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117 POEM OPMPOBAH OOPOTHX CPECTB B COBX EPEXOHO OHOM.A. c, acpa (ucu ocyapcme emo mexuecu yuepcumem) Oopoe cpeca pep coca oyy ac aoaoo oaca Poccco eepa. Ha aao 1997 oa oo aepae oopoe cpeca coca 307 p. py, 2 % aoaoo oaca cpa. Cyapa eopca aoeoc a y ay peca 630 p. py., a oy cyy oopox cpec xoca oo oe pepo 1 p. py.

[3].

Oeceeoc oopo cpeca oa e oo ocaoo o x ee ae aaca, o aopo o cpyype aeo o coa acpoa. coae, epexo epo caoe poo oo oopox cpecax pep poo eae ee:

1) ec co acpoa oopox cpec caa peoaa peeo peea oopo yepaea e peopca aoeoc eco coceoo aaa;

2) cac oocea o aepax oopox cpec;

3) yxyac cpyypa oopox cpec: opoca o eopco aoeoc, cc aac cp, aepao, eaepeoe pooco (a.1);

Taa 1 Cpyypa oopox ao pep 1984 . 1997 ., % [1] 1984 . 1997 .

Oopoe a - ceo 100 100 B o ce:

- aac 80,1 32,6 - paocpoe acoe oe - 2,5 - eee cpeca 5,9 2,6 - eopca aoeoc 5,1 52,4 - HC o popee eoc - 5,2 - poe oopoe cpeca 0,4 4,7 eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* 118 4) cyeceo coc ooee aepax oopox cpec oco pooce oa: c 19,9 a aao 1991 . o 10,3% 1999 .

pep c coo cee apy poocex ooce oya ocp e aepax oopox cpec.

a oaa aa, aoa o eopco aoeoc cocae oopox ao epoepee oo poeoc ececex ooox cpa.

Heae opaeo o a cpyypy e oo oopox ao, o coo x oppoa: ooo 70 % pxoc a peopcy aoeoc.

Aa p oc ye xoa pca eaee e oy ooo ocee ayo epaype, o, ooy, o peoaaoc ee o peeoe ecaocoeoe, c ae aopye cee eoo ea eae cey ca o cee. Aapy p pca eaee, oeecee ooc aepy ae a apoooecx aopax. Ta, H. ee [4] ee ceye py p pca eaee:

- cycce e ee cpae;

- peaepea eoaa ocyapcex aao;

- aepa ec apa paoa eo cep;

- aooa oa;

- ooocecoe eoopaoae;

- a oypeococooc oeeceo poy p.

Ca e p aopo ooc eaeaoe poopaoe - oeee pyooee pep [2].

Oao aa a, cpyyp eaee, po epaypx coax, a a , e ye ooo eaoaoo aopa: ec pep oypeo cep oo poeoc, opo, a pao, e pecy opaaoy oooc cpo co ooe c oyaee a ocoe peoa a opyaee oap, o pep, ooce paoo ecece ooo, pee ceo, epea c, ao oooc e e: opee paccac c o ay oaa ycy oy oapa (epo- eoep).

eo ccea paceo e peoa coae eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* oeay oooc poca cepxopao eopco aoeoc a x pepx. a, o epoepea axoc "ocoa" pooceo pa, oocc ao opac, peya eeoc oopo e poco pacoppyc, a ypyc pyx opacx apooo xoca, epyo o, co ea ec oece eaee a epoep a ooy eo. ac oac eooyee eex cpec o eaeo, epocoe pep ocoo oa ap, o, co oepe, pacpe py ex, o e oe cpo pacac. Cya ycyyec ee e, o epocaae opaa e e oooc poo apece oe epoep. payee, a aaee, "eepe" oe apy apya paace paa ex opeee, oope oaa cea cpo.

Paccapa ececee ooo a "aa" pca eaee, a ooocecoe eoopaoae a oy p poca aoeoce, aop pa ya aa o o, o ca ececee ooo ea e ae ep "eop", pe oaaec cao eoo, eao ooe: e e peax pao oec a eaeo, o oy e opae ooocx op yo a ce poca apo cy oo, o oceee peypyec ocyapco. oee oo, ececex ooo peypyc ae cce oa paceo c opee, opa coepae ooopa c eo.

Cyeceoe e a ay eopco aoeoc oaae cpyypa apo, a ypopacea, a eopacea. Haceee a a epoep o oopa paa oe, e poee opee o o cex cpaax c pao poo ooo. Oao Pocc o epexo oe copooac epa coao oep eyx, ecoepo, eepao o p. He yeo, o cpyype eopco aoeoc pep oyao cep epe, ooaaa, eeoya o acee eyoo pace, o ec, a pae ecye exa, oa eoacpoae coao eo cep oocpeoao, epe eae a oyae pacxo eooyee oxoo pep ecece eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* oooca, oc e aco peee a pep, a ae, ocoy ap oooco eyoo pacy, a e opocoecx aeo. B co oepe, ocex c poco apo caoc ce ee py aaec.

B cxoo cya aoa apea a aacoe ae oaac cc. Heoaa eyopox paoopo, aoeeo a a eeo, a aceee, a opaa, ocae acpooecx cy.

coae, ce o op c eaea oa eoa oa e a oyx peyao. B pay pao pep poo o pae op apepa o opac aoo, cexopoye, ope-cao aepaa. He pec eaex peyao o yca ecee.

a oaae paa pao pep o ope c eopco aoeoc, ea e ocoo oo x paoe ec o, o, aepyc a "pace", ce eopco aoeoc, ac a y, eo oae, ca ye ox oo, o oe epe e ac o-o pep peypee ooe:

poaapoa e a eopcy aoeoc, ee e - ypex ex aopo. He coyc paec ececex ooox e cce paceo oa ycy c peee pax op aacpoa peoa coea c cceo co ee. Ha a , eo cooa pox exao aoe peae oooc ce eo poca, a ae ypo aoeoc opeee a ycy oap. Ceo ce oa, o e y pee cpo aea ooe aco peep, o pae ececex ooo e coyc pae op peoa, ape co co, e ap p.

Oa coex poe poea yea acca oo.

Ocoy poey coca co oppoa oopox cpec pep epexoo ooe.

a cce ocaao aoo-epaoaoo aepao-execoo cae, c oo copo, ocyce coppoaec cce pox ooe, c pyo, - eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* pe oy, o a poe eocx oo pocxo cepee co pyooopoe oopox cpec. Moe pep ac a xo coa epecpaxoox aaco ex pecypco, ee oee oocp cya.

pooc ece ee ooo papyeoo aopa. oca aepao oyapao aeo ac co py o coae ocpeece cpyyp, oope, eo e coaa, poaa ee aepa oyapa co ae aea. B oe poca opeoc ooex eca aex oopox cpecax.

Hapep, yacec cp ocao oeyx eae yo Mococoy A po cceaec ocaoa aoo oeepa, aco a ecoo e. -a oepe eaepeoo pooca a aoe opaoac opoe y. x oee acpa, oyc e, o eoe aoo aace ac e o-peey xopo c, ca a y eoocoaoo oe oycx e.

B epae 1993 . aaac caa ea ocaoa oeepa aoa, popaoaeo ape ceo 12 e. coe aocpoeoe pooceoe oeee (MO) pepao ocay A aee. Ocaoa aeca A yo cye o 1 p. py. eeeo ( eax 1993 .).

Pyooe MO, co oepe, oc coaeec ooee eo oopox cpec a oay ocao o cox ocao.

Moe pep aey ac aocx ccy, oyex a ooee oopox cpec, pacxooa a ay apaoo a, e aoc o oae a oyee o cox ocao aepa oyapa. Coeopa peop ycao BA. B cepee eap 1992 . o oc ey a eoo aoo "y-99" ecoo pa, oe ee o .350 c. pye. a ycp, co coe ooooe ooee, oea coe acooe cocoe a ce ecopooo oe e, oc xaoc exa eoopaoa, oopeeo eoppy cocoe oopox cpec ooo ca aao.

B o e pe, poeee epoyao eoocoao oepc pep oopooo aaooo oeco yxyo x acooe ooee, oopoe, epy oepe, eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* opaeo opaoc a oopox cpecax. Copaee pepaee oopox aao peo coe ooecoo oea ooo poy a caax, oepe aea eaepeoo pooca. Ha x aoax coaac peca cya: ca aoe ecec aaco poy, a pyoo oe eca e oya apaoo a. oee 60 % apoax ceaco yoe -a ocyc epce oye aao.

Cya c oopo cpeca yco yaaec oa opeee oaa poy c c ee ecooece aecy exec caapa, cece eo yea poy oceae a caax ooe. C pyo copo, yacac paa peoa oox cyax aoc yep aay. co yox pep c 17 c cyo yo 1,2 p. py. 1993 . opoca 1996 . o c c cyo yo 79,3 p. py. e ec yox pep oc 50 %.

epexo poo ooe ca c o ee cepe oopox cpec. epoaaoe ecpoae oopox cpec ee coe ocoe oppoae ycaoo aaa pep. oo o o o e opay, a ay po acax pep, ae peoa y ey o cyeceo yee.

B pee poe ecpoa oopox cpec e ooc e paocpooo aocoo peoa, oopoe paoo o coo oppoa oopox cpec ox opace (ocoeo, opo, cecoo xoca, ceooo pooca). B o e pe, eycooc acox po, oee ca peacpoa ao Pocc e cococye oypoc aocx ccy oecee pooceoo poecca.

coa acpoa oopox cpec oy :

p pep, oocpo pe aa, acoe pecypc ypae oa (apep, p coa eppoax poex cce). Oao e cepex ee acoo aooo oe ocyapca p, oocpoe pe aa e coy pa ey po oppoa oopox cpec pep.

Ta opao, poecc peypoa ypae eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* oopo cpeca pep ooo pe p ao oepe ocyapca c cooae pox exao xocoa.

Cco cooax coo:

1. ococa P. ep opaoo-cacecx pao.

yxaepca oeoc pyx cpex opaa a 1997 .

2. M.., o C.E. O ecox oex oopoe cpeca pep. // ac. 1999. - 4. C. 1517.

3. Ocaeo B., Meo B., Ceeea T. Po cocex coo acpoa poex pep. // ooc 1999. - 8. C.64-70.

4. ee H. Heae poea oep o poccco oo. // Bopoc oo. 1997. - 4. C. 27-41.

* ooec ec HT /o pe. ... Poooo .H. //C. pyo HT, 2001. c. 117-124.




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