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2 = = 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 3 = 3 3 3 3 2 = 2 7 2 k 1 R = R + R R, RR R R R 2 RR R R R R R RR = RR R = R { } R = R R { } = , { } = + , [{ R }] { R } R R = [ R +1, R - 1] - [ R, R ].

R R [{ R }] { R } ( ) = + ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } =. { } { } { } { } 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 (001) 0.04 2 k 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 (2 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 (, ) 3 3 2 2 2 (, ) { } { } ( ) k + = , = , k k = - k(R-R ) R R RR k ( ) R R R = - R. 1 R = R R - R R . R R R 2 R (2) = -, HF( ) - HF( ) 2 = = 3 2 = 2 7 3 3 3 3 3+ 3 3 3 c ab 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 = 2 7 2 2 7 2 2 7 3+ 2 2 7 3 2 1 2 6 1 2 2 7 2 2 7 1 2 2 7 3 3 = 3 3 3 1 1 3 a b c ab 3 ab b b 2 3 1 ab b 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 = 1- 3 > 0.3 RR = RR ex 3- ex RR /ex 0.5 1- 3 / 1- 3 / =0.5 R R R R R RR =cos cos +sin sin - ( - R ), 2 2 2 2 eR =(sin R cos R, sin R sin R, cos R) eR eR = -1 RR RR NC=1 NB=0 NC=1 NB=1 NC=1 NB=2 NC=1 NB=3 -2 -1 0 1 2 Energy 2 B 2 C B = C = 1 2 - 2 2 - 2 0.5 0.5 3 x =0 1 3 0 2 4 x =1/2 Density of States x =2/3 x =1/3 x =1/2 x =3/4 1 3 1 3 1 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 g = (0, 0, 0) X=( /, /, 0) N=( /, 0, / ) P=( /, /, / ) Z=(0, 0, 2 / ) 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 = 2, =1, =2 3.55 0.62 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 = 3 = 2 3 3 2 = 2 7 2 2 2 7 2 2 7 2 2 7 1 6 2 2 7 1 = 3 3 1- = = 3 =1/2 1- 3 1/2 3/2 4 2 2 2 2 2 = 2 7 3 2 3 3 2 3 = 3 - 2 3 3 2

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