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665 733 Ha paax pyoc Pac Bap Mxao PABTE HETEEPEPAOT HETEXM OAP Aopeepa ccepa a cocae yeo cee aaa execx ay Ceaoc:

02.00.13 Heex.

07.00.10 cop ay ex.

a 2002 2 Paoa oea a aepe oe aaeco x coo ocyapceoo eoo execoo yepcea A O Heox ypac (oap).

Hay pyooe: oop xecx ay, poeccop . M. Mocyae Oae ooe: oop execx ay, poeccop . . pyo aa xecx ay .. aoa Beyee pepe: Heexepepaoa aa ccepa cococ 4 2002 . 12 aco a acea ccepaooo Coea 212.289.01 p co ocyapceo eo execo yepcee.

Apec: 450062, . a, y. ocoao, 1 C ccepae oo oaoc oee HT.

Aopeepa paoca 30 a 2002 .

e cepeap ccepaooo Coea, poeccop A. M. Cp 3 OA XAPATEPCTA PAOT Ayaoc pao.

He, a poy x epepao aa ce oy o epeeco aace poeo pax cpa.

Texec popecc oac oopocpoe, papao epeecx, pox aaox yp opeoa coepecoa poecco epepao e pao oopx o, oeax ce opaca peoa .

oap oa cpa Bocoo Epo, eeepepaaaa eexeca poeoc oopo a poe ecox ece paaac ece c poeoc pyx cpa eo CB.

oce yex eo Coecoo Coa, a oee yex Pocc oac eeepepao eex ao ae oeao a copee o ypaccoo eexecoo oaa caoo pyoo a aaax.

B ypaccoo HX 1990-e o xapaepyc ae oea peocpy ycaoo oepa poecco c cooae epeox exoo c yace ecx epoecx aepacx p. B ope 1999 . poccca ea oa O˻ pa yace paa HX ya 58% ycaoo aaa A O Heox ypac.

Bce o opeeo ay epec cceoa poecco apoe eeaooo ea, caoe eeepepao eex oap, acoc poecca pa oaa o oea p oecoo pee o cpoece eeepepaaaeo aoa o ceox e.

Ayaoc copecx execx cceoa pa ypaccoo HX pyx eeepepaaax pep oap ocec eoxooc aeoo aaa execoo coco HX, cooec coyex exoo peoa execoo popecca, aaa epce papao cpae pa A O Heox ypac.

e ccepaoo pao a ocoe ye copecx aceo pa eeaooo ea oap pa poecco eeepepao eex a ypacco eexeco oae a oey epce ye pa eeepepao eex oap a pepe A O Heox ypac.

Ocoe aa cceoa :

1. yee apoe caoe eeaooo ea oap.

2. cceoae copecx, execx coao-ooecx aceo pa poecco eeepepao eex a ypacco eexeco oae.

3. yee pa HXʖypac occoacec epo oea coco a oe eo paa poccco eo oae O˻.

4. Aa ocox ee pa, oea epce papaoa cpae pa A O Heox ypac.

Haya oa pao opeeea e, o epe ooe pecae copo-execo acee a apoe, caoe pa eoo ea (paea, oa, pacop, epepaoa e) oap.

Bepe oaa copece a caoe pa eeepepao eex, oe aa peocpy ycaoo oepa poecco epepao e a ypacco eexeco oae.

Ha ocoe aaa ocox ee pa eeepepaaae poeoc Epo c yeo exooecx, ooecx coao-ooecx aceo poeea oea epce papaoa cpae pa eexecoo oaa.

paeca aoc pao aaec o, o oe copec aa pao exooecx ycaoo oo papaoa popay aee oepa exoo cpyypo epecpo eexecoo oaa. Papaoaa cpae pa oaa, apaea a yeee y epepao e, cee pacxoa epoep a ey ycaeo poy cyeceoe cee ypo ooeco oacoc.

Apoa pao:

Ocooe coepae pao ooeo a I Bcepoccco ayopaeco oepe Copeee poe cop ececoa oac x, xeco exoo eoo ea, . a, 2000 .; a Meyapoo ayo-execo oepe Pea 2001, . a, 2001.

ya:

o ee ccepa oyoao: 1 oopa, 4 ca ec 3-x oao a oepex.

Oe cpyypa ccepa:

ccepa coco ee, epex a, oo cca epayp oea a 169 cpaax aocoo eca, a 19 pcyo 52 a.

OCHOBHOE COEPAHE PAOT Bo ee poc oocoae ayaoc pao e, opypyc e, aa ocoe apae cceoa, oeac aya oa paeca eoc oex cceoa.

B epo ae ccepa paccope copece ace apoe eoo ea oap.

Ha eppop oap ec a eeaoocx accea (H):

papaco-aac; aao-epoopc (Bapec).

eooecoe cceoae aao-epoopcoo H aaoc ye 1887 . B ceepo-ocox paoax oap c 1925 o 1944 . pooc ypoe pao ec, ee oapc pa oeca. Oao ae oo eo a coea oa.

o opo poo o oap eeoo oppoaa cpee 70 c. e eepoyo. B epo c 1945 o 1948 . eeo o e oap opoc o 120 c., 19491953 . o 256 c. 1954 1957 . o 436 c. . B e o pyca e ocaac a eeepepaaa ao Pyce.

B 1949 . coaec coeca oapo-Coeca oeca eooeca ce. ye ae 1951 . epe cop oap o opo Teecoe eoe ecopoee. B 1954 . aaac eo aoa papaoa.

Teeca e coepaa ao cep (0,3%) apaa aee o pa cooaeceoo eoo oa caox ace. eoe oo c xoo 23% a e eo eepaypy aca yc 70oC. aac e a Teeco ecopoe ee:

oe 1960-x oo o oeac 3,5 . .

B 1955 . oap oy 150 c., a 1956 . 230 c. e.

B 1957 . oap oa oe oo o e exocoa, oy, P, pe pye cpa.

B aae 1960-x . a oapyea eoa ea ae a ye 950 cee e (ceepee . eea). Tea e ea ooc 0,989 /c3. B ape 1962 . ceepo-aaee . eea op eoe ecopoee o-. ea eccepca e coepaa ce pa o ea o aya. oce yee oea ocoopaeox pao o opo ooe ecopoee op-.

B aoee epcex oax caaoo peaa 1963 .

op aooecaoe ecopoee pecoe.

epepaoa oapco e B e peapaco-aacoo H c o coey xecoy cocay. O c e ocepc. B aao-epoopco accee e ea ocepca.

o 1944 . . Pyce ecoa p eox ycao pooca ace a ae opo e Py ee oa eoa ycaoa Bepa, ooo . Co, epepao opaoax ace.

B 1954 . a ae oee pex ycaoo . Pyce, ecoax o 1944 ., o coao epoe ocyapceoe poeoe eeepepaaaee pepe, oopoe 1960 . o epeeoao eeepepaaa ao . eoa Taepa.

eeB 19561957 . oap epepaaaa ye ooo 5060 c. co e o. ee a yx pepx . Pyce . Co oya eoe oo, ycpae aca, ay, ocaoe aca, opoe y pye eepoy. 1960 . apoaoc epepaaa 120 c. /. e, o cocao pepo 50% oaeo oap e.

He oo-coo ecopoe ea oe coepae cep, caex co acaeo cpaeo cooe coepae epx yeoopoo. eoe pa e oe coepae cep c oxo cpe aaecoo popa. ea pa ea xopoe ooece coca oe coepae cep apoaecx yeoopoo. Mace pa e apaoaeo xapaep co oco-ec oea. C e epepao e, oaeo oo ecopoe, . eee aaoc cpoeco eexecoo oaa HXʖee o ooacoy apay, oop ee cyaa 25 apa 1971 .

pooeoc aoa o epepaoe ooo 1 . o ocox o e pooca pooo accopea ace yo. Bce exooece ycao, poe ycao aaecoo popa, ocpoe o coec poea.

C e yoeope pacyx opeoce cpa eepoyax eco 1958 . o po peee o cpoece ooo . ypac eeepepaaaeo aoa pooeoc 1 . /. coeco e. oce yca cyaa HXʖypac 1963 . o 1980 . ocoo epepaaa e c Poacoo ecopoe (CCCP). o yca cyaa HXʖee 1971 . ecoo e epepaaa o 200300 c. / . oo-co e.

B epo o 1990 . oeco epepaaaeo e a HXʖypac poco c 3,1 . 1967 . o 12 . /. 1989 . poe poaco e epepaaaac ca e pax ecopoe: E yea, pea, Aa, Capp, a ae apca, paca pye e.

B epo c 1991 o 1995 . ocoo epepaaa pocccy, pacy, cpcy, yacy, eecy cy e. peoaaa poccca e, oeco oopo eec o 39 ( 1991 .) o 80% ( 1995 .). B epo c 1996 o 2002 . ocoo epepaaa pocccy copy cec, oeco oopo eoc peeax 8499,7%.

B ccepaoo paoe aec opo aa oeo epepaaaex ee, x o-xecx coc, paooo cocaa.

oaao e coc ee a exoo x epepao.

Bopa aa ocea paccope cop pa ypaccoo eexecoo oaa, o p pee o eo cpoece o paa poccco eo oae O˻.

B cepee 1958 . cocooc coeae, a oopo o oooeo peoee o cpoece copeeoo eeepepaaaeo aoa c ooo pooeoc 1 . e, oo CCCP. o peoee eo ocoy epaeceoo coae, ocaoo 26 eap 1958 caaa oapco copoo, a. Moce. CCCP p a ce oaeco oaa oap execy ooecy oo cpoece eeepepaaaeo aoa (o apa), a ae eoxox oeaocx oeo: peoo-exaecoo aoa, eoepoepa ooc 25 MB, aoo-copoo ca p.

27 ayca 1959 . Mcepc Coe HP p ocaoee 1340 oop aooe aae a cpoeco ooo aoa, a 5 op 1959 . a opeceo e o oeo o aae cpoeca aoa c. aeo.

14 op 1960 . Mcepc Coe HP p ocaoee 251 O yepe eoo poea ypaccoo Hǻ. B o e epo a co eeepepaaae aoe a capoa epx eexo oap.

4 ayca 1963 . eo op Poce ae oapc aep Ao ao c coeco e. epe e e aapa ycao Tao popo A-1 aa epy opcyy a epo e A-1. Beepo 2 cep 1963 . ep e.

cea oya 14 cep 1963 . peee Mcepcoo Coea HP eeepepaaHeexec oa ypac.

a ao epeeoa Heeepepaoa eex oap , ocoo, cocpeooe a ypacco eexeco oae, pae oopoo cooecoao po ee acao ecoo ao.

ep a oxaae epo c 1963 o 1975 . ca oaec ec pae poocex ooce. eac ooc o epepaoe e aaec ypoe pae eex.

pc. paa o-cxea a o epo opaea a.

a aaec eee cyaa ycao aocepo c e A-1 1963 . oce oo oao aye oca e ycao. Bcya cyaa ycao aocepo c e A-1 (1963 ., o cyaa 1992 .), A-2 (1965 .) A-(1970 .). oce ee pee ycao epepaoa oca 5,4 . /.

ae e cyaa ycao A-4 (1973 .) A-5 (1974 .).

1975 . oe epepao oc 9,68 . /.

Boc ceye ycao: aaecoo popa (P-1) (19641970 .) P-2 (1973 .); pooc O-1 (1964 .) poeo ooc 300 c. (oce peocpy 1977 . ee ooc yeac pc. o 400 c. ), O-2 (1970 .) poeo ooc 600 c. ( ) ( 1972 . ee ooc a oeea o 750 c. ), O-3 (1973 .) poeo ooc 800 c. /. O-4 (1979 .) poeo ooc 600 c. /.

o 1966- oa aeae co HXʖypac: ee cyaa ex xopaa; oye ep oapc ea;

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