Table NUMBER OF ENTERPRISES AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF THE SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES BY KINDS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AS ON 01.01.2009, (MICRO-ENTERPRISES EXCLUDED) Number of employees (byNumber of enterprises workers excluded) as percent- as percentthousand of thousand age to the age to the people total total Total 282.7 100 6217.1 Sector of goods 101.3 35.8 2750.4 44.agriculture, hunting, forestry 16.4 5.8 472.6 7.industry 46.1 16.3 1253.6 20.construction 37.9 13.4 1000 16.Sector of services 181.4 64.2 3566.7 57.wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor-vehicles and motorcycles, household 83.9 29.7 1659.4 26.appliances, items of private use hotels and restaurants 8.7 3.1 206.5 3.transportation 15 5.3 314.9 5.communication 2 0.7 33.8 0.operations with real estate, rent and 55.1 19.5 1002.7 16.services rendering health care and rendering of social 4.1 1.5 66.6 1.services rendering of other utilities, social and 7.8 2.8 144.5 2.personal services other kinds of activities 4.8 1.7 138.3 2.Source: Federal State Statistics Service Structure of the small-scale enterprises’ turnover on the whole throughout Russia was formed by the enterprises of wholesale and retail trade by 3/5 and the changes in the situation at the internal consumer and wholesale markets had a prevailing impact on the positions of the small business in the Russian economy.
In 2008 on the whole the turnover of the small-scale enterprises made RUR 10093.billion or 13.6% of the turnover by kinds of activities in the Russian economy, the share of turnover of small-scale enterprises in the kind of activity “construction” made 30.9%, “fishing and fish-breeding” – 25.4%, “agriculture” – 17.4%, “trade” – 18.8% and in “industry” – 5.5%. It is obvious that the slow-down of the works in the construction down to 12.8% in 2008 versus 18.2% in 2007, of the retail trade turnover – to 13.3% versus RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES Operations with 17.7% and of wholesale Other; 1,2 Agriculture; 1,real estate; 6,trade turnover – to Transportation Fishing and fish 4.7% versus 13.4% on and breeding; 0,communication; the whole throughout Industry; 14,3,the economy had a negative impact on the Hotels and functioning of the smallrestaurants; 1,scale enterprises. The comparative analysis of the small-scale enterprises turnover Construction; 12,demonstrates that W holesale and in the 4th quarter of retail trade; 60,2008 as compared Source: Federal State Statistics Service with the 3rd quarter the absolute reduction Fig. 1 Structure of Turnover of Small-scale Enterprises As Broken by Kinds of Economic Activities in 2008, as percentage to the total in the volumes or the sharp decrease in the growth figures are observed versus the previous period.
It should be noted that the rates of the growth of production volumes of the Russian agriculture being exceptionally high in 2008 – 10.8% as compared with the preceding year – the small-scale agriculture enterprises also demonstrated quite high results and even in the 4th quarter there was the positive dynamics of the turnover growth observed. In the light of the territorial structure in the 4th quarter 2008 there was an absolute decrease in the small-scale enterprises turnover observed as compared with the previous quarter.
Slow-down of growth rates of credits issuOperations with real estate 16,ing for enterprises from Transportation and communication 31.28% in the 1st half 5,of 2008 to 2.67 in JulyHotels and restaurants 28,October as on the corresponding period of Wholesale and retail trade 18,the previous year had a negative influence on Construction 30,the conditions for small- and medium-scale enIndustry 5,terprise functioning. In Fishing and fish breeding the 4th quarter the situ25,ation was aggravated Agriculture 17,by the influence of the reduction in the credTotal 13,it portfolio of 6 largest banks, crediting small 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,business by more than RUR 50 billion (from Source: calculated on the basis of the data by the Federal State Statistics Service RUR 853 billion to RUR Fig. 2. Share of Turnover of Small-Scale Enterprises in All-Russian Figures of 795 billion) or by 6%. It Organizations’ Turnover By Kinds of Economic Activities in 2008, as percentage to should be noted that it the total proceeded against the ON POSITION OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRICES IN background of the increasing of the average weighed rates fro credits to small- and medium-scale enterprises up to 20% versus 13% at the beginning of 2008.
Table TURNOVER OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES BY KINDS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AS RUR BILLION, IN CURRENT PRICES (MICRO-ENTERPRISES EXCLUDED) Including by quarters I II III IV* Total, including:: 10093.5 2072.9 2550.1 2751.9 2718.agriculture, hunting, forestry 170.7 32.8 35.2 50.7 fishing, fish breeding 23.1 4.8 6.1 6.5 5.industry 1418.7 280.6 365.8 403 369.minerals extraction 59.8 10.5 13.9 19.7 15.processing industries 1311.3 258.7 340.9 372.1 339.electricity, gas and water production 47.6 11.4 11 11.2 construction 1228.4 183 300.1 353.6 391.wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor-vehicles or motorcycles, household appliances, items of 6095.5 1332.5 1551.3 1615.8 1595.private use hotels and restaurants 106.7 23.1 28.4 27.9 27.transportation and communication 306.7 61.7 75.1 94.4 75.operations with real estate, rent, services rendering 627.4 131 157.9 168.3 170.Source: Federal State Statistics Service, author’s calculations The total volume of the investments in the fixed assets of the small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation made RUR 317.4 billion in 2008.
The leaders by the figure of the amount of the investments in the fixed assets are Southern, Siberian, Ural and Privolzhski federal okrugs. The smallest amount of the investments in the fixed assets was registered in far Eastern and North-Western federal okrugs. There is no connection between the level of the investments in the fixed assets and the labor efficiency, measures as the ratio of the turnover of small-scale enterprises to the number of the employed, observed. It is in the Southern, Siberian, Ural and Privolzhski federal ok- Far Eastern rugs where the turnover Siberian of the small-scale enterUral prises per one worker is on average 15% lower Privolzhsky than the resumptive coSouthern efficient throughout the country as a whole. It is North-Western - likely that the level of Central the efficiency depends on the direction and the Russian Federation structure of the capital -100,0 0,0 100,0 200,0 300,0 400,0 500,expenditures and needs to be closely analyzed, 2nd quarter 3rd quarter 4th quarter II III IV especially in connection with the decisions Source: Federal State Statistics Service to support the entrepreneurship planned for Fig. 3 Changes in Volumes of turnover of Small-Scale Enterprises by Federal Okrugs in 2008, as RUR billion on the previous quarter 2009.
RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES Table INVESTMENTS IN FIXED ASSETS AT SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES BY FEDERAL OKRUGS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN Investments in fixed assets Turnover at small-scale per one ementerprises per one employee, as Total – as RUR ployee, as RUR RUR thousand billion thousand Russian Federation 317.4 51.1 1623.Central Federal Okrug 55.2 32.9 1831.North-Western Federal Okrug 20.9 25.8 1951.Southern Federal Okrug 67.2 77.0 1354.Privolzhski Federal Okrug 84.9 60.3 1349.Ural Federal Okrug 23.3 64.6 2319.Siberian Federal Okrug 60.1 71.4 1406.Far Eastern Federal Okrug 5.8 23.7 1365.Source: Federal State Statistics Service Rendering of As broken by kinds commercial of economic activities, services; 0,Operations with Others; 0,5 in 2008 more than 3/reals estate; 20,is accounted for by conAgriculture; 15,struction, operations Transportation and with real estate, wholecommunication;
sale and retail trade.
3,Investments in fixed asIndustry; 17,sets of the small-scale Hotels and enterprises in industry restaurants; 0,made 17%, in agriculture – 15.4%.
Wholesale and Among the obstacles Construction;
retail trade; 13,29,for the development Source: Federal State Statistics Service of the small-scale enterprises one can Fig. 4 Structure of Investments in Fixed Assets Made by Small-Scale Enterprises As single out general Broken by Kinds of Economic Activities in 2008, as Percentage to the total and specific, which are characteristic for different kinds of activities. The state of the infrastructure, availability of credit resources, availability of qualifies staff, administrative barriers can be named among the general.
For agriculture the main obstacles include in addition to the general, slow turnover of the capital, seasonal nature of the agriculture production, long-term realization of the investment funds, low provision with elite seed material and pedigree cattle, forage, fertilizers; disparity of prices for goods that are sold and purchased by the agriculture producers.
In the processing industry the subjects of the small-scale production faced high interest rates for commercial credits, high prices for production equipment, difficulties in accessing the trading networks, low prices for energy carriers, shortage of qualified workers, complicated system for obtaining certificates and licenses.
MEETINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RF IN APRIL MEETINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN APRIL M.Goldin In April at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation the following issues were considered: the progress of measures aimed at the recovery of the situation in the financial sectors and in some branches of the economy, the project of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation on measures to improve its activity connected with drafts of the laws.
On April 9, 2009 at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation the report by the Minister of the Economic Development of the Russian Federation, Nabiullina E. S., “On the progress of measures aimed at the recovery of the situation in the financial sectors and in some branches of the economy” was heard.
It is mentioned in the report that the anti-crisis program, prepared by the Government of the Russian Federation, defines the main priorities of its actions as well as envisages the measures aimed at strengthening of the social protection of the population, at the perseverance and the development of the industrial and technological potential of the country, at the increase of the steadiness of the national financial system, contains the statements aimed at the fulfillment of the anti-crisis measures in the subjects of the Russian Federation.
When fulfilling anti-crisis program the Government of the Russian Federation acts on the basis of its seven main priorities. One of such priorities in the anti-crisis program is the confirmation by the state the fact that its public responsibilities to the population will be fully executed. It is stated that the citizens and families that were hard hit in the period of the world financial crisis will be supported. This envisages the strengthening of the social protection of the population, increase in volumes and quality of the rendering of social and medical services, improvement of the situation with the provision of medications, and especially with the vitally important medicines. Special attention will be paid to the sustention of the labor potential. The scale of the state actions in the field of employment, unemployment counteraction, and development of retraining programs for employees having a risk of redundancy will be enhanced.
The report cited the measures undertaken by the Government of the Russian Federation in order to overcome the aftermaths of the financial crisis in the country. For instance, in March 2009 the decisions connected with the support of the financial stability of the economic entities and commercial banks were adopted. The measures aimed at assisting the employment in the subjects of the Russian Federation are being fulfilled. At the same time the projects of the regulatory legislative acts concerning the provision of the possibility for conducting of leasing operations for the state purchases, giving the objects of the federal real estate to the subjects of small-scale and medium-scale enterprises were submitted to the Government of the Russian Federation. In order to allow the placement of temporary spare funds of the federal budget at the deposits of the commercial banks the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from March 29, 2008 No 227 “On the procedure for placement of the funds of the federal budget at the bank deposits” was adopted. At the same time a number of the regulatory legislative acts aimed at improvement of the customs and tariffs regulation of the economy was adopted. In accordance with the Federal Law from November 24, 2008 No 204-FZ the Government of the Russian Federation issued the RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES Decree from March 10, 2009 No 205 “On adoption of the rules for granting subsidies from the federal budget to the Russian enterprises of agriculture and tractor machine-building, timber complex, machine-building for oil and gas complex and machine tools industry to compensate a part of the expenses for the payment of interest rates for credits received at the Russian crediting organizations for the purposes of equipment modernization for the period of up to 5 years”.
On April 23, 2009 at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation the project of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation “On measures to improve the work on draft of laws in the Government of the Russian federation” was considered.
The Project envisages a considerable change in the mechanism for the development of the drafts of federal laws, whose subject of law is the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as the development and adoption of the regulatory legislative acts of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation necessary to execute the federal laws.
The project, for instance, envisages:
• making transfer to middle-term planning of the legislative activity of the Government of the Russian Federation;
• regulatory fixation of the mechanism of making executive decisions on development and submission of drafts of the laws;
• development of the drafts of the law within the working groups created by the Government of the Russian Federation with the attracting of the representatives of the chambers of the Federal Assembly, public authorities of the subjects of the Federation, scientific expert and non-government organizations;
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