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5 83 При аналогичном обучении и тестировании 6 94 классификатора на данных, записанных в 7 93 одностимульной парадигме, точность Медиана 94 снизилась у двух испытуемых и Среднее 91 повысилась еще у двух, оставшись у Ст.откл. 5 остальных без изменений, и в итоге Примечание. Обучение и тестирование (с медиана также оказалась равной 94%. Это кросс-валидацией) велось на данных, достаточно высокий уровень, особенно с использовавшихся в [11] для обучения классификатора.

учетом малого объема данных, использовавшихся для обучения классификатора.

Обсуждение При применении классификатора к Исключение из Р300-ИМК ЭЭГ, записанной в стандартной парадигме нецелевых стимулов, существенно во время онлайн-работы с ИМК, точность упростившее задачу пользователя, не классификации не зависела от того, на снизило точность определения целевого каких данных классификатор был обучен стимула.

(медианы при обучении на стандартной и одностимульной парадигме – Материалы XVI Международной конференции по нейрокибернетике Необходимо отметить, что в данной Заключение работе выполнена лишь предварительная При вводе единственной команды оценка эффективности ИМК-ключа, в точность оффлайн-классификации в ИМКоснову которой было положено сравнение Р300 не зависела от наличия нецелевых точности классификации целевого стимула стимулов во время записи ЭЭГ.

в стандартной и в новой парадигме при Разработанная нами одностимульная сведении к минимуму различий между модификация ИМК-Р300, в которой ними. Для полной оценки эффективности используются только целевые стимулы, нового ИМК-ключа потребуется дополнить может оказаться эффективной для классификатор установкой порога использования в ИМК-ключах срабатывания [2] и минимизировать (выключателях), обеспечивающих ввод вероятность ложной тревоги (в этой работе одной команды, в связи со значительным она фактически была равна вероятности упрощением в ней задачи пользователя.

случайного срабатывания интерфейса – Окончательная оценка практической 11%), а также провести онлайн-тесты.

ценности этой парадигмы будет возможна Снижение точности классификации при после оптимизации ее параметров.

тестировании на данных, записанных в процессе онлайн-работы с интерфейсом (с Работа выполнена при частичной 94% до 86% в стандартной парадигме), финансовой поддержке фонда «Сколково» указывает на неполное воспроизведение в (грант 1110034). Авторы благодарят А.Е.

нашем моделировании условий онлайнОсадчего за предоставление его работы. В частности, при ней, в отличие от программы-классификатора.

режима настройки классификатора, внимание пользователя может временами переключаться на результат срабатывания Список литературы ИМК, и это может ухудшать результат.

Тем не менее, полученные в настоящей 1. Guger C, Daban S, Sellers E (2009) Neurosci. Lett.

462: 94-98.

работе первые результаты классификации 2. Rebsamen B, Guan C, Zhang H et al. (2010) IEEE сигнала, записанного в одностимульной Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 18: 590-598.

парадигме говорят в пользу ее высокой 3. Kaplan AY, Lim JJ, Jin KS, Park BW, Byeon JG, эффективности в продуцировании легко Tarasova SU (2005) Int. J. Neurosci. 115: 781-802.

различающихся паттернов ЭЭГ. 4. Shishkin SL, Ganin IP, Basyul IA, Zhigalov AY, Kaplan AY (2009) J. Integr. Neurosci. 8: 471-485.

Новая ИМК-парадигма нами не 5. Treder MS, Blankertz B (2010) Behav. Brain. Funct.

оптимизировалась, и, по-видимому, 6: 28.

результаты могут быть существенно 6. Polich J, Heine MRD (1996) Psychophysiology. 33:

улучшены. Так, часть испытуемых 747-752.

сообщила, что темп стимуляции в 7. Ганин ИП (2010) XVII Междун. конф. студ., асп.

и мол. уч. "Ломоносов", 219.

одностимульном режиме казался им очень 8. Kaplan AY, Shishkin SL, Ganin IP, Basyul IA, медленным. В этих условиях было Zhigalov AY (submitted).

возможно снижение уровня бодрствования 9. Михайлова ЕС, Чичеров ВА, Птушенко ЕА, и внимания, что не могло не повлиять на Шевелев ИА (2008) Журн. высш. нервн. деят. 58:

ЭЭГ и ухудшить точность классификации. 302-308.

10. Fazel-Rezai R (2007) Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med.

В исследовании [13] оптимальный темп Biol. Soc., 2516-2519.

стимуляции в ИМК-Р300 с присутствием 11. Шишкин СЛ, Николаев АА и др. (2011) Отчет о нецелевых стимулов существенно выполнении 3 этапа ГК № П1087 от 31 мая 2010 г.

варьировал между испытуемыми, в связи с 10-34.

чем было предложено индивидуально 12. Shishkin SL, Nikolaev AA, Nuzhdin YO, Zhigalov AY, Ganin IP, Kaplan AY (2011) Proc. 5th Int. BCI подбирать его для каждого пользователя Conf., 256-259.

ИМК. Такой же подход может оказаться 13. McFarland DJ, Sarnacki WA, Townsend G, эффективным и в случае использования Vaughan T, Wolpaw JR (2011) Clin Neurophysiol. 122:

одностимульной парадигмы.

731-737.

2-Й МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ СИМПОЗИУМ «ИНТЕРФЕЙС “МОЗГ-КОМПЬЮТЕР”» HOW FAR SHOULD WE GO IN AUGMENTED HUMANS ETHICAL ASPECTS OF BCI A.G. Kochetova, A.Ya. Kaplan Neurophysiology and Neuro-Computer Interfaces Lab (NNCI), Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University agkochetova@yahoo.com While the clinical benefits of BCI are thought to be 1973 [1]) is a field, that looks at emerging significant for particular groups of patients, they technologies and their relation to the brain. In nevertheless raise a lot of questions and concerns not Europe, the term has been used to refer to the only about safety, but about possible effects on clinical care of people with strokes and other personality and personhood, about responsibility, about enhancing human capabilities, and about how we neuropathologies. In the United States - “The secure beneficial uses whilst avoiding the dangers.

field of neuroethics involves the analysis of, and remedial recommendations for, the ethical challenges posed by chemical, organic, and Introduction electro-mechanical interventions in the brain” [2]. The social and ethical implications of Brain-Computer Interfacing, or a BCI, is treating the human brain as a “wetware” that a challenging and fast growing field of we can connect to other information research, holding great promise for technology systems are vast [3].

fundamental research and the development of a variety of applications, ranging from neurofeedback and neurostimulation to Uses BCI in medicine neurocontrol of actuators (e.g. for the purpose of communication and movement).

In medicine, BCIs are being considered A BCI is a system that measures and for individuals who have lost the ability (or analyses an individual’s brain signals, and have severely reduced abilities) to carry out converts these into an output such as basic actions such as speech or movement. An computer-based communication or control of a example of this is an individual who, in device, but without making use of the medical terms, is ‘locked in’. This is when a individual’s own body. The ethical debate person is unable to communicate or move due facilitates with common terminology conto the loss of all muscle function (except for, cerning BCIs, which has proven highly in many cases, the eyes). However, he is aware problematic. The term BCI, for example, may of his surroundings and what is going on be used for a gaming application for healthy around him. People who are paralyzed due to users, but also as an assistive technology for a spinal injuries or those who have extreme person in the locked-in state. Depending on difficulties moving and carrying out relatively functions and target users, different ethical simple tasks following e.g. a stroke could also issues will arise. Another issue consists of benefit from a BCI. Finally, there are efforts to whether people consider BCIs an outwardrestore lost functions, such as vision or action, directional (from the brain to the through BCIs which control prosthetic devices.

computer/machine) or an inward-directional Such devices could greatly improve patients’ (from the computer/machine to the brain) quality of life and enable them to participate interface. Are BCIs systems that measure brain more fully in family, work and social life.

signals and “translate” this input into output The potential usefulness of BCI-enabled signals Or can a BCI also be a system that brain-to-computer communication was uses externally generated input, e.g. Deep initially demonstrated in rehabilitation Brain Stimulation (DBS), to modify brain medicine: severely paralyzed patients, who activity cannot benefit from more conventional Neuroethics (the term was coined by the rehabilitation therapies, were able to recover Harvard physician Anneliese A. Pontius in Материалы XVI Международной конференции по нейрокибернетике some communication and motor abilities by from far away, who takes ultimate learning to use a BCI [4,5,6]. BCI actuated responsibility for the actions devices developed in research laboratories throughout the world include robotic Technology-related risks:

manipulators, virtual computer keyboards, and robotic wheelchairs [7,8,9].

According to The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, like other new and promising Uses BCI outside of medicine:

developments in research areas, BCI provides cause for considering its potential BCI research is now exploring a more philosophical, ethical and societal comprehensive repertoire of communication consequences.

and control applications for both disabled and Invasive BCIs require brain surgery and healthy users. These applications include the integration of the technology into live brain-controlled virtual simulation brain matter. Apart from the general risks of environments [10], computer games [11], surgery, this carries the risk of damaging cooperative brain-computer visual processing healthy brain tissue. The electrodes could systems [12], and BCI-actuated robotic hands induce the growth of scar tissue in the brain [13]— in addition to alertness detectors and that might lead to seizures or loss of function, neurofeedback devices that are based on BCI and there are also concerns over the long-term technologies. stability of such invasive electrodes. Also – Computer games today require increasing there more questions here: who will pay for numbers of inputs by the user in order to the access to this technology to disabled interact with the game and this is associated people Is it unfair to train one’s brain with with increased user effort. BCIs could be used this technology Is a BCI expert to inform the so that an individual is able to express locked-in patients about the risks and the themselves directly in the game world, both in benefits Is a BCI, as assistive technology, a terms of mood and beyond what is physically reason for a patient to change his or her endpossible in the ‘real world’ (e.g. flying). In of-life decisions Are the risks of invasive addition, BCI use in gaming could make BCIs still unknown individuals more relaxed and focused and BCIs which measure signals nonresult in higher ‘gaming intelligence’. invasively make use of certain neural circuits Military applications are largely repeatedly and in a repetitive fashion. Again, speculative at present, but could include BCIs little information is so far available whether for controlling prosthetic limbs, and BCIs for this could be hurtful to brain function; there the modification and/or optimization of may be a risk that this repetitive activation combat performance, such as ‘super-human’ changes brain structure and functioning in strength through a BCI-skeleton that supports unpredictable ways. There is also uncertainty the human skeleton and augments muscle over whether the techniques will be as strength and movement. BCIs also aim to effective in treating disease or aiding enhance perception and enable remote control rehabilitation from brain injury as some claim of vehicles and machinery. Other approaches they will be.

include BCI binoculars, which would be Many of these technologies are in the capable of responding quickly to a early stages of research, and patients who have subconsciously detected threat or target. high expectations of recovery or rehabilitation Finally, ’telepresence’ is where a soldier, may sometimes be left disappointed and whilst physically present elsewhere, has the frustrated if the treatment doesn’t live up to ability to sense and interact in a removed and expectations. Also, the impact on a person and real-world location, such as with a demolition on their mind has to be considered, for robot or unmanned vehicle through a BCI example, are there risks of unwanted changes connection. If brain-computer interfaces are in mood, behavior or personality being used to control military aircraft or weapons introduced into the brain 2-Й МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ СИМПОЗИУМ «ИНТЕРФЕЙС “МОЗГ-КОМПЬЮТЕР”» Another aspect - BCI use could lead to part of the very functioning of our thought accidents. For example, who is liable if a BCI processes.

mistakenly interprets a wheelchair or Psychiatry will have to develop new ways prosthesis command and causes a user to hit of understanding the cyborgian mind. A new someone or damage something or cross a breed of medical technologist will have to street against a red light [14, 15, 16] monitor, repair and fine-tune the complicated Through BCI technologies, we can begin devices that are interacting with the human not only to enhance ourselves, but also to brain, and that may include an unprecedented connect ourselves to our environment in new amount of control over people's "minds".

ways. In other words, we are becoming Psychopharmaceuticals are being developed cyborgs, not in the science fiction sense, but in now to try to control cognitive and affective a practical, real, obvious sense; our technology traits, and it is likely that BCIs will be able to will be integrated into our bodies, and our have similar effects. We already see the bodies will be integrated into our technology beginning of that process with the use of deep in a seamless way. This may not turn us into brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders.

“spiritual machines,” as Ray Kurtzweil claims [17], but it will certainly turn us into spiritual Conclusions:

man-machine hybrids.

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