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3.2. ooop yaa. Beeo a ox a opaa ooopa: epexo ey oa oooopa epexo ey oooopa cpa. oooe ycoee ooopa opo oppepye c paepa cax opao. C yeee paepo ooo ooop ycoec o oaoo oooopaoy, aee cpaoy xeoaoy. Bepe eeo a a opaa yae y opo, paaec opo oepeoo cee, pacooee aepax o ae (ocyce) poeyoo o. Aa cpoe yae opaa ooopa eo ooe peo opay cxey exaa pa y opo cepea ac. opo, a pye Lophophorata oocc pye upstream paopo. oo o ycpec cepxy yp ooopa xo apyy poeyax ey yaa (pc. 2A). H pee paepa aepaex ooopo ac opeeec paccoe ey aepo-poa peca (pc. 2) cocae y opo ooo 1 . oee pye ac epeocc poa peca ocoa yae (pc. 2B). Bepx pee paepo ac, pox e, peypyec paccoe ey coo cao apy po yae (pc. 2B). B eo eoo aee po oaa ac ee 1012 . oee pye ac aaac pocpace ey ype pyo yae apyo oepxoc coo ca oc ooopa poeye ey yaa a opcao copoe coa (pc. 2). B peypoa poecca pa ay po pae yaa ooc yae ooopa, oopa oeceaec pao ycyaypo eoeco c oao epae. Oco a oop cpyypa yp yae c cee poeoce cocy, ypop oopx oepaec copaee ycyayp cocyco ce.

3.3. epc. opo xapaepyc coxpaee ooo aoee apxax apao opaa epca cpe pexcox ox o ooco ooap pop epc (pc. 3A). Mpoopc epca opye co ooooco pooyy, aceeo coec aep (pc. 3). oo opo ao opaa opoo cpeaec y paxoo, oyxopox, oox. Ha epe oapyePc. 1. opo, oae o pye (A, Phoronopsis harmeri, B Phoronis hippocrepia) oe pao oco ( Phoronis ijimai). A, , oopa c x ox. B oepe cpe epe epe yo yaco.

o, o a poe yooo oea epce opo oe eeo p o, oaxc ae ocyce yo, aceeoc aep pacpeeee eecx eo.

3.4. Hepa ccea. Hepa ccea opo pecae coo o aoee px pepo ecycoo a opaa epoo aapaa. opo e epx ae, acox epx coo. Coxpaee epoo ecyca y opo opaae oy poc aeo opaa x ox. B o e pe e ceye ca, o ecyc ypoe opaa epo cce oaeo ceecye o oo poc o py ox, y oopo o pcycye. poe opo ooe pae epoo ecyca opoax (paa, apy c ep coa a) xapaepo oyxopox, oox, pecx epe, eep, oco (eee, 1964; Bullock, Horridge, 1965). Bce py xapaepyc ocyce yy (a cee oo pooyy) coxpaee pecoo yooo a epca. Tao opaa opoo ooe cecopo opa ee cpe ecpeceo ocya ycy eea epo cce. Bo oey epo ecyce opo pyx opao c ecyco epo cceo a oo ycex accoax epoo opoax. Toca popa yya ae x py (apep, cyy) ye pecae coo eoopoe pece ocye cecopx yco cooec c ep ecyc opoax ae pa caee, e y eep pecx epe (Bullok, Horrige, 1965). ea aa opaa epepeco epo cce y ae oaae ee cyecee o o epo cce opo (ayeo, 1985, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002).

Cae ceapoae opo xapaep pecaee py oox ox (Ecdysozoa), ex ocy yyy epopoo a, oopa oce cyae coep x. ocyee cecopo opa epe ay yyy paec eooo. opo ooa, a pao, e coox epx ooa, ep ecyc opoax (a cee ceapoax yaco) ooe ocycye.

Hae ecyco epo cce oce e cae opeeeo cpyypo epepo, a ae oe coepePc. 2. Cxea peooeoo exaa pa cepea ex ac y opo. A, a yaax. B, coa. cpea oaao ee pyx eceox ac a opcao copoe coa.

Pc. 3. ea ooo cpoe epca (A, ), acpoepca (B), e opo ep Phoronopsis harmeri. Ooae: aep, aa apc, e eoeco c, e e eya, p pooyya. Haoea yaa oae.

x cooceapoax eeo cpoe. Cpyyppoaoc epoo ecyca opo paaec, apep, eo pyco opaa (pc. 4A). Ha epe oapyeo, o oapxeoa opcaoo oeoo epx cee cxoa c aoo eaoo epoo ecyca xapaepyec pyc pacooee eeo aao-aao apae. aao ace pea opoc epx eo, opaye o epo (pc. 4A). Ha epoe pacoaac ea eoox eo, cey p opay ea epx eo, a oop cac pacpee aae ac oepax eo epca. Bc a coca cpyypa poaa aa opoca oepax eo, oopx poxo ooae (pc. 4A). oee oo, epo ccee opo cyecy ae cooceapoae ep, a, apep, ace epe ooa. ooe ceaa cpeac y ox c oe co ypoe opooeco epepo epo cce, apep, y oooox oco.

3.5. aa apc. opo xapaepyc ooceo o pae aaoo apca ey epa eoepa (eoec) e. B eo coca xo ocooe eeco, oopoe aceec coeeo-a ea. Cpoee aaoo apca opo ee ep oepeoo cxoca c xpeoo cpyypa pyx ecooox c aco xpo ooox ox.

3.6. Mycyaypa ce ea. Oapyeo, o ycyaypa opo xapaepyec peoao epepoo. Mycyaypa epee yoo yace ea opaye peey, oopo aae opoc eo pooo ycyayp poxo ey ea oeo ycyayp pec p oo eecoco aao ace (pc. 4). B co oepe, e oeo ycyayp opay pocoepae oaaece poc, oope xo ocoa e pooo ycyayp ac ooc yooo eoa (pc. 4). B aye ee eco epc coe pooo oeo ycyayp.

Mycyaypa ce ea opo pecae coo poooe eoeco c coxpae ep poo oe.

Mee e opo ecy aae y (pc. 4), o oepae x eay ppoy. Coeopay epey Pc. 4. Cxe oo opaa oeoo epoo cee (A peocpy o a TM), cpoe eo pee epee yoo yace ea (), aoo pacooe eoecx oapeo a caao cpee (B). pexepa peocpy poeoco cce ( a ooe c opao copo). cxea opaee eapeoo paa a oe.

ycyaypy opo oo paoa a ca cooo eoo co, oope oa yee eo oa , ceoaeo, ooc copae. oooe cpoee ycyayp oe oa y pyx yox ox (apep, y ceeapx ae). o cxoco ceye paccapa ae e a apae, a a oepe, ocoy aa oc ea opo e oooa epee-ae oc ea ae pyx Bilateria.

3.7. eo. poeee xoe acoe pao opae cceoa oo aeo oaa, o poce opo oaa apxepe eoa, oop paee a p oea (e ceea!): eoo, o ceo pae opae oeao co eap eo coa, yae eo op yo eo (pc. 4B). Ocoeoc opaa yooo eoa ec ae e e oo poox opco-epaoo eeep (opa, aa epeca), o aepax eeepe paoo eoo.

Aa aaoeco opaa opo coocae c ocoeoc eaopoa o ooe peo opay oey pocxoe aepax eeepe opo, payy yo eo a coco 2-x ceeo (opoee c.

ay 7).

B xoe cceoa oaao, o ca ooc ea opo (a co copo coaoep, a co copo caxoep) pecaea ooap eao-e ea. oooe cpoee ce eoa ceye paccapa, a apxay ocoeoc opaa opo. Taoe cpoee eoeco c ec aoee p o eoeco c ecooox (c. Rieger, Lombardi, 1987). B ae epe opo peeo ocae opocax eo c aoapo aoc, oapyex ooc yooo eoa.

3.8. poeoca ccea. Opae pexepe peocpy poeoco cce opo oo paee eec opco-aepa cocy (c) poeoc ecyc a oepxoc ocxoe e ea (pc. 4). Bepe poeeo ocae ooo cpoe cocyco ce ax poeocx cocyo poeocx apo pax yacax ea (pc. 5). cxo opaa ce poeocx cocyo y opo o co eeooo eeca, opaeoo pocey cocya, apy co yox eao-ex eo eoecoo e (pc. 5-Ia). o cxo oycae ecoo apao cy ocoo oox ycoe, a oopx ec oee oeao c a ce ocea a co eeooo apca aeoo (pc. 5-II). opo oo aa ce a oppoa oeao c o oex oeax eo o acoeo ypcocycoo e. B oe oe oppoac oa ycyaypa, oopa xo a oo ax cocax coca eo ce ycaopoo opaa poeoco cce cepa opo (pc. 5-II).

Ocooe eccooe cpoee ce eaoo cocya (pc. 5-III) epee yoo yace oe oceo aoee aepaoo eeep a poeoc cocy ooo cpoe. pooe yoe cocy opo aaac a cocy oooeo poeoco cce. opo eec opca ape epo-aepae cocy. p oppoa yooo poca ea pya aec eo ece c e ac pooe poeoce cocy. o ooe ooopoa aepa cocy pocx opo c o epo-aepax cocyo , a epe x c epa cocya pyx ecooox. Mea cocy opo oe ooopoa c opca cocyo opca cocyo pyx ecooox. a oooa oepaec coxpaee y opo oeo cex ecooox apae py po: o aepaoy cocyy o epeeo oa ea, o eaoy cocyy epeey oy, a a e e, o ycaop opa cepe opo e a eao cocye.

3.9. eapea ccea. Ha ocoe opax cceoa peoeo ooe opaeee ea a oe, paaec ocoeoc ooeco opaa oe y (pc. 4). e opo e ooex ee (ax, apep, a ce ee) ee pecae coo pocy oyy pyy, epepoay a oe, paaec o aepy, oe e ooec ocoeoc. o e ea oo e e oeo: oy (), eo (), peeyo (p), eyo (), opecy ac (), cpe (c), a () py () aay aepy (a) (pc. 4). Too oa pa a ece c aao aePc. 5. Cxe opaa ocox o cocyco ce. I yxcoa cea (Ia ap yae aepx cocyo, I oo cee eoo aepaoo cocya). II pexcoa cea (II aepeo ooopa cocy, II ea cocy epee yace ea c yo epx ooo ()). III eccoa cea eaoo cocya epee yoo yace ea.

po oy oece oepa yaca eapeoo paa. Caoe pae oepao cocae eapeo py cae opo c opopo oee x o epopox, oopx xapaepo ae opo oepao cocae eapeoo paa.

ooece ocoeoc ae oo paccapa opo a eca py pyy Bilateria. e e opaoa cao epepoa ea, coea y cepe, caca, ooa ypeooo eape. Bce e acpoepca opo o yoe (a e pece) e. ae ex cyax, oa peyec yeee ooc pece a ey oa, y opo oa ape, o e pece e. Ha epe oapyeo, o coca acpoepca opo xo eao-ee e, oopx oae poxo aax acx oeo apae (pc. 3B).

Hae eao-ex eo oepae poc ooeco opaa acpoepca opo cae eo c eao-eo co eo ooc ycox ooeox.

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