears on the physical carrier or its labels c) a container issued by the publisher, producer, or distributor 750 d) documentation or other accompanying material (e.g. a publishers letter) that identifies the resource A.4.2.5 Resources without a common source of information Single-part monographic resources When there is no prescribed source of information applying to the whole resource, but each work contained in it has its own prescribed source of information, including resources with multilingual versions of the same work, the several sources of information may be considered collectively as a single source of information.

Continuing resources When the resource contains more than one work, each with its own prescribed source of information and numbering, a separate description is made for each. An appropriate 760 explanation is given in area 7 relating the separate descriptions (see 7.2.4.6).

Multipart monographic resources When there is no prescribed source of information applying to the whole resource, but each part has its own prescribed source of information, the prescribed source of the first available part is selected.

A.4.2.6 Resources without a source of information in the resource If no source of information is found in the resource, sources outside the resource, such as a catalogue, bibliography, or review, may be used.

A.4.3 Prescribed sources For each area certain sources are designated as prescribed sources of information and listed in an order 770 of preference.

If data elements for area 1 are found in different sources (e.g. titles found on title page and cover), the source is selected according to the preferred order of sources (see each area and A.4.2) and the form found there is transcribed. When appropriate, the information is given in the order found in the source selected.

For areas 2, 3, 4, and 6, multiple sources are prescribed, so a combination of sources makes up the prescribed sources. If data elements for these areas are found in different sources, the source is selected according to the preferred order of sources (see each area and A.4.2) and is transcribed in the form found there. When appropriate, the information is given in the order found in the source selected.

Information taken from a source other than prescribed sources for areas 1 to 6 is enclosed in square brackets if it is transcribed as part of the area. Alternatively, such information may be given in area 780 without square brackets. Information found outside the resource may be given in area 7.

The resource described is that as issued by the publisher, printer, distributor, etc. No part of the resource may be considered as a prescribed source unless it is part of the resource as issued. For example, a cover or spine is used as a prescribed source only if it is clear that the resource was issued in that binding.

A ISBD For older monographic resources:

When information in area 1, 2, 4 or 6 is from a source other than the prescribed sources of information for the area, the source of information is given in area 7. When the resource lacks a title page and an alternate source of information is selected as title-page substitute, the title-page substitute is identified in area 7 (see 7.1.1.2), as is any information in areas 1, 2, 4 and 6 taken from a substitute.

790 A.5 Language and script of the description Elements in areas 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are normally recorded from the resource and are, therefore, wherever practicable, in the language or languages and script or scripts in which they appear there. Interpolations in these areas are enclosed in square brackets and are given in the language and script of the context of that part of the description, except:

prescribed abbreviations (see A.6) and prescribed interpolations (see A.8, A.9);

statement of function of distributor (see 4.2.5) and additions to the date of printing (see 4.7.3) are given in the language and script chosen by the cataloguing agency.

Terms used in areas 5, 7 and 8 are usually not transcribed from the resource and therefore do not require square brackets for interpolations, etc. The terms are given in the language and script chosen by the 800 cataloguing agency, except:

when a representative fraction for a scale that does not appear on the resource is provided in area 3;

when the original title or a variant title is provided in area 7;

when quotations are provided in area 7;

when the key title is provided in area 8.

Certain stipulations in the ISBD specify a particular English term or phrase to be used in a description.

Cataloguing agencies may use an equivalent term or phase in a language chosen by the agency.

Elements of the description of resources appearing in scripts other than that chosen by the cataloguing agency may, if necessary, be given in transliteration or transcribed without brackets into the script chosen 810 by the agency. When the script is not in current use or is otherwise not available a suitable alternative script should be used, e.g. Cyrillic (civil) for Cyrillic (Church Slavonic).

For older monographic resources:

The spelling of words taken from the resource is preserved, but ligatures and other contemporary forms of letters and diacritics may be transcribed in their current forms when the contemporary form is not available to the cataloguing agency. No account is taken of the differing forms of letters when no orthographic difference is made in current usage. Accents and other diacritic marks not present on the source are not added. For recording of upper and lower case letters, see A.7. Interpolations by the cataloguing agency should follow modern practice as to spelling. For Latin interpolations, see A.6.6.

ISBD 2010 A.6.820 A.6 Abridgements and abbreviations A.6.1 Abbreviations found in the source of information used for the description are transcribed as found. In area 1, information is not abbreviated or abridged.

In exceptional cases the abridgement of certain elements in the description is permitted, provided the omission takes place at the end or in the middle of the element (e.g. a lengthy title proper or a title proper of a serial that includes a date or number that varies from issue to issue; see 1.1.5.1). In such cases, the omission is indicated by the mark of omission (... ).

For older monographic resources When contractions and abbreviations in continuance of the manuscript tradition of abbreviating words that were long and/or frequently encountered are found, these may be 830 left as they stand or may be expanded wherever possible. Any such expansion is enclosed in square brackets or given in area 7.

Examples Boetij viri celeberrimi de [con]solatio[n]e phylosophie liber : cu[m] optimo [com]me[n]to beati Thome Dialogus beati Gregorij Pape : eiusq[ue] diaconi Petri in quattuor libros diuisus : de vita [et] miraculis patru[m] italicor[um] : [et] de eternitate a[n]imarum When the meaning of an abbreviation or contraction is conjectural, a question mark is given following the conjectural expansion, e.g. amico[rum]. When the meaning of an 840 abbreviation or contraction cannot be determined, a question mark is given, enclosed in square brackets, for each indeterminable abbreviation or contraction, e.g. amico[], []s, or the abbreviation or contraction may be left as it stands.

A.6.2 If a single statement of responsibility consisting of the names of several persons or corporate bodies is abridged (see 1.4.5.3), the omission is indicated by the mark of omission and the insertion of the prescribed abbreviation et al. ( = et alii, and others), or for non-roman script records, its equivalent in another script. The abbreviation is enclosed in square brackets.

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