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Ha npaax pyonucu

ECEEB Aecap ao OTEC ATBHE HEEBE EHTP B AMAAX: CETPOCO, CTPOEHE, BAMHA TPAHCOPMA, POCTPAHCTBEHHOE PACPEEEHE A o p e e p a ccepa a cocae yeo cee oopa o-aeaecx ay Ceaoc

01.04.07 - a oecpoaoo coco Eaepyp 2009 Paoa oea pee Poccco aae ay cye eoo epao . B.C. Cooea Cpcoo oee PAH Oae ooe: oop o-aeaecx ay, poeccop Caoo Mxa caao oop o-aeaecx ay, poeccop Hopo Aao Eeepe oop o-aeaecx ay, .ay.cop.

Cooo Bop ao Beya opaa: cy . .B. pecoo CO PAH, . pacopc aa cococ 20 op 2009 . 15 ac. 00 . a acea ccepaooo coea 212.285.02 o ae oopcx ccepa p O BO pac ocyapce exec yepce - e epoo peea Pocc .H. Ea ayop I aoo yeoo opyca.

Ba o oo epe, aepe epoo ea, poc apa o apecy: 620002, . Eaepyp, y.Mpa, 19, T-, yeoy cepeap yepcea.

C ccepae oo oaoc oee pacoo ocyapceoo execoo yepcea e epoo peea Pocc .H. Ea.

Aopeepa paoca ___ _______________2009 .

e cepeap ccepaooo coea 212.285.02 pacoo ocyapceoo execoo yepcea e epoo peea Pocc .H. Ea, poeccop, oop .-a.ay .. eo OA XAPATEPCTA PAOT Ayaoc e. Aa opaoa aoo yepoa, oop, a pe, epa oocc pye IV epoeco ccee: o pye yepo ee a ao oep aoy ep c aoo pcaeco peee. aoap oy aa poe p yax coc, oop oocc poa apeea oa (5.5 B) popaoc poo aaoe o o o aeo , peope ooc epoo po ( 2 p. e, e y Si), eopoooc (p oao eepaype 5 p.

e, e y e), paaoa exaeca pooc, xeca cooc.

Bce o eae aa peao epce pee exe, oe epoe pao o apae ao eyc. aea ac apaepo aaa opeeec pec, pee ceo aoo opo, ao oopx e e yepoy paep ooceo eo xo aa p poce. eo x coepae cocoe coyc aoee pacpocpaeo eco acca aao, e aa ec a aoe ( I) eaoe (II). Aa a II opaec, co oepe, a paec ecpece (IIa) coepae op (IIb). aeee eee a I opeeec cpyypo aox epo: aa c aoo ope oox aeax aoo, x ap oee cox oeco B1 co cpyypo N4V oocc oa Ib, IaA IaB, cooeceo. Cceaecoe yee oecax epo aaax ao eoc aa c 60-x oo XX ea paoax .O. ooa, . a, E.B. Cooea, B.C. Baoa, A.A. yca, .A. ea, .

ca, X. Haape pyx. B cepeax c oyee oo epoa aacoe oa pya ao-aacox epo.

Pao c py pec apyc eoooc yooo apoa. Opeee pop 80-x oax ca c papaoo ex cepxcox ae (CB) eoo oye ceecx aao, oooc apoa poecce poca, a ae c peee oo aa. oy epoy oocc ycaoee eeo ppo apaaoo epa W8 Caooe p. cce 1.40, 2.56 B cepax aooece paoax AH. epec 3d epexo eaa ca c oo copo, c x peee aece eaa-aaaopa p paa aao, a c pyo copo, c poo pacpocpaeoc x eeo ppoe. Ba opoca c, a paeaec py 3d o cpyype aaa, aoa po ececeoo coaaopa- aoa, o pocxo p oe aao e ocec ooopae eeo c yace 3d-eeo , aoe, a ee a ece/oece coca aaa.

aoap aoy ooy paycy e. py epexox 3d eeo eo oepa peee aaa oaaec acao oo paccapa eo a yo oe ee p ye aooepoce eeoopaoa c yace pyx epexox oo aae c epceo pacpocpae oyex aooepoce a pye o oo pa. poea pecaec ayao a c o pe yaeao ay, a pa exoo oye oopcao aaa, aax eo c aa coca. Ae a oec ae ep oycoe ooopae eoo oeco cepoco, oaxc, co papeee, oaoc yceoc, ecoa xapaepo, a ae oooc oye opa o oo oece eex epo: a c yo ypo, paoa a ep peoa, opac, a e (oy ocee apa). cooae P oece c oo ooe opee cpyypy epooe cocoe cooecyx epo.

e pao aa cceoa. e ccepaoo pao oe oece cce, cae c ee, ceecx ppox aaax, ycao oe aooepoc x opaoa ao pacopa p oe, opee cpyypy eex epo ycao po pecoo aoa, poaapoa pacpeee eex eeo o oey pcao, oce ocaeo e eoxoo poec po oec cepocoecx cceoa a ceecx ppox aaax pe ceye ocoe aa:

1. y cep ooe ece p pax oyex aaoe 4.2-700 ceecx aao (CA), oyex c cooae pax aaaopo c e e cep, oocec ee epa. poaapoa oeee eex cce p oxpoo oe aaoe 1400-2300C, ycao aooepoc ao pacopa pax epo. coy cep oye ece ocpo apa epeecx ypoe.

2. cceoa ee cepax acoc o eepayp, oecoo peeocoo oye c e ycao cce, oocec pa apo coco ooo oo e epa cya pacee (ocooo, oyeoo) coco.

3. poaapoa opy epoo-oeaex cepo eex cce paax eop epo-oooo aoec, oe cpeee oeco yacyx ooo (aop Xya-Pca S), pacca y pacpeee oeaeo ooc g(h). poec oepoae eepaypoo oee apaepo (p, ooe, ecoc) ecoox (), cpa c cepea a.

4. Opee cpyypy eex epo, coy P po aoa, ycao oppe ey oec apaa epa; ycao coooe, cae oecoe ooee oepa pec.

5. poaapoa oooc cooa oao oeco cepoco: acopoo oeaeo -ype cepoco ooao ooeceo () cepoco oye opa o ao pacopa pecx epo.

6. y pecaey oe ppox aao pax ecopoe Pocc, aa p., ycao ocoeoc oppoa/ pacpeee eex epo ppox ycox.

Oe cceoa:

Ceece aa paepo o 6 oye p eepaypax aaoe o 1250 o 1500C ae o 70 ap eoo eepaypoo paea a yxcyeax ooyacox ecpeccox aapaax CB a papea cepa aopaopx M CO PAH O ac (Moca). B aece aaaopo cooa pae oa 3d eeo, oo Fe Ni, yee oepa aoa aece eepa cooac Ti. Ha o e aapaype pooc HPHT o aao p cox aex eepaypax o 2300C. cceoac ppoe aa pax ecopoe y, paa, aa, Ap oe. E.B. Cooea (HX CO PAH), H.B. Cooea, H.. oxeo (M CO PAH) po.A. aa (y-e pco, A).

oco ppox aao eo oapecy opay, cceoa ae aa co ceao opao aa oooe. eoopx aao ooe ac, apaee pcaopaec ococe (110) (111) oax cceoa.

Haya oa 1. B aocoepax ceecx aaax epe eo ooe ceeco oec ax epo c yace e, cepeax o oxpooy oy opeee yco x opaoa aao ycooc.

2. Bepe oapye oo- peeoypoae ee cepax oecoo ooe P ceecx aao, cae c eee apooo coco eex epo.

3. caoeo, o oco paeo eex epo ooex ceecx aaax ec e o oo oyaac eoxo ycoe oopa eex epo ec pcyce aoa.

4. Bepe ycaoea oppe ey oec P ccea epo ceeca NE: epo (NE1-4, NE8) paoa a ep peoa/opac, oa a NE5-7 c epa axaa ocee apa.

5. Bepe peoe coooe, cae oecoe ooee c oepae pec aoee pacpocpaex epo NE1-NE3.

6. Bepe oapye aoo-aacoe ep NV0, NV- eoyex ceecx aaax, coepax e, oepe aaco exa ycope apepoa aoa.

7. oaaa oooc ye ao pacopa pecx epo, coy ooay aepy cepoco: p o cyeceo oaec eaoc opa ycpaec eoxooc oopax o HPHT opao;

8. eex epoo-oeaex cce epe pacca pacpeee ooo ooc g(h) oapye aoae oea oepeeco oac (h<70 B);

9. Bepe aoo-eee ep oapye ppox aaax;

acaa oepa pec ycaoea oace c oooo cpyypo, pocx o opaoy exay.

10. Bepe oapye eppoae ppox aaax.

Haya eoc pao. Haya aoc pao opeeec oeco oyex ccepa peyao. Ha ocoa cceaecoo cepeaoo cceoa copypoa ae ooe o, cooyoc oopx cococye pee yaeao poe pcao ycaoe aooepoce eeoopaoa oaex pcaax. Boee cceoa oc cyece a oae p ooopa aaex cepocoecx ocoeoce ceecx ppox aaax opeee po aoa p opaoa oex eeo c yace 3d eeo. oyee o e o xapaep a p poopoa oee pyx pcao pece.

paeca aoc 1. oyee ae o aooepocx xoe, pacpeee pacopa oex eeo c yace pyx oo e aae eoxoo ya p oope aaaopo poecce paa ceecx aao.

2. opa o eex epax aaax, x cpyype aooepocx oeoo pacpeee a cooaa poecce papao eoo paa pyx ceecx aao ecpeccox, ooyacox CB aapaax a APC Pocc ( CO AH CCCP-M CO PAH Hoocpce, O ac Moce pyx);

3. oyee ae o ycox opaoa aooepocx pacpeee/pacopa eeo oo paa aa c apaee aa coca: aopo, oepae, pacpeeee eex epo;

4. oyee ae o oec ax epax c yace e oo peo epapyae eo aoc apaeeca ea ecopoe eooeco pae, eo pae ppox ceecx aao.

5. oyee ae o aooepocx ao pacopa pecx eeo aae cooa p oooe yeoo oco eooo (o COPAH, y, 2004).

aaee ooe:

1. o e xo cpyypy oo py oec ax epo aaax, a ep, oecee a ece cce S2 S3 oecx cepax. Haop eex epo cooece c a o oxpooy oy ceecx aao opeeec yco opaoa oac ycooc pax eex epo.

2. ao eeo eex epo ceeca NE ooex CA ec e o oo oyaac c aoo aece oeoo oecaopa apa / paea cpyyp, oeco aoo aoa cpyype epo ocae epex. p oe pocxo aa pacopa eex epo coaco peoeo cxee.

3. e oepeece yx pacpeee oeaeo ooc g() oecx cepax ecoepax aao eppepyc a aoae oea c yace e;

4. Cep eex epo eepaypa acoc apaepo cooece c peyaa ceoo oepoa ocac paax eop epo-oooo aoec; pocex eex epo c opy aoa oea xapaep ycopee eepaype ceee, ypee yee .

5. Aa pocpaceoo pacpeee eeo cooeepaypx CA, o a oao ype ooao cepoco yaae a y aoa eocpeceo poecce pcaa ae eay opa o aooepocx ao pacopa pocex eex epo.

6. B cepeax o ee apooo coco o ece oo- peeocoo oye, oa CA ycaoea ooaa oppe ey oec apaa ee ccea ceeca NE. peoe coooe ey oec ooee oepae pec eex epo NE1, NE2, NE3.

7. Baaco exa ae a apepoae aoa pcyce e CA, o oaaec ae aoo-aacox oeco.

8. B ppox aaax eee ep oapye pcaax a IaB, a ae yox oax aao co ceao opao oooo cpyype aao oooe: o cex cyax pcycy coe aoo-eee oec.

a aopa. ccepaoa paoa ec oo ooee (c 19.) pao aopa cya eoo eo . 60-e CCCP (e cy eoo epao . B.C. Cooea CO PAH) cooec c aa HP cya. pecaee peya c ooee pao, oex o aopo copyece c py ye.

yee oecx coc epx ceecx aao poooc coeco c B.. Bc, peya aco o eo aacy ccepa (1988), e aop c ay pyooee. epe cepo P x eppea poee coeco c B.A. Hao ac peyao oa eo oopcy ccepa (1998). epe ao ocpoc oe coeco c B.H. opc.

Oa ocaoa aa cceoa, op ocox ye eoo x pee, aa ooaea eppea oyex peyao, opypoa aaex ooe oo ccepa oe o aopo. B paoax, oyoax coaopce, aopy paea peya, oope o copypoae aaee ooe o.

Paoa a oepaa:

Mcepco ay ( paax pao P 97-02-18503, 98-05-65283, 9905-64641, 00-05-65393, 02-05-64633, 02-05-65075, 04-05-64847, 05-05-64887), ac yaax pao aop c pyooee.

Meyapo ay oo Copoca (pa 1992 .), epac ay oo DFG (poe 96-02-00006), Ac ay oo Royal Society (pa 1998 2001 .) ya peyao pao. Ocooe coepae ccepa opaeo ayx paoax, o ce 30 cae eyx peepyex ocpax peoeoax BA pocccx ypaax, 15 cae aepaax cepocccx eyapox oepe, 1 oopa (yee).

Apoa pao. Peya cceoa, oex ccepa copypoae aaex ooex, oaac ocyac xoe cye a cecox, cepocccx eyapox ayx oepex, o ce II cecooe coeae o pooo oypooa, epa (1982), IV coy ecee eeop peopaoae peeocoo ye, pyc (1982), IV Bceco ceap ee cpyyp oypooo, Hoocpc (1984 .), XVI Bcecoa oepe o pocy pcao, axaop (1985 .), VII oepe o poecca poca cea oypooox pcao eo, Hoocpc (1986 .), Bceco ceap o P oeco cepoco eeo aaax, pye (1989), V cecooe coeae o opaoe aao, Coec (1989), XI AIRAPT, Kiev (1989), oepe epoe aepa, Hoocpc (1992 .), VIII Cimtec Wold Ceramics Congress (1994 .), IUMS-ICA-93, Tokyo (1993 .), II int. Conf. on the applications of diamond films & relative materials, Tokyo (1993), ICNDST- 4, III int.symposium on diamond materials, Hononlulu, Hawaii, USA (1993), Kobe, Japan (19.), II eyapoa o. o aa ea, Mc, eapyc (1994), All-China conference on crystal growth with int. participation (1994), AMPERE Congress (1994, 1996, 1998 .), eeoe eyapoe oepe Diamond (1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2006 .), ICAM-96, Warsaw, Poland (1996 .), XVI General Meeting of Int. Miner. Assoc., Pisa, Italy (1994 .), ceapoae oepe e pc: Royal Holloway (1998); Oxford (1998, 2001), Coventry (2009), Hyperfine Interactions 19(South Africa), 8th and 9th int.Kimberlite conferences (Canada, 2003; Germany, 2008), ICNDST& ADC, North Carolina, USA(2006), Gemmological Research conf., San Diego, USA (2006), eyapoa eooeca oepe IGC-2007(Moscow), 13 a. oepe o pocy pcao, Moca (2008), 14- eyapoa o.

Bcoe exoo poeoc Pocc, Moca (2008).

oyee ao paoe peya o eyapoe cpaoe a: A.M.Zaitsev, Optical data on diamond, Springer, Handbook, 1998, p.500;

Paramagnetic centers in diamond. Landolt-Boerstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, ed. C.A.J.Ammerlaan, 1988, Amsterdam, p. 69.

Cpyypa oe pao. ccepa coep eee, ce a, aee cco epayp. O oe ccepa cocae 310 cpa, o ce 171 pcyo, 26 a cco epayp 299 aeoa.

OCHOBHOE COEPAHE PAOT Bo Beeuu aa oa xapaepca ccepa, oocoaa ayaoc e, copypoa oe e opee aa cceoa, oaaa aya oa paeca aoc oyex peyao, oe ocoe aye ooe pao, oce a ay, a ae yaa a aopa.

epa aa uccepmauu npecmaem coo aaumuecu umepamyp oop, noce uoeu npecmaeu o npuecx moex eemax cmpymype aaa aay onucax paome ucceoau, m.e. aay 80-x oo XX ea.

B ee ox e pooc cceoa aao opaac ppo opaa c eec yco opaoa. Paa oc paoopae x cocax, o ce ax ece, apa cpyype aaa. Poepco, oc Map 1934 . oaa, coy peeocpyyp aa, acc-cepoco oecy cepoco, cyecey po aoa pae aa o coepa aoa a a a ( I II). B 1959 C Copo, coy oo o oc eo P, oaa, o ao pcycye aae e oox aeax aoo. Cooe coa, cooca peeo-cpyype, oece ae P oaa, o oco ppox aaax c pye ep a ocoa ax o cpyype apaax poyo apepoa x aox eeo c paao (aac) epoa x a ap aoo aoa, ep A.

epa oa cceaa oocex (oe ec) cce oeepaypx oecx cepax ppox aao a ceaa .ooo 1966. aee cepe o oye oy ppox aao oo Cooey, cy p. epoa ac oecx cce a aacoe aoo-aacoe ep. C papaoo ex CB eoo oye ceecx aao aac opo a ye cpyyp eeo eeoopaoa aae. ac, peo p., oa oao p cox aex eepaypax (HPHT) ppoe ceece aa a I, oaa, o ooopae eeo ppox aaax aeo epe oycoeo poecca apepoa oooo aoa p epeco aa eo y. o oaao, o poecc apepoa aoa a aax C A A B1 ee opo opo o oepa aoa xapaepyc ep aa 5,0 6,5 B, cooeceo. o yaao, o ep B1 c oee co ao eea, coepa epe aoa aoa, o oepeo a Bo P. eeo p. oaa, o p HPHT oe ao-coepax ceecx aaax apy c epa A Boc ae xopoo ece ppox aao ep S2, S3, N3 p.

apaa ep N3 epoa epaoo p. a N3V, cpyypa ocax epo a oe oe pao a eoo.

pyx pece aae aoee ec op, oop eo xo aay peey oeae a oyy opacy oypoooe coca (p) aao a IIb, a ae oopo pe. oee ooo epa p cee c cooae e aece eaa-aaaopa o acpoao oepo; eea ppoa epa (W8) oaaa Caooe p. o CTC o Ni c I=3/2. oee co p. ooao epoa apaa ep W8 c S=3/2 a o e aeae o; cpyypa yx pyx apaax epo, NIRIM1 NIRIM2, oa eca. B aocoepax aaax c W8 cac p cce c 1.883, 2.51 3.1 B cepax ooe, oa a eaox opye ec ccea 1.B. Heea ppoa epo ece 1.40 2.56 B oepea cepeax o oo aa Ni+ ppo aa a IIa yco p., a cyae epa 1.40 B ae oo cpyypo o 5 cax ooo Ni paoax Haape p.. e aeae eyyeo o eco pya poee ab initio pace, oaaa oooc pax apox coco, o peya o ooe ycooc epo cao coacyc. acoey pee oooc opaoa pocox cpyypx eeo oaaa oaa eoa oeco cepoco P, a ae Ti, Cr, Zn (p oo aa). Oapye cyecee ee oecx cepax p HPHT opaoe.

Ha ocoe oo, eax aaa epaypx ax, oe a 1 copypoa e acoe ccepaoo pao ocoe aa, oope eoxoo pea ee oce. aae e aa pee ocapye ac aopeepaa.

Bo mopo ae onucamc emo uyeu moex eemo aaax, ucnooae paome.

B paax acoe pao p ye oex eeo aaax cooac e py eoo, ooeo apeoeoae ce p ye pyx pcao: oeca cepoco ae eo.

Oeca cepoco ae oecoe ooee, ece p pax ax oye, a ae epoaaoy cepoco.

Mae eo a ce P ay ocpoc.

oeaea cepoco cooaa oye opa pee ceo o coco oepa pecoo aoa e C, C+, A B1 epo.

poe oo, a oaa ayco p., 1998 ceecx aaax oa Cepo ec cece epeoca epoa a epexo ea ecoc C+ oe cooaa oe coepa epexox eao, acoc e.

Acopoo-ecea cepoco: B opooooo oac e cep aao peca coo ye poy cpyyppoay oocy oeaex oope. Ca epo-oooo aoec (B) xapaepyec aopo Xya-Pca: aaa eo ae c poeyo ey P oa (caoe B, opy epexo) eoo-ao pcaa (coe B, poe eccpyype ooc). opa cepo ocaec eope B, pao 70-x oax pooo ea paoax Mapaya, ea, Peae, pcoe p., oop peyao o aaa a paoe ca (1981).

B paax eop B epooc epexoo c poee ooo n>1 ooo c acoo ey pee ac pae:

I1( ) = Ce-S (n( ) +1)g( ) / (1) max In ( ) = D d I1( )In-1( - ) n>1 (2) - max e C- ocoa, aa ape ee epecoo ooo oea, max- acaa acoa oea pee, g()-y ooc coco, aop oe-ea n()=[exp(h/kT)-1]-1 opeee pacpeeee ooo o ep.

Cpeee co yacyx ooo S(T) (aop Xya-Pca) acoc o eepayp paaec a cya o ce ooa c acoo :

max S(T) = g () (2n()+1)/2 d (3) p a aa o apaoo epo-oooo aoec ep epexoa pa ecooo caoc ac o eepayp. B pe, o ep apaoo aoec poopoa apay epo, ocax eoe aoece, apaep ecooo (pa, ceee ecoc) ac pae:

max (T) = d (g())2 n() (n()+1) (4) max E(T) = d g()(n()+1), (5) 1 ( ) I(T) ~ e-2M, e 2M = d 2n( ) + 1 (6) h2 Aa cepeax cepo ooe oe S, occao y ooc coco g(). o ope g() oo ycao oea, oope yacy epexoax a ao peco epe, oy opa o cpyype epo pacca eepaype acoc apaepo , cpa acoc c cepea. ep oea opeec acca oexc aoo/oo eea eao ca, oope oya oea. yee ecoc ooe/ ece pax epo acoc o eepayp paa HPHT oa ooe oya ey opa o ycox opaoa ycooc cooecyx eeo.

Tepoaaoo cepoco eceo ooo apaax (pe epocypoax ece, TC, oa, TCT) cooaac e opeee coco epo c ypo ooo o poooc aeo o, paoax a ep axaa ocee apa. x apaep oeac, coy eo aaoo paopa o eo AooaPoaocoo.

P cooac opeee oepa cpyyp oex eeo.

Pace apaepo cepo pooc c cooae opaa cooo aoaa, paoo Apaao . B oe cyae c-aoa ee :

H= H1 +H2 + H3 + H4 +H5 + H6, (7) e H1 = gzz H Sz + gxx H Sx + gyy H Sy - eeaocoe aoece, z x y i i i i i H = zz yy y 2 (A IzSz + Axx IxSx + Ai I Sy ) - cepxooe aoece, Ocae e oca epoe eeaocoe aoece, epoe apyooe aoece, c-opaoe aoece oy cpyypy cepa, oycoey oe o-o aoece ey apaa epa. aaa CTC a oyea opa o yac pacooe cpyype apaaoo epa aoo c eye a oeo pa (13C, N). cepeaa aaa cocoa axoe apae e ax ae cepx eopo 2 paa g A.

Maa ocpoc xapaepye c aaeoc eeca c a oe H o eece. opeeec cocao cpyypo oo coee oe cyae pecae coo cyy epex ooe:

= + + (T ) + (H,T ), (8) d p f vV e epe a ea (aeeoc aae d Ba-eoc apaaeo vV ) opeec coepeo aao ape. ocee a ea ca c apa- eppoaeo, cooeceo, xapaepy ee.

ooea p ac o eepayp cooec aoo p opeeec cyap apaa ao aoapx eeo aopaepx eppoax e. ooea f oycoea e paepo oee 10 , coepa ee c ecoecpoa co; ae oe o ex yopoe. paee ooe cceoac eepaype oee acoc ao ocpoc .

B ae 3 onucaa ucnooaa annapamypa onmuecux u aumx uepeu, amae emo noyeu cumemuecux aao u omopa npupox.

Cep ooe oye p 300 , coy ype cepoep Bruker Vertex-70 c pocoo Hyperion 2000. B ooooo oac oyee cep paaac a ooe C, A, C+, B1, B2;

oepa aoa opeeac coy oepe oe. Cep ooe aaoe o o eo oye p eepaypax aaoe4.2-700 , coy cepoep UV2501PC (Shimadzu) Cary 23(Varian) c popcaa pocaa. Cep ece ye p peeoco oooye (P, , cooeceo), coy ycao a ae paox ooxpoaopo MP1, MP2, C24 p oye pa ao aep co cea, a ae o peeoco ycao ooc 1 B. oae epe pooc, coy ooae aepe cepoep Renishaw Ramascope c poo ee pocaa Oxford Instruments. pe epocypoax ece poooc (TC, TC) oye c ocoo copoc apea ooo pa/ aaoe 4.2-800 .

Cep P oye X Q-aaoax aco, coy cepoep E109Varian, c ooepo, eepayp pcaa. p epe ao ocpoc cooa eo apae yo eo. B epo cyae cooaac ycaoa coceoo ooe c aaoo 78300 o eepaype a oe o 10 ; o opo cyae cooac SQUID aoep MPMS-5S p Quantum Design(5300 ,30 ).

Ceece aa paepo o 1.5 apaa, cceoa oye ex (oee 100 ac) cepeax, coy ooyacoe ecpeccoe aapa CB a papea cepa, papaoae M COPAH. Te e aapa cooac HPHT oa aao p eepaypax o 2300 C.

cceoac ppoe aa ecopoe y, paa, aa, Ap oe HX M CO PAH. oax epe ac aao ooe ac, apaee ococ (110) (111).

B emepmo ae npuomc peymam ucceoau cumemuecux aao (CA), noyex c uee cocmae amauamopa, emoau onmueco acopuoo u uecemo cnempoconuu.

B aoaox CA, oyex c Ti aece eepa aoa, ooe opye C c 1.40 B. ec ox cce aac cepax aocoepax CA. Ha pc.1 pee oeepaype cep p pao oye (a-) ooe () pocox HPHT ceecx aao oce HPHT oa. Ha Pc. 2 pee eepaype acoc ecoc ocox cce cepax , oyee p oxpoo oe 20 y aaoe 1450-2300C. Aa acoc o eepayp oa ooe e p ocoe py cce:

I: Cce pocox CA, ceae aee p oe.

II: Cce, oec oce oa ooo1600C, o ocaec o ecoc ceae ooc p oe ooo 1900C.

III: Cce, oope oc oce oa ooo 1700C ycac oce aeeo oa p 2000C.

ooe aooepoc poceac cepax ooe CA.

a Pc. 1. Cep p oye 325 (a), 488 (), 632 () ooe () pocox (pe 1) ooex p 1700C (2) 2000C (3); a ae 7 pax eepayp oa aaoe 1450-2300C ooe ().

Cpe oaa ooee , pee -oeaee oope.

Cep peeo- aooece (P, ) a opao oee ey opa o ee epa: x cpyc oo ep c 1.40 2.56 B pocox CA (pya I), o c coo yceoc pecppyc aoo-aacoe ep NV0 (2.155 B), N2V(2.463), N3V(2.985).

Oco aao eepayp (1500-1800C), e aaec pacopa eex epo, cooecye eepaypa, e ee eco y oopoo aoa (ep C) eo apepoae ap C A: peoaaec apepoae pec opaoae/pacopa aoo-eex oecax.

Peoace poecc ooe coaee aac epo c 1.40, 1.562, 1.715, eoopx pyx. yee eepaypo acoc ecoc o eepayp aaoe 4.2-400 K oaao Pc. 2. Teepaype acoc pax oeepaypx cepax . pa ao ooee (B) oecx cce.

ox epo pcyce ecox ooe o oypoe, axoxc epeco paoec - o peya pacee eo oyeoo coco p E aaoe o 4.7 o 120 B. Paceee ocooo coco ee eco oo cyae epo 1.40, 2.56 (pya I) epa c pyo ooo 1.88 B (III).

Aa cepo oye ece pax oo occao cep ooe pax epo, ocpo apa epeecx ypoe: 13 aoee pacpocpaex epo o pee a Pc. 3. Cyecoae ecox oyex coco ycaoeo aoee cox epo py III, epo py I-II oyee opa o epxx oyex cocox apyeo -a coo ooe oopoo aoa. C coco c xapaepe epo 1.66 (7), 1.704(8) 1.882 B (13). yaee epexo e eco oo c x oyex coco. ee ao peee aaa cooepeec oo cep (hac=168 B) po coy oooooy ye ece aae peyae epexo c epe eee 0.8 B pocxo peyeceo eyaeo.

Pc.3. apa epeecx ypoe o a CB/ ooe ocox eex epo py I: c 1.40(1), 2.56(2), 1.534(3), 2.07 B(4);

py II: 1.27(5), 1.58(6), 1.66(7), 1.704(8),1.72 B(9) py III: 1.562(10), 2.369(11), 2.535(12), 2.495(12) pya ooo 1.88 B(13). Cpea oaa yaee epexo p 5 .

y pacpeee oeaeo ooc g(), occaoee paax eop B, pee ocox C a Pc.4. pocex eex epo (py I-II) xapaep ye c h<70 B c oco acya aaoe 25-60 B. pee aaa c ocoo ooc coco aaoe 80-168 B (Pc.4a, cep 1) eppepyc a aoae oea () c yace ex oo Ni. o epe ycoe epo ycaec a oea aao pee cceax py III ocee opy, a oepeecx peepeo a. ae Pc.4. y pacpeee oeaeo ooc aaa (1) pax cce : 1.534 (2), 1.704 (3), 1.66 (4), 1.715 (5), 2.07 (6), 1.883 (7), 1.40 (8), 2.56 (9), 2.495 (10) 1.562 B (11).

aopa Xya-Pca coca S1 cyae a-, o yeaec o 5 oee cya (pya III). ep hQL pa peoacoo a hQL aoax oea, eeo c e aoa pec MI >> MC, opeec coooe:

MC = MC / 3(nM - MC ), QL: D I = (9) QL D 6 nM - MC I e hD (B) ec epe (acoo ea) aaa n -oeco aoo pec, yacyx . Oe apaepo pax o cpyype epo pee Tae 1. Ocoeoc cyae ex aoo ec caoe B (e ae S), ae ep hQL aaoe 24-45 B ye oeaex oope, p oopx (o 6 o 20 B) cpa c pea aaax. oea c ao epe 26 epe 1.534 B cac c oeaeap aoo e.

Taa 1. Pacee ae apaepo c yace e aae Ni- ep ooa pa a Coepae coepa hQL, B hQL, B pec 3d pae 1Ni 44 20 Ni 2Ni 29.2 8.9 2Ni 1Ni+2C 35.7 13.3 Ni 2Ni+4C 24.2 6.1 2Ni Paaoa pa aaax cocae ooo 10-3 B, o eec cyece a eoopooo ype: peaa pa oeepaypx cepax aoaox aao cocae ooo 10-2 B, aocoepax (>100 ppm) aaax axoc a ypoe 1-5 B. opa ec poeyoo ey opeeo ayccoo a y oa c coooee ooe /~0.5 (oo xopoo ocaec opeeo ye). p a aa o apaoo B ep epexoa pa ecooo caoc ac o eepayp. Moepoae op C eepaypx acoce apaepo c cooae oyex eex epo ae S a y g() oaao ycopee ype, cee ye c oee eepayp cce, oocxc pya I-II o cpae c ccea py III, a ae ec aoo-aaco epa. B Ta. 2 cypoa cepocoece apaep o a , CB ooe ocox eex epoooeaex cce. B cao pao ooe pee aeoa cooecyx cce P.

paecx pee ee aee eepaypoe oeee epao ecoc . caoeo, o oca eex cce ee eco coe yee c oee eepayp o oao.

cee coca p cce py III c 2.369, 2.495 2.535 B, oope e e ye o eepayp ~ 700 . Bpeea ayxa oaeo oca eex epo oaac ocaoo o (-pocey aao) oo yx cce e , 1.40 1.562 B, coca 33 27 ce, cooeceo, oocc epoo epexoa. B c c ya eo oec coca aaa poeea oea aaa c ee epa a ao cpe epecpaaex epoex aepo, paoax oeaex oocax o 4xypoeo cxee. p 1.5-2 paa oe pe oeaeo ooc cepax o cpae c F2+:KCl (77 K) oe yce oepeoe ceee cypoaoo ye oaac eex epo 5-7 pa e cyae cpx epo 1.40 1.562 B a 5 opo e cyae eex epo a 2.495 B (S3, S2). Ocoo poeo pee aece ao cpe ec eepaypoe yee cpx epo ooee oyeoo coco eex epo 2.369, 2.495 2.535 B, e oepex eepaypoy ye (E. epepa p.,1993).

B aaax, ooex p T>1700C, oapye ooypoae ee cepax ooe oce oye: ocaec ooe 2.495 B oc e oe cce c 2.242 2.267 B, Taa 2. Toa cpyypa cce cepax ooe/CB ceecx aao p 77 .

ooece () Cep oye ece ooe L ep S Cep ep ooo (B) S Ce- py P (B) () ooo e (B) () ooee pox ooc p a h (B) (B) 2.666 464.8 Td 3.120 397.3 I W2.563 483.5 3.104 399.2.561 483.8 3.093 400.2.560 484.1 3.078 402.2.558 484.4 21 3.065 404.4 79 B 2.510 494.0 16.5 B Td I 1.914 647,5 C2v I 1.906 650.1.884 657.8 65 1.8843 657.8 61 B 1.403 883.1 C3v C3v I NIRIM1.400 884.8 63, 160 1.4008 884.8 63, 160 B 1.220 1016 64, 113, 152, 164 B I 2.971 417.1 108 3.7 poa ooca E>3.0 B, c II 2.962 418.5 91,135 [83] ac.a 3.7 B 2.468 502.2 43 1.9 II 2.071 598.6 54 0.8 2.298 539.5 31, 50 B 1.6 II 1.990 622.8 59 1.990 622.8 50 B, ooca 2.18 B II 1.939 639.4 59 II 1.720 720.7 31 1.2 1.720 720.7 29 B 0.7 II NE1.715 722.7 1.715 722.1.693 732.2 50 B Po. I, II C2v 1.704 727.4 58 0.4 Tp. 2.532 489.6 65 B 6 II 2.404 515.5 35 B, ooca 2.65 B 2.1.660 746.9 58 1.7 Moo. 2.428 510.6 50 B 2.5 Tp. II I oo.

CB/ooee L ep S Ce- ep ooo (B) S Ce- py P (B) () ooo, p (B) () ooee pox ooc (B) p -a (B) 1.578 785.7 57 0.6 2.009 617.1 48 B 2.3 II 1.987 623.1.534 807.8 65 2.1 1.864 665 ooo cpyyp e, II 1.508 821.8 1.693 732 ooc 2.1, 2.32 2.36 B 1.413 877.2 54 3 1.941 638.5 55 B, ooca 2.13 B 3.7 II 1.685 735.4 39 B, ooca 1.85 B 1.276 971.4 47 1.3 - - poe ooc 1.90 2.21 B II 2.596 477.5 33, 74 5.7 Tp. 3.380 366.7 32 B, ooca 3.5 B 3.5 III NE2.535 488.9 36 2.596 477.5 28 B, ooca 2.8 B 2.495 496.7 41, 72 4.8 2.618 473.4 28 B, ooc 2.9, 3.65 4.5 III NE3.87 B 2.369 523.2 40,72 4.4 Tp. 3.610 343.3 100, 191B,ooc 3.4, 3.8 2.6 III NE2.589 478.8 29 B, ooca 2.78 B 2.2.243 552.7 33 1.0 III 1.921 645.1 40 III 1.882, 658.6, 2.427 510.8 88 B, ooca 2.65 B 3.1 III 1.854, 668.7, 1.80 etc 688.1.770 700.3 40, 62 1.1 III 1.738 713.4 37 III 1.647 752.7 45 2.749 450.9 42 B, ooca 3.0 B III 1.928 642.8 42 B, ooca 2.19 B Moo. II, 3.219 385 ooc 1.77, 3.0 3.3 B 3.0 III NE1.562 793.6 40, 70 3.3 C2 1.562 793.6 33, 71, 155 B 4.oaec o ee cepy eepa. Aa cepa eepa ooe ca ccey 2.267 B c ooa epo 2.495 B (S3). ooe ee pocxo p peeoco oye, oopoe cao e eeppye ox eeo aae. B aaax, oepaxc oye epoa 3.5 MB c ocey oo p 900C, cpyec ooee aoo-aacox epo NV- ccee 1.945 B, NV0(2.155), N2V0(H3, 2.463) N2V-(H2, 1.257). B ooee ea, oca e eex epo acpoa oopeee ee pae copo epeax cepax apax1.945/ 2.155 B 2.463/1.257 B, oepae eeec epaype oecee cce pa apo coco ooo oo e epa ao cyae.

B cepax ooe pocox CA c aoo ope oox aoo aoa (C, NS0 C+, NS+) ap (A) epeax cepax poe ee pox oocax C A epo acpoa 1344 1332 c-1 ooo aa (opaeoo). o yaae a yeee oepa oox aoo aoa a epao, a ooao (+1) coco p X-oye.

Moo peoo cyecoae peeo apooo cocoe oo epa, aoee epoo N- py pepo ooapoo epa aaax ec, a eco, aac: ee oo coco V-, V0, V+.

Hoeepaypoe oo- X-oyee CA copooac oae ac pecx epo c oaae ocee apa a ex oyax.

pocox CA xapaep epocypoao ece (TC) aaoe 200-380 , e 230 caec c apee opo p cee, coo oopoo c epaece ea apayp. oce HPHT oa ca TC cpyec aaoe 130-750 c oco a 130, 160, 360, 600 710 . Aa cepaoo cocaa cee TC yaae a peoa a epax 2.56 B pocox CA a epax 2.369+2.495+2.535 B ooex CA. p T<350 K peoa pocxo aco o yeoy exay, a oopoo pace c oee eepayp ae, o ocec yeee eoaa oox y cooecyx epo axaa. Aa cepaoo cocaa yeo ece (T) oaae, o a epo ae T pocxo epexo a ypoe oyeoo coco epa peoa. Aa cepao acoc eoc aaca ceocy ceecye, o eex epo c 2.369+2.495+2.535 B ypo oyeoo coco pacooe ooo a o poooc (e aee 0.2 B).

Teepayp aao TC aeo epe opeeec yacy epa peoa, oope ca coe eepaypoe yee pocox aaax coxpa co xo o T~700 K- ooex aaax.

p coo oepa pecoo aoa (ecoo co ppm) ee eco aeoe yee , P TC ceecx aaax.

B nmo ae npuomc peymam ucceoau cumemuecux aao emoo P.

B pocox aocoepax aaax CA opye opo e ec ep W8, epoa coe p (1990) a Nis. cepe o oo- opyey oye pocox CA oaa ee oepa Nis oopoo aoa Ns0 poooox apaex, o yaae a po aoa a oeoo oecaopa apa e: eo ao peocae e ooe epo. o payc e aeo peae paep o yepoa ep Nis xapaepyec co eopae. B CA, ooex p T ooo 1500C oapye o ep NE4, e e aae o oo aac ( oo oyaac o ycoec epoo Si, e ooe ep aac Macepco, 1971). cepe o oye oaa oooc epeap epa, pe ooe epo, ea ep apaa epec ae c oopoo aoa. Cpyypa NE4 oaaa a Pc.5 (a,).

a Pc.5a. Moe e-coepax epo co cpyypo oo oyaac aae: a eeapy ey c poyepoa aa. aepea ococ (332), oopo axoc ao e a 3-6.

Pc.5. To e poe a ococ (110) : yce o yepoa oaa a apa. Ao e pacooe ey x eo ec ao poyepoa 1-6. Ooe py apa ea ococ pcya, oa a oe py cooecy aoa, oope axoc a pacco a0 / 2 2 e e o ococ. ypa oaae ococ (111) opa e, oce opeee apaee e apacae pa ceope oapa.

yee CA, ooex p oee cox eepaypax oaao, o p o ee eco oceeoe aeee opyax e aoo yepoa a ao. p o ep NE4 ec ao paeo ooo ceeca aoo-eex epo, e aeaec o 1 o 4 o yepoa. Aa CTC o N oo epoa ep c 2 aoa aoa ox 1,2 3,4 (NE1 NE5, cooeceo), c 3 aoa aoa ox 1,2,3 1,3,4 (NE2 NE3), a ae c 4 aoa aoa ox 3-6 (NE8). apaep CTC eex epo aaax pee Tae 3. Bce ep, peee Tae e c S=1/2. B NE4 cooec co cxeo a, Byyp, 1962 oapecoo opye c poa caee opa pe paceec a opa ye opa ce. ec epoo e e a opaoae oaex ce c ec a aoa yepoa, epe ocaxc epoa ao ye, oa a apaae oycoe ooe epoo c oopoo aoa (oypa 3d4+e). B cooec c o cxeo epoe oypa poox o NE4 epo 3d6+e NE NE5, 3d7 NE2, NE3, NE9 3d8-e NE8. ep NE5-NE7 aac oo oce peapeoo X-oye. ep NE6 ec co ee, NE7 coep o ao aoa. Cxea a Pc.6 oaae oceoaeoc pacopa eex epo poecce apepoa pece aae.

Nis- (Td, W8) Niv-v (C3v or D3d, NE4) + Ci + e+N Niv-v N (NE7) +N +N +N +N Niv-v N21,2 Niv-v N21,5(?) Niv-v N21,3 (?) Niv-v N23,(C2h, NE1) (C1h, NE5) +N +N +N +N Niv-v N31,2,3 Niv-v N31,5,6 Niv-v N31,3,4 Niv-v N31,3,4(?) (C1, NE2) (C3v, NE9) (Cs, NE3) +N Pc. 6. oceoaeoc pacopa eex epo Niv-v N43,4,5, poecce apepoa pece aae. ep co ao (?) (Cs, NE8).

oa e oapye (ooo, eapaa).

Taa 3. apaep c-aoaa Ni-coepax epo c S=1/2 aae ep g-aop CTC, c CTC, c CTC, c CTC, c CTC, c CTC, c 1-o 2-o 3-o 4-o 5-o 6-o NE1 g1=2,1282 * A1(N)=20,9 A1(N)=20,9 A1(13C)=17,4 A1(13C)=17,4 A1(13C)=17,4 A1(13C)=17,A2(N)=14,3 A2(N)=14,3 A2(13C)=11,2 A2(13C)=11,2 A2(13C)=11,2 A2(13C)=11,g2=2,007,=14o A3(N)=14,5 A3(N)=14,5 A3(13C)=11,2 A3(13C)=11,2 A3(13C)=11,2 A3(13C)=11,g3=2,09NE2 g1=2,1301* A1(N)=21,0 A1(N)=18,7 A1(N)=1,75 A(13C)=11,2 A(13C)=11,2 A(13C)=11,A2(N)=14,2 A2(N)=11,8 A2(N)=3,5 p HII[100] p HII[100 p HII[100] g2=2,010,=14o A3(N)=14,1 A3(N)=12,5 A3(N)=2,g3=2,09NE3 g1=2,0729* A1(N)=16 A1(N)=6,65 A1(N)=6,A2(N)=12,4 A2(N)=5 A2(N)=g2=2,010,=7o A3(N)=11,5 A3(N)=5 A3(N)=g3=2,04NE4 g1=2,0227, [111] g2=2,0988, g3=2,09NE5 g1=2,0329* A1(N)=12,2 A1(N)=12,2 A1(13C)=41,4 A1(13C)=41,A2(N)=9,8 A2(N)=9,8 A2(13C)=25,8 A2(13C)=25,g2=2,0898,=29o A3(N)=9 A3(N)=9 A3(13C)=24,9 A3(13C)=24,g3=2,04NE8 g1=2,0554* A1(N)=10,7 A1(N)=10,7 A1(N)=10,7 A1(N)=10,A2(N)=8,5 A2(N)=8,5 A2(N)=8,5 A2(N)=8,g2=2,1722,=28o A3(N)=8,5 A3(N)=8,5 A3(N)=8,5 A3(N)=8,g3=2,04NE6 g1=1,9g1||[100], g2=2,00g2||[011] g3=2,0109, NE7 g >2,00A 6 - Ni-s g=2,0319 A(Ni)=6,5 AII(13C1)=13,39 A1(13C2)=3,82 A2(13C2)=2,72 A3(13C1)=2,A(13C1)=3,*- g1|| [110], =(g2, [110]). ooe ao opeec oepa cooec c Pc.5a 5. AC AN-ae A aoo C 14N, cooeceo.

e aaoo oecx cepax (Pc.1) apaax epo c ycaoeo cpyypo (Ta.3) pecaee ap pcao c pa aopo epo cceoac apaeo P oec eoa;

aapoac ee ecoc cao oe P p oo- Xoye eepaype acoc peaca p aee oe.

Ta opao, a ycaoea oppe ey epa NE1, NE2, NE3, NE8 epa ece c 2.495B (S3), 2.535, 2.369, 1.562 B, cooeceo.

Aa eepaypx acoce peaca cao NE5-7 oce oye oo ca x c oya ocee epoo, poc e o p 600, 150 130 , cooeceo. a p., 1998 oaa cooece ey apaa epo NE4 cceo c yeo 1.715/1.720 B cepax . epoae o P ep pax py (I-III) oepa oe ee p pacopa eeo poecce oa ay po pecoo aoa.

caoee oppe ey apaa oec epa oo peo coooe oe oepa Ni o ecoc cooecyx aoee pacpocpaex epo NE1-NE3:

NEN= k (2.618 B) 0.51016 [c-3] = = k (2.618 B) 0.03 [ppm] NEN= k (3.380 B)0.41017 [c-3] = k (3.380 B) 0.22 [ppm] N= k (2.596 B)31017 [c-3] = k (2.596 B) 1.7 [ppm] NEN= k (2.589 B)0.41017 [c-3] = k (2.589 B) 0.23 [ppm] e N-oepa eeo c-3 ppm ( oepa oo e Ni+) kecoc ooe (c-1) o cepa, epe p 80 c papeee ooo 1.3 B ( 0.2 - 0.3 ).

a eco, pcyce e aae cyeceo ycope apepoae aoa C A a (1998), ep ayco (1998 caa peooee o aacoo eyyeo exaax ycope, oao oy o cx op e o cepeaoo oepe. Bpaax acoe pao eoyex CA, coepax e, oapye aoo-aacoe ep CA: ccea 1.9B, 638 , cooecya NV- cepax , ccea 2.155 B (575.0 , NV0) cepax peeoece, a ae apaae ep W15 (NV-) W(NVN+). ecy exaa ycope c:

1. Meyye exa. Nis- NE4 + Ci, Ci + N Ni, Ni + N N-N+Ci 2. Baaco exa. NE4 Nis- + V, V + N VN NV N+V, 3. copea y N+ yooco oe opaeo apex ecoepax epo (Nis-, NE4, NE1, NE5).

Mooopae cce oecx cepax aao, coepax ao e, ocec cey ocoeca:

1. o Ni oy aa pae o aao peee: eyyey (Nii), aeay ( NiS) o oo oyaac (ep NE4);

2. Ao e a po-paee oop D aeop A, cooeceo, co opaoa oopo-aeopx ap oee cox oeco, c yace o 4-x aoo aoa; cepocoece ocoeoc epo opeec a pacooee ooe. ee eco oep, a cyae aooeex oeco NE1 NE5, NE2 NE3 ..

3. ooe aoo-eex oeco oy axoc pax apox cocox: (-1, 0,+1) aoa o 0 o (+2) Ni.

4. o aao c ao epa NOC1-3 ooo cyecoa oeca epexox epo, e ooe (A D) ee axoc a eoopo pacco py o pya.

B ecmo ae paccampuaemc npocmpacmeoe pacnpeeeue npuecx (aomx u ueex) empo oee cumemuecux aao no peymama oax ype u ooax ucceoau.

caoeo, o e HPHT ceecx aaax axaaec ceopax {111}, a ao- cpax oecax ceopax{111}{100}.

Pacpeeee, oepa cocoe pece cyeceo ac o yco paa. p caapx eepaypax (~1400 C) oepa aoa e aeae ope cocae 200-300 1-3 ppm, cooeceo. ep A aoo-eee oec NE1-NE3, NE8 pcycy oo coee ceopo{111} ooo apa (cee oac a Pc.7, a,). BCA, oyex p oex eepaypax (ooo 1300C), cox epecex coo copoc poca opy ceopa {100}, oepa aoa {111}{100} coxpaec a ypoe coe ppm, p o ceopax {111}cpyec coepae e o 100 ppm, pe aea ac aoa apepoaa ep A aoo-eee oec NE1 (Pc. 7). CA, paex p T~1500C, poecc y aoa apepoa pec pocxo a pe axoe p eepaype pcaa pcae eec pae o cee apepoa(Pc.7 -e).

Pacpeeee aox eex epo yaoc c peee oao cepoco. Paccapa o o o epep apa a oocec pooea, paoe pe epa p 1500C, oo oy opa o aooepocx p apepoa pece o aao co cyae oepecoo oa. Ha Pc. 8c c peyaa oao ypecepoco oaaa oceea pacopa aoa C A c yaee o a e Pc.7. Pacpeeee eex epo (a-, -e) opac () CA, oyex p 1400(a, ), 1300C() 1500C (, , e). Pc.(), oye epe p CC5, oaae pacpeeee eo opac, oycoeo oop aoo, o oac () 1.534 B (e). Cpea oaae , o oopo pooc oae epe.

ee pa (111). o a ooao cepoco eex epo a Pc.8a e ocee o caaa cce 2.56 B, caeo c NiS o, cae c opaoae ocey oo cce 2.961 B 1.72 B (e o oo oyaac, NE4). Ha Pc.8 pee pacpeee o cox epo py III: oco epo e papeac, xo o paee oee cee ccee 2.495 B (S3) c e oeco aoo aoa (n=2, NE1). oa pya cce c oco 1.534 2.07 B opayec oo oao oyex oacx, p peeo oe eepayp y apa, oe caa c epa, e yacy apa oo e (Pc.7e).

peee ooao aepo cepoco p ye pacopa epo ooe ea pca opee opaa, ooo p oopax HPHT ax (.4). p o aoap aepoy oye ocaec pocpaceoe papeee o ecox po, ocpoe ap oeepaypoo cee pax . Opaee aoo oxoa Pc.8. acoc ecoc eoopx o pacco o oepxoc pcaa (ee pa (111)): oeepaypx cepax (T=5 ):

(a) cce 1.40 (1), 2.56 (2), 1.715 (3) 2.961 B (4);

(): cce 1.704 (1), 2.535 (2), 2.495 (3), 1.562 (4), 1.534 B (5).

() cpae pee pacpeee aox epo C(1), A(2), N+(3) oo oepa aoa (4).

ec eo peoc oo poce epa py I-II aoee ooopo eo coeae c pao oxpo oo (aa 4).

B ceo ae npuomc peymam uyeu ueex empo npupox aaax paux muno.

oaao, o ocoe aocoepax aao: IaA, IaB (poeyo) Ib xapaepyc ceec cepa , e opy cce N3 (c 2.985 B), S2+S3 S1( c yeo 2.427/2.462 B), cooeceo, opeee aopo epo axaa. Ha px TC, TCT x o ppox aao opy aaoax 500-600 (a), 100-2() 300-400 (), aaee a oe cooo cee, aaeoc o eepayp oye cooecyeo epepoy pacpeee epo axaa o ye E>0.003 B (Pc.9). Aa eepaypo acoc eoo ocecee ppox aao oaa, o p x eepaypax (T<400 K) oycoee epo axaa pocxo aco o yeoy exay. B oyex aaax aoee epo axaa aaec p epeape aac V- V0, o yaae a epo poooc. a ycaoeo aax 4-5, cce S2+S3 ca c aoo-ee oeca NE1-NE3 , a opao, xapaepa eea aaax a IaB, oopa epe aaac Cooe 70-x oax pooo ea, caa c pec aoa e apepoao ope.

a o Ta.2 (p. III), eey ppoy e pye coycye S2 Pc. 9. pe TC(1), TCT(2) eepaypa acoc eoc oye T(3) ppox aao a IaA(a), IaB(poeyooo, ) Ib().

pe TC aao Ia oye aaoax cee 400-500 (1a) 550700(1).

S3 ep ppox aaax: 1.562 B, ccea ooo 1.883 B, 1.738, 1.770 B pye.

Ocoeoc aoaox ecoepax aao ec eooe coeae aeaeo aoa coco N+ oeco B1 c acao cee apepoa: oey ycooc N+ oo oc e, o oo ao ec oecaopo apa aoo-eex oeco NE1.

cceoae aao co ceao opao (Pc.10a) aao oooe (Pc.10), oope pacpocpae eoopx ecopoex xapaepyc pa exaa (oco opa) a pax aax cop pcaa, oaa coe oepa e oax c oooo cpyypo. Bo ypee yoo oe (Pc.10a) cpyec o ooo oeca epo py III c xopoo paeo oo cpyypo. B oooe yao Pc.10. ap a ppox aao co ceao opao (a) oooe ().

aaec a e eea (Pc.10), o oa cpyypa ocycye cepax ooe, , CB. ea cee a cy cce S2+S3 oe ceaa peyae aaa oax cepax /CB oox apao. a cya paac e, o epo cyae oooa cpyypa opaoaac a aao ae epaa e o poecce eeoo ocooo apaca eeo oea eo HPHT oa, oa a o opo oooa cpyypa opaoaac poecce cpoo poca a cax ocex cax.

o eex epo oe cooaa aece aopa a apaeeca: o ao paeco ae peocpy yco opaoa aao, poopoa aeca cpoe pcao, a oa oea ecopoe. O eo opeee apaeeca (oooo ypaocooo) ca c eae e, o o pcycy e cea.

pocop ooo oeca aao pax ecopoe oaa, o ocyce eeo ec eoxo, o eocao ycoe oece aaa oooy apaeecy. B acec eoppoax (opex) aaax xapaepoe ceee epo S2, S3 oe ocycoa a peya papye yaax epo pcyc e pyx opax.

yee ao ocpoc ppox aao epoo aeca c a oeco eeo ooo yo aee cy epx yx eo d +vV pae ( 8 ): eep oo cocae 0.44610-c/ eco ae aaoe 0.490.6210-6 c/ peecyx paoax.

Teepaypa acoc ycaec oopeeo c oee epax e. B ppox aaax py V o Opoy oapye eppoae c xapaep cepeco aaeoc (Pc.11), cae c Fecoepa e.

Pc.11. Haaeoc (H) p T= 5 K ppooo aaa paooc V (oce a ooe (d+vV)= -0.44610-6 c3/).

Oac cax oe peea o cae. pa (1) oaae peya oepoa oac cx oe.

B aeuu coepac ooe o ao ooee ocox ayx peyao, oyex p oe acoe ccepaoo pao.

BBO 1. B oecx cepax (ooe, ooece) HPHT ceecx aao, oyex c cooae Ni-coepaeo aaaopa eea oa pya (ecoo eco) ox epoo-oeaex cce, caex c ee epa. Heoxo ycoe ooopa eex epo ec pcyce coaaopa- aoa. Ha ocoa ax acopoo CB cepoco ocpoe apa epeecx ypoe 20 ocox eex epo, ycaoea yaea peoa eo oyeoo coco. o eepayp acocx opeee apaep pacee (E) coco (ocoe, oyeoe).

2. o peyaa ye oxpooo HPHT oa ee p ocoe py, xapaepe pocox (I), ooex p poeyox (1500-1700C, pya II) cox (T>1700C, p.III) eepaypax, opeee yco x opaoa, aao ycooc oceoaeoc pacopa eex epo o epe apepoa pec. Cpaee c oeee aox epo ooo opee y aoa a opee exa aaec pacopa eex epo.

3. Coecoe yee ceecx aao eoa oeco P cepoco ooo epoa 8 epo ceeca NE, oco oopx ee aece aooo eea e o oo oyaac, oopoy pcoec o epex aoo aoa. Opeee c (1/2 o cex cyax) epooe cocoe apaax epo. peoea cxea ao pacopa eex/aoo-eex epo. ocox epo opeee coooe, cae oe ooe opeeeo c oepae e/aoa ao cpyypo ope.

4. B peyae eopeecoo aaa op cepo apaepo paax eop epoo-oeaex cepo occaoe y ooo (oeaeo) ooc g(h), cyae aeaeo e Nis epexox aoo-eex oeco py II opy ye aoax oea oepeeco (20

5. B cepeax o oo- peeocoo oye a oece P cep ycaoeo, o 1. oop ao ec oe oecaopo apa eex epo Nis, NE5 (VNiV) NVNiVN (NE1); 2. oo pae apoe coco oopoo aoa (p coco N-, N0, N+) o pae epe a epo W8 (Nis), NE1, NE5-NE8. ep NE5-NE7 cya oya epoo apaa aoeo coco; 3. ccea 2.267 B (546.7) ooe oocc NE1+.

6. Meoa ooao cepoco oaao, o aooepoc opaoa/pacopa eex epo cyeceo epe opeec yco poca: 1. oeepaypx CA co cpao oepae aoa e opye opo ceopax {111} c oec NE1; 2. CA, oyex p caapo eepaype ooo 1350C c CN>>CNi pocox aaax opy pocee aeae op Ns Nis ; 3. CA, oyex p oex eepaypax (T~1500C) c apepoae a pe axoe aaa p eepaype pcaa aaec pae o aopy epo o pocex a epep o apepoax epao ac.

7. peoe eo opao peyao ooao cepoco oao ype cepoco CA, paex p 1500C, oop ooe oya opa o aax aax apepoa pece (aoa e) e-coepax CA, aaoy cepea o oepecoy oy, o e oopax HPHT o co aeo oee coo eaoc. Meo aoee ee p ye pacopa pocex epo (py I-II) xopoo ooe oxpo o p cox eepaypax.

8. a , P cepoco P oaao pcyce aooaacox oeco e-coepax aaax, o oepae oey o yac aacooo exaa ycope apepoa aoa pcyce e ( ooee eyyeoy exay ycopeo y N+ yooco oe eex epo). oaao opaoae epexox aacox epo p ocoo poce c aee x peacae (ooo, c eyy) ee epx y ep p eepaype pcaa (1500C).

9. Oeo ocoeoc eex epo ppox aaax paoo a: poeyooo (intermediate, IaB) a, aoaox (x IIa), aaax co ceao opao (cea exao poca) aaax oooe ec pcyce aoo-eex oeco c acao cee apepoa (c oeco aoo aoa n2). coy ooay cepoco, oaaa acaa oepa e yox ceopax oooe, ex oooy cpyypy, aaax co ceao opao aaax oooe, cooeceo.

10. oe ae ao ocpoc eao aao pee: oyeo d = -0.44610-6 c3/ cy eepaypo-eacx aeeocoo aaeoa a eocoo apaaea. Bepe oapye eppoae coca xapaep cepec aaeoc, caee c Fe-coepa epa e, ppox aaax (a pepe py V o Opoy).

.

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