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ya. o ee ccepa oyoao 73 eax pao, o ce 5 oopa pop, 27 cae, oyeo aopcx ceec a aea P a opeee.

Cpyypa oe ccepa. ccepa coco ee, a, oo, poe coep 349 cpa aocoo eca, pcya, 18 a, cco cooao epayp 209 aeoa.

PATOE COEPAHE PAOT Bo ee oocoaa ayaoc e ccepa, copypoa e ocoe aa cceoa.

B epo ae oea ocaoa poe oecee aeca ooe aox eae cop oooox ocpy eeepepaaax pooc.

Oeo cceoa pao c aoe ea opyco aapao (oea a) x coee.

Oeceee aeca oooox ocpy eeepepaaax pooc ocyecec cooec c oco pa cce aeca. aeco oooox ocpy oxaae ce ca eoo a o apea o ya oce cooa (pc. 1).

Pc. 1. Ccea aeca oooox ocpy B paoe oeceee aeca ocyecec exooec oece a ae a a poepoae papaoa execx peoa, pooco opo.

cooyoc oaaee aeca aapayp paoe paccope cyaaoe oaae (pooc, aaee) exoooc a ca ooe.

Coco, aoee oo xapaepy exoooc, ocee oeceee oopo ae aoe pyoc apa poecce pooca, ec ooc. Tooc oe cooe ae p ee paooc: ocpyopcy, exooecy cyaaoy.

B ao paoe eao paccope ocpyopca exooeca ooc.

B aapaocpoe pao o eop cop, eoa pacea ooc oecee po aoaeeoc aa oc cpaeo eao a opaee pyax Hopoa A.., aea A.B., yoa B.A., Aeea P.. p.

oece pepe ooc aox eae oooox ocpy x coee cy opeoc oe ooe eoepecx apaepo. opeoc oppyex eoepecx apaepo cceyex eae opaee a ceye : ooe paepo ooe op (oaoc, ococ, op, y ..).

pooo-oeoe pao p ooe peoe aapayp ocoo oc oce ycaoex oyco a ceee poo cox aopo pecx coeex a "aoepce" c oxaa oxaae ea ye po copaex oepxoce. o pooo-oeox pao ox pyoapaax ooe aapayp coxpaec a coo ypoe.

Oe pooo-oeox pao coeex c ao ea cocae 30-65% o oe pyoeoc copox pao. Ta, pooo-oeoe pao p cope oex cox coee "e-oeaa" "e-opyc" ecoo pa e, e coee oea c oeao. o oycoeo o ooc ypoe copaeoc x coee.

opeoc paepo x coee aaac a ca poepoa, aaee yoax oyco (papeex opeoce) a ocoe apaep, aae paoe oppye.

yoae oyc a oppyee apaep paccapaex paoe coee aaac cxo yco oecee aeceoo yopoa aapayp. Haaee oyco a ooe paepo op pyx aox eae aaac cxo execoo ypo pooca. Texooece oyc oppyex apaepo (ecee e opeoce) oa a ca ooe cop.

Cee coacoaoc exooecx oyco c yoa opeeec exec ypoe pooca , oeo cee, aeco oooox ocpy eeepepaaax pooc B ao oceoaeoc paoe yaec cocoe ooc aox eae x coee oeceaec aeco aapayp.

poaapoa oycaee ooe paepo, peycopee ocyapce opace caapa.

opoo paccopea aa ya yoax oyco oex cox coeex "e-oeaa", c opyca ooo eooeo aapayp, paeo peco coee "oyx-epeopoa" eooeo aapayp. B x coeex ocooe e a ceee poo aop oaa ooe paepo aepa copaex eae o oaoo op oepeoo cee o pyoc. ooy acaoe aee cee poo aopo coeex ye opeec cypoae yaax e ooe aepo c peeo oyc ooe aepo cyex aox eae.

Pace cceoa ycaoeo, o peee ooe aoax , aa c cax ax aepo, e yaac pa ycaoex op a ceee poo aop. C yeee aepo eya yoax oyco opacae , ooex ope aoo, c pee ooe o aepy 1,0%D caoc ee cyecee.

Ta, ec eya yoax oyco coee a c oeao c D = 377 cocae 13 , o c D = 800 ocae 3. Macao ooe e aopo coee a c oopo ooo aapayp, peae oyce ae, coca cooeceo 34 68 . Ta opao, yoae oyc a ooe aepo , cee poo oex cax aop pecx coeex e aoya. o ec cece aae oyco a ooe cxo exooecx oooce pep-ooee.

poee oec cceoa ecex ooe paepo aox eae, aepex ycox pooca eee ocex 1012 e OAO "Caaaeea", a ypaco aoe xecoo aocpoe, Opco aoe eeaapayp yyco exaeco aoe. Coocaee x c oycae ae poaapoaa coacoaoc exooecx oyco c yoa. Cee o ooex aooo aepa op oepeoo cee o pyoc oye opeeee peaoo po , oeae opyco, c oo ceao cocpypoax poopao. coy poopa, opee, acoo ecee paep aepo oac o oax. pepo 15-30% axoc a peea oycaex ooe o pyoc.

cceoa ae ooe epepo pax cae cao. Peya cceoa oaa, o paec e ooo opaepa , ooe aepa oopoo e xoo a pee yoax oyco a ceee poo. Ooe aepo eoopx opaepo cooepoax cae e yoeop ae oyca 1%D. Ta opao, opeaoae a a o ooe oepeoo cee o pyoc, a o paepa aepa (epepa) c eaoaee. o ae ecoacoaoc ex ooecx oyco c yoa po epaoa eoa opaa poecca cop p ooe peoe aapayp.

Ta opao, cyecye exooece poecc ooe opeaoax e oo oece pooco pax cae cao c apapoao ooc.

ooy peee poe oe ooc pax cae cao coepecoae cyecyx papaoo ox exooecx poecco ope ao ec ayao.

Peya cceoa poecca cop oex cox coee eeepepaaae aapayp, poeex a aapaocpoex pepx, peee ae, oaa, o pyoeoc cop oeoo cooo coee "e-oeaa" a paa, a coee "e-opyc" a c ooo paa oe pyoeoc cop ca "oeaa-oeaa". ae pyoeoc e ee poca c yeee aepa o ce cyex aox eae.

Tpyoeoc cop oex cox coee aapao Tpyoeoc copox pao, % Haeoae c ooo- coceo pooocoee ee copoe oeoe e-opyc 1012 2226 6268 0,e-oeaa 1418 2436 4662 0,Oeaa2832 5056 1222 0,oeaa ae oea copaeoc c, xapaepyeo ypoe copaeoc oe pooo-oeox pao p cope oex coee, oec ooo pox epaax: cooo coee "e-opyc" peeax 0,24...0,29; "e-oeaa" - 0,28...0,44; "oeaa-oeaa" - 0,69...0,82.

Oe pooo-oeox pao, oex oecee ycaoex oyco a ceee poo oex cox coee c oeaa, co cocae 32...66% o oe pyoeoc copox pao. Copaeoc oex coee "e-oeaa" "e-opyc" ecoo pa e, e coee "oeaa-oeaa". Ta opao, aapaocpoe e ec eye aoo ea.

Copaeoc oex cox coee aox eae oo o aeo yy p a opoo-epex ycpoc, oox cpo oo oee oy opa o eoepecx xapaepcax oepex cee eae. Ho eec acoee pe a aapaocpoex pepx cpeca e oo oo cea. ooy ayao ec poea papao oepaoo cocoa opo eoepecx xapaepc oepex cee aox eae opyco aapao.

Bopa aa ocea cceoa aooepoce opaoa opeoce op paepo aox eae oooox ocpy eeepepaaax pooc a ca ooe.

B epo ac a oe cceoa aooepoce ee exooecx apaepo poecca ope ecx .

Aa exaa opaoa opeoc paepo opeaoax ecx oo ycao, o opy aopo oppoa ooe aooo aepa o oaoo ae ec ecaoc eepaypx apaepo aoo aoo ocac p ope e .

eopeecoo cceoa eepaypoo o cce "aooa - aoa ocaca" pee ce eo aaa - eo oex paoce (MP), oop ec cpaeo poc c o pe popao peaa a BM, o ooe yec oeco aopo, x a eoe poecc ope .

peapeo oye ypae ecaoapo eopoooc pecx, cepecx, oecx, opoax oopaax oeo-paoco opypoe yepoo cya, a ae acoc eepayp pax oe a oepxocx aoo ocac c yeo pax pax yco. Aop pacea ecaoapx eepaypx oe cce "aooa - aoa ocaca" poecca ope ecx peaoa e popa peeo epcoaoy oepy acca Pentium.

Peya paceo oaa ae aeoo epeaa eepayp o opaye aoo a oe ooa (pc. 2). Haoee coy eepaypy ee epexoa oa a (l=600700 ), a aoee y - ope a. Teepaypa oe aoo oe ooa ope ac o o ce a, c yeee oopo eepaypa oa ao t opacae (pc. 3).

Teepaypoe oe yacoa ae xapaepyec oo eoopooc a o opaye, a o oe, o po ooe aex epecx ape, ex ec xapaep. ocoeco ocec opaoae paapx pe a oepxoc yacoa. Teepaypa paopea yacoa ac o o ayeo aoo, c oee oopo eepaypa paopea yacoa yeaec. p aoe ap eepaypa yacoa oaec, pae o yacoa p o apeac c pao ecoc (pc. 4).

Pc. 2. Pacpeeee eepayp o opaye aoo, aa o epa, pax ao aepo 1400 : 1 - oe pacoppo; 2 - oe aopa ae; 3 - oe cea oaoaoo a c yacoa; . - a ypee oepxoc; ap. - a apyo oepxoc Toua aomou, Pc. 3. acoc eepayp oa ao o o aoo:

1 - cpeo o o oe oce a; 2 - epexoo ac;

3 - a ope Hoep ua manou Pc. 4. ea ee eepayp oe yacoa aep eepayp aooo aoo ocac poex ycox x epooc xapaep. Papoc ae eepayp aooo a pax cax poecca ao oycoe oeco aopo, ax, a oeae eepayp e, pooeoc pax oepa , coe aop poecca, eoece apaep aepao aoo aoo ocac, cocoe oepxoc aoo ocac ..

B ao ae ae cceoao ooee opeoce aepo oecx oeae p ooe x o yxcox cox aooo. opeoc aepo oa -a pa copoe eoppoa ocooo apyeo coe eaa. Ha ocoe aaa pacpeee eopa o oe aeo yxcoo aoo oye acoc o oee cee epao co yx cyae apy co oee ypoc apy co eee ypoc, e ocoo co. p oe acoce p ceeo ao ypoe oox coe eaa. ocoy aep eo eec o e oeco oea, o ceee epaoo co ae ye epee o opaye ooo. oyee acoc oo opee paep eaeco coo aoo c yeo epeeoo o e oeco oea cee epaoo co oc ooc ee paepo p ooe.

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