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17__200814 Ġ002.223.02͠:199034,, .,.1.(812)3282941. Ѡ . ______________2008. .. ߠ۠ .. , .36%(,1999). , ,.  ,, ,, . .Ӡ ,. ,, , .. , ,. 19942008. (SylviidaeTurdidae), . ,,, , , ., , ,堖 ,. ., 堖, , .  : 1.. 2.帠. 3.. 4.. ,? 5., , . 6., . 7.. 8.,. . , .,, ,, 帠, , . , , . :.0,50% ,10%., ,.,, ,. , .,, . . . :, (Busse,1995),, . . . ., , ,. , 67. ,12BMR(,1995), ., . (),, . . , ,. , . , ,. ,, . ,( ), ,. , . , ,, . . ,. 1. 115, 2025. ,.. .  . :10%. :12 (),. , , ,., 2530%, ,. 2. ( ). . ;, ,( )., . , . ., 軠,: , . 3. , :(1);(2) ,;(3), ;(4) . ,,. . :23 (,2002.),24 (,2006.);2(,1999.),3 (,,2001.),4 (,,2003.),6 (,2007.);蠫100 (,,1999.),ESF 컠(,,2000.)蠫 ?(,,2005.),ESF (,,2005.), (,,1998.); 軠(I ,,2001.),XII (,2006.);, 100(,2001),IV (,2007.); ͠1998,2000,2003. .򠖠81;蠖68, ʠ頖31. .281,8 ,,405,345 .2428. ., ,.  蠫黠͠͠...  .., ..,..,..,..,..,..,..,.. ,..,..,..,..,... ... ,. ,... ͠.. ...,, ,. 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U ,, (LindheNorberg,2004)., :. ,, ..(1995),,, . ,( f=0,250,30,..,2530%) 蠫.,00,25), (19932006). 0,69%(n=29285)0,81%(n=44501) 0,69%(n=3938)19,4%(n=2750) 5,9%(n=2884)6,2%(n=3327) 1,5%(n=2890)14,3%(n=5967) 0,57%(n=1056)6,9%(n=2037) 0,38%(n=2121)1,8%(n=5502) 3.6.. 帠,, ,. , ,, ,.  (..8). ,() , ., ,帠.Ѡ, ( ),,帠 . 4.РȠŠ Ƞ 4.1.., (, ).,, ,. . 4.2.., , (Hutto,1985)., , ., 堖.,, ., ,,., 45, ,175190 .911 89186748. . :,, .: . ,,. ,, (Chernetsov,2005;Chernetsov,Mukhin,2006). (Chernetsovetal.,2004a). 4.3.. , ,, (Pienkowski,1976;Evans,Townsend,1988;Pfisteretal.,1998)., (Cantos,Tellera,1994;Merometal.,2000). , , .  ,,. 4.4.. (Thomsonetal.,2003;MettkeHofmann, Gwinner,2004).,, . , . ,; ,, (Mukhinetal.,2008). ,,(63% 91%),. ,. (), . : . , . 19992001.115,6%(n= 546)6.0%(n=801;2=33.4,p< 0,001).( ) .. 17(.,2005). ,,, ,. 4.5.. . .,,, 12 (Chernetsov,2005;ChernetsovandMukhin,2006;,2008). , , (,F10,97=6.85,F9,149=6,69;P<0,001). ( :P<0.008)(:P< 0.001). ,.. ., ,2. Ӡ,, (),.. 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() ,. ,, .   19941996.  , . ,., (), , ,. ⠖(.1).Ӡ (,z=2,37,P=0,018;z=2,20,P= 0,028). .Ƞ , . . ,,, . 6.4.. ,帠 . : ,. Ѡ 3342.6924 172(16114,).0,008 0,003()0,650,93(堠 ). ,, . (.4.5)., (posthoc:P> 0,05).,95%, 4320235622. (,t=0,94,P=0,38).  . 13,940 .97, 335.,, ., ,50%. 0,0100,315. 0,274,0,2,0. (,t=3,73,P<0,002). ,:0,0610,910, 0,421.(t= 2,65,p=0,017)..2 . 6.5.., . , 12, . . ,., ,40% .10%( ,t=7,9,P<0,05). ,.( ),, ,., ,,, , (,;Cochranetal.,2004;Muheimetal.,2006, 2007). 6.6.. ,, . , , (,,2003). (, ) ., , (,, ,),, . , ., .: ,, (,,);, ,(Clark,Mangel,1986). 7.ŠŠȠߠΠ˨ 7.1.., 1 (Moore,1987;Kerlinger,Moore,1989). , (,,)( ). , 45240,84 (n=60).Ӡ, ,94(n=36)., 12,260 (n=74)., 40%. ,,319 (83743,n=58)208(70450,n=42). (,z=3.69,P<0.001): 1,8. , ,., (.3).  (>18 )14%33%. 53,5,14%, ,7% . ., (), . . 7.2.. (,,), ., ,12,8(n=60). 03,35(1,29,SD=0,62). 21,61(Klaassenetal.,2000;.,,1971), 4,1(Bolshakovetal.,2003),3,651.  7,6(019,8). 13,7(n=36).0,144,62( 2,05,SD=1,06);12,1(0,827,3). 16,2(13,623,2, n=78).1,08 5,1., . ,, ., ,,堖 ,,, ,,,. 7.3.. , , ,. ,,, ,. (r=0.43,P=0.0008,n=58 ,r=0.50,P=0.0007,n=42)., ,( ), (Bolshakovetal.,2007). 7.4.., (Moore,1987;Kerlinger,Moore,1989), , (.7.1). , ,.Ӡ , ., ., (.4.4).,, . 7.5.. . ,, 10,512,4,11,7(n=18).1,1, ,(,t=6,31,P<0,001). 01,07,0,36. , ,11,012,7,11,9(n=6). ,,11,9(10,1 14,0,n=140).,, ,. , . (,,1999),,, ,,( 88%).,, 12, .,( ),, .,, . 7.6.., ,1012BMR(,1995;Berthold,2001). ,1012,. , , (,1995). ,, ., ,, ,,.Ӡ 1,1,23,76, 21,61(Klaassenetal.,2000). . 4,1,,,, .  5,801,7,1BMR. (6,8761,6,0BMR;Klaassenetal.,2000) ... (5.8:,1995), 3,65(.7.2). (,1995),,6,0BMR, .19,51(Bolshakovetal.,2003), 4,871. .,, 12BMR(,1995),9,751. ,67. ,, (1012 BMR),,. ..(1969,1971) . 8.ܠʠȠΠ˨:۠ȠȠ ՠ֠ 8.1.. (..2),FDRmax=2,17 BM0,34,BM,(Lindstrm,2003). 10,01,04( ,). 21,61 4,871(6BMR,.7.6), ,4,6. 4,1(Bolshakovetal.,2003), , ., 29,2,26,451 6BMR4,4. 0,72(Kirkwood,1983),堖0,67 (,1995)., ,0,05,.., ,. . (.2).,12 ,(.2.6). ,4 . 8.2.,. , , (3). 4. ,, ,. (2.6). . ,(.,) (Chernetsov,Titov,2001a;Chernetsovetal.,2007). , ,. ,,堖 ,,, (Schmaljohannetal.,2007). , 4:(1);(2) ,, ;(3),;(4) . : ( ),,. ,(, ).  ,,. () ,... , ,, . (頖11,214,6,n=60;11,617,0,n=36; 13,623,2,n=78;7.2). ,黠. ,(Bolshakovetal.,2007;Tsveyet al.,2007;Bulyuk,Tsvey,2006), (Richardson,1978;,1981),., , .., (,1975,.41).,, ., (),, . . 8.3.. . , .() ,(), ., ., . . ,.. ,., , ,(Bulyuk,Tsvey,in prep.)., .,, ,(Gwinner, Wiltschko,1978;Berthold1996)., , ,(Beck,Wiltschko,1988;Chernetsovetal.2008). ( ), . (Dolnik,Blyumental, 1967;,1975;Schaubetal.2004), (1981,Ernietal.2002). , /. ., ,, , (Chernetsov,2002a;Bolshakovetal.,2003). 8.4.. , (), , (;, 1988,1991,Sokolov,1997)., ,, . ,帠 . , (Bulyuk,2006). ()., .10, , ., ,. , (Bolshakovetal.,2007). , ,. , ,. ,.. ,. (Bolshakovetal.,2003,2003a). , . ., (Tsveyetal.,2007).  () . ., , (Dolnik,1990;,2001;Bolshakov,2002,2003;Raess, 2008). ۠ 1.115 (,), 2025. . ,(), . 2. .0,50%,10%. : 12, , . , . 3. . ,,. U : ..2530% ,,.. . 4. . . ,; ,,(.. )., ( ). 5. 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