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1 HAAO POBOCTBA CAHEB .A.Cpaoa (CT, . Caapa) epoe yoae o cooa opx cae oocc 1694 . Cao coo petroleum (aeoe aco) oaao pae caey coy, ocec a ca aa e.

B 1838 . o ooeo aao caeo poeoc pa, ae cae ca epepaaa oa, CA, Acpa, pa, Hoo ea, eap, ca, o Ape. Bo ox x cpa epepaoa caa ocyecac oee epo opaex acaax.

ep a o xeco epepaoe cae Pocc cea ee o peo, oa Moce cpoe eoo caeepeo ao oye ecoo peapaa xoa; ao peca coo, cyoc, ycapy ycaoy pooeoc o oyopa o caa cy.

B 1922 . Ocaoe Tepco yep a oopyoaa caaa oa caeepeoa e pooeoc o 1800 caa cy; 1924 . ye ye opo caeepeo ao Ocaoe pooeoc o ec o cy. o ao cy oo epeo cae c e oye co;

aeee cooae co oye xoa poooc a ycoco xooo aoe Moce, a aee o epeeceo ae Ocaoo.

Ocaoc ao cpoe epeo capoee;

oao ocyce cp acao eo epe a paoy a caax;

_ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru 2 cpe epeo cy apc cae, ocae a 1500 . ec ooc epaco oac eapc cae y eo aocepcoc e oc pooca xoa, aoo e ay cpe ec cae apcoo ecopoe, coepa cep o 5% e.

Boe ececeo, o aea epepaoa cae c e oye a xoa, a pyx poyo, aeaac a ape eocpeceo oc ecy o.

Bepe ayo oca op ae ocx epeo.C.aac, oop oa ec ae 1769 . O ocoao oceoa epe a poe epc caa peooee o o, o ocopee ac oa ac poaoo ecopoe eo papaoa ye, eycoo, oy ee.

Bo ooy c caa 1830 . eoo po ype oce cceoa paoo epea Bo o Caap o Cpco yep. O ca opo ypae:... ce ep o papaaae o ee yopee a apoxoax.... B aee pae yee e pa opaa ae apc op caa. O x ca ac eoo P..Mypco e eooecoe ocae Epoeco Pocc xpea pacoo 1845 . B 1864 . o papaoe apcoo ecopoe ca a cpaax opoo ypaa ec pycc eoo..Poaoc, a 1884 . poeccop A..ao a aoee ooe ocae pcx ooe oo co caa, o ce axoxc ooo Cpa apa.

B 1918 . CA Coecy Pocc epyc poo ec ye o pe op eep .M.y apae a paoy eooec oe. eo 1918 . o ae .M.ya _ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru eooec oeo a e oeo cape e eooece ap: oa pae yopcx cae, pya pae ceecoo eoo ecopoe.

Beco 1919 . Moc a Boy exaa ocoa ce papao opx cae c. op c. ap.

eo 1919 . poep eeoc oaa oo ce, paepae oy cae, a Boy p .M.y peceae Bceo opoo coea ..Cpoooo.

Cocooc coeae, oopoe opeeo popay pao o cpeey ocoe apcx caex aee. ocyece aeex ep paeco eo 30 .py.

14 1919 . .M.y a acea oe aoo caeoo oea yaae, o a oa 100 . epc ey poo Cpca opoa aeae ooo 30 p. yo caa, ec aac aoco o yec oyee papyee opo, o aac oo opee 25 p. yo. o exec yco oa poca epy ooy eyeo oa p aopx ycox peoeo o o 240 yo 120000 yo. Ha opoc, o ax acax peeo oe o oa o opy ooy oa,..ac yaae, o Beape c ap eyeo (1919) oa eee 5 ece oo ooo 350000 yo. Ha Boe oa oee poca, oa oo c opa, oap e oa, a oyca; poe oo, ece paoe, o co paoae aeoox, oee eapcx opx paoax, a a Beape aeooe e. ooy, o e..acoo, oo opee, o p cax aopx ocoecax Boce papao ay ooo 1000000 yo cpoo _ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru oapa epe 2-3 eca, a ap 1920 . oo oy o 5 .

yo.

14 1919 . o opye B..ea H..opyo coca po o a epop o oe epepaoe caex py, a oe a apoc B..ea 19 1919 . acae peca oa a oc .M.ya, oopo oe peya poeax pao caa coopae o aeey pa caeoo ea.

1 cep 1919 . a acea peya BCHX, acya opoc o caex ex paeax ooe (oa Cpoooo y), o eceo ocaoee: pa eoxo eeeo pcy accoo oe caa eaco o pooca oo o eo ya peo acay oec op ecy oy caa e eee e o oa yo ec;

... opy acay opaoa oypc o paoe o caex oo poex pep, pacopa oooo ooe;...ca pao o oe ya caa cpo c eo epoceeo ocyapceo aoc.

Oopeeo c ca opoc o cpoece epoo cpae caeepeooo aoa Beape. Ha y oooc cpoeca aoa yaa B..ey .M.y, ccac a oo o o caa Bepae a ae a ecx pyax aepao a. B oe a o peoee B..e ca cepeap o cpoece caeepeooo aoa a Boe:

...epeo ao ao cpo a Boe, o Bepa oe o pae. B cooec c yaa ea oe 1920 . o Cpa aac caee pao o ooy cpoeca caeepeooo aoa. B 1919 . paoe c. ap aac pao _ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru o oe cae, a 1920 . a apco pye o oo cae, coyex aece oa.

O xoe o 1921 . cooa ypa Heoe caeoe xoco: ...y ce ap - Hoopaea - Mapea aac cae opeee 6 p. yo... c. ap aoeo 7 aax oe c 13 cooae, oope yxo y a 20-25 cae....

B ope 1919 . xeco aopaop acaa apcx cae oye epe opa epoca pyx poyo. o xoo cceoa, poecce oopx o oaao, o apcx cae oo ye oya ec eex cax paoopax eec. O o, aoo ycexa oc yee, oop ao a: ope 1922 . B.. e apa pey BCHX co, oopo cooa: To. pac pca e co, oopo cooae o pyex ycexax py eepo o ae c o. y, oopa c yopco, pac epoecoy, p oo oepe co copo ocyapcex opao, eo paa e oo ocoeoe ayoe oceoae opx cae capoe, o ayac paec poo x coaex pae oee poy, a-o: xo, ep a, pae a, apa, cepoc ao ... B aee ca e e peyy BCHX:... peaa: eeeo oece acoo ooe aeee pae x pao; ycpa pe ycpa cece pec, opoe x, apa yaay pyy eepo pyo opeo pacoo ae pyo eeo cyo....

B e o o aaa poeo o e Caapco oac ocaaoc ex oopa ece. Ho cpaa ocpo _ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru yaac cooaeceo oe epoca, ee epx aooe. oo yo o cpee cpo caeepeoe ao oa a oo oe opeo coaeoo.

28 ap 1929 . a acea peya cpacoo opcooa acya oa pecae ycaa o ocpoe Cpa aee pe aoa o paoe xecx poyo cae, ocpoa oopoo aec 1929-1930 . peoaaea cooc aoa coca 800000 py. Cpoeco aoa peceye e e oo pao xecx poyo, o pee oxoo o acaoo poeoc. o eceo ocaoee: ... ca aeee epop o papaoe apcx cae, o ocpoe Cpa aoa o paoe xecx poyo - ooec eecoopa o, c c e opy ce ypee opaa acpey epop... 15 a 1929 oa ocaoe peya ocooa o oeeo, o: ...opoc oecee oo epe c ycox Cpee-Boco oac pea pa ceo xoca oac... e y, o apy c ocp eo o oac pacoaae eca ae pecypca ep... pe o o ocee c ope ca (aeae ce p.), aeaa cyaa oopx aeo epe yoeop opeoc xoca oac oe, a ae oece cpey ay xeco poeoc poeoc cpoaepao.... B o e ocaoe o peeo opaoa ocooe po o ye cooa cae.

_ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru oa cae paoe c. ap pooac c 1919 o . B 1924 . c c e ooec ooee ooe, a a opao ooo 1921-1922 . eo ocec, apc py ap. B 1929 . cyaa pya oooac. ec a opaoaa aoee pya oa cae ooe [1,2].

Cyecoa pye pyoc. B ocaoe ooo peya pacooa o cpoece caeepepaaaeo aoa o 28 eap 1930 .: ...oeae peepy ay cpoeca cece ocyc epee poeo o ae poea cpoeca (exa ooo aoa, eeoopoe e ..), ocyce aa o ayo-cceoaec paoa, eocaooe paepae pao o ca pax o oo caa, ay ooe oo oy eyy ycaoex o aaoo cpoeca caeo poeoc c yepe ao.... ec e caa poc ye acpoae a cyy, peycapay ocpoy a ape caex pyo, ooae cpoeca caeepeooo aoa, aao ocpo xoaa a ape, paepae o cae a opax oooee pao o pyoy cpoecy a Oe Cpe.

10 1931 oa xo ocaoee B (): ... BCHX CCCP oece pacpee paeox pao o caa, ocpoy 1932 . pae e eee 3 exapoax caex pyo, ycopee ayo-cceoaecx pao o xeco epepaoe cae, cpeee papeee opoca o cpoece epoxecx oao a ape, ocoeo a Oe Cpe....

_ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru oceo ac paaa eey ay pa caeo poeoc Cpee Bo 1931 .: aaa epe caeo poeoc Cpee Bo coco opeo epecpoe ce poeoc oo pa. e o cx op coceoo oa xecoo cp pa oyae acoee pe oe poe epce pa. Haoee a ecopoee Cpee-Bocoo pa ao ca O Cp, e ee ce 2 p. caa oe cooo aeca. aee e ap, ecopoee aoee eoe o aaca, o aaee opoe eco o aecy caa (ooo 100 .), oceee eco aae opocoe ecopoee (oaoe o aaca, o eoe o aecy). B ae paepa pxoc epy oepe apoac a apco ecopoe, pacooeo 17 o Cpa, a cao epey Bo eocpeceo oc o Caap peax Caape poex epo. apcoe ecopoee ee ce ae cpoo paepa oo xeco poeoc... apae p ye peaa a oee apea co cae oa, a oopyoae eex aoo a cae. Caapca epoepa acoee pe ope opao pacpec peocpypyec.

epeoopyoae ee a caeoe oo eo aco a...

epeo eex aoo a cae a ooe, po oaopoe oo, e oe, oeo, cac e... co opoc ce ye pea, pycc exa oaac o papee poe ae e pxoc. O ye a p oe a cae yoeopee peya... Xeca epepaoa caa o apy apoepoaa cey opao: epe o paoae eoo xec ao a paoy cooex poyo, _ Heeaooe eo, 2003 http://www.ogbus.ru peyeceo xo-apaeeco oac; c oa e aae paoa py xao a paoy poyo accooo opee, cepa oee pocx (ye, eoe oopoe oo p.), ae oee cox ceecx poyo. o ao ec ece ao pa oee oo xeco poeoc paoe Oeo Cpa. oy e ece c xaoo aae paoa apca epoca ooc 50000 B a poo cae c oopee cooae coooo aa o xecx pooc.

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