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S Fe, S Cr, / / 0,0,0,0,5 7 9 11 2 4 6 8 10 12 pH pH S Co, 100 S Ni, / / 10 1 0,1 0,01 0,9 10 11 8 10 12 14pH pH Pc. 1. Paccae pe pacopoc poco eao ox pacopax acoc o pH:

- pacee ae - ae cepea (o epaypoy coy) B a. 1 pecae oyee peyae paceo, ae o ae pH, oeceax ay pacopoc. o pacopoc poc eao pacoaac cey opao: Ni2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ Fe3+ > Cu2+ Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cr3+, o e coaae c epayp a: Cu2+> Mn2+~ Zn2+~ Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ > Cr3+ > Fe3+, ocoa a paceax oo o ae poee pacopoc.

Ta opao, p pacee pacopoc poco eao ox cpeax eoxo ye oca opaoa pocooeco, ye oo ae poee pacopoc po oo a.

oe eoc peaeoo eoa oc cox o poeeo cpaee paccax ax ae pacopoc poco co ae ooeo yypo-ooo, xoceoeoo poxoceoo aae.

a. 1 ceye, o paccapae eo e oeceae oce peoa o ooeo poxoceoo aae o ooy eao, a cee xpoa. ooeo yypo-ooo xoceo-eoo ooooa ocee ooo oo Taa Oae yco ocae poco ex eao cpae c ooeo paoo aae Opepoo- ae ae po- epa a a- ooeo xo- ooeo c e- pH a pacop- ceo- poxocaa oc, / eoo oo- eoo aaooa, e, / / Fe3+ 4-12 2,6 0,3 0,Cr3+ 8,5-10 0,02 0,5 0,Zn2+ 9,0-11,0 3 1,0 0,Cd2+ 11-13 10 0,001 0,Co2+ 10-12 0,15 0,1 0,Ni2+ 9,7-10,7 110 0,1 0,Cu2+ 8-12 0,17 1 0,Mn2+ 11,2-12,5 0,1 0,1 0,Pb2+ 10,5-11,5 5 0,03 0, ax eao, a xpo, e apae.

apa a pc. 2, e pee epa ae pH, oeceax ay pacopoc, ceye, o ocaee poco ex eao oo epae pH paec eooo.

a pacopoc poco ex eao coe o eecoopao, a o ceye pecaeo apa, pae a 4 ooa poo ocaee o aax ae pH, epa oopx ocaaee ea pecae a. 2. oyc yaao apao, oo coppoa pye oo acoc o Taa Oa epao ae pH ee eao cox o oo aee ea p ao pacopoc epa pH poco 1 Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe 9-2 Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Fe 10,0-10,3 Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe 11,0-11,4 Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe 11,2-12,opeoo cocaa cox o.

B acoee pe a poex pepx aoe paeee ooo e pooc (ocaee pocxo p pH 6,5-8,5), ooy ocaooe coepae oo ex eao oex cox oax ec co pa e peoa .

4. cepeaoe cceoae poecca ocae poco ex eao paaex ox pacopo B epaype oeaec, o p epaa coe ex eao ee eco opaoae e oo poco eao, o ocox coe c opeee cexoepec cocao. Oao pae ao ax o ocae poco eao ycox, xapaepx oc cox o, oa: oepa pacopo ee, eepaypa a oao, poecc ocae ocyecec a ec y epa ocaa aoo pacope ocycye. poe oo, coe o, oo oo ex eao, coepa aeoe oeco coe eea (III).

pH-epec eoo cceoao aoece paaex pacopo (oepa a ypoe 10-2 o/) c 0,1 N pacopo eoo apa p oao eepaype paoepo ee pacopa eoo apa eee e oee 60 (yco, xapaepe oc cox o). B aaox ycox cceoao coecoe ocaee poco ccee co eaa - xopoe eeo.

Ha pc. 3 pee peya oeoepecoo poa coe e, oaa, a, e, xpoa eea.

a ceye pecaex ax, paec o cex cyax ee eco opaoae ocox coe, oo coe e (II) eea (III) ocaee aaaec p ooe OH/Me o 2 3, o ceecye o opaoa ocoo poco eao.

pH 3 OH/Me Pc. 3. acoc ae pH o ooo ooe OH/Me p oeoepeco poa coe yx- pexaex eao 0,1 N pacopo eoo apa. Oe pyeoo pacopa 50 .

oepa co eaa (o/):

1 - CuCl2 (2,2310-2); 2 - Co(NO3)2 (1,3410-2); 3 - ZnCl2 (1,6510-2);

4 - NiCl2 (2,1110-2); 5 - CrCl3 (0,9210-2); 6 - FeCl3 (0,9710-2) B a. 3 pee oyee ae o ae pH aaa ocae cpae c epayp a. B o e ae pecae opy ocox coe, paccae o cay ae OH/Me.

Taa Peya oeoepecoo poa pacopo coe ex eao e apo pH aaa ocae Mooe Co e- cep- epayp- ooee peca aa ea- e OH/Me o- opya e a- ae e epae a CuCl2 5,4 5,4-6,9 1,230,01 1,6 Cu(OH)2CuClCo(NO3)2 8,0 7,2-8,7 1,780,04 8,1 Co(OH)2Co(NO3)ZnCl2 7,1 5,2-8,3 1,820,01 10,1 Zn(OH)2 ZnClNiCl2 8,0 6,7-8,2 1,960,05 49 Ni(OH)2 NiClCrCl3 4,7 4,6-5,6 2,500,02 5 Cr(OH)3 CrClFeCl3 2,5 2,2-3,2 2,930,05 42 Fe(OH)3 FeCl ax a. 3 ceye, o ycox, xapaepx oc cox o, poecc ocae copooaec opaoae ocox coe ecexoepecoo cocaa. oyee ae o pH aaa ocae yoeopeo coacyc c epayp a.

p ocae poco ex eao c poco eea ee eco a coecoe ocaee (Cr3+), a oceoaeoe ocaee aae poca eea, a ae ocoo co pyoo eaa (pc.4).

pH 1 0 4 8 12 16 20 Oe NaOH, Pc. 4. oeoepecoe poae cece coe yxaex eao xopa eea 0,101 N pacopo eoo apa. Oe pacopa 50 . Coepae (o/):

1 - ZnCl2 (0,0062), FeCl3 (0,0036); 3 - NiCl2 (0,0136), FeCl3 (0,0040);

2 - CuCl2 (0,0074), FeCl3 (0,0032); 4 - CoCl2 (0,0138), FeCl3 (0,0065) o a pc. 3 4 poaapoa ae ooe ppae pH p ee oea eo V (pH/V), ec aeco ya eoo yaca caa pH cex coe eao x cece c xopo eea.

ooo eo poceaec aooepoc - e oe ooe ooee Fe/Me, e ee aee pH/V. oo ceye, o p ox aex Fe/Me ep cao pH ca e oo c ocaee poca eea, o c oeee o poecc oo pyoo eaa.

oyee ae xopoo coacyc c epayp oe exao cop oo eao a poce eea. Ha epo ca ocae opaoac poc eea cocoe oepxoco acop oo pyoo eaa. Ha opo ca p aepe poecca ocae poca eea ooo opaoae ox poco, a pee ca ee eco oeoe ocaee poco ocox coe cooecyx eao.

-cepocoecoe cceoae coocaex poco ex eao poca eea oaao, o coocaee oca ocoo c exaeco cec poco, oao eoopx cyax (Co Fe, Ni Fe) ee eco opaoae ox poco (epx pacopo aee) c eoopo cee eppa ocaa.

5. Oocoae eoo ya ao coo oopocpoeoo pooceoo oee papaoa peoea o cooa oex cox o opa cocoa ya ao ce x oacoc opyae cpe eoxoa oecea oea oeao oacoc ao ayo oocoa op eoo ya. Papaoae ae 3 exooece eo oe eoc peaeoo eoa opa oooc copae ooopee a ce opaa oopooo oocae ye acoo cooa oex cox o.

5.1. Oea oacoc aa opyae cpe poe cox o c opeee coepae ex eao, apx opyay cpey, peae eo po ae opaoa epax ao, oopx oce ee ea pecae e poco ocox coe.

o cepea a xecoo aaa ao oaao, o a oeaocx ocx coopye coo oopocpoeoo pooceoo oee, coepa coe cocae poe o, apoaa a, oca pe acoppoax eepoyo eooe oeco poco ex eao (a. 4), oocc c cooae copeeo eo pacea, yae ooe co oco-eecx o-xecx apaepo, peey accy oacoc (yepeo-oac oxo).

aa xapaepca ao (opeeee acca oacoc) e ae oeceo oe x oeao oacoc p oaa opyay cpey. B ao paoe peoe eo oeceo oe oeao oacoc ao p oaa x oe oe, ya coepae eao, cpapyex aeao-ao yepo, ae x ooeo paoo aae.

Taa Peya oeceoo xecoo aaa ao oeaocx ocx coopye MO Opeeee E. oe- opeoc eeca . pa epe 1 Mn2+ / 240 2 Cu2+ //-// 200 3 Ni2+ //-// 700 4 Pb2+ //-// 60 5 Zn2+ //-// 800 6 Cd2+ //-// 125 7 Co2+ //-// 50 8 Cr2+ //-// 400 9 Fe3+ //-// 10000 10 SiO2 % 25 11 Heepoy % 2 0,12 apoa Ca Mg* % 20 13 Baa % 51 oo: % 100 *Coooee apoao a a 90:Papaoa eo aaec ceye.

Ooa epe V oe o pax, oop eoxoo oa 1 aa, o oepa aoo ex eao oe a paa C i (/3). Ta opao, xi Ci =, (6) V e x i - coepae aoo ex eao cyxo ae (/).

B cooec c yco cyca cox o ooe oo aca n n Ci xi 1 1. (7) i=1 i i=1 V i oyey acoc oo peca e n xi = V, (8) i=1 i e V - a oe o, cooo o ape, pax, ocao eoacoo paae 1 aa o oycx oepa yco pep oeao oacoc aaoao (e oe oe o, eoxo paae aa o oye oycx oepa ex eao, e oy oacoc o pecae).

ae xi cooecy peyaa aaa e, oyex p opaoe opao aa aeao-ao yep pacopo c pH 4,8, xapaepy oepa o o eao, oopa ec aoee ocyo oee paoe poecc p oaa cooecye eaope yco opyae cpe.

Pace oaa, o p oeeco paae 1 aa oo, cooo o ape, c e oye o, cooecye aecy ooeo xoceo-eoo yypo-ooo aae, opeyec 135 3 co o; oye o, yoeope peoa ooeo poxoceoo aae, - 187 3 co o. oyee ae ceecy o coo oeao oacoc aa.

5.2. Papaoa eoo ce oacoc ao opyae cpe Papaoa p eoa ce oacoc ao opyae cpe. ep eo ocoa a ee oo ex eao aa p aoec c coo coo. Bopo eo peycapae cyae aa cooae eo aece epaoo opoa cocae acaoeox cece p cpoece aoox opo (oeepaypa eea). Tpe eo peycapae oeee aoo aa coca o acc p pooce epaa (cooeepaypa eea).

p aoec ao c coo coo aac xapaepe ee pH cpe, ceecye o epexoe apoaa a poco ex eao cooecye xop eao.

oaao, o cepeae ae o ee pacope ao coo coe ye ceo ocac cey pec ypaee:

kt pH = pH0 + pH*, (9) 1+ kt e pH - aee pH cyce aa o pee t, ;

pH0 - aaoe aee pH cyce oce cee c coo coo;

pH* k -pece oca.

aoe ypaee eo peopayec y t 1 = + t, (10) pH - pH0 pH *k pH * t e oopaax t oa e eco ea acoc.

pH - pHOpeo, oceae a oc opa, A =, (11) pH *k a aec ya aoa po tg =. (12) p H * o aecy ya aoa oo pacca pH*, a a pH*, oo c ocay k:

k =. (13) A p H * Ha pc. 5 pecae peya paceo, oaae yoeopeoe cooece cepeax ax peoeoy pecoy ypae.

Pace oaa, o p xeco oepea aa a 100 10 aa, coepaeo 50 o, a xecy pea apoaa a pacopx poco ex eao opeyt ec 80 10%-oo paco0 10 20 30 40 50 pa coo co. p o ye oyeo ~ Pc. 5. Coooee ey t/pH-pH0 t 18%-oo pacopa xopp aoec aa c 0,1 N pacopo coo a, coepaecoo co. Haeca aa 0,95 o ~100 xopo (aoc 51%), oe pacopa 50 .

Pacop coep ( HCl): 1 5; 2 15; 3 - ex eao 56 t/(pH-pH ) oepeeoo aa, coepaeo 28 o.

Oepee a, e coepa pacopx op ex eao, e oace ox oeo.

Pacop xopcoo a oe cooa aece ycope eeopaoa peeypax eeopayx oo a ocoe aocao, peex ce ooeoc oaeo e.

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