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5.3. Hepa ccea. Ocaa pocoeca aao ooe cpoee ax eeo epo cce Actinotrocha harmeri, A. vancouverensis, A. sp. a eeo epo cce o opo ec aa opa. B eo cocae oo e e pex o, paaec pacooee ocoeoc ooo cpoe. B ocoo, o ycee e, aaa oepxoc oopx ece y, a aaa peopaoaa ep opoco. B aao oae eo poxo oepee oae. Hepo opaoa aa opoca eo. Mea ep pa peopao oac ec pooee epo aaoo opaa coco pex yo epx ooo. B pa peopao oac cpe yo yoaec ec oppyec poa opa. Bo pa epopao oac poxo apa ep pa, coca oopoo xo epe opoc eo e pepoooo pecoo ypa. B ocoa yae poxo a oyoex epx paa: ayae oyae. B ao yae poxo epe ya epx ooo: a aepo-poax, poa apoa. o opo pex exc pecx ypo oo o eppoa aoee oo. o pec yp, poxo o yae. B o e pe eopox y eoopx aopox e eppoa oce. Cao eppoa a e pepooo pec yp. Caa epa eopoxa peopaoo pecoo ypa aopox oe caa c e, o poecce eaopoa eopox peopaa oac ece c pec ypo ypaac. B o e pe yaa o oac, peaa , a aao yaa eoo ooo. Aa opaa epo cce o opo ooe cpaa ee c epo cceo o opopox ox.

5.4. ooc ea. peeo ocae pocoeco aao (aoo pacooe) eoecx eeoecx ooce o 8 o opo. Ha pepe Actinotrocha harmeri, A.

vancouverensis, A. sp. ocao ooe cpoee eo eeooo aepaa acoe, a a e eo eoeco c cex oeo eoa eooo. acoe aoee pa y o ex o opo, oopx xapaepo ooeaecoe pae (pc. 8A). B acoee opoa paac coe ppoo, -a eo o oy aae eoe. eoe o a ee poeoco cce o opo. O eoe oxo paae aa aoe yae pooe poeoce cocy, pacooee ey acpoepco eoeco co yooo eoa. B ooc acoe oapyac aeoe e. poe ppoo aeoo acoee pcycy ooape ee e, oppye ycyaypy . ppo ecy pyeap y , epoo, pocxo o yox eoepax eo, cexc epee ce apxeepoa a ca acpy. Hae y o xopoo pao poeoco cce eoa ocoeoc, yaaa a aoe aee o cce opao y opo.

Bopa ooc ea opaeea a p oea: pepooo eo, pacooe peopao oac, yae yo eo (pc. 10A). Ha opoepyo pacpocpaeec Pc. 9. ea oo opaa o opo. A epc cyype pepao oac (p aoea yaa aae ae, cpea pooe ae). e e eeooo poca. B ape e cpee ., opaa ycyayp y Actinotrocha harmeri () A. vancouverensis () (opaca a ao eoe pa). E opoco eo e.

epaype ocex e pecaee o ocyc pep eoo y o ( pocx) opo. Ha oaao, o pepooo eo ocoepo eec y o poa Phoronopsis, e o pecae coo ayy pecy ooc (pc. 10), cay ooap ea ea. o cocoe paccapaec a eoopoe. Aoopoe cocoe oapyaec y o poa Phoronis, y oopx peopao oac e ayx eoecx ooce, oao oapyac eoe , opaoae opoca ooap ea yae eo coco oeo ocoa paax eoecx aao, axox yaa (pc. 10B). Bca yaeoo eoa opaoaa ooap eao-e ea.

Tyo eo ee opy oo, paoyo a epao copoe ea, e poxo epa eeep (pc. 10). Coaoepa caxoepa opaoa eao-e yo ea.

5.5. eapea ccea. ao ocae pocoeco aao ypacpyyp eapeoo paa Actinotrocha harmeri, A. vancouverensis, A. sp. Coaco a a, eapea ccea o opo oe opaeea a ecoo oeo, paaxc ocoeoc cooeco ooeco opaa, a a e oe y: ecy, eo, eyo, cpe a . eyo aopox xapaepyec ae ocooo eeooo poca, e oopoo opaoa, o peyecy, cepeop ea, a a e ea, oopx pocxo aacae aex eec (pc. 9).

e e cpee ape (pc. 9B), o ooe cpaa x c ea, opay opec oe ea pocx opo. Tooe cpoee e ae aopox cxoo c opaae oo oea eapeoo paa y o oox co pac o cpae co cpoee ae o oyxopox.

5.6. Mycyaypa. pee peya cocex epoopocoecx yocoxecx cceoa, oex a Actinotrocha harmeri, A. vancouverensis, A. sp. Mycyaypa o opo ee coy aaoecy opaa (pc. 9, ).

Haoee oo paa ycyaypa peopao oac ( o cPc. 10. Cxea aoo pacooe ooce ea y Actinotrocha harmeri a caao cpee (A. ea ooae: ep eoece ooc, cep acoe, e e eacoa poc (), ooc epa eeep ()). , B, pexepe peocpy pepoooo, yaeoo yooo eoo (cooeceo).

e opy eoa pc. 9) opoa (pc. 9, ). Paoa x oeceae cooe oeee o eee eo aoe. Mee e acoe epy coe aao o eo, cexc ooc acoe e eeaoo oca ee a ca acy (pc. 7). B xoe eaopoa , a oa ac ooo ea, eeeppy. B eo coy ycyaypy o opo ceye paccapa a poopy ccey.

Ha ypacpyypo ypoe y o opo opaoa ooap e ea, oae oopx opaoa o y oepeo-oocao ycyayp (pc. 9E). e e coee py c pyo ceapoa eo oaa e opay acox ee. Ocooe cpoee ee ycyaypa ce ea. ec aece oeo ycyayp cya ee e acoe, a pooo e eoeco c yooo eoa.

5.7. Beea ccea. Ocao pae, pocoeca aao ypacpyypa eex opao Actinotrocha harmeri.

pooep aaac a pax aax poeea a ape oepae a opoo yp ea. ooo A.

harmeri pooep coco poo pyaoo aaa ecox eco epax eo (pc. 11-IA). o e epe eaopoo a pooep ece e e c epa ea (epx ) ee oy aa (pc.

11-I), opac epoopo c epo-aepao copo ea, o yaa. Hae y o U-opaoo eeoo aaa o epa pocx op, oppyac y o. Tepae e ecy ece y. aa opaoa ooap ea, oopx poxo peyeceo poecc peacop. Tooe cpoee pooepe o opo cpao co cpoee eex opao o epopox ox peo oaec o opaa eex opao o opopox.

5.8. Meacoa apa (poc). Bepe peeo ocae ooo cpoe e eacoaoo apaa eo c co copo ooc ea y o yx o opo, paeax pa poa Phoronis (Actinotrocha. sp.) Phoronopsis (A. harmeri). e eacoaoo apaa o opo opaoa Pc. 11. Pae eex opao Actinotrocha harmeri (I) xoe ooo pa (A, ) eaopoe (B, ). peooee ca oeea eex opao opo (II). A ocoo ee opa pooep, opo oppyc oo y ooopex ocoe epo epeca. pcoeee opo ooya aay pooep.

B oa pey epax eo oppoae epoc.

ooap oepa eec ea pex o. Opaa oepax eo cooecye opaa x eo epce pocoo ooo. Paoopae eecx eo e eacoaoo ea opao ee, ee opoo e pocoo ooo. Mey aax ace eax eo poxo y epx ooo, oope yye coppy ep ecyc yoa pocoo ooo.

e a oo ca cocae eacoaoo ea oe eea ac, cooecya aye pocoo ooo. B o ac e pooo ycyayp pea eocpeceo co aaoo apca, a e, opaye oey ycyaypy, pacoaac a . Ha oe poe eacoaoo ea e pooo oeo ycyayp opay ey peey, oopa xapaepa epeeo yooo yaca ea pocoo ooo.

ABA 6. METAMOPO B ae peeo ocae oceoaex ca eaopoa Phoronopsis harmeri, epe yex eoa pex ae, cooeco ex CM. Meaopo o opo poeae c peye eoopx ox opaoa. Te e eee, oco exc y cce opao caoc opaa pocoo ooo. B xoe eaopoa aeppyec oeaec ac peopao oac ece c a ep epo aa opao (pc. 12). opcaoe epoe ceee pocoo ooo oppyec aoo. oeoe epoe ceee opayec a ce epoo paa, poxoeo o yaa . ee yaa y oca opo opayc eocpeceo ox. p o cae o ox yae aeppyc oeac, a ocaec pocae ac papacac caoc yaa pocoo ooo. eoopx o opo ye a oo ca oc aa ex yae. B o cyae oe yaa xoe eaopoa aeppyc oeac ooc.

Bepa eeep ae opa aa eeep pocoo ooo. aepae eeep poco opo opayec a ce ao poepa eo eoeco Pc. 12. Meaopo Phoronopsis harmeri, ca oea peopao oac (), o a CM.

c yooo eoa. eapea ccea caoc eapeo cceo pocoo ooo p o eo epepyec a oy eo pocoo ooo. Bepx ac eya , ceya eocpeceo a eoo, co pacaec ae aao peeyy pocoo ooo. eyo cpe a a eyo opec ac (cooeceo) ea poco op. a a epepyec a cpe, a py poco opo. ea poeoca ccea opayec oeoo eoe, paax aao yae poox poeocx aao .

oaao, o eee opa pocx opo peca coo epoc, oopx ee aa pocxo o oepaoo aaa pooep, a opoa o eoepaoo e c yooo eoa (pc. 11-IB, ). Pae eex opao opo o pooepe epoc, epoo, opaae peya oceoaeo o epe x ox oeee (pc. 11-II).

ABA 7. BOPOC O AHE CTPOEH OPOH X OOEH B CCTEME BOTHOO APCTBA Pacpocpaee ayo yeo epaype pecae o ae cpoe opo x ooe ccee ea apxeoao oe, oopa epe a peoea Macepao oe XIX ea (Masterman, 1898), a ae oxaea paa paoax Peae (Remane, 1949), pxa (Ulrich, 1951), a (Siewing, 1980). Coaco apxeoao oe, pe Lophophorata Deuterostomia e eaepe, a apxepe opa. O e pepooo eo, yae eo eceepoa yo eo. oco cceoaee, yax opo eoa ceoo poco, eaco o x ooe apxeoao oe, paa apxep x ox e y x p oea eoa, oope cooecy pe oea ea opopox ox (Zimmer, 1964, 1973, 1978, 1980; Siewing, 1974, 1975; Emig, Siewing, 1975; Emig, 1976a, b; Herrmann, 1976, 1980, 1986).

B paax apxeoao oe Lophophorata paccapac a cecpca pya o ooe Deuterostomia (pc. 13).

oce coeopaoo aa cpoe pocx opo a peoea oea caa oeecoo aepao cepoo pea a cy copoy (Wilson, 1881; Maae, 1962). Coaco o oee, epeopae pe opo oa U-opax opax. oceeo pooo cee yx ooo ea x cpacae. eec y pocx opo aepae eeep o ece copocoe eoecoo ea oo oo eoecoo ea pyo oo.

pya oa pe a oe opo peoea oe 20o ea caa oa c oee ox eoo oeypx cceoa (Halanych et al., 1995). Coaco o oe pe opo pya pocea poxoop o ece c aea, oca oc ep opaye e aoo aco Pc. 13. ooee opo ccee ooo apca, coaco accec pecae.

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