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Finally we point out the presence of small potential spikes in the vicinity of the dipole observed in tight-binding simulations (Fig. 3, d). Macroscale descriptions of the negative EA for diamond often neglect these spikes, implying that conduction band electrons experience no barrier to transport into the vacuum. These spikes are associated with particular dipoles. Fig. 3, c shows analogous spikes in the potential profile obtained from continuum electrostatic simulations when continuous charge layer distribution interface/boundary conditions on surfaces corresponding to dipole layers are substituted by discrete point charge interface/boundary conditions.

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