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袜 镳噔圊 痼觐镨耔

涛市斡盐

茹铕 码噤桉豚忸忤

磐乓茸叛饰 狼臀瘟欣侨 挛宿秩

MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

03.00.07 - 扈牮钺桀腩汨

缆椅信耘欣

滂耨屦蜞鲨 磬 耦桉赅龛 篦屙铋 耱屣屙

漕牝铕 徼铍钽梓羼觇 磬箨

燕黻-襄蝈疳箴

2009

朽犷蜞 恹镱腠屙 藻溴疣朦眍 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 篦疱驿屙梃 磬箨 囗牝-襄蝈疳箴泷觇 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 桧耱栩篁 桎屐桀腩汨 扈牮钺桀腩汨 桁屙 相耱屦嗷 藻溴疣朦眍 耠箧猁 镱 磬溏铕 耵屦 玎螓 镳噔 镱蝠遽栩咫彘 犭嚆铒铍篦 麇腩忮赅

袜篦睇 觐眈箅囗:                

漕牝铕 戾滂鲨眈觇 磬箨, 镳铘羼耦        妈邂耜栝 令痂 如疣桦邂梓

昔桷栲朦睇 铒镱礤眚:                

漕牝铕 徼铍钽梓羼觇 磬箨, 镳铘羼耦        青桕桧 袜溴驿 离尻襦礓痤忭

漕牝铕 戾滂鲨眈觇 磬箨, 镳铘羼耦        令轹钼 离尻皴 缅眄噤忤

漕牝铕 徼铍钽梓羼觇 磬箨                        撵栩痂邂 离尻襦礓 锣脲眚桧钼梓

洛潴 铕汔龛玎鲨: 藻溴疣朦眍 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 钺疣珙忄蝈朦眍 篦疱驿屙桢 恹聒邈 镳铘羼耔铐嚯钽 钺疣珙忄龛 铄眄-戾滂鲨眈赅 嚓噤屐 桁屙 .. 疏痤忄 惕龛耱屦耱忄 钺铕铐 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨

青蜞 耦耱铊蝰 玙_____籣_________ 2009 泐溧 _____ 鬣耦 磬 玎皴溧龛 蔫耨屦蜞鲨铐眍泐 耦忮蜞 奶 001.022.01 镳 喻疱驿屙梃 欣掏 袜篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 桧耱栩篁 耧屦桁屙蜞朦眍 戾滂鲨睇 彦忮痤-青镟漤钽 铗溴脲龛 欣掏 镱 噤疱耋: 197376, 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴, 箅. 狸噤. 相怆钼, . 12.

滂耨屦蜞鲨彘 祛骓 铉磬觐扈螯 徼犭桀蝈赍 腿容 亚 欣掏.

棱蝾疱翦疣 疣珙耠囗 玙______籣___________________2009 .

喻屙 皴牮弪囵 滂耨屦蜞鲨铐眍泐 耦忮蜞,

漕牝铕 戾滂鲨眈觇 磬箨                                                        馏痤忄 ..

瘟倮 绽欣室判妊胰世 欣廖役

狸蝮嚯铖螯 镳钺脲禧

磬耱 怵屐, 蝮徨痍箅彗 (伊), 桎屐梓羼觇  疣耧痤耱疣礤眄 忸 祉钽桴 疱汨铐圊 扈疣, 铗眍 眍恻 忮痦筲祚 玎犷脲忄龛旎. 项 铞屙赍 挛, 蝠弪 磬皴脲龛 清祀 桧翳鲨痤忄磬 Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 钺 觐腓麇耱忸 玎犷脲怿桴 箪屦 铗 蝮徨痍箅彗 2006 . 耦耱噔桦 9,2 祀 1,7 祀 麇腩忮, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 (WHO, 2008). M. tuberculosis 祛驽 噤囡蜩痤忄螯 忸玟彘耱忤 羿牝铕钼 桁祗眄钽 铗忮蜞 铕汔龛珈 躅桧 皴脲牝桠眍祗 溧怆屙棹 囗蜩徼铗桕钼 镱耩邃耱忸 蝾麇黜 祗蜞鲨. 项耠邃礤 溴蜩脲蜩 镳铠腩泐 忮赅 猁腩 铗戾麇眍 镱怆屙桢 磬鬣腩 痤觐泐 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗 忸 祉钽桴 耱疣磬 扈疣, 怅膻鬣 蓄耨棹.

橡桁屙屙桢 戾蝾漕 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗, IS6110-RFLP- MIRU-VNTR-囗嚯桤 潆 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜钽 蜩镨痤忄龛 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 镱玮铍桦 铒疱溴腓螯 皴戾轳蜮 痤漶蜮屙睇 囔祛 耦玟囹 觐祜蝈痦 徉琨 溧眄, 耦溴疰帙桢 桧纛痨圉棹 沐眍蜩镨麇耜桴 镳铘桦 囔祛 (Brudey et al., 2006). 袜腓麒 漕耱箫睇, 钺眍怆桴 镳邃耱噔栩咫 徉 溧眄 桁邋 蜞赕 桉觌栩咫铄 珥圜屙桢 潆 疣琊噌铗觇 耱囗溧痱桤钼囗眍 蝈痨桧铍钽梃 潆 钺铉磬麇龛 鲨痍箅桊簋 忄痂囗蝾 (沐眍蜩镱) 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗.

佯邃 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 腓龛/皴戾轳蜮, 恹溴屐 忭篁痂 忤溧 M. tuberculosis, 沐眍蜩 Beijing 踵疣牝屦桤箦蝰 鲥腩 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 钿眍痤漤铖螯 痤觇 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛屐 (Bifani et al., 2002; Glynn et al., 2002), 黩 祛驽 疋桎弪咫蜮钼囹 邈 礤溧忭彘 汶钺嚯铋 滂耨屐桧圉梃. 磬耱 怵屐, 铗 沐眍蜩 镳桠脲赅弪 忭桁囗桢 觌桧梓羼觐 蝾麝 琊屙, 镱耜铍 囔禧 Beijing 溴祛眈蝠桊簋 镱恹眄簋 忤痼脲眚眍耱 (妈邂耜栝 漯., 2003; Lopez et al., 2003), 囫耦鲨圉棹 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 (袜疴耜, 2003) 恹耦牦 蝠囗耢桉耔忭铖螯 (Caminero et al., 2001; Narvskaya et al., 2002). 孰铐嚯 镱矬鲨铐磬 耱痼牝箴 钿眍磬镳噔脲眄铖螯 铍梃 M. tuberculosis 赅 忤溧 鲥腩 溴豚 忸珈铈睇 鬣耱睇 囗嚯桤 邈 铗溴朦睇 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 腓龛 赅 疱潴鲨痤忄眄铋 祛溴腓 忤溧.

铋 疋玷, 桤篦屙桢 铖钺屙眍耱彘 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻 铍桀眄钽 镳铞羼襦 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 戾踵龛珈钼 疣玮栩 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 M. tuberculosis 镱桉 眍恹 桧纛痨囹桠睇 爨痍屦钼 潆 祛脲牦痦铋 桎屐桀腩汨 蝮徨痍箅彗, 怆弪 黟彗恹鬣轫 嚓蝮嚯 疋铄怵屐屙睇.

皱朦 桉耠邃钼囗: 如篦栩 扈牮- 爨牮铨忸膻鲨铐睇 桤戾礤龛 沐眍戾 疣琊噌铗囹 戾蝾漕腩汨麇耜桢 镱漉钿 潆 祛龛蝾痂磴 鲨痍箅桊簋 囔祛 M. tuberculosis.

青溧麒 疣犷螓:

1. 橡钼羼蜩 囗嚯桤 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜 珥圜桁 麴嚆戾眚钼 沐眍爨 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

2. 务簌羼蜮栩 翳腩沐钽疣翳麇耜栝 囗嚯桤, 镳钼羼蜩 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 镳铊聃铈溴龛 矬蝈 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 鲨痍箅桊簋 忄痂囗蝾 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing

3. 如篦栩 沐礤蜩麇耜桢 铖眍恹 疣玮栩 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 赅 纛痨 扈牮铨忸膻鲨 M. tuberculosis.

4. 朽琊噌铗囹 戾蝾漕腩汨麇耜桢 镱漉钿 磬 铖眍忮 桧纛痨囹桠睇 祛脲牦痦 爨痍屦钼 潆 翦牝桠眍泐 祛龛蝾痂磴 滂嚆眍耱桕 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 鲨痍箅桊簋 囔祛 M. tuberculosis.

袜篦磬 眍忤珥

嘛屦恹 扈疱 镳钼邃屙 觐祜蝈痦 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 镳铊聃铈溴龛 桉蝾痂麇耜桴 矬蝈 汶钺嚯铋 滂耨屐桧圉梃 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

朽琊噌铗囗 觐眦屣鲨 耋耱忸忄龛 漯邂龛 耦怵屐屙睇 腓龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

嘛屦恹 磬 铖眍忮 觐祜蝈痦钽 祛溴腓痤忄龛 铍梃 腩牦耦 VNTR 镱赅玎 篑觐疱眄 踵疣牝屦 痤耱 耋犸铒箅鲨 觌铐嚯钽 忄痂囗蜞 0/Beijing 蓄耨梃.

橡邃腩驽磬 镥疱铞屙赅 痤腓 祗蜞鲨 embB306 赅 爨痍屦 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 囔狍蝾塍. 蔓溻桧篁 汨镱蝈玎 漕镱腠栩咫铎 戾踵龛珈 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 囔狍蝾塍 M. tuberculosis, 礤 疋玎眄铎 桤戾礤龛扈 沐礤 囵徼眍玷腧疣眈翦疣琨 embB.

橡嚓蜩麇耜 珥圜桁铖螯 桉耠邃钼囗

杨玟囗磬 钺眍怆屐 汶钺嚯 徉玎 溧眄 镱 11 腩牦襦 VNTR 囔祛 M. tuberculosis Beijing (1853 囔爨 磬 30.06.2009) 翦牝桠眍 镳桁屙弪 潆 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 桉耠邃钼囗栝 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜钽 祛龛蝾痂磴 鲨痍箅鲨 囔祛 钽 沐眍蜩镟.

朽琊噌铗囗 耧铖钺 猁耱痤 溴蝈牿梃 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 邈 铖眍忭 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 腓龛 觌铐嚯钽 忄痂囗蜞 0/Beijing 磬 铖眍忮 桉镱朦珙忄龛 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 VNTR 蜩镨痤忄龛.

朽琊噌铗囗 扈龛爨朦磬 聃屐 磬 铖眍忮 皴扈 腩牦耦 VNTR 潆 镥疴梓眍泐 耜痂龛磴钼钽 蜩镨痤忄龛 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 鲨痍箅桊簋 蓄耨梃.

项赅玎磬 恹耦赅 桧纛痨囹桠眍耱 耦麇蜞眄钽 镳桁屙屙 戾蝾漕 IS6110-RFLP VNTR 蜩镨痤忄龛 潆 滂趑屦屙鲨圉梃 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 镳 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜桴 桉耠邃钼囗.

橡邃腩驽 耧铖钺 铒疱溴脲龛 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈 觌铐嚯 忤漕 徉牝屦栝.

朽琊噌铗囗 耧铖钺 耧疱耨眍泐 铒疱溴脲龛 铖眍忭 祗蜞鲨, 囫耦鲨桊钼囗睇 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 痂羿祜桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴, 沐磬 rpoB (觐漕睇 516, 526, 531) katG315 磬 铖眍忮 戾蝾漕腩汨 祗朦蜩镫尻耥铋 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现.

务眍忭 镱腩驽龛 滂耨屦蜞鲨, 恹眍耔禧 磬 玎蝮

1. 缅礤蜩麇耜铄 疣珥铑狃噻桢 M. tuberculosis 耵铕扈痤忄腩顸 疱珞朦蜞蝈 扈沭圉栝 磬皴脲龛. 缅眍蜩 Beijing M. tuberculosis 忸珥桕 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 皴忮痦钽 疏蜞 犷脲 2000 脲 磬玎; 邈 镳铐桕眍忮龛 漯筱桢 疱汨铐 扈疣 猁腩 铒铖疱漕忄眍 扈沭圉扈 桤 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃.

2. 缅眍蜩 Beijing M. tuberculosis 怅膻鬣弪 溻 牮箫睇 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桢 腓龛 疱忭 钼疱戾眄簋 疣珉梓眍 耱痼牝箴铋 沐眍爨 铍桀眄 镱蝈眦栲腩. 聋耱疣 溴蝈牿 桴 腓龛 忸珈铈磬 磬 铖眍忮 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现.

3. 锣痂囗 Beijing/0, 恹怆屐 25% 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 怆弪 耧屮睇旎 忄痂囗蝾, 潆 觐蝾痤泐 踵疣牝屦屙 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 猁耱瘥 镱矬鲨铐睇 痤耱 耩噔礤龛 钺 镱矬鲨彘 Beijing 蓄耨梃.

4. 襄疴梓眍 耜痂龛磴钼铄 蜩镨痤忄龛 囔祛 Beijing 蓄耨梃 忸珈铈眍 磬 铖眍忮 囗嚯桤 皴扈 腩牦耦 VNTR. 锐镱朦珙忄龛 戾蝾漕 IS6110-RFLP VNTR 礤钺躅滂祛 潆 溴蜞朦眍泐 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis.

5. 朽琊噌铗囗睇 戾蝾 祗朦蜩镫尻耥铋 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现 潆 囗嚯桤 铖眍忭 祗蜞鲨 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩 沐磬 rpoB katG 翦牝桠屙 潆 恹怆屙 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 篑蝾轺桠 痂羿祜桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴. 袜腓麒 祗蜞鲨 embB306 礤漕耱囹铟眍 潆 疣玮栩 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 M. tuberculosis 囔狍蝾塍.

里痤徉鲨  疣犷螓

务眍忭 疱珞朦蜞螓 桉耠邃钼囗栝 猁腓 漕腩驽睇 钺耋驿屙 磬 痤耨栝耜桴 戾驿箜囵钿睇 皴扈磬疣, 觐磴疱耨圊 觐眙屦屙鲨 2001-2009 沣.: 3rd International Conference 揑nfectious diseases in the Barents region (鲤踵磴咫, 蓄耨, 09.2001); Meeting of IAEA Multicenter Project (腻腓, 软滂, 03.2001); Meeting of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Study Group of Pasteur Institutes (离骅, 离骅, 02.2001); International Conference 揟uberculosis: old problem in new millennium (皖忸耔徼瘃, 蓄耨, 07.2002); 4th Nordic Baltic Congress on Infectious Diseases (.-襄蝈疳箴, 蓄耨, 05.2002); 12th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (惕豚, 闰嚯, 04.2002); 4th International Conference 揑nfectious diseases in the Barents region (襄蝠铉噔钿耜, 蓄耨, 2003); 24th Congress of European Society of Mycobacteriology (亦痱, 蓠蝾龛, 07.2003); Annual Scientific Symposium of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes (义沐疣, 瑞囗, 17-19.11.2004); 10th International Workshop on virus evolution and molecular epidemiology (斟朦耔黻, 澡黼礓, 30.08.-05.09.2004); 25th Congress of European Society of Mycobacteriology (离屦, 闰嚯, 27-30.06.2004); Meeting of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Study Group of Pasteur Institutes (相痂, 责囗鲨, 16-18.02.2004); VI 埋屦铖耔轳觇 觐磴疱耨 镱 祛脲牦痦铋 滂嚆眍耱桕 (填耜忄, 28-30.11.2007). 30th Congress of European Society of Mycobacteriology (项痱, 项痱筱嚯, 5-8.07.2009).

项 蝈戾 滂耨屦蜞鲨 铒筢腓觐忄眍 54 耱囹 疱觐戾礓钼囗睇 吕 性 骟痦嚯圊 5 汶噔 蝠艴 祛眍沭圄.

马邃疱龛 疱珞朦蜞蝾 桉耠邃钼囗 镳嚓蜩牦

袜 铖眍忮 疱珞朦蜞蝾 疣犷螓 镱溷铗钼脲睇 耠邃簋 漕牦戾眚:

1. 相蝈眚 磬 桤钺疱蝈龛 2287586 (填牮铙耦 .., 悟蝈 .., 袜疴耜 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 扬铖钺 耧疱耨眍泐 铒疱溴脲龛 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 痂羿祜桷桧 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗). 青疱汨耱痂痤忄眍 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 疱羼蝠 桤钺疱蝈龛 性 20.11.2006. 橡桀痂蝈: 27.05.2003.

2. 相蝈眚 磬 桤钺疱蝈龛 2339040 (填牮铙耦 .., 悟蝈 .., 袜疴耜 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 扬铖钺 耧疱耨眍泐 铒疱溴脲龛 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 桤铐栲玷潴 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗). 青疱汨耱痂痤忄眍 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 疱羼蝠 桤钺疱蝈龛 性 20.11.2008. 橡桀痂蝈: 08.02.2006.

3. 青怅 磬 镟蝈眚 (填牮铙耦 .., 悟蝈 .., 珙忄 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 袜疴耜 .. 扬铖钺 恹怆屙 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing). 绣. 2008118836, 镳桀痂蝈 铗 12.05.2008

绣珞朦蜞螓 桉耠邃钼囗栝 忭邃疱睇 镳嚓蜩麇耜簋 溴蝈朦眍耱 悦 囗牝-襄蝈疳箴泷觇 腿 趄桤桀矬朦祛眍腩汨 蓄耢邃蝈蹴铍钽栝.

髓黜铄 篦囫蜩 噔蝾疣 镱塍麇龛 疱珞朦蜞蝾

务眍忭 疱珞朦蜞螓 镱塍麇睇 腓黜 噔蝾痤. 蔓溴脲龛 囔祛 铒疱溴脲龛 桴 黧怦蜮栩咫铖蜩 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥 镳屣囵囹囔 猁腩 镳钼邃屙 悦 囗牝-襄蝈疳箴泷觇 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 桧耱栩篁 趄桤桀矬朦祛眍腩汨 藻溴疣朦眍泐 嚆屙蝰蜮 镱 恹耦觐蝈蹴铍钽梓眍 戾滂鲨眈觐 镱祛 豚犷疣蝾痂 扈牮钺桀腩汨 蝮徨痍箅彗 镳 篦囫蜩 ... 镳铘羼耦疣 .. 妈邂耜钽, ... .. 悟蝈 ... .. 锑龛麇忸. 填脲牦痦-沐礤蜩麇耜桢 桉耠邃钼囗, 觐祜蝈痦 耱囹桉蜩麇耜栝 囗嚯桤 溧眄 猁腓 镳钼邃屙 噔蝾痤 豚犷疣蝾痂 祛脲牦痦铋 扈牮钺桀腩汨 悦油 囗牝-襄蝈疳箴泷觇 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 桧耱栩篁 桎屐桀腩汨 扈牮钺桀腩汨 桁屙 相耱屦嗷 藻溴疣朦眍 耠箧猁 镱 磬溏铕 耵屦 玎螓 镳噔 镱蝠遽栩咫彘 犭嚆铒铍篦 麇腩忮赅.

羊痼牝箴 钺 滂耨屦蜞鲨

蔫耨屦蜞鲨 桤腩驽磬 磬 228 耱疣龛鲟 爨眍镨耥钽 蝈犟蜞 耦耱铊 桤 忖邃屙, 6 汶噔 (钺珙 腓蝈疣蝮瘥, 爨蝈痂嚯 戾蝾潲 桉耠邃钼囗, 3 汶噔 疱珞朦蜞蝾 耦狁蜮屙睇 桉耠邃钼囗栝, 钺耋驿屙桢 疱珞朦蜞蝾), 恹忸漕 镳桦铈屙. 入膻耱疣蜩忭 爨蝈痂嚯 怅膻鬣弪 14 蜞犭桷 48 痂耋黻钼. 扬桉铌 腓蝈疣蝮瘥 耦溴疰栩 349 磬桁屙钼囗栝, 桤 龛 31 铗鬻羼蜮屙睇 318 桧铖蝠囗睇 桉蝾黜桕钼.

盐呐衅劳扰 欣廖役

锑蝈痂嚯 戾蝾潲

疣犷蝈 猁腓 桉镱朦珙忄睇 镳屣囵囹 耐 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 豚犷疣蝾痂 扈牮钺桀腩汨 蝮徨痍箅彗 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴泷觐泐 腿 趄桤桀矬朦祛眍腩汨 铖眍忭铎 铗 镱耱眄 骅蝈脲 彦忮痤-青镟溧 性. 桉耠邃钼囗桢 猁腓 蜞赕 怅膻麇睇 耐 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 疏蜞 (n=122 [象朦祛眍腩汨麇耜 犷朦龛鲟 襄觇磬]), 曼弪磬戾 (n=117 [袜鲨铐嚯 桧耱栩篁 汨汨屙 桎屐桀腩汨, 锗眍閉), 令脬囵梃 (n=133 [软耱栩篁 扈牮钺桀腩汨 晾, 杨翳]), 铃腩痼耨梃 (n=165 [妈蝈狁觇 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 戾滂鲨眈觇 箜桠屦耔蝈騗), 枢玎躐蜞礤 (n=144 [袜鲨铐嚯 戾滂鲨眈觇 箜桠屦耔蝈 桁. 礼翦礓痤忄, 离爨螓]), 疏疸桤梃 (n=56 [软耱栩篁 祛脲牦痦铋 沐礤蜩觇 戾滂鲨睇, 凌尻]). 埋 囔禧, 怅膻麇眄 桉耠邃钼囗桢, 猁腓 恹溴脲睇 铗 忡痤耠 (忸琊囫 犷脲 15 脲), 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜 礤疋玎眄 犷朦睇 蝮徨痍箅彗铎 脲汴桴.

物疱溴脲龛 黧怦蜮栩咫铖蜩 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥 镳屣囵囹囔 镳钼钿桦 戾蝾漕 噌耦膻蝽 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 耦汶囫眍 镳桕噻 惕礴漯噔 性 109 铗 21 爨痱 2003 .

物疱溴脲龛 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 弦 镳钼钿桦 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 戾蝾漕 祗朦蜩镫尻耥铋 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现 (汤-现 (沐睇 rpoB [觐漕睇 516, 526, 531], katG315, embB306) 现-夏性 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 疱耱痂牝噻 MspI (katG315)  NlaIII / HaeIII (embB306) (亦犭. 1)

亦犭桷 1. 项耠邃钼囹咫铖蜩 镳嚅戾痤, 耜铐耱痼桊钼囗睇 溧眄铋 疣犷蝈

桉镱朦珙忄眄 潆 囗嚯桤 沐眍 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩.

橡嚅戾, 珙礓

项耠邃钼囹咫铖螯 (5-)

katG

katG1F

AGCTCGTATGGCACCGGAAC

katG4RB

AACGGGTCCGGGATGGTG

katg0F

GCAGATGGGGCTGATCTACG

katg4R

AACGGGTCCGGGATGGTG

katg5R

ATACGACCTCGATGCCGC

rpoB

ROF

GTCGCCGCGATCAAGGA

RIR

TGACCCGCGCGTACAC

R516B

GCTGAGCCAATTCATGGA

R526B

GTCGGGGTTGACCCA

R531B

ACAAGCGCCGACTGTC

embB

EmbF

ATTCGGCTTCCTGCTCTGG

EmbR

GAACCAGCGGAAATAGTTGG

Emb1F

GGGCGGGGCTCAATTGCC

Emb2R

GCGCATCCACAGACTGGCGTC

Emb306A

GACGACGGCTACATCCTGGGCA

Emb306B

GGTCGGCGACTCGGGCC

缅眍祉 溧牝桦铖觐镨 囔祛 M. tuberculosis.

扬铍桡铗栾桊钼囗桢 猁腩 桉镱朦珙忄眍 潆 囗嚯桤 镱腓祛痿桤爨 DR-腩牦襦 (磬腓麒 桦 铗耋蝰蜮桢 43 耧彘皴痤) 镱 Kamerbeek et al. (1997). 橡铘桦 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 耩噔龛忄腓 戾驿箜囵钿眍 徉珙 耧铍桡铗栾钼 SpolDB4 (Brudey et al., 2006).

理嚯桤 漕镱腠栩咫 25 耧彘皴痤 腩牦襦 DR 镳钼钿桦 镱 Sebban et al. (2002). 碾 疣忸-脲忸泐 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 (left-right (L-R) spoligotyping (Filliol et al., 2000)) 桉镱朦珙忄腓 镳嚅戾瘥 Ris1, Ris2 DRa. 橡钿箨螓 现 汨狃桎桤钼嚯 镱 耱囗溧痱眍 蝈蹴铍钽梃 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗  戾灬疣磬扈, 耦溴疰帙桁 43 25 耧彘皴痦 镳钺. 蒡 镱玮铍桦 恹忤螯 耧弼梏梓羼觇 篦囫蜿 DR 腩牦皴 (镱怛铕 桦 耧彘皴瘥), 耦溴疰帙桢 屐屙 IS6110 铒疱溴腓螯 邈 镱腩驽龛 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 腩牦襦 DR.

IS6110-RFLP-蜩镨痤忄龛 镳钼钿桦 镱 van Embden et al. (1993). 橡铘桦 钺疣徉螓忄腓 镟赍蜞扈 GelCompar 4.1 (Applied Maths, 铃朦汨) Taxotron (Grimont, 2003) 潆 镱耱痤屙 溴礓痤沭囔 镱 嚯泐痂蜢 UPGMA.

理嚯桤 27 腩牦耦 VNTR - 24 腩牦耦 Supply et al. (2006) 3 汨镥疴囵栲徨朦睇 腩牦耦 Iwamoto et al. (2007) 镳钼钿桦, 赅 铒桉囗 疣礤. 相赍螓 PAUP 4.0 (Swofford, 2003) PHYLIP 3.6 (Felsenstein, 2004) 猁腓 桉镱朦珙忄睇 潆 镱耱痤屙 磬栳铍邋 镟瘃桁铐眍 溴礓痤沭囔禧 扈龛爨朦眍 铛忄螓忄邈 溴疱忄, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍; 镳 铎 嚯脲腓 腩牦耦 VNTR 疣耨爨蝠桠嚯 赅 滂耜疱蝽 镥疱戾眄. 项漉钿 磬 铖眍忮 耱囹桉蜩觇 拎殄襦 猁 桉镱朦珙忄 潆 溧蜩痤怅 怵屐屙 觐嚯羼鲥眦梃 嚯脲脲 VNTR 赅 铒桉囗 疣礤 (Wirth et al., 2008) 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 镳钽疣祆 MSVAR (Baumont, 1999) Tracer 1.4.1 (Rambaut, Drummond, 2008). 理嚯桤 赅驿铋 镱矬鲨 怅膻鬣 镳钼邃屙桢 5 礤玎忤耔禧 耔祗鲨 填眚-枢痣 磬 铖眍忮 20000 泐 鲥镨 锑痍钼.

软忮痱桊钼囗眢 IS6110-现 镳钼钿桦 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 镳嚅戾痤 Ris1 Ris2 (Ross, Dwyer, 1993), 疣耧铍铈屙睇 磬 3- 5-觐眦圊 屐屙蜞 IS6110 囔镫梏桷桊簋 麴嚆戾眚 戾驿 犭桤觐疣耧铍铈屙睇扈 (漕 2 蝻) 觐镨扈 IS6110.

碾 疱耱痂牿桀眄钽 囗嚯桤 屐屙蜞 IS1547 忸珈铈睇 桧皴瘀栝 礤 IS6110 镳钼钿桦 现 疣珉梓睇扈 觐灬桧圉扈 镳嚅戾痤 磬 镱耠邃钼囹咫铖蜩 IS6110 IS1547. 碾 疱耱痂牿桀眄钽 囗嚯桤 镳钿箨蝾 现 赅痱桊钼囗 桴 襦轵钼 箸磬忄龛 桉镱朦珙忄腓 疱耱痂牝噻 AluI, RsaI, PvuII, PstI MboII.

描狃桎桤圉桀眄 囗嚯桤 镱 燕箸屦眢 镳铘桦彘 IS1547-RFLP 猁 镳钼邃屙 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 麴嚆戾眚 潆桧铋 1,32 蝻, 怅膻鬣邈 忮顸 屐屙 IS1547, 耔耱屐 ECL 潆 戾麇龛 溴蝈牿梃 眢觌彖眍恹 觇耠铗 (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 蝈 驽 犭铗钼, 耦溴疰帙桴 蝾蜞朦眢 耐, 钺疣犷蜞眄簋 PvuII, 桉镱朦珙忄怿桴 潆 囗嚯桤 IS6110-RFLP.

现-囗嚯桤 潆桧 沐磬 Rv3135 磬腓麒 觐腓麇耱忄 桧皴瘀栝 IS6110 腩牦皴 NTF 镳钼钿桦 赅 铒桉囗 疣礤 (Musser et al., 2000, Vera-Cabrera et al., 2001, Plikaytis et al., 1994).

厌铕 溧眄 镱 VNTR 腩牦襦 耦玟囗桢 汶钺嚯铋 徉琨 溧眄 VNTR 囔祛 Beijing. 项桉 铒筢腓觐忄眄 溧眄 镱 11 腩牦襦 MIRU-VNTR ## 2, 4, 10, 16, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 39, 40 (Supply et al., 2001) 囔祛 Beijing 恹忤 1302 囔爨1, 怅膻鬣 囔禧 沐眍蜩镨痤忄眄 磬 豚犷疣蝾痂. 橡铘桦 桤 11 鲨麴 (耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 11 腩牦襦 MIRU-VNTR) 猁腓 忭羼屙 羿殡 Excel , 镱耠 噔蝾爨蜩麇耜铋 耦痱桊钼觇, 囔禧 猁腓 疣玟咫屙 磬 蜩稃 箜桕嚯 镳铘桦扈. 项矬鲨 耋-镱矬鲨, 怅膻麇眄 囗嚯桤, 镳邃耱噔腓 蓄耨棹, 疏蜞, 谚磴囡箴, 曼弪磬, 唢铐棹, 拎磴豚溴, 捩眢 吏痂牦 棱耱疣腓.

软溴犟 锗眚屦-绵耱铐 (Hunter-Gaston Index, HGI) 猁 桉镱朦珙忄 潆 铞屙觇 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻 (Hunter, Gaston, 1988). 义耱 2x2 2 猁 桉镱朦珙忄 潆 铞屙觇 珥圜桁 疣珉梓栝 戾驿 溻箪 沭箫镟扈 囔祛; 珥圜屙 2 觐痧尻蜩痤怅铋 镱 唑耋, p 耦铗眍龛 眈钼 OR 疣耨麒螓忄腓 95% 漕忮痂蝈朦睇 桧蝈疴嚯铎 镱祛 镳钽疣祆 EpiCalc 2000 1.02 (Gilman, Myatt, 1998).

朽聍弪 磬犭噱祛泐 疣耨蝾龛 OD (observed distance) 戾驿 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈 镳钼钿桦 镱 镳邃腩驽眄铋 磬扈 纛铎箅:

,

沅 N 羼螯 钺 麒耠 忄痂囗蝾 (蜩镱), 恹怆屐 钺滂礤眄铋 觐腚尻鲨 镱矬鲨 B, Ai Bi - 鬣耱铗 i-蝾泐 蜩镟 桴 镱矬鲨. 项塍麇眄簋 爨蝠桷 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈 M. tuberculosis Beijing, 疣耨麒蜞眄簋 磬 铖眍忄龛 鬣耱铗 怦蝠鬻噱祛耱 桴 VNTR-蜩镱, 镳桁屙桦 潆 祉钽铎屦眍泐 爨聒蜞徼痤忄龛 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 镳钽疣祆  PROXSCAL 镟赍蜞 SPSS 11.5 潆 Windows (SPSS, 阻赅泐, 沿).

项桉 桧纛痨圉梃 钺 桉蝾痂麇耜桴 疋 戾驿 耱疣磬扈 疱汨铐囔, 怅膻麇眄 溧眄铄 桉耠邃钼囗桢, 镳钼钿桦 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 软蝈痦弪-疱耋瘃钼 镱桉觐恹 耔耱屐 Google (http://www.google.com/), Entrez Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) History Cooperative (http://www.historyco

operative.org/).

信怯塑依役 瘟延颇磐扰

劳浪惹 匀宋门团胰着咽 峭雷忍壅 IS- PPE-菟盘磐椅 门臀汤 匾捞涛 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

令脲 1130 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴泷觐 腿 趄桤桀矬朦祗眍腩汨, 猁腩 桤篦屙 戾蝾溧扈 IS6110-RFLP 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 豚犷疣蝾痂 祛脲牦痦铋 扈牮钺桀腩汨 腿容 桁屙 相耱屦 1996-2007 沣. 蒡 觐腚尻鲨 耐 (镳铘桦彘 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛) 镱耠箧桦 潆 纛痨桊钼囗 恹犷痤, 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 玎溧鬣 桉耠邃钼囗.

侮铍 镱腩忤睇 (52%) 怦艴 桤篦屙睇 囔祛 镳桧噤脲驵腓 沐礤蜩麇耜铎 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing 桁咫 踵疣牝屦睇 镳铘桦 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 桤 溴蜩 ( 35 镱 43) 耔沩嚯钼 汨狃桎桤圉梃 (需. 1). 橡铘桦 IS6110-RFLP 犷朦眈蜮 (~95%) 桤 桴 囔祛 桁咫 铗 14 漕 19 麴嚆戾眚钼 猁腓 犭桤觐痤漶蜮屙睇 (犷脲 85% 聃钿耱忄). 妈珞嚯  镳铘桦 猁腓 聃钿睇 铒筢腓觐忄眄 镳铘桦扈 囔祛 Beijing 桤 骂耱铟眍 犁梃 漯筱桴 疱汨铐钼 扈疣 (Bifani et al., 2002). 帖 铒疱溴腓腓  囔禧 赅 栾梓睇寤 囔禧 Beijing (需. 1). 螯 镳铞屙蝾 囔祛 桁咫 耧铍桡铗栾, 踵疣牝屦睇 潆 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing, 眍 镳铘桦 IS6110-RFLP 戾睃 觐腓麇耱忸 麴嚆戾眚钼, 聃钿睇 蝾朦觐 磬 60-70% (需. 1). 帖 铒疱溴腓腓  囔禧 赅 蜩镨黜 囔禧 Beijing. 溧朦礤轼邋 筱塍犭屙眍 桉耠邃钼囗桢 猁腓 怅膻麇睇 4 囹栾梓睇 (2 铖眍忭 镳铘桦) 24 蜩镨黜 (12 疣珥铑狃噻睇 镳铘桦彘) 囔爨 Beijing.

需. 1. 腻礓痤沭囔爨 镳铘桦彘 IS6110-RFLP M. tuberculosis 镳桁屦 耧铍桡铒痤翳脲 Beijing, H37Rv BCG.

碾 镱塍麇龛 鲥腩耱眍泐 镳邃耱噔脲龛 耱痼牝箴 腩牦襦 DR 囔祛, 镱扈祛 耱囗溧痱眍泐 磬犷疣 桤 43 耧彘皴痤, 禧 镳钼咫 囗嚯桤 25 钼 耧彘皴痤 (van Embden et al., 2000), 觐蝾瘥 恹忤  磬腓麒 6 钼 耧彘皴痤 (构 48, 49, 50, 66, 67, 68) 怦艴 囔祛 Beijing (需. 2). 橡桁屙屙桢 疣忸-脲忸泐 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 恹忤腩 upstream-疣耧铍铈屙眢 桧忮痱桊钼囗眢 觐镨 屐屙蜞 IS6110 怦艴 囔祛 (需. 2). 湾 桉觌屙, 黩 镳桉篁耱忤 铋 觐镨 IS6110 祛驽 猁螯 疋玎眍 疱觐灬桧圉桀眄 耦猁蜩扈, 镳桠邃扈 溴脲蜩痤忄龛 犷朦眈蜮 耧彘皴痤 腩牦皴 DR 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

需. 2. 羊痼牝箴 腩牦襦 DR 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛 Beijing.

碾 铞屙觇 痤漶蜮 疱镳彗屙蜞蜩忭 囔祛 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing 猁 镳钼邃屙 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜栝 囗嚯桤 磬 铖眍忮 耩噔礤龛 桴 镳铘桦彘 汨狃桎桤圉梃 IS6110-RFLP. 橡铘桦 猁腓 忤珞嚯 耩噔礤睇 镥疱忮溴睇 徼磬痦 纛痨囹 潆 疣聍弪 爨蝠桷 疣耨蝾龛 邋 囗嚯桤. 橡桁屙屙桢 嚯泐痂蜢钼 Neighbor-Joining (NJ) (需. 3) 爨犟桁嚯钽 镳噔漕镱漕徼 (Quartet-Puzzling) 溧腩 聃钿睇 疱珞朦蜞螓 镱赅玎腩, 黩 钺 囹栾梓睇 镳铘桦 桁咫 磬栳铍簋 潆桧 忮蜮彘.

需. 3. 腻礓痤沭囔爨 疱镳彗屙蜞蜩忭 镳铘桦彘 IS6110-RFLP 囔祛 Beijing, 镱耱痤屙磬 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 嚯泐痂蜢 NJ. 畦痦 梏蝾 恹溴脲睇 囹栾梓睇 囔禧.

泥朦礤轼栝 囗嚯桤 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 镱腓祛痿睇 腩牦耦 IS1547 (Fang et al., 2001) Rv3135 (Musser et al., 2000) 桁咫 鲥朦 铞屙栩 桴 镳桡钿眍耱 潆 戾骧蜞祆钼铋 滂趑屦屙鲨圉梃 忭篁痂 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

现, 疱耱痂牿桀眄 汨狃桎桤圉桀眄 囗嚯桤 磬腓麒 忡噼祛疣耧铍铈屙 觐镨 屐屙蝾 IS6110 IS1547 镱赅玎, 黩 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛 Beijing (蜩镨黜 镳铘桦 IS6110-RFLP) 耦溴疰囹 溻 觐镨 屐屙蜞 IS1547 (腩牦覃 iplA iplB), 钿磬 桤 觐蝾瘥 (iplB) 疣玟咫屙 怦蜞怅铋 IS6110, 漯筱 (iplA) 铖蜞弪 桧蜞牝眍 (需. 4b). 橡 铎  IS1547/iplA 猁 邃桧耱忮眄 桧蜞牝睇 腩牦耦 囹栾梓睇 囔祛 Beijing (需. 4), 觐蝾瘥, 铟邂桎眍, 镳邃耱噔 犷脲 漯邂睨 忮蜮 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing. 捏镫桕圉 镥疴铐圜嚯铋 觐镨 IS1547/iplA 祛汶 镳邃耱噔螯 邃桧铄 箜桕嚯铄 耦猁蜩 忸 怦艴 腓龛 M. tuberculosis 桦 蝾朦觐 镳邃耱忮眄桕 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing , 篦栩 黩 钺 腩牦襦 iplA iplB 疣耧铍铈屙 1 4 赈噤疣眚圊 躔铎铖铎 漕 oriC (需. 4), 祛汶 镳铊珙轵 疱珞朦蜞蝈 X-桧忮瘃梃 忸牮筱 oriC (Eisen et al., 2000).

需. 4. 氧屐囹梓羼觐 镱腩驽龛 腩牦耦 IS1547 (iplA, iplB) 囹栾梓睇 (a) 蜩镨黜 (b) 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

理嚯桤 镱腓祛痿桤爨 沐磬 Rv3135-PPE.

现-囗嚯桤 沐磬 Rv3135-PPE, 恹忤 溻 忄痂囗蜞 潆桧 溧眄钽 沐磬 1.02 蝻 蜩镨黜 1.97 蝻 囹栾梓睇 囔祛 Beijing. 仳囔 H37Rv, 桉镱朦珙忄眄 赅麇耱忮 觐眚痤, 桁咫 麴嚆戾眚 现 铈桎噱祛泐 疣珈屦 (0.63 蝻). 茵桎鲟螯 囔祛 漯筱桴 沐眍蜩镱, 铗眍躐 2 桦 3 沐礤蜩麇耜桁 沭箫镟, 桁咫 麴嚆戾眚 潆桧铋 铗 0.31 漕 0.63 蝻. 铗腓麒 铗 礤觐蝾瘥 桤篦屙睇 沐眍祉 腩牦耦, 麇 镱腓祛痿桤 耋耱忮眄 桦 鬣耱梓眍 疋玎 祛徼朦睇 屐屙蝾 IS6110 (IS1547, mtp40, DR-腩牦), 镱腓祛痿桤 沐磬 Rv3135 钺篑腩怆屙 漯筱桁 戾踵龛珈囔. 蒡铗 沐 铗眍耔蝰 皴戾轳蜮, 觐滂痼屐 镳铗彖睇 PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu), 桁妣 铗眍龛 囗蜩沐眄铋 忄痂噌咫铖蜩 M. tuberculosis (Cole et al., 1998). 68 沐眍 钽 皴戾轳蜮 疣耨睇 镱 躔铎铖铎 囔爨 H37Rv 耦溴疰囹 赅 觐眈屦忄蜩忭, 蜞 忄痂噌咫 篦囫蜿. 朽礤 烃耨屦 耦噔. (2000) 镳邃镱腩骅腓, 黩 赅驿 恹怆屙睇 忄痂囗 Rv3135 疋玎 漯筱桁 忄痂囗蜞扈 矬蝈 疱潢铋 钿眍磬镳噔脲眄铋 溴脲鲨, 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 忄痂囗 1,02 蝻 磬栳铍邋 忮痤蝽 镳铊珙 桤 镳邃觐忸泐 忄痂囗蜞 1,97 蝻. 项耜铍 钺 恹怆屙睇 磬扈 嚯脲 怆 磬栳铍桁 镱 疣珈屦 忄痂囗蜞扈, 禧 镱豚汔屐, 黩 怦 痤耨栝耜桢 囔禧 Beijing 怆 铍桀眄 漕耱囹铟眍 蜞瘥扈. 亦赕  溧眄 箨噻帼 磬 蝾, 黩 囹栾梓睇 囔禧 镳邃耱噔 铍桀眄 磬栳铍邋 漯邂睨 忮蜮 镳邃耱忸忄腓 蜩镨黜 囔爨 Beijing, 觐蝾瘥扈 铐 桁咫 钺泐 镳邃赅.

理嚯桤 腩牦襦 NTF

祟牦 NTF 怆弪 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桁 爨痍屦铎, 耧弼梏梓羼觇 潆 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing. 蔓溴 蝠 忄痂囗蜞 囔祛 Beijing 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 磬腓麒 觐腓麇耱忄 桧皴瘀栝 IS6110 铎 腩牦皴 (需. 5). 孰铐嚯 镱矬鲨铐磬 耱痼牝箴 忤溧 M. tuberculosis 铒疱溴弪 钿眍磬镳噔脲眄 铍桀眄 聆屙囵栝 腩牦襦 NTF Beijing 镳 觐蝾痤 桧蜞牝睇 腩牦 怆弪 磬栳铍邋 漯邂龛 忄痂囗蝾. 橡钼邃屙睇 磬扈 囗嚯桤 篑蜞眍忤, 黩 囹栾梓睇 囔禧 桁咫 桧蜞牝睇 腩牦 NTF , 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 铗眍耔腓顸 漯邂礤 忮蜮 忭篁痂 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing. 诣镨黜 囔禧 耦溴疰嚯 钿眢 镳祗 桧皴瘀棹 IS6110 镳噔铎 镫鬻 腩牦襦 NTF 铗眍耔腓顸 耦怵屐屙眍 腓龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 铒疱溴脲眄铋 磬扈 赅 忄痂囗 NTF::IS6110.

需. 5. 氧屐 铍桀眄 聆屙囵栝 腩牦襦 NTF 囔祛 Beijing M. tuberculosis (磬 铖眍忮 钺钺龛 溧眄 Plikaytis et al., 1994; Kurepina et al., 1998). 茵弩泐朦龛觇 蝾黻桢 耱疱腙 镱赅琨忄 桧皴瘀梃 IS6110 桴 铕桢眚圉棹.

缅眍蜩镨痤忄龛 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 襄觇礤, 疏蜞.

缅眍蜩 Beijing 猁 怙屦恹 桎屙蜩翳鲨痤忄 囔爨, 恹溴脲眄 疱汨铐 襄觇磬 (囗汶. Beijing). 铋 疋玷, 禧 漕镱腠栩咫 怅膻麒腓 磬 桉耠邃钼囗桢 恹犷痍 耐 123 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 襄觇礤 2003-2005 沣. 蒡 囔禧 怅膻鬣腓 40 黧怦蜮栩咫 83 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍-篑蝾轺桠 囔爨, 犷朦眈蜮 桤 觐蝾瘥 (n=56) 猁腓 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽.

埋 囔禧 猁腓 镱溻屦沩篁 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗棹, 觐蝾痤 疣玟咫桦 桴 磬 14 耧铍桡铗栾钼. 佯噔礤龛 戾驿箜囵钿眍 徉珙 溧眄 SpolDB4 (Brudey et al., 2006) 镱玮铍桦 铗礤耱 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛 桤忮耱睇 蜩镟 (镱)皴戾轳蜮囔. 袜栳铍栝 觌囫蝈 怅膻鬣 囔禧 镱腠 镳铘桦屐 Beijing 桤 溴蜩 耔沩嚯钼 35 镱 43. 署铎 蝾泐, 8 囔祛 (6 蜩镱) 镳邃耱噔腓 篑鬻屙睇 镳铊玮钿睇 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 觐蝾瘥 铗耋蝰蜮钼嚯 铗溴朦睇 耧彘皴瘥; 镱 镳桧蝾 觌囫耔翳赅鲨 (Brudey et al., 2006)  镳铘桦 猁腓 铒疱溴脲睇 赅 Beijing-镱漕犴. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 113 (91,9%) 桤 123 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛 镳桧噤脲驵腓 沐眍蜩镟 皴戾轳蜮 Beijing. 软蝈疱耥 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 1992-1994 沣. 囔禧 Beijing 蜞赕 镳孱犭噤嚯 (89.4%) 镥觇眈觐 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis (van Soolingen et al., 1995).

泥朦礤轼邋 疣玟咫屙桢 113 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛 Beijing 磬 蜩镨黜 囹栾梓睇 (耦怵屐屙睇 漯邂龛, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍) 猁腩 镳钼邃屙 矬蝈 囗嚯桤 腩牦襦 NTF. 蒡铗 囗嚯桤 恹忤, 黩 27 (24%) 囔祛 桁咫 桧蜞牝睇 篦囫蝾 NTF 铗眍耔腓顸 漯邂礤 腓龛 忭篁痂 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 蝾 怵屐 赅 86 囔祛 桁咫 镳祗 桧皴瘀棹 IS6110 镳噔铎 镫鬻 腩牦襦 NTF 铗眍耔腓顸 耦怵屐屙眍 腓龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing. 泥眄 镱 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 桤篦屙睇 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛 鲥腩 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 沐眍蜩镟/腓龛 镳桠邃屙 亦犭桷 2.

亦犭桷 2. 玉蝾轺桠铖螯 铗溴朦睇 镳屣囵囹囔 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛

M. tuberculosis 漯邂礤 耦怵屐屙眍 腓龛 忭篁痂 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

隋赅瘃蜮屙磬 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 *

仳囔禧 漯邂礤 腓龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing (n=27), 觐腓麇耱忸 %

仳囔禧 耦怵屐屙眍 腓龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing (n=86), 觐腓麇耱忸 %

p

OR, 95% CI

S (1944)

9 (33,3)

32 (37,2)

0,7

0,84 [0,34; 2,10]

H (1952)

17 (63,0)

47 (54,7)

0,5

1,41 [0,58; 3,43]

R (1970)

21 (77,8)

47 (54,7)

0,03

2,90 [1,07; 7,91]

E (1960)

9 (10,5)

Z (1980)

6 (22,2)

8 (9,3)

0,08

2,79 [0,87; 8,91]

玉蝾轺桠铖螯 膻犷祗 镳屣囵囹

21 (77,8)

56 (65,1)

0,2

1,88 [0,68; 5,15]

MDR

17 (63,0)

38 (44,2)

0,09

2,15 [0,88; 5,23]

* 耜钺赅 - 泐 磬鬣豚 镳桁屙屙 镳屣囵囹 潆 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥铋 蹊扈铗屦囡梃 (Iseman, 2002). S, 耱疱矧铎桷桧, H, 桤铐栲玷, R, 痂羿祜桷桧, E, 囔狍蝾, Z, 镨疣玷磬扈. MDR, 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 镱 牮嚅礤 戾疱 痂羿祜桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴.

酿邂龛 耦怵屐屙睇 囔禧 Beijing: 觐眦屣鲨, 铍 滂嚆眍耱桕

洋祆桊 恹桤腩驽眄铄, 镳桁屙屙桢 礤耜铍桴 礤玎忤耔禧 沐礤蜩麇耜桴 爨痍屦钼 镱玮铍桦 疣玟咫栩 桤篦屙睇 痤耨栝耜桢 囔禧 Beijing 磬 溻 礤疣忭 沭箫稃. 襄疴 (95%, 栾梓睇寤 囔禧) 踵疣牝屦桤钼嚯囫 聃钿睇扈 祉钽铘疣沆屙蝽 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP, 磬腓麒屐 沐磬 Rv3135 潆桧铋 1,02 蝻 溻篚 觐镨 IS1547 (iplA iplB, 怛铕 桤 觐蝾瘥 耦溴疰嚯 桧皴瘀棹 IS6110). 买铕 沭箫镟 (5%, 蜩镨黜 囔禧) 踵疣牝屦桤钼嚯囫 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP 戾睃 觐腓麇耱忸 麴嚆戾眚钼, 磬腓麒屐 Rv3135 潆桧铋 1,97 蝻 钿眍 桧蜞牝眍 觐镨彘 IS1547 (iplA). 项 磬祗 祉屙棹, 怦 囹栾梓睇 囔禧 桁咫 钺泐 镳邃赅 蜩镨黜 囔爨扈, 眍 怆 铍桀眄 犷脲 漯邂龛扈, 黩 蜞赕 桦膻耱痂痼弪 NJ-翳腩沭囔祛 磬 铖眍忮 囗嚯桤 镳铘桦彘 IS6110-RFLP (需. 3). 佯噔礤龛 镱塍麇眄 疱珞朦蜞蝾 囗嚯桤 桧皴瘀栝 IS1547 沐磬 Rv3135 疱珞朦蜞蜞扈 囗嚯桤 腩牦襦 NTF 镱赅玎腩, 黩 囹栾梓睇 囔禧 桁咫 桧蜞牝睇 腩犟篑 NTF, 蝾 怵屐 赅 忄痂囗 NTF::IS6110 猁 踵疣牝屦屙 潆 蜩镨黜 囔祛. 念扈龛痼桢 蜩镨黜 囔禧 Beijing, 觐蝾瘥 禧 镳邃豚汔屐 磬琨忄螯 耦怵屐屙睇扈, 忮痤蝽 桁妣 祛眍翳脲蜩麇耜铄 镳铊聃铈溴龛, 桴 痤觐 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 磬鬣腩顸 桉蝾痂麇耜 耩噔龛蝈朦眍 礤溧忭, ..  囔禧 疣珉梓帼蝰 镱 猁耱痤 戾桁 镳铘桦 IS6110-RFLP, 眍 桁妣 桎屙蜩黜簋 耱痼牝箴 漯筱桴 镱腓祛痿睇, 眍 犷脲 觐眈屦忄蜩忭 腩牦耦.

酿邂龛 囔禧 耦耱噔 耠桫觐 爨塍 漕膻 痤耨栝耜铋 镱矬鲨 Beijing (5%) 潆 漕耱桄屙 耱囹桉蜩麇耜铋 珥圜桁铖蜩 镳 桴 耩噔礤龛 耦怵屐屙眍 沭箫镱. 蝾 驽 怵屐 囗嚯桤 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛 Beijing, 耩邃 觐蝾瘥 漕 漯邂龛 囔祛 猁豚 犷脲 玎戾蝽 (24%), 恹忤 桧蝈疱耥 蝈礓屙鲨 桴 疣珉梓 礤 蝾朦觐 镱 礤轵疣朦睇 腩牦襦 沐眍爨 (磬镳桁屦, NTF).

佯噔礤龛 镳铘桦彘 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 觇蜞轳觇 囔祛 Beijing 恹忤腩, 黩 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 痂羿祜桷桧 镨疣玷磬扈潴, 蜞赕 镳铘桦 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 MDR HRZ 猁腓 囫耦鲨桊钼囗 漯邂礤 沭箫镱 Beijing (亦犭. 2). 耠篦噱 桤铐栲玷溧  囫耦鲨圉 猁豚 耱囹桉蜩麇耜 礤珥圜桁, 蝾 怵屐 赅 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 耱疱矧铎桷桧 猁豚 铟屙 耠噌 疋玎磬 耦怵屐屙眍 沭箫镱. 项躅骅 磬犭屙 疋玷 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽铖螯 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 耱疱矧铎桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴 猁腓 皲咫囗 署屐屦 耦噔. 磬 囔爨 Beijing, 恹溴脲眄 妙黻铐沐 曼弪磬戾 (Kremer et al., 2009). 橡铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥 蹊扈铗屦囡 猁豚 忖邃屙 戾滂鲨眈牦 镳嚓蜩牦 蝾朦觐 60 脲 磬玎 (Iseman, 2002), 漕 钽 龛 漯邂龛, 龛 耦怵屐屙睇 囔禧 Beijing 礤 镱溻屦汔腓顸 皴脲牝桠眍祗 溧怆屙棹 囗蜩徼铗桕钼. 佯噔礤龛 镱潢铎 磬鬣豚 桉镱朦珙忄龛 铗溴朦睇 镳屣囵囹钼 潆 脲麇龛 蝮徨痍箅彗 (Iseman, 2002) 珥圜屙栝 P, 铗疣驵桴 耱囹桉蜩麇耜簋 珥圜桁铖螯, 恹忤腩 桧蝈疱耥簋 镱塍觐腓麇耱忮眄簋 蝈礓屙鲨: 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭 忖邃屙睇 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥簋 蝈疣镨 镳屣囵囹囔 (痂羿祜桷桧 镨疣玷磬扈潴) 猁豚 囫耦鲨桊钼囗 漯邂龛扈 囔爨扈, 镳梓屐 铖钺屙眍 玎戾蝽 - 襦禧 礤溧忭桁 (镨疣玷磬扈漕). 漯筱铋 耱铕铐,  疣珉梓桢 戾驿 漯邂龛扈 耦怵屐屙睇扈 囔爨扈 胥豚驽眍 桦 溧驽 钺疣眍 潆 犷脲 蜞瘥趸 桤铐栲玷溧 耱疱矧铎桷桧, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 (亦犭. 2).

C疱滂 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 Beijing 漯邂龛 囔禧 耦耱噔桦 5%. 朽礤 猁腩 镱赅玎眍, 黩 桴 漕 耦耱噔桦 14% 妙黻铐沐  25% 忸 曼弪磬戾 (Kremer et al., 2009). 杨汶囫眍  磬 汨镱蝈珏, 觐蝾疣 钺耋驿噱蝰 疣玮桠噱蝰 龛驽, 镥疴梓眍 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 囔祛 Beijing 桁咫 戾耱 疏蜞 犷脲 2000 脲 磬玎, 蝾 怵屐 赅 镳铐桕眍忮龛 桴 囔祛 彦忮痦簋 赔疣玷 猁腩 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭桁 祛汶 猁螯 疋玎眍 疣聒桊屙桢 填磴铍觐 桁镥痂 13-15 忮赅. 铋 疋玷, 镳邃耱噔弪, 黩 耦铗眍龛 耋犸铒箅鲨 漯邂龛/耦怵屐屙睇 囔祛 Beijing 怆弪 踵疣牝屦眍 麇痱铋, 觐蝾疣 铗疣驵弪 漯邂眍耱 腩赅朦眍 镱矬鲨 钽 沐眍蜩镟, 镳桉篁耱怏彘 磬 觐黻疱蝽铋 蝈痧栩铕梃, , 蝾 驽 怵屐, 磬躅滂蝰 镱 铒疱溴脲眄 怆龛屐 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭桴 戾 镱 犷瘘徨 蝮徨痍箅彗铎.

橡桁屙屙桢 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 潆 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis 溴蝈牿梃 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 恹忤腩, 黩 囔禧 Beijing 桁妣 钿桧嚓钼 镳铘桦 桤 蝠艴 (260, 290 490 镯 - 蜩镨黜 囔禧) 桦 溻篚 (290 490 镯 - 囹栾梓睇 囔禧) 麴嚆戾眚钼 (需. 6). 铋 疋玷, 禧 铞屙桦 铗 戾蝾 礤 潆 滂趑屦屙鲨圉梃 囔祛, 赅麇耱忮 嚯屦磬蜩忭钽 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗棹 戾蝾溧 潆 镳铖蝾 现-溴蝈牿梃 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

理嚯桤 865 镳钺 耐 囔祛 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗, 恹溴脲眄 1997-2007 沣. 蓄耨梃 (N=575), 疏蜞 (N=117), 曼弪磬戾 (N=122), 令脬囵梃 (N=51) 猁 镳钼邃屙 戾蝾溧扈 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 赅麇耱忮 铍铗钽罨 耱囗溧痱 桎屙蜩翳赅鲨 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 戾蝾漕 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 (需. 6). 疱珞朦蜞蝈, 408 囔祛 猁腩 铒疱溴脲眍 赅 铗眍羼 沐眍蜩矬 Beijing. 念镱腠栩咫, 61 囔 Beijing 猁 铒疱溴脲 赅 铗眍轳 囹栾梓睇 囔爨 (疱忭屐蠡 忄痂囗蝮 钽 沐眍蜩镟), 镳 铎 疱珞朦蜞螓 囗嚯桤 腩牦襦 NTF 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 耦怙嚯.

碾 铞屙觇 镳桡钿眍耱 镳邃豚汔屐钽 戾蝾溧 潆 猁耱痤泐 囗嚯桤 觌弪铟睇 腓玎蝾 龛珀铋 觐眦屙蝠圉桢 耐 猁 镳钼邃屙 囗嚯桤 恹犷痍 桤 144 觌弪铟睇 腓玎蝾 囔祛 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗, 恹溴脲眄 枢玎躐蜞礤, 56 钺疣琏钼 耐, 恹溴脲眄 桤 祛牮铗 犷朦睇 蝮徨痍箅彗铎 脲汴桴 疏疸桤梃. 碾 犷朦眈蜮 (125 桤 144) 腓玎蝾 怦艴 56 镳钺 耐 桤 祛牮铗 猁腓 镱塍麇睇 桧蝈痫疱蜞徨朦睇 现-镳铘桦, 桤 觐蝾瘥 112 猁腩 铒疱溴脲眍 赅 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 沐眍蜩矬 Beijing. 佯噔礤龛 镱耠邃簋扈 疱珞朦蜞蜞扈 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 镱潋忮痄桦 疱珞朦蜞 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现. 悟耋蝰蜮桢 囔镫梏桕圉梃 潆 礤觐蝾瘥 腓玎蝾 祛驽 猁螯 疋玎眍 桧汨徼痤忄龛屐 现 /桦 礤漕耱囹铟睇 觐腓麇耱忸 耐, 镱铎 翦牝桠眍耱 戾蝾溧 镳桁屙栩咫 觌弪铟睇 腓玎蜞 耦耱噔桦 90.8%.

需. 6. 橡桁屦 镳铘桦彘 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 疏蜞 (a.), 曼弪磬戾 (b.), 令脬囵梃 (c.) 蓄耨梃 (d.).

羊疱腙 箨噻帼 麴嚆戾眚 耧弼梏梓睇 潆 囔祛 Beijing. Bj 沐眍蜩 Beijing. * - 疱忭栝 忄痂囗 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

喻栩 觌桧梓羼牦 珥圜桁铖螯 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 磬腓麒 镳铖蝾泐 戾蝾溧 邈 溴蝈牿梃 磬耋 礤钺躅滂祛. 扬铍桡铗栾桊钼囗桢 怆弪, 镱 铒疱溴脲龛, 铍铗 耱囗溧痱铎 潆 铒疱溴脲龛 镳桧噤脲骓铖蜩 囔爨 铎 沐眍蜩矬. 橡铖蝾 戾蝾 磬 铖眍忮 钺眍 现 戾蝾 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现, 镳邃腩驽眄 磬扈, 祛驽 耠箧栩 镱脲珥 漕镱腠屙桢 觌囫耔麇耜桁 戾蝾溧 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis, IS6110-RFLP 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗. 念镱腠栩咫 漕耱铊眈蜮囔 戾蝾溧 怆: 忸珈铈眍耱 恹怆屙 漯邂龛 耦怵屐屙睇 囔祛 Beijing, 礤钽疣龛麇眄铖螯 沐眍蜩镱 Beijing 镳桡钿眍耱 潆 镥疴梓眍泐 耜痂龛磴 镳 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜铎 蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis. 磬 桉耠邃钼囗梃 戾蝾 猁 囡痤徼痤忄 磬 镳邃耱噔栩咫铋 觐腚尻鲨 囔祛 Beijing 桤 铖眍忭 溴扈黜 珙 钽 沐眍蜩镟 - 蓄耨梃, 疏蜞 曼弪磬爨; 溧朦礤轼屐 猁腩 猁 桧蝈疱耥 邈 蝈耱桊钼囗桢 磬 囔爨 桤 怛铕梓睇 疱汨铐钼 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛, 磬镳桁屦, 沿, 捩眍 漓屦桕 捩眍 吏痂觇.

M. tuberculosis 祛驽 噤囡蜩痤忄螯 皴脲牝桠眍祗 溧怆屙棹 囗蜩徼铗桕钼 镱耩邃耱忸 蝾麇黜 祗蜞鲨, 忸珥桕眍忮龛 玎牮屣脲龛 觐蝾瘥 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 纛痨 扈牮铨忸膻鲨 沐眍爨. 朽琊噌铗赅 戾蝾漕腩汨 汤-现 潆 溴蝈牿梃 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 铖眍忭 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥 镳屣囵囹铎 囗嚯桤 疣耧疱溴脲龛 桴 祗蜞鲨 铖眍忭 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 腓龛 M. tuberculosis 耱嚯 妁 钿龛 桤 镳嚓蜩麇耜桴 镳桦铈屙栝 磬耱泐 桉耠邃钼囗.

涛伺视诉型叟 膛绽腿翘 门臀胰先着咽肋 呐遗手冗 伺世醒衣磐臀 友椅勺嚷窝胰 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.

朽琊噌铗囗睇 磬扈 戾蝾 溴蝈牿梃 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 弦 M. tuberculosis 磬 铖眍忮 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现, 铖眍忄 磬 礤钺躅滂祛耱 蝾黜铋 泐祛腩汨 镳嚅戾疣 镱 邈 3-觐眦 耐-扈睃 潆 翦牝桠眍 铐汔鲨 镱腓戾疣珙. 扬弼梏梓羼觇 忭篁疱眄栝 镳嚅戾 耜铐耱痼桊钼囗 磬 铖眍忮 嚯脲 滂觐泐 蜩镟 桉耠邃箦祛泐 觐漕磬: 3-觐礤 镳嚅戾疣 耦铗忮蝰蜮箦 铖眍忄龛 觐蝾痤 镳邃镱豚汔弪 磬腓麒 祗蜞鲨. 耠篦噱 滂觐泐 蜩镟 嚯脲, 忭篁疱眄栝 嚯咫朦-耧弼梏梓羼觇 钿桧 桤 忭屮龛 觐眈屦忄蜩忭 镳嚅戾痤 囔镫梏桷桊簋 耧弼梏梓羼觇 桧滂赅蝾痦 麴嚆戾眚. 耠篦噱 祗蜞鲨, 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觇 镳嚅戾 礤 铗骅汔弪 桧滂赅蝾痦 麴嚆戾眚 礤 囔镫梏桷桊箦蝰, 黩 箨噻噱 磬 疱玷耱屙蝽 翦眍蜩. 橡桁屦 桉镱朦珙忄龛 戾蝾溧 潆 溴蝈牿梃 祗蜞鲨 觐漕礤 rpoB531 镱赅玎 磬 需. 7.

需. 7. 物疱溴脲龛 祗蜞鲨 觐漕礤 rpoB531 戾蝾漕 汤-现. 暑痤蜿桢 耱疱腙 镱赅琨忄 镳嚅戾瘥, 潆桧睇 溻篑蝾痤眄桢 耱疱腙 麴嚆戾眚 现. () 麴嚆戾眚 沐磬 rpoB (b) 沐朦-尻蝠铘铕彗 镳钿箨蝾 汤-现; 漕. 2 囔 祗蜞鲨彘 rpoB531.

理嚯桤 祗蜞鲨 铕麇 篦囫蜿寤 rpoB (觐漕睇  516, 526, 531)

玉腩忤 钺铊 忄痂囗蝾 镳邃豚汔屐钽 戾蝾溧 汤-现 (钿眍泐恹 沩彗漤) 猁腓 铒蜩扈玷痤忄睇 潆 漕耱桄屙 爨犟桁嚯铋 耧弼梏梓眍耱 磬 36 钺疣琏圊 耐 (膻徨珥 镳邃铖蜞怆屙睇 . 锣 蒽徜屙铎), 桁邂 耠邃簋 疣耧疱溴脲龛 嚯脲脲 rpoB: 滂觇 蜩 - 13, 531TTG - 7, 531TGG 2, 516GTC - 4, 516TAC - 3, 516GGC - 1, 522CAG - 1, 526TAC 2, 526GAC - 3, 526CTC - 1.

理嚯桤 233 镳钺 耐 RIF-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛, 恹溴脲眄 铗 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜 礤疋玎眄 犷朦睇 1997-2005 沣. (燕黻-襄蝈疳箴, 隋龛磴疣漶赅 皖忏铕钿耜 钺豚耱), 猁 镳钼邃屙 戾蝾漕 镳铖蝾 钿眍泐忸 汤-现. 腆蜞鲨 钿眍 桤 蝠艴 桤篦屙睇 觐漕眍 rpoB 516 526 桦 531 猁腓 恹怆屙 192 (82,4%) 囔祛. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 戾蝾 钺羼镥麒忄弪 漕耱囹铟眍 恹耦牦 黧怦蜮栩咫铖螯 铒疱溴脲龛 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 塘 痂羿祜桷桧. 理嚯桤 戾蝾漕 汤-现 恹忤 祗蜞鲨 rpoB 2 桤 97 RIF-黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛; 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 耧弼梏梓眍耱 戾蝾溧 耦耱噔桦 97,9%.

理嚯桤 镳钺 桤 27 觌弪铟睇 腓玎蝾 猁 镳钼邃屙 戾蝾漕 沩彗漤铋 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现. 骂 怦艴 耠篦, 疱珞朦蜞螓 囗嚯桤 腓玎蝾 铟棂屙眍 耐 桤 蝈 驽 囔祛 耦怙噤嚯.

理嚯桤 祗蜞鲨 katG315

玉腩忤 疣琊噌铗囗眍泐 戾蝾溧 汤-现 猁腓 铗疣犷蜞睇 磬 45 囔爨, 桁邂 耠邃簋 疣耧疱溴脲龛 嚯脲脲 katG315: 滂觇 蜩 (AGC) - 23, ACC - 22, 赅 猁腩 篑蜞眍怆屙 疣礤 戾蝾漕 现-夏性 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 疱耱痂牝噻 MspI.

泥朦礤轼栝 囗嚯桤 204 耐 INH-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛, 恹溴脲眄 铗 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜 礤疋玎眄 犷朦睇 1997-2005 沣. (燕黻-襄蝈疳箴, 隋龛磴疣漶赅 皖忏铕钿耜 钺豚耱) 恹忤 祗蜞鲨 katG315 191 (93,6%) 囔爨.

理嚯桤 镳钺 礤铟棂屙眍 耐 猁 镳钼邃屙 磬 恹犷痍 桤 25 觌弪铟睇 腓玎蝾. 骂 怦艴 耠篦 疱珞朦蜞螓 汤-现 囗嚯桤 katG315 潆 腓玎蝾 铟棂屙眍 耐 蝈 驽 囔祛 耦怙噤嚯.

仳囔 W, 恹玮噔 桎屐棹 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽钽 蝮徨痍箅彗 忘-深痍 磬鬣脲 1990- 沣. (Bifani et al., 1999), 篑蝾轺桠 桤铐栲玷潴 怦脲漶蜮桢 疱潢铋 溻铋眍 祗蜞鲨 katG315 AGC郃CA. 橡桁屙屙桢 戾蝾溧 汤-现 镱玮铍桦 篑镥 铒疱溴腓螯 邋 磬腓麒 钺疣琏 耐 囔爨 W (膻徨珥 镳邃铖蜞怆屙眍 . 鸯铍腩, 羊纛痄耜栝 箜桠屦耔蝈, 沿), ..  祗蜞鲨 镳桠钿栩 妁 犷脲 耋耱忮眄铎 礤耧囵桠囗棹 镱 溻箪 铖眍忄龛 磬 3-觐眦 镳嚅戾疣.

填骓 铗戾蜩螯 镱脲珥 铖钺屙眍耱彘 疣琊噌铗囗睇 磬扈 戾蝾漕 潆 囗嚯桤 沐眍 katG rpoB. 理嚯桤 戾蝾漕 汤-现 沐磬 rpoB 钺羼镥麒忄弪 疣聒桊屙睇 祗蜞鲨铐睇 囗嚯桤 觐漕眍 516 526, 镱耜铍, 赅 禧 篑蜞眍忤腓, 戾蝾 恹怆弪 祗蜞鲨 礤 蝾朦觐 忸 怛铕铋 镱玷鲨 桴 觐漕眍 (觐蝾疣 蝾黜 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 3-觐眦 镳嚅戾痤), 眍 祗蜞鲨 镥疴铋 镱玷鲨 觐漕眍, 觐蝾瘥 磬躅蝰 -1 镱玷鲨 镱 铗眍龛 3-觐眦 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觇 镳嚅戾痤. 理嚯桤 戾蝾漕 汤-现 沐磬 katG 镱玮铍弪 铒疱溴腓螯 溻 磬栳铍邋 忄骓 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 铎 沐礤, 疋玎眄 篑蝾轺桠铖螯 桤铐栲玷潴. 锣痂囗 katG 315-ACC 怆弪 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 扈疱, 铖钺屙眍 疱汨铐圊 恹耦觇 箴钼礤 鲨痍箅鲨 疱玷耱屙蝽 囔祛, 忄痂囗 315-ACA 踵疣牝屦屙 潆 囔爨 W, 恹玮噔泐 桎屐棹 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽钽 蝮徨痍箅彗 囹 忘-深痍 1990- 泐潲 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄钽 沿 (Bifani et al., 1999).

理嚯桤 祗蜞鲨 embB306

埋邈 猁腩 桉耠邃钼囗 29 囔祛 翦眍蜩镨麇耜 篑蝾轺桠 囔狍蝾塍, 26 桤 龛 猁腓 篑蝾轺桠 痂羿祜桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴, .., 猁腓 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽. 聋腩 恹怆屙 耠邃簋 疣耧疱溴脲龛 嚯脲脲 embB306: ATG (滂觇 蜩) 15, BTG - 10 , ATH - 4 囔爨 (耦汶囫眍 恹痤驿屙眍祗 沐礤蜩麇耜铎 觐潴, B 钺铉磬鬣弪 G, C, 桦 T, H 钺铉磬鬣弪 A, C, 桦 T). 锐躅 桤 铒筢腓觐忄眄钽 疣耧疱溴脲龛 祗蜞鲨 embB306 (Ramaswamy, Musser, 1998; Martin, Portaels, 2007), 磬栳铍邋 忮痤蝽, 黩 ATH 镳邃耱噔弪 ATA (Ile), BTG - GTG (Val) 桦 CTG (Leu). 袜 疱珞朦蜞 囗嚯桤 祗蜞鲨 embB306 EMB-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛 鲥腩 礤 铗腓鬣腭 铗 铒筢腓觐忄眄 溧眄 (Ramaswamy, Musser, 1998). 湾铈桎囗睇 猁腩 恹怆屙桢 祗蜞鲨 embB306 耋耱忮眄铎 镳铞屙蝈 EMB-黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛.

亦犭桷 3. 朽耧疱溴脲龛 嚯脲脲 embB306 耩邃 囔狍蝾-黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩.

藻眍蜩 a

embB306 b

左怦蜮栩.

S

H

R

SH

SR

SHR

埋邈

ATG-Met (wt)

43

14

1

3

11

5

29

104

BTG-Val/Leu

-

-

-

-

1

-

23

24

ATH-Ile

-

1

1

-

5

-

17

24

埋邈

43

15

2

3

17

5

69

154

a S, 耱疱矧铎桷桧, H, 桤铐栲玷, R, 痂羿祜桷桧. embB306 嚯脲腓: wt 栦桕栝 蜩 (wild type).

理嚯桤 恹犷痍 154 EMB-黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 漯筱桁 镳屣囵囹囔 恹忤 疣聃铈溴龛 戾驿 疱珞朦蜞蜞扈 沐眍蜩镨麇耜钽 翦眍蜩镨麇耜钽 蝈耱钼 潆 47 (30,5%) 桤 154 囔祛, 觐蝾瘥 猁腓 黧怦蜮栩咫 囔狍蝾塍, 眍 桁咫 祗蜞鲨 embB306. 项怛铕屙桢 耧屦桁屙蝾 镱潋忮痄桦 疱珞朦蜞螓 钺铊 戾蝾漕. 令脲 蝾泐,  疣聃铈溴龛 戾驿 疱珞朦蜞蜞扈 翦眍蜩镨麇耜钽 沐眍蜩镨麇耜钽 蝈耱钼 猁腩 钽疣龛麇眍 蝾朦觐 囔爨扈, 篑蝾轺桠 漯筱桁 镳屣囵囹囔, 镳彐溴 怦邈, 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽 囔爨扈 (亦犭. 3). 亦, 35 桤 64 EMB-黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛, 篑蝾轺桠 耱疱矧铎桷桧, 痂羿祜桷桧 桤铐栲玷潴, 桁咫 祗蜞鲨 embB306. 袜镳铗桠, 蜞觇 祗蜞鲨 礤 猁腓 恹怆屙 龛 钿眍 桤 39 镱腠铖螯 黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛. 袜 磬 忡汶, 怙屦恹 钺磬痼驽眄铄 磬扈 礤钺眍 怆屙桢 祛骓 钺耥栩 磬腓麒屐 漯筱铋 扈龛 潆 囔狍蝾豚 扈牮钺眍 觌弪赍 镱扈祛 囵噌桧铉桦蝠囗耵屦噻 EmbB. 湾 桉觌屙, 黩 觐灬桧桊钼囗眍 溴轳蜮桢 弦 玎矬耜噱 蜞觐 漕镱腠栩咫 戾踵龛珈 黧怦蜮栩咫铖蜩 囔狍蝾塍, 礤耢铗 磬 忸珈铈眍 忸珥桕眍忮龛 玎牮屣脲龛 祗蜞鲨 embB306. 橡嚓蜩麇耜, 磬 疱珞朦蜞螓 镱赅琨忄 钽疣龛麇眄簋 镳桁屙桁铖螯 祗蜞鲨 embB306 赅 爨痍屦 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 囔狍蝾塍.

疣珉梓睇 疱汨铐圊 扈疣 铗戾麇磬 沐钽疣翳麇耜 忄痂噌咫铖螯 疣耧疱溴脲龛 耧弼梏梓羼觇 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩. 蒡 铒疱溴弪 礤钺躅滂祛耱 镳邃忄痂蝈朦眍泐 囗嚯桤 祛脲牦痦铋 铖眍恹 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 腩赅朦眍 鲨痍箅桊簋 囔祛 漕 忭邃疱龛 祛脲牦痦 戾蝾漕 痤牦 镳嚓蜩牦. 体蝾 汤-现 镱玮铍弪 铖簌羼蜮栩 猁耱瘥, 翦牝桠睇, .., 疱蝠铖镥牝桠睇, 囗嚯桤 犷朦 觐腚尻鲨 耐, 镱塍麇眄 镳邃耱怏桢 泐潲, 潆 铞屙觇 祗蜞鲨铐睇 镳铘桦彘 katG315 rpoB 镳桁屙桁铖蜩 戾蝾溧 觐黻疱蝽铎 疱汨铐. 理嚯桤 疣耧疱溴脲龛 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 怦蝠鬻帼躐 祗蜞鲨 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 觐漕磬 katG315 rpoB531 耩邃 铖眍忭 沐眍蜩镱 M. tuberculosis 恹忤 桴 恹耦牦 鬣耱铗 囔祛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 耩噔礤龛 耦 囔爨扈 漯筱桴 沐眍蜩镱 (潆 牮囹觐耱 磬琨忄屐 -Beijing). 腆蜞鲨 S315T 沐礤 katG 猁豚 恹怆屙 96,7% INH-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛 Beijing 镳铗桠 89,0%, INH-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛 礤-Beijing (OR 3,6; 95% CI 1,0-14,6). 橡邃耱噔弪, 黩 恹怆屙桢 蝾朦觐 祗蜞鲨 katG S315T 镱玮铍弪 恹忤螯 恹耦牦 漕膻 INH-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛, 鲨痍箅桊簋 蓄耨梃.

腆蜞鲨 觐漕礤 rpoB531 猁豚 恹怆屙 耋耱忮眄 鬣 RIF-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛 Beijing, 礤驽腓 礤-Beijing: 77,3% 镳铗桠 28,0% (OR 8,78; CI 95% 4,82-16,00). 央邃箦 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 觐漕 rpoB531 怆弪 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 祗蜩痼桁 膻犷 疱汨铐 扈疣 (30-50% RIF-篑蝾轺桠 囔祛) (van Rie et al., 2001; Marttila et al., 2008), 钿磬觐 钺疣弪 磬 皴 忭桁囗桢 耱铍 恹耦觇 镳铞屙 铋 祗蜞鲨 耩邃 囔祛 Beijing 蓄耨梃, 黩 猁腩 镱赅玎眍 礤 蝾朦觐 磬扈, 眍 犷朦眈蜮 漯筱桴 桉耠邃钼囗栝 (缅礤痤珙 漯., 2000; Toungoussova et al., 2002; Lipin et al., 2007).

鲥腩, 汶钺嚯铎 觐眚尻耱, 囔禧 Beijing 礤 镳邃耱噔 礤桤徨骓 囫耦鲨桊钼囗睇扈 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽铖螯 (Tuyen et al., 2000; Prodinger et al., 2001). 磬 桉耠邃钼囗梃 25.6% 蝾蜞朦眍 黧怦蜮栩咫 囔祛 40% STR-祛眍疱玷耱屙蝽 囔祛 镳桧噤脲驵腓 沐眍蜩矬 Beijing. 蝾 驽 怵屐, 磬 溧眄 镱赅琨忄, 黩  囔禧, 鲨痍箅桊簋 蓄耨梃, 恹耦觐蝠囗耢桉耔徨朦睇 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽, 鬣, 麇 漯筱桢 沐眍蜩稃, 镳桀狃弪噱 祗蜞鲨 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 祗蜩痼桴 觐漕磬 沐眍 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩 katG315 rpoB531.

项扈祛 镳祛泐 桉镱朦珙忄龛 潆 溴蝈牿梃 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩, 祗蜞鲨, 疋玎眄 (rpoB RRDR, katG315) 桦 篑腩忭 疋玎眄 (embB306) 疱玷耱屙蝽铖螯, 祛泱 耠箧栩 漕镱腠栩咫 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜桁 爨痍屦囔 潆 滂耜痂扈磬鲨 犭桤觐痤漶蜮屙睇, 眍 箧 磬鬣怿桴 镳铞羼 滂忮疸屙鲨 囔祛 (篦栩 犷脲 恹耦牦 耜铕铖螯 疣玮栩 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩, 麇 耜铕铖螯 桤戾礤龛 镳铘桦彘 IS6110-RFLP). 袜镳桁屦, 囔禧 桎屙蜩黜 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP, 恹溴脲眄 铗 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜 礤疋玎眄 犷朦睇, 祛汶 猁螯 滂趑屦屙鲨痤忄睇 磬 铖眍忮 嚯脲朦眍泐 镱腓祛痿桤爨 embB306. 朽礤 禧 漯筱桢 桉耠邃钼囹咫 镱赅玎腓 镳桡钿眍耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 蜞觇 祗蜞鲨 embB306 rpoB 镳 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜铎 钺耠邃钼囗梃 铟嚆钼 (Chaves et al., 2000; Narvskaya et al., 2002b).

铗腓麒 铗 沐眍 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩, 桤戾礤龛 腩牦襦 VNTR 鲥腩 礤轵疣朦睇, 黩 铒疱溴弪 桴 镳桡钿眍耱 潆 疱龛 玎溧 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜钽 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜钽 囗嚯桤, 疱珞朦蜞螓 觐蝾痤泐 镳邃耱噔脲睇 龛驽.

闲忍磐磐扰 宋视盐 VNTR 乃 沃磐嗜 门团胰着咽蚊 欣峭挝列狼冗 萋嗡拗热 M. TUBERCULOSIS.

析屙赅 眍忸泐 镱觐脲龛 VNTR 爨痍屦钼 潆 恹耦觐疣琊屮帼泐 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛

理嚯桤 囔祛 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 囗嚯桤 溴礓痤沭囔禧 怦艴 镳铘桦彘 IS6110-RFLP 囔祛 Beijing 徉琨 溧眄 豚犷疣蝾痂 祛脲牦痦铋 扈牮钺桀腩汨 严 腿容 桁. 相耱屦 猁腩 铗钺疣眍 48 疱镳彗屙蜞蜩忭 镳铘桦彘 (65-95% 聃钿耱忄 [需. 8]). 蒡 囔禧 镱耠箧桦 潆 铞屙觇 滂耜痂扈龛痼彘 耧铖钺眍耱 VNTR 蜩镨痤忄龛, 铖眍忄眄钽 磬 囗嚯桤 铗溴朦睇 腩牦耦 VNTR 桴 疣珉梓睇 觐灬桧圉栝 (亦犭. 4), 镳 铎 戾蝾 IS6110-RFLP 疣耨爨蝠桠嚯 赅麇耱忮 铍铗钽 耱囗溧痱嗷, .. 磬栳铍邋 滂耜痂扈龛痼邈 戾蝾溧. 埋邈 猁腩 铞屙屙 27 腩牦耦 VNTR, 嚯脲朦眍 疣珥铑狃噻桢 觐蝾瘥 磬 恹犷痍 疣珉梓嚯铖 珥圜栩咫 (亦犭. 5).

泥脲 禧 镳钹磬腓玷痤忄腓 滂耜痂扈龛痼桢 耧铖钺眍耱 疣珉梓睇 觐灬桧圉栝 VNTR 腩牦耦 鲥朦 磬轵 觐灬桧圉棹, 磬栳铍邋 滂耜痂扈龛痼簋 囔禧 Beijing, 眍 铖眍忄眄簋 磬 钽疣龛麇眄铎 觐腓麇耱忮 腩牦耦. 署栩屦扈 耦耱噔脲龛 觐灬桧圉栝 耠箧桦 觐腓麇耱忸 嚯脲脲 嚯脲朦眍 疣珥铑狃噻桢 腩牦耦 (亦犭. 4). 疱珞朦蜞蝈, 镳邃耱噔弪, 黩 觐灬桧圉 , 耦耱 桤 皴扈 腩牦耦, 钺羼镥麒忄弪 疣珞祉 徉豚眈 戾驿 钽疣龛麇眄 觐腓麇耱忸 腩牦耦 漕耱囹铟眍 恹耦觇 桧溴犟铎 滂耜痂扈磬鲨, 犭桤觇 蜞觐忸祗 VNTR-聃屐 15+3. 央邃箦 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 镳 怦艴 觐灬桧圉 怅膻麇龛 蝠艴 汨镥疴囵栲徨朦睇 腩牦耦 桡疣腩 牮栩梓羼牦 痤朦 (亦犭. 4).

需. 8. 腻礓痤沭囔爨 UPGMA 磬 铖眍忮 镳铘桦彘 27 腩牦耦 VNTR 48 囔祛 M. tuberculosis Beijing 镳彖祗耱忮眄 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP.  孰囫蝈 B0 (B0 聃钿睇 镳铘桦 RFLP) 镱赅玎 皴瘥 纛眍. 橡铘桦 0 0 恹溴脲睇 骅痦 梏蝾.

亦犭桷 4. 蔫耜痂扈龛痼 耔豚 戾蝾漕 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing *

体蝾**

-忸 蜩镱

暑腓麇耱忸 箜桕嚯 桤铍蝾

暑腓麇耱忸 觌囫蝈痂珙忄眄 桤铍蝾

暑腓麇耱忸 觌囫蝈痤

朽珈屦 觌囫蝈痤

HGI

IS6110-RFLP

44

40

8

4

2

0.996

12 腩牦耦 MIRU

12

7

41

5

2-23

0.723

15 腩牦耦 VNTR

23

15

33

8

2-13

0.905

24 腩牦襦 VNTR

24

16

32

8

2-13

0.906

15 腩牦耦 + 3 汨镥疴囵栲徨朦睇 腩牦襦

34

25

23

9

2-7

0.974

绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐 A (11 腩牦耦)

34

25

23

9

2-7

0.974

绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐  (7 腩牦耦)

29

18

30

11

2-8

0.963

绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐 (5 腩牦耦)

25

14

34

11

2-10

0.941

*恹犷痍 48 囔祛 镳彖祗耱忮眄 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP.

** 灶痨囹 桤 12 腩牦耦 (Supply et al. 2001); 15 24 腩牦耦 (Supply et al., 2006); 蝠 汨镥疴囵栲徨朦睇 腩牦襦 (Iwamoto et al., 2007). 绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐 A (HGI>0.1): QUB-11b, Mtub21, QUB-26, MIRU26, ETR-A, MIRU40, MIRU31, MIRU20, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120. 绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐 B (HGI>0.1, 觐腓麇耱忸 嚯脲脲 >3): QUB-11b, Mtub21, QUB-26, MIRU26, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120. 绣潴鲨痤忄眄 聃屐 C (HGI>0.5 桦 觐腓麇耱忸 嚯脲脲 >3): QUB-26, MIRU26, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120.

佯噔礤龛 滂耜痂扈龛痼桴 忸珈铈眍耱彘 27-VNTR IS6110-RFLP 戾蝾漕 (需. 8, 亦犭. 4) 镱赅玎腩, 黩 IS6110-RFLP 戾蝾 塍鼬 滂趑屦屙鲨痤忄 囔禧, 漕镱腠栩咫 疣玟咫 VNTR-觌囫蝈瘥, 磬镳桁屦, 牮箫睇 VNTR-觌囫蝈, 觐蝾瘥 怅膻鬣 聃钿睇 囔禧 踵疣牝屦睇 溻铋睇 麴嚆戾眚铎 忮瘐礤 鬣耱 镳铘桦 (镱赅玎眍 皴瘥 纛眍 磬 需. 8). 武桧 桤 桴 囔祛 桁咫 镳铘桦 0 (27% 磬 徉珏 溧眄 (袜疴耜, 2003)) 溧眄铎 桉耠邃钼囗梃 禧 铒疱溴腓腓 铗 觌囫蝈 囔爨 0 痤漶蜮屙睇 囔祛 赅 0-觌囫蝈.

亦犭桷 5. 离脲朦眍 疣珥铑狃噻桢 27 腩牦耦 VNTR 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing *

灶痨囹 VNTR 腩牦耦

VNTR 腩牦

酿筱铄 磬玮囗桢 VNTR 腩牦襦

-忸 嚯脲脲

-忸 觐镨

离脲朦眍 疣珥铑狃噻桢 (HGI)

蔫耜痂扈龛痼栝, 15 腩牦耦

2163b

QUB-11b

4

4-7

0.205

1955

Mtub21

4

3-6

0.330

4052

QUB-26

4

6-9

0.636

4156

QUB-4156

2

2-4

0.082

2996

MIRU 26

4

3-7

0.520

424

Mtub04

1

4

0

2165

ETR A

3

2-4

0.158

802

MIRU 40

3

1-4

0.122

3690

Mtub39

1

3

0

3192

MIRU 31; ETR E

3

4-6

0.160

960

MIRU 10

2

1-3

0.082

580

MIRU 4; ETR D

1

2

0

577

ETR C

2

2-4

0.042

1644

MIRU 16

2

1-3

0.082

2401

Mtub30

2

3-4

0.042

念镱腠栩咫  9 腩牦耦

2347

Mtub29

2

2-4

0.087

4348

MIRU 39

1

3

0

3007

MIRU 27; QUB-5

1

3

0

2461

ETR B

1

2

0

3171

Mtub34

1

3

0

2531

MIRU 23

1

5

0

2059

MIRU 20

2

1-2

0.120

154

MIRU 2

1

2

0

2687

MIRU 24

1

1

0

描镥疴囵. 腩牦

QUB-3232

9

5-19

0.729

描镥疴囵. 腩牦

VNTR-3820

6

10-16

0.542

描镥疴囵. 腩牦

VNTR-4120

6

5-16

0.370

*恹犷痍 48 囔祛 镳彖祗耱忮眄 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP.

VNTR 沐眍蜩镨痤忄龛 镳孱犭噤帼 IS6110-RFLP 觌囫蝈痤 囔祛 Beijing

枢 猁腩 箫铎眢蝾 恹, 溻 镳铘桦 IS6110-RFLP, 0 0, 猁腓 恹怆屙 珥圜栩咫铋 漕腓 囔祛 Beijing, 鲨痍箅桊簋 磬 皴忮痤-玎镟溴 蓄耨梃 (27% 23% 磬 觐腚尻鲨) 鲥腩 镱 耱疣礤 (袜疴耜, 2003, Bifani et al., 2002; Surikova et al., 2005). 72 囔爨, 镳邃耱噔桢  镳铘桦 (38 囔祛 0 34 囔爨 0), 猁腓 桉耠邃钼囗 戾蝾漕 VNTR-蜩镨痤忄龛, 镳 铎 桉耠邃钼囗桢 猁腓 怅膻麇睇 17 礤祛眍祛痿睇 腩牦耦, 铗钺疣眄 磬 铖眍忮 囗嚯桤 恹犷痍 48 囔祛 Beijing 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP (耢. 恹). 鲥腩, VNTR-蜩镨痤忄龛 恹忤腩 赅 忭篁痂-, 蜞 戾骊豚耱屦眢 滂趑屦屙鲨圉棹. 鬣耱眍耱, 34 囔爨 0 猁腩 疣玟咫屙 磬 11 蜩镱; 26 囔祛 怩钿桦 觌囫蝈瘥, 桤 觐蝾瘥 襦禧 牮箫睇 觌囫蝈 怅膻鬣 22 囔爨 (HGI=0.585). 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 囔禧 0, 耩邃 觐蝾瘥 礤 猁腩 恹怆屙 漕扈龛痼邈 VNTR-觌囫蝈疣, 猁腓 疣玟咫屙 磬 12 蜩镱 (33 觌囫蝈痂珙忄眄 囔爨, HGI=0.860).

需. 9. 腻礓痤沭囔爨 UPGMA 镳铘桦彘 17 腩牦耦 VNTR 钺滂礤眄铋 恹犷痍 120 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 M. tuberculosis Beijing.

孰囫蝈 B0 (B0 聃钿睇 镳铘桦 RFLP) 镱赅玎 皴瘥 纛眍. 暑腓麇耱忸 囔祛 镱赅玎眍 羼腓 >1.

孰囫蝈痦 囗嚯桤 镳铘桦彘 VNTR 120 囔祛 Beijing 桎屙蜩黜 (0 0) 疣珉梓睇扈 镳铘桦扈 IS6110-RFLP, 镱玮铍桦 疣玟咫栩 囔禧 磬 53 沐眍蜩镟, 潆 铞屙觇 耱屣屙 痤漶蜮 觐蝾瘥 猁豚 镱耱痤屙 溴礓痤沭囔爨 磬 铖眍忮 17 腩牦耦 (需. 9). 软蝈疱耥 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 囔禧 镳铘桦屐 0 猁腓 疣忭铎屦眍 疣耧疱溴脲睇 疣珉梓睇 忮蜮 VNTR-溴礓痤沭囔禧 (需. 9), 黩 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 桦 镱恹眄簋 耱噌桦铖螯 钽 镳铘桦 IS6110-RFLP, 桦 觐礅屦沐眚眢 铍棹 IS6110. 铗腓麒 铗 镳铘桦 0, 44 囔爨 0-觌囫蝈疣 猁腓 胥痼镲桊钼囗 磬 VNTR-溴礓痤沭囔戾 (需. 9).

0, 桧圜 磬琨忄屐 W148, 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 怦蝠鬻噱禧 痤耨栝耜栝 忄痂囗 Beijing, 觐蝾瘥 痤觐 鲨痍箅桊箦 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 镱耱耦忮蝰蜿钽 镳铖蝠囗耱忄 漕扈龛痼弪 沿 缅痨囗梃 耩邃 囔祛, 恹溴脲眄 铗 桁扈沭囗蝾 桤 猁怿邈 蜒研 (袜疴耜 漯., 1999, 2002; 族痦铙耦忄 漯., 2001; 劐觇 漯., 2003; Bifani et al., 2002; Kruuner et al., 2001; Kubica et al., 2004). 岭桤觐 疣耧铍铈屙桢 磬 VNTR-溴礓痤沭囔戾 桴 囔祛, 恹溴脲眄 铗 犷朦睇 桤 疣珥 疱汨铐钼 皴忮痤-玎镟溧 蓄耨梃 疣珉梓睇 泐潲,  镱澉屦觇忄弪 桴 桉蜩眄簋 觌铐嚯铖螯. 蝾 驽 怵屐, 忮玟磬 VNTR-翳腩沐龛 囔祛 0-觌囫蝈疣, 镳 觐蝾痤 鲥眚疣朦睇 牮箫睇 蜩 疋玎 觐痤蜿桁 塍鬣扈 邈 钿眍腩牦耥 镳铊玮钿睇扈 (需. 10), 疋桎弪咫蜮箦 忡瘥忭铋 滂耨屐桧圉梃 囔祛 钽 觌囫蝈疣, 觐蝾瘥 溴轳蜮栩咫 祛驽 镳邃耱噔螯 耧屮睇榛 觌铐, 痤觐 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭 疣耧痤耱疣龛怿栝 镱 怦彘 蓄耨梃, 犭嚆钿囵 疋铊 铖钺 镟蝾沐眄 疋铋耱忄. 橡钼邃屙眍 磬扈 觐祜蝈痦铄 祛溴腓痤忄龛 铍梃 觐嚯羼鲥眦梃 17 镱腓祛痿睇 腩牦耦 VNTR 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 Beijing 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 拎殄耦忸 耱囹桉蜩觇 镱玮铍桦 铞屙栩 蝈祜 痤耱 镱矬鲨 觌囫蝈疣 B0 痤耨栝耜铋 镱矬鲨 Beijing 鲥腩. 项塍麇眄 疱珞朦蜞螓 镱赅琨忄 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 猁耱瘥 ( 10.6 疣玎) 痤耱 耋犸铒箅鲨 0 耩噔礤龛 镱矬鲨彘 Beijing 鲥腩 , 疋铪 铟屦邃, 镱潋忮疰溧 耧屮眍耱 钽 觌铐嚯钽 忄痂囗蜞 M. tuberculosis 蓄耨梃.

需. 10. 惕龛爨朦眍 溴疱忸 囔祛 0-觌囫蝈疣 磬 铖眍忮 镳铘桦彘 VNTR. 朽珈屦 牮筱 镳栳腓玷蝈朦眍 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯屙 觐腓麇耱怏 囔祛.

骡桎 恹耦觐 蝠囗耢桉耔忭铖蜩 忮痤蝽铋 汨镥疴桊箅屙蝽铖蜩 忄痂囗蜞 0/W148 (妈邂耜栝 漯.. 2002; 袜疴耜, 2003) 磬腓麒 镳铖蝾泐 现 蝈耱 潆 邈 猁耱痤 溴蝈牿梃 镳邃耱噔弪 镱脲珥 疋铄怵屐屙睇. 项黩 怦 囔禧 钽 觌囫蝈疣 (42 桤 44) 桁咫 踵疣牝屦眍 耦麇蜞龛 嚯脲脲 腩牦耦 MIRU26 QUB26 (镱 7 觐镨 赅驿铎), 觐蝾痤 礤 磬犭嚯铖 漯筱桴 囔祛. 蝾 驽 怵屐, 镳桁屙屙桢 镱腠钽 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜钽 囗嚯桤 镱玮铍桦 觐痧尻蝽 桎屙蜩翳鲨痤忄螯 怦 44 囔爨 0-觌囫蝈疣 (需. 9).

洋祆桊 恹桤腩驽眄铄, 沭箫镟 犭桤觐痤漶蜮屙睇 囔祛 Beijing (觌囫蝈 0), 铟邂桎眍, 镳邃耱噔弪 耧屮睇榛 觌铐 M. tuberculosis 痤觐 礤溧忭 疣耧痤耱疣龛怿栝 蓄耨梃. VNTR 蜩镨痤忄龛 磬 铖眍忮 疱潴鲨痤忄眄铋 聃屐 桤 皴扈 镱腓祛痿睇 腩牦耦 IS6110-RFLP 蜩镨痤忄龛 牮栩梓羼觇 漕镱腠 漯筱 漯筱 镳 恹耦觐疣琊屮帼 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜铎 蜩镨痤忄龛 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 鲨痍箅桊簋 桦 桁镱痱桊箦禧 桤 蓄耨梃.

央邃箦 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 觌囫耔麇耜栝 纛痨囹 12 腩牦耦 VNTR 镱赅玎 疋铪 忭簋 礤漕耱囹铟眍耱 潆 蝾黻钽 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜钽 蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis (亦犭. 3). 蝾 驽 怵屐, 溧眄 镱 疣珉梓睇 疱汨铐囔 扈疣, 磬觐镫屙睇 玎 镱耠邃龛 泐潲, 桁妣 犷朦 鲥眄铖螯 潆 囗嚯桤 汶钺嚯钽 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻, 疱珞朦蜞螓 觐蝾痤泐 镳邃耱噔脲睇 耠邃簋 疣玟咫.

秒钺嚯 徉玎 溧眄 MIRU-VNTR 翳腩沐钽疣翳麇耜栝 囗嚯桤 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing

佯噔礤龛 镳铘桦彘 11 腩牦耦 MIRU-VNTR 1302 囔祛 Beijing 镱玮铍桦 疣玟咫栩 囔禧 磬 204 蜩镟 c 桎屙蜩黜 镳铘桦扈 镱 11 腩牦襦. 族螓疱 磬栳铍邋 牮箫睇 蜩镟 11, 2, 28 33 - 怅膻鬣腓 犷朦眈蜮 (50.5%) 囔祛. 析屙赅 桧溴犟 疣珥铑狃噻 HGI 镱赅玎豚, 黩 磬栳铍邋 钿眍痤漤 猁腓 4 痤耨栝耜桢 镱矬鲨 (HGI<0.7), 磬栳铍邋 沐蝈痤沐眄 - 忸耱铟眍-噻栲蝰觇 镱矬鲨 棱耱疣腓 (需. 11). 需. 11 蜞赕 镱赅琨忄弪 沐钽疣翳麇耜铄 疣耧疱溴脲龛 10 铖眍忭 蜩镱 (58.6% 囔祛), 镳桧桁 忸 忭桁囗桢 疣珉梓眢 漕膻 囔祛 Beijing 腩赅朦睇 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis. 需. 12 镱赅琨忄弪 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桢 铗眍龛 潆 48 汶钺嚯 桦 腩赅朦眍 漕扈龛痼桴 蜩镱. 枢 忤漤, 磬栳铍邋 牮箫睇 蜩 11 磬躅滂蝰 鲥眚疣朦眍 镱玷鲨, 蝾 怵屐 赅 犷朦眈蜮 漯筱桴 蜩镱 磬镳祗 镳铊聃钿栩 铗 蜩镟 11 矬蝈 桤戾礤龛 钿眍泐 桤 腩牦耦 (需. 12). 皱眚疣朦眍 镱腩驽龛 磬栳铍栝 疣珈屦 蜩镟 11 箨噻帼 磬 邈 镳邃觐忸 镱腩驽龛. 蒡铗 蜩 怅膻鬣弪 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛, 镳邂嚯桊箦 赔疣玷, 眍 铗耋蝰蜮箦 棱耱疣腓 捩眍 吏痂赍. 酿筱铋 漕耱囹铟眍 牮箫睇 蜩 2 犷脲 耧弼梏梓屙 潆 漕扈龛痼弪 蓄耨梃 眍 蜞赕, 躅 戾睃 镳铒铕鲨, 怦蝠鬻噱蝰 骂耱铟眍 犁梃. 酿筱桢 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 牮箫睇 蜩稃 镳孱犭噤帼 铗溴朦睇 疱汨铐圊, 磬镳桁屦, 12 - 唢铐梃, 8 - 麦踵礤, 33 - 剜眭噱 曼弪磬戾, 躅 镳桉篁耱怏 漯筱桴 疱汨铐圊 (需. 11).

需. 11. 缅钽疣翳麇耜铄 疣耧疱溴脲龛 铖眍忭 MIRU-蜩镱 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing M. tuberculosis.

朽珈屦 滂嚆疣祆 镳栳腓玷蝈朦眍 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯屙 % 囔祛 Beijing 钺 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis. 琼圜屙 桧溴犟 疣珥铑狃噻 HGI 潆 铗溴朦睇 疱汨铐钼 铖眍忄睇 磬 觐灬桧圉梃 12 腩牦耦 MIRU.

令脲 忭桁囹咫铄 疣耨祛蝠屙桢 疣耧疱溴脲龛 蜩镱/镱矬鲨 镳邃咫圊 扈龛爨朦眍 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜铋 皴蜩 镱赅琨忄弪, 黩 觇蜞轳觇 囔禧 疣耧铍铈屙 镱 怦彘 皴蜩, 赅 忸 忭篁疱眄桴, 蜞 忸 忭屮龛 蝈痨桧嚯 箸豚 (需. 12). 蚂羼蝈 磬栳铍桁 疣珥铑狃噻桢 觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨,  铗疣驵弪 桴 磬栳铍簋 漯邂眍耱. 唢铐 曼弪磬 镳邃耱噔 镳铎彐篁铟睇 耠篦嚅, .. 桴 囔禧 镳邃耱噔脲睇 鲥眚疣朦眍 蜩镥 11, 眍 钺磬痼骅忄 礤耜铍 疱驽, 麇 觇蜞轳觇 囔禧, 漯筱桴 蜩镟. 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 囔禧 桤 棱耱疣腓 捩眍 吏痂觇 磬躅蝰 蝾朦觐 蝈痨桧嚯 蜩镟 镳邃耱噔, 忮痤蝽, 磬栳铍邋 祛腩潲 镱矬鲨. 袜觐礤, 犷朦眈蜮 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 疣耧铍铈屙 鲥眚疣朦睇 蜩镟 11 2, 眍 镳 铎 溴祛眈蝠桊箦 磬栳铍簋 钿眍痤漤铖螯 (HGI), 黩 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 桴 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 溧忭邋 镳铐桕眍忮龛, 眍 腓 礤溧忭 滂耨屐桧圉棹 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 蓄耨梃.

需. 12. 袜栳铍邋 镟瘃桁铐磬 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜 皴螯 (扈龛爨朦眍 铛忄螓忄邋 溴疱忸) 48 铖眍忭 蜩镱 MIRU-VNTR 忭篁痂 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing M. tuberculosis, 镳邃耱噔桴 疣珉梓睇 沐钽疣翳麇耜桢 疱汨铐. 枢驿 忮蜮 镳邃耱噔弪 钿眍 耦猁蜩 (钿眍 桤戾礤龛 钿眍 腩牦皴). 象黻蜩痦 腓龛 钺铉磬鬣 忸珈铈睇 嚯屦磬蜩恹.

蔓耦赅 沐蝈痤沐眄铖螯 镱矬鲨 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 邋 潆栩咫簋 铍棹, .. 漯邂眍耱. 务钺 耠篦嚅 镳邃耱噔弪 谚磴囡箴, 沐蝈痤沐眄铖螯 镱矬鲨 觐蝾痤泐 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 祉铈羼蜮屙睇 镳铐桕眍忮龛 疣珉梓睇 忄痂囗蝾 Beijing 桤 沐钽疣翳麇耜 铗溧脲眄 鬣耱彘 犁梃 蝈麇龛 耩噔龛蝈朦眍 觐痤蜿钽 镥痂钿 怵屐屙. 喻栩 镱腩驽龛 谚磴囡箴 赅 忄骓彘泐 蝾疸钼钽 镥疱牮羼蜿, 磬麒磬 耦 怛铕铋 镱腩忤睇 19 铖钺屙眍 20 忮赅,  镳邃镱腩驽龛 镳邃耱噔弪 镳噔漕镱漕犴.

碾 铞屙觇 沐钽疣翳麇耜钽 觐祜铐屙蜞 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻 囔祛 Beijing 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 矬蝈 邈 桉蝾痂麇耜钽 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 禧 耩噔龛腓 腩赅朦睇 镱矬鲨 囔祛 Beijing. 需. 11 需. 12 镱赅琨忄 疣耧疱溴脲龛 铖眍忭 蜩镱, 觐蝾瘥 镳邃耱噔 犷朦眈蜮, 眍 礤 怦 镳铘桦. 项铎 禧 桉耠邃钼嚯 疣珥铑狃噻桢 囔祛 Beijing 磬 铖眍忮 桧纛痨圉梃 怦艴 VNTR 镳铘桦 磬 徉珏 溧眄. 缅礤蜩麇耜桢 疣耨蝾龛 戾驿 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈 猁腓 疣耨麒蜞睇 镱 镳邃腩驽眄铋 磬扈 纛痨箅 镱塍麇眄 爨蝠桷 疣耨蝾龛 猁豚 桉镱朦珙忄磬 潆 祉钽铎屦眍泐 爨聒蜞徼痤忄龛 (multidimensional scaling, MDS), 觐蝾痤 猁腩 镳钼邃屙 矬蝈 镱耠邃钼囹咫钽 桉觌屙 箐嚯屙睇 镱矬鲨 (需. 13).

需. 13. 悟眍龛 沐钽疣翳麇耜桴 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 镳邃耱噔脲眄 忤溴 沭圄 MDS 磬 铖眍忮 爨蝠桷 疣耨蝾龛 VNTR-OD.

埋 镱矬鲨 (a.), 邂疣玷轳觇 镱矬鲨 (b. c.), 觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨 (d.).

杨牮帙屙: , 襄觇; , 剜眭嚅; 麦, 麦踵睃; 檬, 妙黻铐; 谚, 谚磴囡箴; 崖, 皴忮痦 曼弪磬; 蘼, 睇 曼弪磬; , 唢铐; 亚, 皴忮痤-玎镟漤 蓄耨; 中, 鲥眚疣朦磬 蓄耨; 羽, 羽嚯; 卵, 忸耱铟磬 谚徼瘘.

澡腩沐钽疣翳 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 觐眚尻耱 觐铍梃 H. sapiens M. tuberculosis

令朦 忸漤 镳铖蝠囗耱忄 戾驿 觐眚桧屙蜞扈 猁腓 磬栳铍邋 翦牝桠睇 沐礤疣蝾痤 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 滂忮疸屙鲨 戾驿 麇腩忮麇耜桁 镱矬鲨扈 (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1996). 亦赅 驽 耔蝮圉 磬犭噱蝰 潆 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗, 麇 钺 镟蝌屦 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻 镱疣玷蝈朦眍 磬镱扈磬弪 蜞觐忸 H. sapiens. 马桁囹咫铄 疣耨祛蝠屙桢 沐钽疣翳麇耜钽 疣耧疱溴脲龛 VNTR-沐眍蜩镱 Beijing (需. 11) 恹忤腩 沐钽疣翳麇耜桴 沭噤桢眚钼. 橡邃耱噔弪, 黩 磬栳铍邋 珥圜栩咫 翦牝 铌噻嚯 犷朦 忸漤, 眍 礤 磬珏祉 镳铖蝠囗耱忄, 黩 忤漤 磬 镳桁屦 棱耱疣腓 捩眍 吏痂觇, 沅 疱汨铐-耧弼梏梓羼觇 痼汨寤 蜩稃 耦耱噔桦 犷朦眈蜮 桴 镱矬鲨 Beijing (需. 11). 袜 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜铋 皴蜩 忤漤, 黩 噔耱疣腓轳觇 眍-圄痂赅眈觇 VNTR-蜩稃 礤 镥疱牮帼蝰, 眍 钺疣珞 耦狁蜮屙睇 耋彡豚耱屦, 蝈 礤 戾礤, 耦邃桧屙睇 铖蜞朦眍 皴螯 麇疱 鲥眚疣朦睇 铟邂桎眍 镳邃觐恹 蜩 11 (需. 12). 疋铪 铟屦邃, 磬 MDS-沭圄 棱耱疣腓 捩磬 吏痂赅 镳邃耱噔 溧脲觐 疣耧铍铈屙睇 outliers, 黩, 鬣耱眍耱, 礤耜铍 玎蝠箐弪 囗嚯桤 铗眍龛 戾驿 铖蜞朦睇扈 蝈耥 疣耧铍铈屙睇扈 邂疣玷轳觇扈 镱矬鲨扈 (需. 13). 义 礤 戾礤, 溧驽 磬 钺 沭圄 怦艴 桤篦屙睇 镱矬鲨 祛骓 耥 恹溴腓螯 耋彡豚耱屦 麇螓疱 痤耨栝耜桴 镱矬鲨, 犷脲 滂耧屦汨痤忄眄铄 镱腩驽龛 觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 滂耱嚯铄 镱腩驽龛 镱眈觐 镱矬鲨 (需. 13). 袜 磬 忡汶,  疋桎弪咫蜮箦 觐痧尻蝽铖蜩 镳钼邃屙眍泐 囗嚯桤 鲥腩 钿眍怵屐屙眍 镱潢疱镫弪 戾礤 铟邂桎睇 圄翳龛蝈螓 戾驿 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁 铗溧脲眄 镱矬鲨扈 M. tuberculosis, 忮痤蝽, 铗疣驵桢 耜瘥螓 桦 戾礤 桤忮耱睇 镟蝌屦睇 扈沭圉栝 麇腩忮赅, 耵铕扈痤忄怿桢 疣珥铑狃噻桢 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗. 袜镳桁屦, 箐桠栩咫 礤铈桎囗磬 礤觐蝾疣 犭桤铖螯 镱矬鲨 妙黻铐汔 眍泐 曼弪磬爨 (需. 13), 皴忮痤-玎镟漤铋 蓄耨梃 骂耱铟眍 谚徼痂 (需. 13).

佯噔礤龛 漕腓 囔祛 Beijing 钺 镱矬鲨 囔祛 M. tuberculosis (耢. 疣珉梓睇 滂囔弪 滂嚆疣祆 磬 需. 11) 镱赅玎腩 磬栳铍邋 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 钽 沐眍蜩镟 皴忮痦-鲥眚疣朦眍 皴忮痤-忸耱铟眍 疏蜞. 喻栩 磬栳铍邋 恹耦觇 镳铞屙 镥疴铐圜嚯钽 磬栳铍邋 漯邂礤泐 MIRU-蜩镟 11 襄觇眈觐 疱汨铐 疏蜞, 怦  溧眄 箨噻帼 磬 铗 疱汨铐 赅 戾耱 镳铊聃铈溴龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing. 丸珀铄 聃钿眍, 耋 镱 珥圜屙 HGI, 疣珥铑狃噻桢 怦艴 沐钽疣翳麇耜 铗溧脲眄 痤耨栝耜桴 镱矬鲨 箨噻噱 磬 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭邋 痤觐 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 囔祛 钽 沐眍蜩镟 蓄耨梃, 忮痤蝽 20- 忮赍. 毋疣龛麇眄铄 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 桴 囔祛 蓄耨梃 漕 19-泐 忮赅 祛驽 猁螯 疋玎眍 躅腩漤 觌桁囹梓羼觇扈 篑腩忤扈 牮嚅礤 龛珀铋 镫铗眍耱 磬皴脲龛 漕桧潴耱痂嚯 镥痂钿 (孰桁囗钼 漯., 1995), 铗腓麒, 磬镳桁屦, 铗 囗嚯钽梓睇 镱赅玎蝈脲 捩眍 吏痂赍 (耩. 犷脲 恹耦觇 桧溴犟 HGI 眍圄痂赅眈觐 (叔轱蜞箜) 镱矬鲨 Beijing). 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 恹耦觇 镳铞屙 漯邂礤泐 蜩镟 11 耩邃 痤耨栝耜桴 囔祛 镱漯噻箪邂噱 桉蝾痂麇耜 铗溧脲眄铄 怵屐 邈 镥疴铐圜嚯钽 镳铐桕眍忮龛 蓄耨棹. 项耜铍 Beijing 礤 怆弪 溴扈黜 潆 赔痤稃, 铒筢腓觐忄眄 囗嚯桤 汶噔睇 觐祜铐屙 疣珥铑狃噻 邂痤镥轳觇 麇腩忮麇耜桴 镱矬鲨 (Cavalli-Sforza, 1996, 2001) 镱玮铍弪 桉觌栩 扈沭圉梃, 觐蝾瘥 疣忭铋 耱屣屙 玎蝠嚆桠嚯 蓄耨棹 赔痤矬, 赅 桉蝾黜桕 桉觌栩咫钽 镳铐桕眍忮龛 囔祛 Beijing 蓄耨棹. 蜞觐恹 铗眍蝰 翳眄-筱铕耜, 耜梏耜, 泱眄耜 耧囗耔 (Christian, 1998; Cavalli-Sforza, 2001). 朽耨祛蝠邂 疣珉梓睇 桤钿 麇腩忮麇耜铋 桉蝾痂, 觐礤黜铎 栩钽, 磬 镳邃耱噔弪, 黩 镳铐桕眍忮龛 囔祛 Beijing 蓄耨棹 祛汶 猁螯 疋玎眍 邂疣玷轳觐 耧囗耔彘 祛磴铍觐 桁镥痂 阻磴桤踵磬 13-15 忮赅. 佯邃礤忮觐忄 祛磴铍赅 桁镥痂 怙屦恹 桉蝾痂 蝈耥 疋玎豚 铗溧脲眄 鬣耱 邂疣玷轳觐泐 耋镥痍铐蜩礤眚 耦玟嚯 邃桧簋 铐铎梓羼牦 牦朦蝮痦簋 耔耱屐, 铛忄螓忄怿簋 钽痤祉铄 镳铖蝠囗耱忸 赔疣玷 (McNeill, 1976; Christian, 2002). 蒡 猁 蜞赕 镥痂钿 珥圜栩咫钽 戾纨蝽梓羼觐泐 耢屮屙, .. 祛磴铍赅 囵扈 筲咫梓桠嚯囫 矬蝈 镱汶铢屙 囵扈 玎忸邂囗睇 磬鲨, 怅膻鬣 踵睃鲥, 铖眍忭钽 觇蜞轳觐泐 耋猃蝽铖 (Christian, 1998). 填磴铍觇 玎忸邂囗 蜞赕 钺滂龛腓 赔疣玷 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜, 篑桦桠 鲨痍箅鲨 眍耔蝈脲 忸玑箐栩咫彘 疣珉梓睇 犷脲珥彘 (McNeill, 1976). 腻轳蜮栩咫, 阻磴桤踵 漕 漕 鲥眚疣 赔痤稃, 眍 磬 铟屙 觐痤蜿铄 怵屐, 黩 猁腩 漕耱囹铟眍 潆 滂耨屐桧圉梃 桉觌栩咫 觐眚嚆桀珥 囔祛 Y. pestis, 眍 礤 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗. 泥驽 羼腓 噻栲蝰觇 沐眍蜩稃 M. tuberculosis 猁腓 玎礤皴睇 赔痤矬 蝾 怵屐, 桴 疱潢桢 眍耔蝈腓 猁腓 箜梓蝾驽睇 镱耠邃簋 桎屐桢 黧禧. 蝾 驽 怵屐, 忡噼祛镳铐桕帼 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 畜耔 勿潲 猁腩 蝈耥 潆栩咫, 怙铍礤 忸珈铈眍, 黩 祛磴铍觐 怛铕驽龛 镱耠邃簋 潆栩咫铄 桴 耦耋耱忸忄龛 耱嚯 镳梓桧铋 镳铐桕眍忮龛 玎牮屣脲龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 皴忮痦铋 赔疣玷 (耦怵屐屙眍 蓄耨梃).

骂玮疣顸 忸镳铖 镳铊聃铈溴龛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing, 漕矬耜 汨镱蝈珞 邈 镳铐桕眍忮龛 蓄耨棹 13-15 忮赅, 邈 忸珥桕眍忮龛 彦忮痦-鲥眚疣朦眍 疏蜞, 铟邂桎眍, 桁咫 戾耱 漕 钽 镥痂钿. 橡钼邃屙睇 磬扈 镳邃忄痂蝈朦睇 囗嚯桤 镳铘桦彘 MIRU-VNTR 囔祛 Beijing 桤 疱汨铐 邈 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (襄觇磬) 铒疱溴腓 怵屐 桴 觐嚯羼鲥眦梃 ~2000 脲, 黩, 忮痤蝽, 怆弪 觐眈屦忄蜩忭铋 (扈龛爨朦眍) 铞屙觐 忸琊囫蜞 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing.

缅眍蜩 Beijing 赔疣玷. 袜 需. 13b 铗眍龛 戾驿 邂疣玷轳觇扈 镱矬鲨扈 镱赅玎睇 疣珉梓睇 镳铄牿 觐铕滂磬, 觐蝾瘥 镱玮铍 磬犭囹 疣珥 觐祜铐屙螓 桴 沐礤蜩麇耜钽 疣珥铑狃噻. 需. 13b 磬栳铍邋 痍 铗疣驵弪 沐钽疣翳麇耜簋 忄痂噌咫铖螯. 鬣耱眍耱, 鲥眚疣朦眍-觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨 疣耧铍铈屙 鲥眚疣朦眍 鬣耱 沭圄, 钺 恻弪磬祚觇 镱矬鲨 犭桤觇 漯筱 漯筱 磬躅蝰 礤耜铍 耱铕铐 铗 漯筱桴 镱矬鲨. 唢铐 镳邃耱噔弪 outlier掝, 黩 钺耥弪 赅 沐钽疣翳麇耜桁, 蜞 镱腓蜩麇耜桁 镳梓桧囔 (Cheow, 2006; http://www.badley.info/history/Japan.index.html). 袜觐礤, 痤耨栝耜桢 镱矬鲨 磬躅蝰 龛骓彘 镳噔铋 鬣耱 沭圄 滂耱嚯 铗 漯筱桴 镱矬鲨. 枢 祛骓 铈桎囹, 皴忮痤-玎镟漤 鲥眚疣朦磬 痤耨栝耜桢 镱矬鲨 磬栳铍邋 犭桤觇 漯筱 漯筱. 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 犭桤觐 镱腩驽龛 箴嚯觐 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 鲥眚疣朦眍-觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨 (襄觇, 麦踵睃) (需. 13b) 唢铐梃 (需. 13) 忮顸爨 礤铈桎囗眍. 枢 箧 祛骓 猁腩 忤溴螯 磬 犷脲 矜囹铎 沭圄 (需. 13),  觇蜞轳觇 镱矬鲨 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 疣耨睇 鲥眚疣朦眍 鬣耱 沭圄. 蒡 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 桴 犷脲 潆栩咫簋, 麇 痤耨栝耜桴 镱矬鲨, 滂忮疸屙鲨 , 鲥腩, 镳邃觐忸 镱腩驽龛. 酿筱桢 觐铕滂磬螓 (需. 13) 恹怆 戾礤 铟邂桎睇, 麇 忭 沐钽疣翳麇耜桢, 圄翳龛蝈螓, 觐蝾瘥 蜞赕 蝠箐眍 钺耥栩 漕耱箫睇 桉蝾痂麇耜桁 腓磴忤耱梓羼觇 珥囗桢. 蝾 驽 怵屐, 忮瘐礤 鬣耱 沭圄 磬 需. 13 忭 镳桉篁耱怏弪 觌囫蝈 镳栳疱骓 镱矬鲨 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃 妙黻铐汔, 曼弪磬爨, 谚磴囡箴, , 戾睃 耱屣屙, 剜眭, 黩 祛驽, 溴轳蜮栩咫, 铗疣驵螯 桴 潆栩咫铄 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 怦脲漶蜮桢 祛瘃觐 蝾疸钼腓.

软蝈疱耥 铗戾蜩螯 礤觐蝾瘥 圄翳龛蝈 耔磴囡箴耜铋 泐黻铐泷觐 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis (需. 13), 黩 腩汨黜 耠邃箦 桤 桴 钺泐 觇蜞轳觐泐 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (Conference on Chinese population, 2002). 蝾 驽 怵屐, 铐 耥 疣珉梓帼蝰 戾驿 耦犷 镱 镳梓桧 疣珉梓睇 桉蝾黜桕钼 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 觇蜞轳觇 扈沭圉栝). 妙黻铐沐 96% 磬皴脲龛 泐忸痂 磬 赅眚铐耜铎 滂嚯尻蝈, .. 腓磴忤耱梓羼觇 铐 犭桤觇 耦皴漤彘 眍觇蜞轳觐 镳钼桧鲨 皿囗潴 (Harrison, So, 1996). 蝾 驽 怵屐 桉蝾黜桕 觇蜞轳觐泐 磬皴脲龛 谚磴囡箴 猁腓 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 疣珥铑狃噻睇 蝾朦觐 6% 怆 眍耔蝈扈 赅眚铐耜钽 滂嚯尻蜞 (Singapore Department of Statistics, 2001).

朽礤, 磬 镳桁屦 漯筱桴 忤漕 扈牮铑疸囗桤祛 (H. pylori, 忤痼 JC) 猁腩 镱赅玎眍, 黩 礤铈桎囗眍 沐钽疣翳麇耜铄 疣耧疱溴脲龛 桴 沐眍蜩镱 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 耜瘥螓 桦 戾礤 铟邂桎睇 镟蝌屦睇 扈沭圉栝 麇腩忮赅 (Wirth et al., 2004; Pavesi, 2005; Takasaka et al., 2006). 理嚯钽梓眍, 玎汔漕黜铄 痤漶蜮 铗溧脲眄 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis 襄觇磬 妙黻铐汔 (需. 5.7d) 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 镱赅 礤桤忮耱睇 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜桢 疋玷 戾驿 桁 觇蜞轳觇扈 疱汨铐囔.

橡铐桕眍忮龛 囔祛 Beijing 捩眢 吏痂牦 忮痤蝽 镳铊珙 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭. 袜栳铍邋 忮痤蝽, 黩 沐眍蜩 Beijing 猁 玎忮珏 捩眢 吏痂牦 镱 祛瘃觐祗 蝾疸钼铎 矬蜩 桤 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃 蝈麇龛 镱耠邃龛 400 脲. 17-18 忮赅 疱珞朦蜞蝈 溴蝈朦眍耱 妙腚囗漶觐 务-软漶觐 觐祜囗梃, 泐腚囗漶觇 觐腩龛耱 禧襦 念狃铋 袜溴驿 (睇礤栝 疱汨铐 叔轱蜞箜) 犷朦 觐腓麇耱忄 玎忸玷腓 疣犷 桤 泐腚囗漶觇 觐腩龛 吏痂赍 犁梃, 怅膻鬣 软漕礤玷 (Vink, 2003). 项蝾礻 桴 疣犷, 桤忮耱睇 赅 囡耜桢 爨豚轹, 磬耱 怵屐 耦耱噔 犷朦眈蜮 磬皴脲龛 青镟漤铋 枢锺觐 镳钼桧鲨 (Vink, 2003; http://www.nationmaster. com/encyclopedia/South-Africa). 亦觇 钺疣珙, 囔禧 Beijing 镱镟腓 捩眢 吏痂牦 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭 礤 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 桤 疱汨铐 桴 桉蝾痂麇耜钽 镳铊聃铈溴龛 (疏蜞), 桤 怛铕梓眍泐 铟嚆 (软漕礤玷). 锐蝾痂麇耜桢 溧眄 镱潋忮疰溧 沐礤蜩麇耜桁: 磬 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜铋 皴蜩 囔祛 Beijing 怦 铖眍忭 眍圄痂赅眈觇 VNTR-蜩稃 疣耧铍铈屙 蝈痨桧嚯 , 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 怆 铍桀眄 磬栳铍邋 祛腩潲扈 (需. 12). 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 耠邃箦 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 牮箫礤轼栝 眍圄痂赅眈觇 蜩 28 蜞赕 镳桉篁耱怏弪 妙黻铐沐, 谚磴囡箴 曼弪磬戾 , 戾睃 耱屣屙, 剜眭噱 (需. 11, 12); 怦 铐 怆 镳栳疱骓 疱汨铐囔. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 磬犭噱禧 沭噤桢眚 疣耧疱溴脲龛 蜩镟 28 铗疣驵弪 漯筱铋 犷脲 礤溧忭栝 矬螯 镱镟溧龛 囔祛 Beijing 捩眢 吏痂牦, 桁屙眍, 祛瘃觐 蝾疸钼 矬螯 桤 镱痱钼 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃. 橡 铎, 桉觌栩咫铄 镱腩驽龛 剜眭 钺耥弪 邈 玎牮铖螯 潆 忭屮龛 觐眚嚓蝾 漕 皴疱滂睇 19 忮赅 (Liu, 2005). 膻犷 耠篦噱, 蝈痨桧嚯铄 镱腩驽龛 捩眍 吏痂觇 磬 MDS-沭圄 铗疣驵弪 趑尻 铖眍忄蝈 镥疴铐圜嚯 礤犷朦 镱矬鲨 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing M. tuberculosis, 玎礤皴眄铋 桤 骂耱铟眍 犁梃 噤囡蜩痤忄怿彘 戾耱眍 麇腩忮麇耜铋 镱矬鲨 蝈麇龛 礤耜铍桴 镱耠邃簋 耱铍弪栝.

缅眍蜩 Beijing 棱耱疣腓. 袜麒磬 19 忮赅, 疋玷 铗牮桢 珙腩蜞, 桁咫 戾耱 耋耱忮眄 耱噌桦 扈沭圉 桤 眍泐 疏蜞 棱耱疣腓 (Jones, 2005; Morgan, 2006; Hugo, 2007). 武磬觐 噻栲蝰赅 ( 蝾 麒耠 觇蜞轳赅) 桁扈沭圉 棱耱疣腓 猁豚 羿牝梓羼觇 镳尻疣磬 磬鬣脲 20 忮赅 铘桷栲朦睇 忖邃屙桢 铍栩桕 铃腩 棱耱疣腓杌, 觐蝾疣 镳钿铍驵豚顸 漕 1970 泐溧 (Hugo, 2007). 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 耠邃箦 钺疣蜩螯 忭桁囗桢 磬 蝾, 黩 犷朦眈蜮 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 磬 徉珏 溧眄 VNTR 桁邋 溻 觐镨 腩牦皴 MIRU4, 蝾 怵屐 赅 怦 噔耱疣腓轳觇 囔禧 桁妣 蝠 觐镨 铎 腩牦皴. 袜 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜铋 皴蜩 铖眍忭铋 噔耱疣腓轳觇 蜩 198 铗腓鬣弪 铗 鲥眚疣朦眍泐 蜩镟-镳邃耱忮眄桕 11 蝾朦觐 镱 钿眍祗 腩牦耋 (MIRU4) (需. 12). 央邃钼囹咫, 礤 桉觌屙, 黩 噔耱疣腓轳觇 囔禧 Beijing 铍桀龛痤忄腓 桤 蜩镟 198, 镳桠礤皴眄钽 桤 -忸耱铟眍 犁梃. 项耜铍 疣珥铑狃噻桢 噔耱疣腓轳觐 觐腚尻鲨 漕耱囹铟眍 恹耦觐 (HGI 0.9), 铗 镳铞羼, 忮痤蝽, 磬鬣腭 礤 礤耜铍 溴蜩脲蜩 磬玎 , 耜铕邋, 觐眦 19 忮赅.

暑铍 徼铍钽梓羼觇 忤漕, 蝾 麒耠, H. sapiens 镟蝾沐眄 扈牮铑疸囗桤祛, 疣玮桠噱蝰 麇疱 忡噼祛纛痨桊钼囗桢/忡噼祛铗疣驽龛 桴 镱矬鲨铐睇 耱痼牝箴. 茵桎鲟螯 脲 磬玎 予朦 锑-丸 镱赅玎 怆龛 腩赅朦睇 汶钺嚯 桎屐栝 磬 麇腩忮麇耜簋 桉蝾痂, 磬栳铍邋 桤忮耱睇 桉蝾痂麇耜 礤溧忭桁 镳桁屦铎 觐蝾瘥 怆弪 屦磬 耢屦螯 耩邃礤忮觐恻 (McNeill, 1976). 磬耱 桉耠邃钼囗梃 疣耨祛蝠屙 钺疣蝽 汨镱蝈玎: 镱矬鲨铐磬 耱痼牝箴 扈牮铑疸囗桤祛, 蝾 麒耠 忸玑箐栩咫 蝮徨痍箅彗, 纛痨桊箦蝰 镳铞羼皴 耦耋耱忸忄龛 镱矬鲨彘 躅桧, 溧蜩痤怅 觌邂 耦猁蜩 铍梃 扈牮钺睇 镱矬鲨 镱耠邃龛 100 螓. 脲 忸珈铈磬 镳 耩噔礤龛 桉蝾痂彘 扈沭圉栝 麇腩忮麇耜桴 镱矬鲨.

橡钼邃屙睇 耩噔龛蝈朦睇 囗嚯桤 恹忤 耱痤泱 沐钽疣翳麇耜簋 耧弼梏梓眍耱 腩赅朦睇 忄痂囗蝾 M. tuberculosis. 鬣耱眍耱, 犭桤铖螯 痤耨栝耜桴 耋犸铒箅鲨 祛驽 铗疣驵螯 礤溧忭邋 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 囔祛 Beijing, 篑桦屙眍 爨耨钼 扈沭圉扈 磬皴脲龛 蓄耨梃 20 忮赅. 袜镳铗桠, 礤觐蝾瘥 耠噌 戾礤 铈桎噱禧 圄翳龛蝈螓 铗溧脲眄 镱矬鲨 Beijing (皴忮痦 曼弪磬 捩磬 吏痂赅, 皴忮痤-玎镟漤 蓄耨 骂耱铟磬 谚徼瘘, 襄觇 妙黻铐) 祛泱 铗疣驵螯 耜瘥螓 镟蝌屦睇 麇腩忮麇耜桴 扈沭圉栝 桦 妁 礤桤忮耱睇 桎屐桀腩汨麇耜桢 疋玷 铗溧脲眄 疱汨铐钼, 黩 蝠遽箦 溧朦礤轼邈, 蝾 麒耠, 镟脲铎桕痤徼铍钽梓羼觐泐, 桉耠邃钼囗. 袜觐镫屙桢 眍恹 溧眄 镱 VNTR 腩牦襦 漯筱桁 爨痍屦囔, 蜞觇 赅 SNPs 溴脲鲨, 蝾 麒耠 桤 眍恹 疱汨铐钼 扈疣, 怅膻鬣 蜞赕 囵蹊忭 镟脲铎桕痤徼铍钽梓羼觇 钺疣琏, 镱玮铍 镳钼羼蜩 犷脲 蝾黜簋 翳腩沐钽疣翳麇耜簋 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 潆 M. tuberculosis 镳铍 眍恹 疋弪 磬 邈 铍桀眄簋 桉蝾痂, 蝈耥 镥疱镫弪屙眢 桉蝾痂彘 H. sapiens.

论挛嫩

1. 杨怵屐屙磬 汶钺嚯 镱矬鲨 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 踵疣牝屦桤箦蝰 沐礤蜩麇耜铋 礤钿眍痤漤铖螯 , 鲥腩, 耵铕扈痤忄豚顸 疱珞朦蜞蝈 麇腩忮麇耜桴 扈沭圉栝. 缅眍蜩 Beijing 忸珥桕 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 皴忮痦钽 疏蜞 犷脲 2000 脲 磬玎 镳铐桕 漯筱桢 疱汨铐 扈疣 桤 捭-骂耱铟眍 犁梃: 蓄耨棹 - 耩邃龛 忮赅, 捩眢 吏痂牦 17 忮赅 棱耱疣腓 觐眦 19 忮赅.

2. 缅眍蜩 Beijing 怅膻鬣弪 溻 牮箫睇 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桢 腓龛 (疱忭桢 钼疱戾眄 囔禧), 觐蝾瘥 疣珉梓帼蝰 镱 耱痼牝箴 腩牦耦 NTF, IS6110, IS1547 Rv3135-PPE 铖钺屙眍耱 疣玮栩 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩.

3. 洋犸铒箅鲨 忄痂囗蜞 0/Beijing 铗腓鬣弪 耋耱忮眄 犷脲 猁耱瘥 ( 10,6 疣玎) 痤耱铎 耩噔礤龛 镱矬鲨彘 Beijing 鲥腩, 黩 镱赅琨忄弪 耧屮睇榛 踵疣牝屦 钽 觌铐嚯钽 忄痂囗蜞 M. tuberculosis, 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄钽 蓄耨梃.

4. 体蝾 桧忮痱桊钼囗眍 IS6110-现 镳桡钿屙 潆 溴蝈牿梃 囔祛 M. tuberculosis 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 邈 溻篚 铖眍忭 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 腓龛, VNTR-蜩镨痤忄龛 - 潆 溴蝈牿梃 滂趑屦屙鲨圉梃 囔祛 觌囫蝈疣 0.

5. 朽琊噌铗囗磬 扈龛爨朦磬 聃屐 VNTR-蜩镨痤忄龛 磬 铖眍忮 7 腩牦耦 (QUB-11b, Mtub21, QUB-26, MIRU26, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, VNTR-4120) 翦牝桠磬 潆 耜痂龛磴钼钽 囗嚯桤 囔祛 M. tuberculosis Beijing. 杨麇蜞眄铄 镳桁屙屙桢 戾蝾漕 VNTR IS6110-RFLP 礤钺躅滂祛 潆 恹耦觐疣琊屮帼泐 蜩镨痤忄龛 M. tuberculosis.

6. 朽琊噌铗囗睇 戾蝾 祗朦蜩镫尻耥铋 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼觐 现 潆 囗嚯桤 铖眍忭 祗蜞鲨 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩 沐磬 rpoB katG 翦牝桠屙 潆 恹怆屙 犷朦眈蜮 祗朦蜩疱玷耱屙蝽 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 鲨痍箅桊簋 蓄耨梃 漯筱桴 耱疣磬 恹耦觇 箴钼礤 玎犷脲忄屐铖蜩 蝮徨痍箅彗铎.

7. 腆蜞鲨 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩 katG315, embB306, rpoB531 磬栳铍邋 鬣耱 怦蝠鬻帼蝰 囔祛 沐眍蜩镟 Beijing 耩噔礤龛 耦 囔爨扈 漯筱桴 沐眍蜩镱.

8. 腆蜞鲨 沐礤 embB306, 恹怆屙睇 30% 囔祛 M. tuberculosis, 黧怦蜮栩咫 囔狍蝾塍, 礤 祛泱 耠箧栩 爨痍屦铎 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 囔狍蝾塍.

9. 朽琊噌铗囗睇 戾蝾漕腩汨麇耜桢 镱漉钿 磬 铖眍忮 镳桁屙屙 觐祜脲犟 桧纛痨囹桠睇 祛脲牦痦 爨痍屦钼 祛泱 猁螯 桉镱朦珙忄睇 潆 镳钼邃屙 翳腩沐礤蜩麇耜桴 翳腩沐钽疣翳麇耜桴 桉耠邃钼囗栝, 翦牝桠眍泐 祛龛蝾痂磴 滂嚆眍耱桕 脲赅瘃蜮屙眍 篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 鲨痍箅桊簋 囔祛 M. tuberculosis.

扬桉铌 矬犭桕圉栝 镱 蝈戾 滂耨屦蜞鲨

秒噔 祛眍沭圄:

1. Mokrousov I., T. Otten, B. Vishnevsky, O. Narvskaya. Molecular basis of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and its genotypic detection in Russia // Trends in DNA fingerprinting research (ed. M.M. Read) - Nova Science Publishers. NY, USA. - 2005. - P. 83-109.

2. Narvskaya O., Mokrousov I., Otten T., Vishnevsky B.. Molecular markers: application for studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Russia // Trends in DNA fingerprinting research (ed. M.M. Read). Nova Science Publishers. NY, USA. - 2005. - P. 111-125.

3. Valcheva V., Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N., Markova N. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Bulgaria // Genetic Diversity (Eds. C.L. Mahoney, D.A. Springer). Nova Science Publishers. NY, USA. 2009 P. 70-106.

4. Mokrousov I. Molecular basis of ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: current insights // Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments (Eds. S. Ngy, Z. K'ung). Nova Science Publishers. NY, USA. 2009. P. 180-204.

5. Valcheva V., Markova N., Rastogi N., Narvskaya O., Mokrousov I. Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Bulgaria: Molecular Insights // Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments (Eds: S. Ngy, Z. K'ung). Nova Science Publishers. NY, USA. 2009. P. 206-229.

羊囹 疱觐戾礓钼囗睇 吕 性 骟痦嚯圊:

1. 袜疴耜 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 悟蝈 .., 妈邂耜栝 .. 缅礤蜩麇耜铄 爨痍桊钼囗桢 镱腓疱玷耱屙蝽 囔祛 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 磬 彦忮痤-青镟溴 蓄耨梃 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 1999. - 3. . 39-41.

2. Sola C., Filliol I., Legrand E., Mokrousov I., Rastogi N. Mycobacterium tuberculosis phylogeny reconstruction based on combined numerical analysis with IS1081, IS6110, VNTR and DR-based spoligotyping suggests the existence of two new phylogeographical clades // J. Mol. Evol. 2001. Vol. 53. P. 680-689.

3. Sola C., Filliol I., Gutierrez M.C., Mokrousov I., Vincent V., Rastogi N. Spoligotype database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biogeographic distribution of shared types and epidemiologic and phylogenetic perspectives // Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2001. Vol. 7. P. 390-396.

4. Sebban M., Mokrousov I., Rastogi N., Sola C. A data-mining approach to spacer oligonucleotide typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis // Bioinformatics 2002. Vol. 18. 朠. 235243.

5. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Limeschenko E., Otten T., Vyshnevskiy B. Novel IS6110 insertion sites in the direct repeat locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains from the St. Petersburg area of Russia and evolutionary and epidemiological considerations // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 40. P. 1504-1507.

6. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Otten T., Limeschenko E., Steklova L., Vyshnevskiy B. High prevalence of KatG Ser315Thr substitution among isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from northwestern Russia, 1996 to 2001 // Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2002. Vol. 46. P. 1417-1424.

7. 袜疴耜 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 烹桧 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 髓戾黻 .., 悟蝈 .., 务蜞 .., 鲤椠朦 .. 填脲牦痦-沐礤蜩麇耜 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 囔祛 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 铗 犷朦睇, 铒屦桊钼囗睇 镱 镱忸潴 蝮徨痍箅彗 脲汴桴 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 2002. - 3. . 50-53.

8. 袜疴耜 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 髓戾黻 .., 羊尻腩忄 .., 悟蝈 .., 妈邂耜栝 .. 锗疣牝屦桉蜩赅 鲨痍箅桊簋 磬 彦忮痤-青镟溴 蓄耨梃 囔祛 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 耧铍桡铗栾桊钼囗 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 2002. - 4. . 44-48.

9. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Limeschenko E., Otten T., Vyshnevskiy B. Detection of ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by multiplex allele-specific PCR assay targeting embB306 mutations // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 40. P. 1617-1620.

10. Mokrousov I., Filliol I., Legrand E., Sola C., Otten T., Vyshnevskaya E., Limeschenko E., Vyshnevskiy B., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N. Molecular characterization of multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from northwestern Russia and analysis of rifampin resistance using RNA/RNA mismatch analysis as compared to the line probe assay and sequencing of the rpoB gene // Res. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 153. P. 213-219.

11. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Filipenko M., Vyazovaya A., Chrapov E., Limeschenko E., Steklova L., Vyshnevskiy B., Narvskaya O. Detection of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by a multiplex allele-specific PCR assay targeting katG codon 315 variation // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 40. P. 2509-2512.

12. Narvskaya O., Otten T., Limeschenko E., Sapozhnikova N., Graschenkova O., Steklova L., Nikonova A., Filipenko M., Mokrousov I., Vyshnevskiy B. Nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis caused by a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family in St. Petersburg, Russia // Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2002. Vol. 21. Vol. 596-602.

13. 妈邂耜栝 .., 袜疴耜 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 锐蝾扈 .., 悟蝈 .. 左怦蜮栩咫铖螯 脲忸綦铌襦鲨眢 囔祛 囔祛 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 疣珉梓睇 沐眍蜩镱, 恹溴脲眄 铗 犷朦睇 怙屦恹 恹怆屙睇 躔铐梓羼觇 蝮徨痍箅彗睇 镳铞羼耦 // 理蜩徼铗. 砧扈铗屦. 2002. .47. - 6 . 31-33.

14. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Vyshnevskiy B., Narvskaya O. Detection of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Northwestern Russia: implications for genotypic resistance testing // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 40. P. 3810-3813.

15. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Otten T., Vyazovaya A., Limeschenko E., Steklova L., Vyshnevskyi B. Phylogenetic reconstruction within Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in northwestern Russia // Res. Microbiol. 2002. Vol. 153. P. 629-637.

16. Filliol I., Driscoll J.R., Van Soolingen D., Kreiswirth B.N., Kremer K., Valetudie G., Anh D.D., Barlow R., Banerjee D., Bifani P.J., Brudey K., Cataldi A., Cooksey RC, Cousins DV, Dale JW, Dellagostin OA, Drobniewski F, Engelmann G, Ferdinand S, Gascoyne-Binzi D, Gordon M, Gutierrez MC, Haas WH, Heersma H, Kallenius G, Kassa-Kelembho E, Koivula T, Ly HM, Makristathis A, Mammina C, Martin G, Mostrom P., Mokrousov I., et al. Global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes // Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2002. Vol. 8. P. 1347-1349.

17. 妈邂耜栝 .., 袜疴耜 .., 锣耔朦邂 .., 燕镱骓桕钼 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 悟蝈 .. 妈痼脲眚眍耱 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 2002. - 10. . 33-36.

18. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Vyshnevskiy B., Narvskaya O. Allele-specific rpoB PCR assays for detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smears // Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003. 朧ol 47. P. 2231-2235.

19. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Vyazovaya A., Limeschenko E., Filipenko M., Sola C., Rastogi N., Steklova L., Vyshnevskiy B., Narvskaya O. PCR-based methodology for detecting multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family circulating in Russia // Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2003. Vol. 22. P. 342-348.

20. Filliol I., Driscoll J.R., van Soolingen D, Kreiswirth BN, Kremer K, Valetudie G, Dang DA, Barlow R, Banerjee D, Bifani P, Brudey K, Cataldi A, Cooksey RC, Cousins D, Dale J, Dellagostin OA, Drobniewski F, Engelmann G, Ferdinand S, Gascoyne-Binzi D, Gordon M, Gutierrez MC, Haas WH, Heersma H, Kassa-Kelembho E, Ho M, Makristathis A, Mammina C, Martin G, Mostrom P, Mokrousov I., et al. Snapshot of moving and expanding clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their global distribution assessed by spoligotyping in an international study // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003. Vol. 41. P. 1963-1970.

21. 悟蝈 .., 袜疴耜 .., 坞彘龛 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 髓戾黻 .., 珙忄 .., 妈邂耜栝 .. 惕牮钺桀腩汨麇耜 祛脲牦痦-沐礤蜩麇耜 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 囔祛 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 恹溴脲眄 铗 犷朦睇 镱腓铕汔眄 沐礤疣腓珙忄眄 蝮徨痍箅彗铎 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. 2003. - 10. . 44-47.

22. 燕镱骓桕钼 .., 殃忸瘀钼 .., 相怆钼 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 悟蝈 .., 锣耔朦邂 .., 锑龛麇忄 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 袜疴耜 .. 殷徨痍箅彗 脲汴桴, 恹玮囗睇 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 疣珉梓睇 沐眍蜩镱 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. 2003. - 10. . 13-15.

23. 皖痍桧 .., 疏眸 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 鼠痼眍 .., 署囫眍 .., 澡腓镲屙觐 .. 缅礤蜩麇耜铄 疣珥铑狃噻桢 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 铞屙赅 羿牝铕钼 痂耜 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛 玎犷脲忄龛 蝮徨痍箅彗铎 谚徼瘃觐 疱汨铐 蓄耨梃 戾蝾溧扈 祛脲牦痦铋 桎屐桀腩汨 // 填. 缅礤. 惕牮钺桀. 妈痼耦. 2003. - 3. . 9-18.

24. 锑蝠嚓 .., 体顸觐 .., 铃觐忄 .., 理漯邋怦赅 .., 鸯桊眍忄 .., 肃痂铐钼 .., 鼠琰扈 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 项耧咫钼 .. 缅眍蜩镨麇耜 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 囔祛 Mycobacterium tubercolosis 桤 绣耧筢腓觇 饮忄 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. 2004. - 3. . 37-40.

25. Mokrousov I. Multiple rpoB mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and second-order selection // Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2004. Vol. 10. P. 1337-1338.

26. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Limeschenko E., Vyazovaya A., Otten T., Vyshnevskiy B. Analysis of the allelic diversity of the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing family: practical implications and evolutionary considerations // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2004. Vol. 42. P. 2438-2444.

27. Mokrousov I., Bhanu N.V., Suffys P.N., Kadival G.V., Yap S.F., Cho S.N., Jordaan A.M., Narvskaya O., Singh U.B., Gomes H.M., Lee H., Kulkarni S.P., Lim K.C., Khan B.K., van Soolingen D., Victor T.C., Schouls L.M. Multicenter evaluation of reverse line blot assay for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates // J. Microbiol. Methods. 2004. Vol. 57. P. 323-335.

28. 悟蝈 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 袜疴耜 .., 妈邂耜栝 .. 骂珈铈眍耱 镥瘃镥牝桠 扈牮钺桀腩汨麇耜铋 滂嚆眍耱桕 蝮徨痍箅彗 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. 2004. - 5. . 32-35.

29. 洋痂觐忄 .., 骂轵桴 .., 鼠琰扈麇忄 .., 亦螯觐 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 袜疴耜 .., 澡腓镥黻 .. 蔫趑屦屙鲨圉 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗 皴戾轳蜮 W-Beijing, 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄 磬 蝈痧栩铕梃 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨, 磬 铖眍忮 VNTR-蜩镨痤忄龛 // 填. 缅礤. 惕牮钺桀. 妈痼耦. 2005. - 3. . 22-29.

30. Surikova O.V., Voitech D.S., Kuzmicheva G., Tatkov S.I., Mokrousov I.V., Narvskaya O.V., Rot M.A., van Soolingen D., Filipenko M.L. Efficient differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the W-Beijing family from Russia using highly polymorphic VNTR loci // Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2005. Vol. 20. P. 963-974.

31. Mokrousov I., Ly H.M., Otten T., Lan N.N., Vyshnevskyi B., Hoffner S., Narvskaya O. Origin and primary dispersal of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype: clues from human phylogeography // Genome Res. 2005. Vol. 15. P. 1357-1364.

32. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Limeschenko E., Vyazovaya A. Efficient discrimination within a Corynebacterium diphtheriae epidemic clonal group by a novel macroarray-based method // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 43. P. 1662-1668.

33. Mokrousov I., Jiao W.W., Sun G.Z., Liu J.W., Li M., Narvskaya O., Shen A.D. Evaluation of the rpoB macroarray assay to detect rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Beijing, China // Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. - 2006. Vol. 25. P. 703-710.

34. Mokrousov I., Jiao W.W., Sun G.Z., Liu J.W., Valcheva V., Li M., Narvskaya O., Shen A.D. Evolution of drug resistance in different sub-lineages within Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype // Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006. Vol. 50. P. 2820-2823.

35. Mokrousov I., Jiao W.W., Valcheva V., Vyazovaya A., Otten T., Ly H.M., Lan N.N., Limeschenko E., Markova N., Vyshnevskiy B., Shen A.D., Narvskaya O. Rapid detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and its ancient and modern sub-lineages by IS6110-based inverse PCR // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2006. Vol. 44. P. 2851-2856.

36. Mokrousov I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2006. Vol. 44. P. 1614.

37. Brudey K., Driscoll J.R., Rigouts L, Prodinger WM, Gori A, Al-Hajoj SA, Allix C, Aristimuno L, Arora J, Baumanis V, Binder L, Cafrune P, Cataldi A, Cheong S, Diel R, Ellermeier C, Evans JT, Fauville-Dufaux M, Ferdinand S, Garcia de Viedma D, Ly HM, Martin C, Martin C, Mokrousov I., et al.. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for>

38. 体朦龛觐忄 .., 填牮铙耦 .. 锐耠邃钼囗桢 疱玷耱屙蝽铖蜩 痂羿祜桷桧 L-纛痨 扈觐徉牝屦栝 蝮徨痍箅彗 磬 铖眍忮 囗嚯桤 祗蜞鲨 沐礤 rpoB //. 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. 2006. - 11. . 22-24.

39. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O. Designation of major MIRU types within Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2007. Vol. 45. P. 4092-4093.

40. Mokrousov I. Towards a quantitative perception of human-microbial co-evolution // Front. Biosci. 2007. Vol. 12. P. 4818-4825.

41. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Limeschenko E., Vyazovaya A. Corynebacterium diphtheriae spoligotyping based on combined use of two CRISPR loci // Biotechnol. J. -2007. Vol. 2. P. 901-906.

42. Jiao W.W., Mokrousov I., Sun G.Z., Li M., Liu J.W., Narvskaya O., Shen A.D. Molecular characteristics of rifampin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Beijing, China // Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 2007. Vol. 120. P. 814-819.

43. Valcheva V., Mokrousov I., Rastogi N., Narvskaya O., Markova N. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from different regions of Bulgaria // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008. Vol. 46. P. 1014-1018.

44. Jiao W.W., Mokrousov I., Sun G.Z., Guo Y.J., Vyazovaya A., Narvskaya O., Shen A.D. Evaluation of new variable-number tandem-repeat systems for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Beijing genotype isolates from Beijing, China // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008. Vol. 46. P. 1045-1049.

45. Mokrousov I., Sapozhnikova N., Narvskaya O. Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-existence with humans: making an imprint on the macrophage P2X7 receptor gene? // J. Med. Microbiol. 2008. Vol. 57. P. 581-584.

46. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Manicheva O., Potapova Y., Vishnevsky B., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N. Molecular characterization of ofloxacin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Russia // Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2008. Vol. 52. P. 2937-2939.

47. Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Vyazovaya A., Millet J., Otten T., Vishnevsky B., Rastogi N. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Russia: in search of informative VNTR loci // J. Clin. Microbiol. - 2008. Vol. 46. P. 3576-3584.

48. 锑龛麇忄 .., 肃耋眈赅 .., 企疣怆邂 .., 悟蝈 .., 填牮铙耦 .., 妈邂耜栝 .., 袜疴耜 .. 隋赅瘃蜮屙磬 黧怦蜮栩咫铖螯 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 耦镱耱噔脲龛 桴 骅珥羼镱耦犴铖螯, 鲨蝾蝾犟梓眍耱, 沐眍蜩镱 蝈麇龛屐 镳铞羼襦 犷朦睇 蝮徨痍箅彗铎 铕汔眍 潲踵龛 // 橡钺. 殷徨痍. 令脲珥. 隋汴. - 2008. - 12. - .18-22.

49. Valcheva V., Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N., Markova N. Utility of new 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat typing for discriminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Bulgaria // J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008. Vol. 46. P. 3005-3011.

50. Mokrousov I. Genetic geography of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype: a multifacet mirror of human history? // Infect. Genet. Evol. 2008. Vol. 8. P. 777-785.

51. Valcheva V., Mokrousov I., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N., Markova N. Molecular snapshot of drug-resistant and drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Bulgaria // Infect. Genet. Evol. 2008. Vol. 8. P. 657-663.

52. Xiao J., Sun L., Jiao W., Li Z., Zhao S., Li H., Jin J., Jiao A., Guo Y., Jiang Z., Mokrousov I., Shen A. Lack of association between polymorphisms in the P2X7 gene and tuberculosis in a Chinese Han population // FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2009. Vol. 55. P. 107-111.

53. Mokrousov I., Otten T., Zozio T., Turkin E., Nazemtseva V., Sheremet A., Vishnevsky B., Narvskaya O., Rastogi N. At Baltic crossroads: a molecular snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population diversity in Kaliningrad, Russia // FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. - 2009. Vol. 55. P. 13-22.

54. Mokrousov I., Valcheva V., Sovhozova N., Aldashev A., Rastogi N., Isakova J. Penitentiary population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kyrgyzstan: Exceptionally high prevalence of the Beijing genotype and its Russia-specific subtype // Infect. Genet. Evol. - 2009 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2009.07.007.

扬桉铌 耦牮帙屙栝

汤-现 祗朦蜩镫尻耥 嚯脲朦-耧弼梏梓羼赅 现

夏性 镱腓祛痿桤 潆桧 疱耱痂牿桀眄 麴嚆戾眚钼

镯 镟 眢觌孱蜩漕

弦 镳铗桠铗筢屦牦脲珥 镳屣囵囹

现 镱腓戾疣珥 鲥镯 疱嚓鲨

DR direct repeat (囗汶. 镳祛 镱怛铕)

EMB  - 囔狍蝾

INH - 桤铐栲玷

MCMC Markov chain Monte-Carlo (镱耱痤屙桢 鲥镨 锑痍钼 镱 嚯泐痂蜢 填眚-枢痣)

MDR multidrug resistant (囗汶. 祉铈羼蜮屙眍-脲赅瘃蜮屙眍篑蝾轺桠)

MDS multidimensional scaling (囗汶. 祉钽铎屦眍 爨聒蜞徼痤忄龛)

MIRU mycobacterial interspersed repeat units (囗汶. 扈觐徉牝屦栲朦睇 疣耨眄 镱怛铕)

RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism (囗汶. 镱腓祛痿桤 潆桧 疱耱痂牿桀眄 麴嚆戾眚钼)

RIF -痂羿祜桷桧

UPGMA unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (囗汶. 礤忡忮眄 镱镟痦 戾蝾 囵梏戾蜩麇耜桴 耩邃龛)

VNTR variable number of tandem repeats (囗汶. 忄痂噌咫铄 觐腓麇耱忸 蜞礓屐睇 镱怛铕钼)


1 拎玎 溧眄 镱耱眄 钺眍怆弪 30 爨 2009 . 怅膻鬣豚 镳铘桦 1853 囔祛.




2011 www.dissers.ru - 羼镫囹磬 尻蝠铐磬 徼犭桀蝈赅

锑蝈痂嚯 钽 襦轵 疣珈妁屙 潆 铉磬觐祀屙, 怦 镳噔 镳桧噤脲驵 桴 噔蝾疣.
篷腓 蔓 礤 耦汶囫睇 蝈, 黩 锣 爨蝈痂嚯 疣珈妁疙 磬 铎 襦轵, 镱驵塍轳蜞, 磬镨蝈 磬, 禧 蝈麇龛 1-2 疣犷麒 漤彘 箐嚯桁 邈.