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B.M. exep .B. py aocxooeca aoca e 3opo' 1986 56.14 68 616.89071 aocxooeca aoca/exep B. M., py . B. .: 3opo', 1986280 c. ...

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Bee accoao cepee eepex, aeo-ax opaax peoe epea ooo co-papaee e oe cac ocaoo ae pepe. cee coca ae, oyee c oo opoca MMPI. po oc p apaoo ope xapaepyec oee oaaee o aa 8, 6 4.

coy aoce ope cxooece oce opoc a MMPI, ceye o, o oyaee c x oo ae e paccapa caocoeo, e x cooece c peyaa, oye p aocxooeco cceoa eoa a yoax po. o yeeo oaao cceoa A. A. oayaca (1972), yaeo peee ocx opoco aoce apaoo ope oeeo, o oaae o aa pa ay po ooex oeax py ox, o o oeao eocao ee yao oooeco cxoaoc.

Opoc MMPI oe oee e ccy pea. ax ox xapaepo ceyee: ycpee po e cpee-caceco op ( T-ao) o aa 6 8 ce o aa 1,9 0. peca epec oapyaee p aae po e oco capo ax opoca eae apaocaoe coeae oopoeoc co cooc ycaoe pox coax oao (ay aay).

Ha ae oaa, o ccy pea oe poc poe oc o MMPI ae, acoc o cee paeoc eea eco epe o cyaox ycaoo.

po coceoe aee.

oo P. He paoae 4 oa, xo paa e opaac ec e oop. e ceao ooo yceo aaec ca oac aea oco.

Ma aca y pay a pyy appy, o e a ee e. ocy oy, a a peoa o p ep y e coce, oope o opeeeo pe cya eo ooo, o ec paoec eo ooay ccey, po oc (pc. 17) xapaepyec coeae ce oaaee o aa 8 0 (opae aycecx ycaoo) c cpeee ccy o oeo aa (F= 23). oe o ae 4 oe paccapac a ee peca oe peoo-aycecoe oeee aece cxoaecoo.

B eoopx cyax p oceoax ox c ccye pea oeaec aeoe oeco yepe, ocaex oce e oe. e x, ax y ooo oace paoae, yepe ae coepeo pyy py po oc (J. Bartoszewski, . Godarowski, 1969).

aocxooecoe cceoae c oo eo a yoax po e y ox opee eae paccpoca e, o pae ocoeo ay po aoc opeecoo poecca. O oae ope, a ee x o ec eoo apyeo, ocoeo a pae ca aoea p opax, poeax e poyo coa.

B acoee pe oe o xapaepoo ope ce e c acpaoo a ope ypoe oaeo c c oaaeoo ea (. Goldstein, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1946) e oepaec oco cxapo cxooo. oyee . Goldstein ae payc e a peya apye oppoa o, a a cece pcyx o ope eox, ecaapx cye. oee oypa oe, paccapaa paccpoca e p ope a peya apye ceeoc, paeoc opa (N. Cameron, 1938;

. L. J. Chapman, 1961;

R. W. Payne, 1959, p.). Hapye ceeoc opa e ox opee cac c pacpee pya pao peeo e, peaex pee cex aa.

oe opee aece ayax coy pep, e ee peao aoc. Beee poecce e eox pao peeo e oppoae x opex pao paccapaec a peepa epaccoaoc ccoo coo.

Haoee pooe pacpocpaee ooae cxooeco ppo e ox opee popeo oe overinculusion (cepxooee, cepxee), oopoe xapaepyec (N. Cameron, 1938) a eoooc ooo yepac opeeex aax ccox paax, a peya pacpe yco ceo aa.

oyee paax o oe ae oepac ooce cceoa, o ce a (B. M. exep, 1976, 1983), oao, a ae . .

oo (1974), oea o apye paeoc opa c c eocaooc pa, pacpe poecce e ccox pa ec ocaae oyex ao o co ee xapaepce, e ocaooo oce x ppo. Hapye ceeoc opa p opeeco e paccapac . . oo a peya apye ayaa pooo oa.

pecae epec cpaee ax, oyaex p cceoa ox opee c oo eo acca ce. Oe eo cep oo, poox . . oo coaopa, oece eoa, oopx acao coyec po o. a a pecaec, e cepeao cxooecx eo, oope e opac a po e o, paac e o a opao cee epaa, acpaoc, oe ee peopeeeoc oyca eeoc oceyeoo cpye cepeaopa, eoc eeoc ycox poeo cya ec oa pe paooo cye oc xapaep oceoaex, aocax cye, eax oo pyoo.

Meo ce acca p oceoa ox aao opee a pae peya, pe paa a o ac o pa cee eeppoaoc pee aa eo ycoe, oe ee opeeeoc cpy, oea eoc ceo eeoc. pee apa eo acca oycae aeo oee oeco oox pee, poecc a ex x pee x oppe oee ee, cpy e oaec ee opeeeoc, e peeo apae eo ce.

Peya aocxooecoo cceoa cooca c eco aae oceoax ox ope.

Haoee oeco oox pee aa o opeecoy y (caee ooe, cocaa, paoaooc, oopeeoe cocyecoae pax ypoe ooe cooae pax apaepo pepe, coaco oop cpoc cye), aao ca aoea oeaoc p cceoa o eoe acca, oa a aa a cee oe o oe ac pao. p paeo opeeco eee peyaoc cooa oex eo oapye opeecx paccpoc e a ypaaac. o ooe oop o pao aoc yaax eo aao ca ope.

Ta opao, aoc o o eo opeeeoo cxecoo aoea, ee aoceca aoc e oy xapaepoac e yea ca eo ee. paae aoc oex eo p a cyeceoo ooao oeoo eea ae ocoa pao aaxc a e a peyaa ee ooao-oeo cepe ox opee, epy oepe c c apye oa.

Po oa ocyece ceo eeoc oeeca. . C.

Boc (1934) ca o o, o a c co aea oea ee. O oop o oaoo cepe aeo coa, oopa oxaae ee, epec, oye, ae o.

B oe cepeao-cxooecoo aa eco epe ycoo oo e poe ee ypee oa. Be oa, a a eeoc oceyeoo, aeo epe caa c xapaepo ocaeo epe aa eoc cpy, oope cyeceo peopee peya oe aa. Bype oa oe opaae aeo-oce coca oceyeoo oe paccapac a peya oocpeoa pa ex yco, oo oo- oeee.

pe aeo-aepacecy oe eepa aay cxecx e, C. . Pye (1957) yaa, o ee p ecy epe ypee yco, oope ca oppyc peyae ex oec.

Bype oa ope aoo xapaepyec epap eco oyeo ccoopayx y cxeco eeoc eoea, cy x opaee.

Cpaee peyao, oyex c oo eo acca ce y ox c pao cee paeoc cxecoo eea, . e. paaxc o cee yye pey epeecoo oeaa, oaae, o ycox oe aa o eoe acca o po ee oa aeo ee, e.ypee. eeoc ooo ee eeppyec cpye cceyeo, e p cceoa eoo ce. poe oo, p acca o cpeaec co aeo o, e p ce, oeo opa. p eo peopeeeoc yco cepea eeoc ooo ccey ao-o epe oecpye eocaooc ypee oa. ocec ooceo y peya p cceoa eoo ce ox c epeo pae oc eeo aeo oee eoe ee y x paccpoc e c oo eo acca. C popeccpoae aoaox ee cpy cceyeo ye e oe o pe po oppeopa ceo eeoc ooo, o axo coe opaee ypaa aoceco aoc oex eo.

B eco epe o ocoeco cae ocaey ocoeoc aoceco aoc eo acca ce c po poeoo oxoa cceoa ocx coc, a a pe ec e o cooa eooao oa p ocyc cpoo e opeeeo eeppoaoc eeoc. poeoc cxooecoo eoa cceoa oaec a peya oocpeoa epe ypee yco e opa eeo pa ycaoo, ee oc oa, xox co ypex yco (B. M. exep, .

. ypay, 1978). O paoepoc aoo oa aopa poeoc eo po cee aoc eoopx aocxooecx eo p ope ceecye o, o oco-aee ocoeoc ox opee aeo ee oapyac c oo poex o coey xapaepy pcyo a TAT, e p pee ooy ocaoo aepex ceo ooao oaex pcyo.

Caaoe e ae ocoa opeee paccpoc e p ope oe o-cxooeco acee a cpoa aoaooo e. O. Maller (1978) e ope ee aoao cpo, oopoy oo epaoe eco pa aooecoo poecca, oepa eo eeecy oycoeoc acoc o yopoa peypo opa oaayca.

Aoao cpo, o O. Maller, ae apye oye, oa.

Aoaooe ee poee ceo eeoc ox opee oee ox aoeeecx exao (pey epeecoo oeaa, aoao cpo). Opaa cyoc ope a poeccyaoo aoea, aoaooe ee ae xapaepyec poeccyao popeeoc, poe oe oo yooy cxooy coco, pacay e. Bco e aoaooe ee aoee eo pecaeo p poco ope ope ec ea, epoy cxec paccpoco, oao cee ypo oa oa e e oo ye oeceoo ya y. p o aac capo oc, oope oycoa ae ax eex ca apao e, a aycecoe, peoepcoe, coecoe, apaoecoe.

Opeeee opeecoo e a aoaooo oce e yae po apye ceeoc opa exaax eo poea. ac apao ao opa ec eea ayaa pooo oa. Moo ya, o exa aoa apye ceeoc opa eco aoca.

epy po ec pae exa ce ypo oa, apyee paeoc opa ec eo poo. O. . Txopo (1969) poceae o poecc, oop oe pecae pe e.

epoe eo apye oaoo cep. O eeo po apye ocoo cca. oc cc o o, o coae ope pcpacoc eoeecoo coa pae opeeey aoc e, ee ocp eoea cyoc, aee x e (A. H. eoe, 1975). Bop ax eoea pao, peeo e, . e. ceeoc opa, opeeec oc cco, oop pee e popea oo oo yya. ox opee oc cc peeo e aco e coaae c oep oycoe peao cyae a eoea o x. Ta opao, apye ocoo cca p ope, p oopx ypaac caape ecaape opae pa ae oce oaec peoee, c op eo cxooecoo exaa paccpoc e. O eeo ey ooe peeo ea coceo apye ceeoc opa. Moo ya, o aoe pexeeoe, pexaopoe, pecaee o cpyype opeecoo e ec aoee o cooecye o-cxooec ae.

Hapye oa, ocoo cca ceeoc opa ea ocoe opeeex ecx poe. C exao, o pae epe c y ep eo e, ca apacaee ooaoe cee ee e cco.aoo a. Moo peoaa, o acoc o oo, aoe eo oe ocpaao, eco ape ope aaec oa paeoc oo oo a paccpoca e. Hapep, c ee oa peyeceo caa aaeca pey e. peoaaa paeoc apye ocoo cca caa c paccpoca e, ocoe oopx e eee oco o ooo (aycecoe peoepcoe ee). Bc c apye ceeoc opa oeaec apaoecoe coecoe ee, a ex cyax, oa oo ya o ooeo yac aopa aaoec eeo cxooop, aae paopaoc e oa. Taoe paeee eco epe ycoo, cxeao, o oo a e epeo eco pae cxap ca apye ooao opeee cpoa paccpoc e oyc a opeee, a apaoec-coecoe, aycec-peo-epcoe ee . .

MAHAAHO-EPECCBH CXO Maaao-epecc cxo (M) oeoe cxecoe aoeae, poeaee e aex a, paeex ce poeya. aoca M opeeec xapaepo a x ae ao, cee paeoc, o epeoa, ae ceax coco ax a, pooeoc epcc. cxooeca aoca p M epy oepe coc xapaepce ee oaaeo eeoc ooax paccpoc epo a. Bc c cxooy ao a ece ocoeoc a.

Haoee oa ea oo a M, ocoaa a ee ecx pepe, papaoaa T. . aaoyoco (1970, 1983). T a opaa a cee paeoc aeoc, a pae coa.

oeca epecc (cyepecc) oaec peoaae e cyeoo eaooy, coopa eeoo caooye. o caa ea cee o. oe coxpa pe oyc eeeoc, yeaec oee poyoc. ec ocoy po popea oce pea a aoeae, o oa po cya ee p ee eca eyoo epecc.

p yee o aaec cpo poco pypo epecc, p oopo epecce e e xo a pa cepxeoo cooopaoa. e ocy oppe , o pae epe, y ooo yaec a coee x paoc. Hepe cyae c. p poco oeco epecc oe aco aac cyoe oea acpoe ypo acpoee xye, a eepy yyaec.

oee e apao pypo epecc ec eaxoeca apape, aaac a opao oe opace xapaepyac aacoc epeccx peox e (caooe, pexooc, caoye, oxopecx). oa aac cec pe pe poaoc.

Ceya cee epecc peoa epecc. ec epecce e oc xapaep peox, x cee o pooc epeoea coe opa. Xapaepo oae eyeo ap a co ee pepoceo ycee pooc.

Too aaax coco, o T. . aaoyocy (1983), ae oecy oa, poeay cyec xapaepyyc oee cxecoo ecoo oyca, xopo acpoee, yce cpeee eeoc;

pocy a, p oopo ce pa ep- cae c ocoeoc oaaeo eeoc, caooe, oyca oee popea ec oe xapaep;

cxoecy a, poeay c pae ooa eaop oyee, cao e;

apa paepyo cxoeco a, ye c opaoae e e, oope, ecop a c x aacoc eeoc, ocac ce e cepxe e oca cee pa acoeo pea, oa oeee yepe ca, eooe (B. A.

poc, 1938).

pype a xapaepyc coao, opaae ee ooao cep, e cxooop.

p aaax cocox aocxooeco cceoa oapyae poe ycopeoo (aoo) e. Ha ep cya apye a cex poecco p ocyc ce ypo ooe oee.

B o e pe ee ax ox aopoyo c c pcye oepxococ cye, yax aeo e c cooyoc pao ocyaeoo peea' e poeax c poyca poeyox ee paccye. Hecop a ae oceo e paccyex ooo, ocoo oa ocopoe, ooe accoa, eca ooceo, oeeo cae c ceo aae. oa e ooo oopeeo cocyecy ecoo ocex ee, oa oo ycao ocyce c ey oe cye oe aae.

eee poyoc ceo eeoc p a cooecye cee paeoc a. p ex oecx oax oa ae aae eoopoe oee poyoc p oe pa aa. Ta, poe a aoae aaea a oa oopa ce 10 co oce epoo poe, ycao ey ccoe c, ca x e pacca, o oo eocyo opo oceye. e oe paea a, e e poyoc ceo eeoc. poyoc e pae a p a ca e ocoeo p ao apae ocee, a xpea cyaoc.

B aeo epe epoyoc e caa c cxooec eo, oop opayec c c eocaooc peoco eea, epy oepe aoo a cxooopo aoc. o oocc e oo aaa, o epecc coco. Oao, a oaa cceoa . B. ao (1972), poeee c oo oppeypo po, y ox aaao coco ae ceo oe, e p epecc.

Hapye a p aaax cocox epy oepe xapaepyc eo eycooc. p aocxooeco cceoa o poec yee apaaeoo o a oee aa pee oy cceoa ax eoax, a oppeypa poa, cee a peea, oc ce aax ye. aco p o aae yeee oeca oo, ocoeo p eceo ooe oceyeoo cya cceoa aeo ypoe pa. Heocaooc a poec ae oax, ceecyx o apye epepoooo opoe, oppeypo poe aepac pye y, oa oxoe a aae cpye, oa pacooee o cocecy c .

Coeae eycooo a, oeeoo opaoa accoa, ycopeoo ee ce po coeopa ee pe ooo oee caa e ca ao-o oe ee, xapaep cyae accoa, epeo o coy. Oeo paccye caoc o pee, a oop oo opa ae. p aeo ycope e oop o cae e c a cpo ce oa pyy, o co copo o ocpaec a epep coec oo. B o e pe p cae e oe o opeeco paopaoc epyo ce e yo ecy oceoaeoc ce, xo peypoax, e oeex o oa, x, xo eca oepxocy, aoc. cyax pae peoo ycope e epeca yaac epexo ey oe c. B x cyax oop o aaao (xpeo) cyaoc. copeoe ee cy coe eycooc oe xapaepoac ypao oea paccye.

Pe p cae e opaae xaooc oey eoc eeapaeoc cex poecco, coy oeaeoc ooo. p ycopeo e oe e ocaaac a oex ex, x cye oce, epoya, oocopo, oepxoc. copeoe ee eo oc xapaep oepxocoo, eoceoaeoo, aoo.

p aocxooeco cceoa ae epoyae, ocee cye eo opppyc p yaa ooy a oyey oy. cee coca cya eo a, oa oe peo opaeo ocpa y oy eaeca x paccye.

Beaee o ycope ee cxecx poecco p oeo oceoa ox aaao coco oaaec e. Ta, copoc cecooopx pea ae epo ey poecee coa-papae oeo peae cepee y x aco e ycope. Haoopo, oec aaec yxyee x oaaee c c eycooc a. copee e o copee eaee, oaee c c eoc ooe accoa aoc cye, cpo ceo ce.

Hae ycopeoo e y ooo aeo apye aocxooecoe cceoae. o epy oepe oocc epeao aoce ey pyp a aoop coco p oaeo ee ope. copee e ax cyax acpye e ope paccpoca e, cocaa, paopaoc. oa cxo a e aaao-ooe poe, oeo pocya paccpoca e opeecoo xapaepa. O o ao o e ce c aocec cyee cyax, oa eco ape oopeeo oeac pa ycope e opeece co.

B cxooeco aoce aaax coco ay po oy cpa ae, oyee o eoe MMPI. po oc aaax ox xapaepyec oeo o ae 9, copooac cee a ae 2 ocoeo a ae 0 (pc. 19). ae MMP1 xapaepy oo ae aaaoo cpoa, o e a ax yaa a eo oooecy paeoc.

B epecco ae M, apy c oe aeee cxooop, oeaec aeeoe (aopoeoe) ee. p o aee e ee cex poecco, yee oe oeco e. oe oop o cyeo yce apye e, o oye coe eeyao ecocoeoc, ayc, o y x ao ce. Hepeo o opacy o epeoea coe cocoe o oe ceo poeye. Xapaepo cyeceoe aeee ea accoa, oeo poeec yeee aeoo epoa coecx pea accoao cepee. aeeoe ee oaec yeee oeca pecae, oo aooo, epo. apye epexo o oo c pyo. o po a acpea a c, ooey. B cox paccyex oo eee, cae apye oppoa coecoo oea o xoe ce. Cpaae ae apaeoc e oe ayc a eoooc ao poecc pae, oop, o pyo oec co paccye o oa.

pecaee ooo o e ceo eeoc e cpaae, o oppyec oo aeo eeee, e y opooo eoea. ae ocoa e e e oapya ce eea, oo ee o oce e ocae, o ocae aco c o pyo. aeee e oaoo caaec apyex a oppoa e ceo eeoc, a oce o e, . e. peyaoc ceo eeoc.

aeee e p aocxooeco cceoa paaec yee pee, apaaeoo a aoe aae, pyoc epexoa oceyeoo o ooo aa pyoy. ooy pyo cocpeooc a oeo aa. Oaa coepeo coxpa ypoe ooe oee, o e e eee c pyo ycaae cpy o oe aa, ocoeo ex cyax, oa cepeaa aaa oaec ae oeo ee ee oyc eeoc oceyeoo oe ec cooeceo cpy. oy cococy paee apye oepa aoo a, xo p epeo paeo epecc cya cceoa eocaooc aoo a yaec peooe, o epe oe aa (a ye, cceoae paoococooc o peey) aac eoopoe yyee peyao, e aaae paaaeoc.

ya cxooec e y ox M, aac eocaooc ypae cocooc o aa p cceoa eeyax y, xo ypoe ocex e ce, S. Stromgren (1977) ycao, o aoae oepa a cooocc c a cxoaooec poe, a aa, aopoeoc, cee paeoc o. J. Luczjnska E. Kowalska (1978), ccey y ox c epecce a, cocooc aye, ae, epe cxooopy aoc, ycao, o peya p epecc ocoepo xye o cpae c opoo pyo opox oceyex, B poecce ee p ec oapyaeo yye coco peya ae oac. Aop oe, o peya cceoa eepy oo ye, e ypo. Ceye, oao, o, o oceee oe oapyeo oo p epeo paex epeccx, oop pcy cyoe oea acpoe.

oco cceoa opeee cee epecc coy pae a epecc, ocoae a oee caooee. Oeoe a epecc e c cxooec eoa, pe e o ec opaeo pypyeo o cooecy paea aope coo, oope xapaepy e epecc ee cx, eeao epo cce, coaece poe.

Ha ocoe caooe ocpoe a epecc, coyee ca o cee cpyype ooaopx opoco. ep oocc aa epecc T. Taea (1970), aa 50 yepe. o oea oceyeoo coaec opeee aop coo, aae oopoo epexo cpoao oee: paac ooa, oeo, eea, eeyao-ce cpo. Cpaee oaaee o pa cpoa, o a T. Taea (1979), ae coeopa po oc epeccopay. Aop e o eco cee epeccopa, oycoeo oaoeeec oea. Meoa a pecae opeee epec, oao y ac oa e a aapoaa apopoaa ooy e pacoaae coce oo ee pee.

Haoee pacpocpaeo ec cxooeca aoca epecco a c oo MMP1. cpee po oc ox c epecce xapaepyec (..

epe, M.. Mpoo, P. B. Poae, 1976) aca oee a ae 2 yepe oee a ae 1 p opo oee a aax 7 8. po oc peo caec a ae 9 ecoo oaec a ae 0.

po oc p pypo epecc popeae oee coca acoc o ocoeoce epeccoo cpoa. Ta, o a . . yo (1984), p oco epecc xapaepe o po 2 7 8, p peoo 271, p aceeco (aaeco) 721c oee pacooee, e p epx yx apaax.

Meoa MMP1 oe oaac oeo aoc cyax eoo ee M. po a epecx o ooe ae.

oo . eee 6 e aaoc 4 pcya M. eca apa a pa xapaepoaac coeae aeo-peeoo oye c epecc acpoee peoo. Oeaec oe a ycopeoe ee, oao coepae ceo eeoc oc epecc xapaep. oa oaoea e, o oa oa y a ec oec aepa yep. oa pa cpaae ee o pax aoo pee, oa opye eo ae e caooe (coo -a ee oy cpaa oe ee oaoc copy?). a pa aoe ceaoe cocoe epe xoo a ceec co epecce. Ha coe epeccoo oye poeeo cxooecoe oceoae oo. p o oapye pa paeo aoc e, o o ca e, coeaec c epecco caooeo o eoe eo Pye o epecc poe oc o MMP1. Ta opao, pe ao cyae e o ao ee M, p oopo eca apa a cooecye cpoy epeccoo oye o E. Kraepelin (1913).

oo M. eoe pe eyceo ec o ooy epace. p aocxooeco cceoa coepeo ocycoa pa coaeoc, oeaac ecoo aaaa paaaeoc eoax, apaex a opeeee paoococooc, aoe ae oxo oeppoaoc. o MMP1 epecc po oc c ooceo eco oeo o ae 2. caoe ao o (aceeca oeca epecc, o . B. aaxy, 1941).

Ta opao, pe a o oo apao acpoao epecc. eee aepeccaa ao ooe peya.

p cceoa o ae Cepepa oapya y ox M epecco ae coe oaae oco peooc ocoeo peao peo. oca ox oaae peo aeo pea 46 ao. p o e e cyeceo pa ey o, y oopx pypa epecc ea ooo peo opace, o, y oopx epecc epe oa oo opace. o ocoeco oop o o, o oapye eco ape peo o eocaoo papae epecc pae opace epo.

Ceye coacc c ee . . Hyepa (1981) o o, o peoa pcya o epecc ac o cee o.

a ye oeaoc, pecaee o ooao coco ooo ae cceoae caooe o eoe eo Pye. p o epecc oe oapyea o oce poe, oocpeoao, apep p oee o ce o aa ceeoo aooy, cyex oce, Ocyee c o oo, opeex eo caooey o aa, cococye e o, e ooc, caoye. p o ay po pae e coo oea, ceaa o o o o ae, coo ee ocee.

Opeeeoe aee cxooeco aoc aeoo coco y ox M ee eo cyeoo ocp ea. O o ceecye cceoae M.. . apa, . T. opoeeo . P. aa (1967), ycaox cyecee pa eoo yceoc p opx aex apyex y ox M. epce o apae oe oaac cceoae ooao cep oc eco epa. o a E. Cohen L. Hunter (1978), ec epa e yy epecc. peoee eoy ey cooecoao cooy ypo epecc. Aop ca opoc o oooc ee cooec c peyaa cceoa opy ox c epecce, oope oy o-paoy peapoa a aepecca.

p cceoa eoo TAT y ac ox c epecce aa poe cocex epea a ce paccaa, aeee epecc aeo eoopx eo epcoae. B x cyax oeaac eca ppaa epeccx epea, o oapyac aax, oope o epe aocec ax ceo P.

Rapoport L. Bellak (. o E. T. Coooo, 1980) oo e cocoe epecc.

p o oa poc cyae c ox, oope o yaa o opyax.

Ta, o a. 14 (cy a oe po oceeoo oa) oa . eco cocae paccaa aoo oop: Coo oa oa yc?. oa H. o ooy a. (ya co, ap o pya, a a eaa oce ea): Bce ye oa. He ceye ey opea. Oa ae e oa ocy, a ey ce e e. O a acpaac.

Ha ec ee co, epeo aac y ox c epecce. Cyoc eo aaec o, o e oo ce, o eoopx opyax, ocoeo ca poceo x e, oo ocpae a cpaae, ocox coyc aoc. o co oe ooae a co poe epecc. O aaec p cax pax ceex epecc o eo, oeco, o oee eo, apaoo. o, cpaa oeco epecce, epeo a opyax x e: O ca e coe ecxooc, yoeca ecpoceoc coeo cyecoa. B cyax oee yoo epecc aa poe oe c o cxooecx aopo, cococyx pacpe cya. B cooec c oo oop o epeccx apycecx, oopx co poe epecc xapaepe, ocecx, p oopx opyae ocpac o aece e peepo aooyx, o o opacy cococye yce y ooo epea c epecco opaco. Moo ya o aoc opeeeoo ec coa poe epecc poe epeccx epea, oapyaeo c oo TAT cepee.

EC p aocxooeco oceoa ox ece oapyac xapaepe ee e, pe, a, oce ocoeoc.

Cyeceo eec e cxecx poecco, apy c e oe pae, y oca ox ece o pao cee aee.

oaaeo o ooe cceoae aa ye. Toa a opoe apaa cpee a oc ce oo ae 40 50 c, y ox ece oc ce ae c o 0,5 o 2,5 oee. p o, a pao, e oapyaec, a y ox epepa aepocepoo, yee apaaeoo a ay oceyy ay pee.

Ha cceoa e oepa ax A. . opea (1971), aaeo y ox ece ec cxooeco cepee aceece poe 43% cyae. ox co ece aceece coco peca pa peoc oy oapye p a epyppeo coaeco aoo, poe acea. peee A. . ope peya cceoa oy oce pacpeo aoco ec, o oepaec cooae cee o po oo ec, poeae c aceec coco, ax aopo, a pea, apaxo eoea, p, epeo ooa paa.

e aao ca ec oeac ee ooc cxecx poecco. e epoc cxeco eeoc oapyac ae p a aaee y ox c aa poe ec ex cyopox pao p ocyc ee aex pao e-eyao-ececoo ce. B c c oy peca epec ae . Leonhard (1976), axoeo ae e ocoeoc cxooop y eoo aeypoax oce oyoo a.

Hapye ooc cxecx poecco eo oapyac poe a epeee. Ta, p oepeeo pae aaoy cy yx pyx oeac o epeoa. ocee oapyac p oepeeo aa aa coa aoo coo.

Xapaep o ooe peya cceoa eoo oepeeoo aa ap oyeex eoyeex peeo. ox ece oapyac opaee aaex peeo paa ooo o (aac o oae oe aece oyeex o ee opyaa ocaoa aece eoyeex), acoe oopee ox ex e co, oa (ae aae aa) epaoe epeoae ap co.

p paeo eeco caoy ooa oe epeo pea aa cocex e x e.

e epoc oeac p pooo aa 50 co. Ha oee oo aa yxo o 67 o 14 . Moopao oopc o e e coa.

cxec opoe oo aa coa cco ea, coco 56 co, o pooo paeoc, apep, aoo, oe, caoe, apoxo. oce aoo ccooo ea oe ceoa pyoe: ope, pea, oepo . . ox ece ccoe ea coco aeo oeo ca co. o ocoeco eae o, oey oe ece apaa a poooe aae co oo pee, cy epoc pooa ca yoe coo, a e epexo coa, paea pyoy ccooy ey.

Oapyaea p oceoa ox ece epoc poea accoax poecco xapaepye x ee a yoooe, oe. ocoeoc oeac pooo pe ox: o oyc a ece, e oy oec o opoceex, ao cyecex eae. Ho p o e caa o e epec.

epoc, oc e ox ece oeo cyae coeco cepee. O o ceecye yeee aeoo epoa, ace xoaece pea, ooopaoe oopee ox ex e oeo. aco a coa-papae oe oea cepeo pa co o aa coa coeo poeccoaoo oxoa, oa aece oeo pea opac paaee, ooaae e aoo peea. oa oee coa oocc pey coa papae (aaae peee pea).

Hepeo xapaep oex pea y ox ece ceecye o apyex eaoaa a ypoe opo cao cce. Ta, oo X. c caoo aaa cepea pa y oeo pee pea poooooo ae.

Oao, coyc co coa-papae, oop pyo oopa ao, oo oapy paeoe yeee aeoo epoa, yxyee aeca, oex pea, peoaae cpe x xoaecx.

Tae e ocoeoc oapya oe ece p cceoa eoo oopa co-aoo, ec apao coecoo cepea. ec ca ccey cpye peopeee xapaep oex pea. Ocyee coapoo aaca aco po oy, o oe pea opaoa aoa ye pae aaoy coy ac e. B oox apaax coecoo cepea oeaec acoc ey xapaepo coa-papae eo aeoo epoa. caee o apye- oca yoo coa-aoa yeac p pee co acpaoo ae.

aco coeco cepee cpeac oee peaa (apep:

oopya, aypa). p paeo caoy oee pea cepeo, ooopa a ce coa-papae oo oe oea 23 coa (xopo oxo, a e a). Hepeo coece pea opaa ooee ooo peea, ooae coa-papae, apep: opo;

ya yca . . ocoeoc accoa opaa ee oc ox, pcy o ece oep. Aaoo ocec oapyaeoe y ox ece p cceoa eoo cepoa cya o oop coa (. . ac, P. E. Tapaaca, 1959) ee ce cya.

Taoo poa ee ce ocaey cya paccapaec a pa peoaa opex pecae e ox ece, eocaooc occe ycooo xapaepa aa, a poee oepecx ee.

Aaooe ee ce cya aaec opaax ox ece (. B. oapea, C. B. o-oa, C. . Pye, 1972), o ae caec c pcy o oepo.

e oo ecee oe ece oapya cooc peepo ocoeoc, eaa. Ee oe ocoeoc eecoo e cya p oca o cooo pcya p epecae eca. p o oe oea coepeo ecyecee ea, cpy a x coe ae.

Hepeo, oca a opao pcyo, oo ce e e oe yo eo coepae.

Ocoeo paea cooc eaa p cceoa eoo ycaoe oceoaeoc co o cep pcyo. B x cyax oe (pe e o ox c pae eec caoye) eca eao, co oeco ecyecex opo.oce, oca a pcyo, o cooca x e oy, a a apyc epepoe cyecex opoceex pao. Ta, oo. p cceoao o eoo ocae ay apy o ope, a oa eaa:

o a a epee. Ao epeo coa o. Coo x? O, a, p. O cya.c, o, a a e oe co c epea, xo o epeo e eo cya. Oa pacpac ee cac epa. o a ooo opaca. Aap y eo ccae o o cao e, epee cea. o a ce cy, ee. Bo oy ca eo a ap. A a o ape oe ao-o a e epe ec. Ty oe a. Beceo ee. O ae e ecy, a a oye. cyy ece. O oe ooo opaca. Bo oo pyo caa ypo eep. Copee ceo ypo, a a o oo ypo y oy, eepo oa oo ypo. Aa o ape oe pocx peeo. O poc ep peea a pyax, ocaae eo a epeo, a pyo ep pye, a yo ec . .

apye ee cyecex pao peeo e xapaepy aaec p ec cee ypo poecco ooe oee. p cceoa eoo ce oe pae ocoeo xapaepy a epex opaex a pcye peeo o e axo ey o, o a, o ce pee eo oeo ey coo e e. Ta, oe pxo oy, o a, poa, aepa oo c ee, e oy a oeoo paa, ooeo oe ee, cyae xpae ax-o peeo. Paa apy c opaee oo, aco, eco epoepa, oo ae pae eay xapaepcy yepae, o e ey eo oeo.

oe ece poo acca o opeo-cyaooy pay.

p o oo yca ae paccye: opo, y, oop o cea op ay;

pa, peeo, epoep ce o oe, yopa oe ya . .

Xapaepo opaoae poecce acca ecox ex, x o coepa, py, apep, eec ocya eaeca cea, oy ooe yop opay oee py e oec c oeo.

p cceoa o eoe caa apo opeo eeoc ox opeeec, o pae A. H. ep-ea (1920), eaoep ceo. oe o aae eoo po oo. Bpaec oo oee py opeo ey ooepeo paac ce pye. pe oe ae pyoocyc e pecaee o eoco pcye, a pa, opo eo oex opeo. Bc a paoa oec c pcye o ece eaoc, aeo, cpyyeo.

ec epaoc coee yx opeo, oo oaae o x pepe cey.

aco aaec y ox ece yce paccye coa apy coeopaoo peoepca, oaeoc o peoepca p pyx aoeax, epy oepe o opeecoo. Peoepco ox ece oc xapaep oecaopx paccye. Eo ocoeoc poc oyeo, a cee, oe caa, opaax eoopy aeoc epeoey coceoo eoo oa, o pe a caa oc xapaep eyox, oepxocx, ex o coepa cye, coepa aoe, aae accoa. x peoepce paccye cea pypoe opeo cya, o oopo ooy pyo oec.

Cyece oeao a peoepco p ope ec aaaec xapaep x aoea ocoeoc ooao-ocx ooeo e. peoepcyx ox ece cepee oeac cee ypo ooe oee, yoc aaoa e, oepece ee p eoc coapoo aaca. oceee ocoeco ae pae coeopa oop eecoy peoepcy, oopo coeac oyeoc cye c ooae.

Ec p ope peoepce ec ayaa cax pao, coeopaoe apyee accoax poecco, papyee oppyxc poecce cxecx cepeoo, o p ec pe e o epoc e, ayaa aocyecex pao, o e epeoox aoo e.

ooo e eecoo peoepca oy c cae paoopae cya, coaaee xoe cepea. Hepeo aa ee peoepcy p pee o ece opcecx pcyo. p o oc e oo xapaepoe eecoo caoy eoae opa, o eppea cea pcya c peee coceoo eoo oa cox coxc epeooo-epx pecae ae ocyaex opoco. Ceye yaa, o eoae opa o ece cxooeco cepee o ycaoeo (1909), cooa oo papaoa eo aaypo. O ae, o yco opa y ox ece e oe cpaae, e pae aaoc aoeae e xye a yceaeoc ooo oe. cceoae yca opa y x ox pepaoc R. Ganter ex opeee eeyaoo ypo. Toa pe aopa ooceo oo, o po eoa opa o ece ec popeccpyee caoye, oepaec A. C. oac B. B. eope (1970), ycao, o p ec ayxae ooaoo ooea opa e pae cyeceo po. Heoae opa o ece aop ca c yoye, cooc peoepcy, apye ee cyeceoo eee eaa.

ox ece epea eeoc eco epe caa c ocoeoc ee cex poecco. O o ceecy peya, oyee a p oceoa ox ece eoo oecoo pee aa ooa p. Oee epae ey peyaa oe o ece aa ooa peoo opaa cee eeyaoo eea.

Xapaep aaec y ox ece paccpoca pe aeee ee ea, yopeee yeex co peex ao, ooa. Ooa, a ca A. H. epe (1912),ocooe aoee xapaepoe peeoe paccpoco y ox ece. Paa ocpy oce-paoy ocoy (oy popeccpyy o -. pyy, 1939) ooa.

Heocpeceo oce paa p a paccpoeoo coa y ox oapyaec aco apyea cocooc yaa pee eo aaee. o epe occaoe coa aco ceae, yaa A. H. epe, poec aeco-aaec oec (ocpa ocepaoa ooa). Ooa poec o, o oe ya oaae pee oapya ae eo coc aae, o aa pee e oy. aoooec ocpa ocepaoa ooa yea M. . Cepeo (1952), ycaoe coeopay oceeoc occaoe opox ce ey ca ccea oce cyopooo paa. Baae cooac -o opoe c ey peeocpae oac ae (eceec) aaaopo. B c c oo oe pao o aee aa. ae occaaac c ey pe peeae aaaopa oo oe pao aa pee. B oce oepe occaaac c ey cyxopee peeae aaaopa, oa oe ye oy pao oea a opoc.

apye aa peeo ocepao epo eoopo: oee aoe, oee pee oe aa pae, e eee aoe o peey eoy oy.

Ooa cpeaec e oo eocpeceo oce paa, p eo ee aoea oa oapyaec epaoe epo. B x cyax oop o ocoo, oe, popeccpye ooa, ec opaee eecoo caoy.

aae a a ooa eco ca ey coo ocoa ooa ec cxoa c ocepaoo. B oox cyax oeac apyee aa oaaex peeo x opae, e aececo aa. oe, cae pyoc p oca yoo coa, ee axo eo, ec peec paa, oopo o coo ccey ceao poycaec. Ta, oo p oae aopy oop: o... o... oo, o ca. ca e pay:

e apa epa ... aa ca a, oo ee coae eoxooe coo.

B o e pe p oe popeccpye ooa oapyac pa, oae ee o oeco ooa. Ec ocepaoo 'coco p aax poex aoea ocaa epx yo coo aeo oeae aay ooo, o o epe yye eecoo caoy oeaec popeccpoae caex o apye p aa co yeee eoc oca. eo oe aco e ooae ocaae o cex, poe oceeo, coo coa. o epe ee oe yeaec aoc oco o yoo coa , ooo, c c oeaec oocea peoc epax apaa. o ae oae oy popeccpyy ooa o co aececo aa, oopo xapaep epae apaa.

p aa ycaaaec opeeea po aoca ooo c e peea, papoae x eo oe ooo. a pao, apye ox oocc aa peeo, c oop pee pxooc cpeac.

aeo ee aac aco yopeee o poo pee.

cceoae eoo aa peeo x opae apaeo, a eco, a yee oao y pe oaae, o aae (A. P. yp, 1962) cea ec ye acca ooe. Baae, a epo ae, a y ocyecec oe ccoo cepe, ooae cyy aa coc.

Bocec oo oeca eec cooecyee aae peea. oaaee cy opeee apae ey aeco aa peea coxpaoc ypo poecco ooe oee y ox ece. e e ypoe poecco ooe oee, e oe apye ca oe p aa peeo. o ae cooecye ec pecae o c ey eec caoye ocoo ooae. Cyecy ocee pa c ey apye oao y pe y ox ece eocaooc acca, ooe. Ta, opcoa coc peea, aa oop oo apyec, ec opeeeo cee oecaop exao, apy peepe oooc poecco ooe oee. B ocpoe eppa, ocae ocoeoc peea, peac pooe pecae, cae c oae aae py peeo, oopa ae oaae ooy pee. a pao, e oe paeo caoye, e pee pe ox cpeac ae eppa, e ee oecpyec ee y aa.

Ta opao, caaoo o, o oa popeccpya ooa ec oee co, o cpae c oce-paoo ooae, coooeco. B pocxoe oe popeccpye ooa pae po coeae yx aopo aecec-aaecx poe eecoo caoy.

poeee a cceoa pe ox ece oaa, o opeeey po e ooa pae cee opeoc papaee peeoo aaaopa, apaeoc peex pea. B c c cooaac cep eo, oaxc pao paeoc x coc (aae opaex a pcye peeo, oop co poooooo ae, oepeeoe aae ap oyeex eoyeex peeo, poooe aae 50 co). o ycaoeo, o oa popeccpya ooa oe paea p eopex, eee apaex papaex peeo oac.

B pe cyae, e ee ooa o pyo yo, a a pee x opae a pcye aac o yoeopeo, oa eo ac p oope co poooooo ae, poe a epeoae . . ooy ycaoe a ocyc oe popeccpye ooa eocaoo opac oao ooy peeo poco aa x. C o e eoxoo poec ceaoe aocxooecoe cceoae c oo yoyo cep eo.

Teee ec copooaec eyo ocaee a. Baae oapyaec apyee pooo pepoyoepa a a ocpoee a aoo-o coa po yxye cocooc pepoy.

Ha oceyx aax oapyac paccpoca yepa aoa. Taa aa paccpoca a p ec oeaac O. Bumke (1939), H. oec (1956). Aaoa oceoaeoc apye a xapaepa epepaoo aepocepoa e pyooaoo aoo. o ae ocoae oaa, o ocaee pooo pepoy c ocey yxyee yepa aoa e ec ocoeoc ooo aoo-o opeeeoo aoea, a pcye oe c eeo popeccpy ec-ec paccpoca.

pa aoa y ox ece oc coeopa xapaep. oeco ocpoox co c a ocey oopee o eaeo yeaec, o ocaec pe. He cpeaec, a p epepao aepocepoe, yeee oeca co, ocpoox p oceyx oopex. p oee yox apyex a y ox ece pa aoa oc oee oo xapaep.

pecae epec opeeeoe cooece ey paeoc oe popeccpye ooa yo paccpoc a, x apae. e ee pae y ox ece paccpoca a, e eee paea oa popeccpya ooa, , aoopo, oee yo paccpoca a cooecy oee paee ooaece poe.

Tao e apae ycaoe a coeco c. . Bopoo (1978) p coocae y ox ece ce a ypo ooe. cceoae a ooe, a opao, oeo cy o ye cxecoo eea. Bc c ocoeo oaaeo cceoae a y ox ece cxoepec eoa, eo a cooaa aa a Becepa. ox ece cooec c ec pep a cepeaoo opeee ypo ooe oee pacpee a 3 py. B 1- pye oe c eo cee cxecoo eea, o 2- c yepeo pae cxec eeo, a 3- c yo eeya ee. cpae, xo caapa cyeco a a eae o eoae, a oceoaa opoa pya opox , e oeax ocae a.

oyee ae yeeo ceecy o cooec ocae a paeoc ce ypo ooe oee y ox ece. p a eoo cxecoo eea ocaee a eaeo o cyap oaae e xo a pee op, oao ceye yec, o ocaec eec peop ypoe ececx poecco. x ox ocaee a aeo ee yaaec p aeceo aae peyao oe aa o oe cyeca.

ep cyec oe 1- 2-py o c xopo oaae p a yooo caoy peya o ey aeo cac. To e caoe oocc o opoy cyecy.

Oe oaae ae o peey cyecy. e p eo eeyao-ececo ce peya ec coca epecee o eopae 26 ao (p ooo acye 9 ao). ox 2- 3- py oeac ocoeo oxe peya.

B eepo cyece oceyee 1- py ocpoo 1017 ccox e 28 oox, 2-513 ccox e 3- 06,5 ccox e. p o xapaepo acpeae a oex eax paccaa, e oooc yo ce eo eo.

B o cyece ae oeaoc aeoe cee peyao o cpae c oceye opoo py.

eco cyec ae oapya yxyee xapaepyx yay pepoy oaaee y ox cex py cooeceo cee paeoc cxecoo eea.

peca epec ae o ceoy cyecy, ceecye o eo coxpaoc accoao a p ec.

Moo e oee cyec a a, peya oe oopx oo cy o ce a y ox ece ye a pax aax oe.

Paee poee eocaooc x cyecax oycoeo eoxooc eaoaa xoe oe aa. Bo e pe oapyee aeoo apye accoao cyece, ocoeo p ocpoee ex accoa, ceecye o yoo caoy.

Be cooaoc o o, o p cceoa y ox ece ocoeoce poea poecco e oe po x pa pcyx oy aoea ocx ocoeoce. oco-aee ocoeoc ox ece cceyc c oo ceax eo.

ox ece a oapyea epoc ypo pa (. .

ea, 1967;

H. . aa, 1971;

. B. opco, 1971). M cceoa ypoe pa y ox ece c oo ocaoo e apaa eo, ooeo a oecey oey eoopx oaaee. B cooec c a ecoo ae ooo cepeao-cxooecoo cceoa oe pacpeee a 2 py. ox 1- py xapaep yepee pa eecoo eea, y ox 2- py opeeoc paeoe eeyao-ececoe cee cooeceo pye xapaepooece ee.

oceyex oex py oeac a ooceo co, a cpaeo ypoe pa, cxo, o cyapoy oaae. oee cyeceo opeeee pa ey ypoe pa oceyeoo eo ypoe oce (ea eeoo pacxoe o B. . epaecoy). Bea eeoo pacxoe y oceyex 1- py c yepeo pae ec epa eecoo eea cocaa 718 ao, oa a y oceyex 2- py p a paeoo eecoo caoy o oaae coca 3865 ao. ae oo cy o yyxc c eee eecoo poecca apyex caooe ox, poxc apaca eaeaoc ypo pa ypo peax oooce.

Xapaepy ay pao ypo pa y ox ece, ae oo oe cyecey pay peyao y ox, oocxc 2 pya.

Oceyee 1- py oo coe eeoc pyoocyc ycexo eyae p oe peyeo aa, ya e epeoca, oop B. .

opaec (1969) paccapae a poee cooc oceyeoo oea a c cya eo oe, e a oee aa. Taa eeoc oceyeoo cya cepea ae ceecye o ocyc aex apye caooe.

Oeeoe ooee yeeo cppyec oaae, opee ee eeoc y ox 1- py. Ta, cpe oaae ee eeoc oce yceoo oea o pye cocae o +0,89 o +5,9 aa, a oce eyaoo oea o2,5 o4,5 aa. Ta opao, aaoc oce aoo yceoo oea eooe oee ypo pa, a oce ao eya aeoe eo cee.

Coepeo oaac oaae ee eeoc y ox opo py: y oca x oce yceoo xoa oaae ee eeoc coca o +1 o +4,3 aa, oa a oce eya o ae ocaac ooe (+0,55... +1 a). o ceeco oo, o oco oceyex 2- py oce eya pooa pa apo opacae pyoc. Tao ooec apa ypo pa oe oxapaepoa a p cooecye o epa cxeco eeoc ox ece. 2 ox o py cpe oaae ee eeoc oce eyceoo xoa ce e e c opae ao, xo cee ypo pa oaaoc eae (0,3... 0,4 aa).

Oao ec pea ypo pa a eyay a aoao (cyea ypo pa, o B. . epaecoy).

acoa poo a ypo pa y ox c oee pae eeo cxeco eeoc eeyao-ecec oc ooe ya, o oppoa oo a ypo pa y ox ece pa po a aopa. C oo copo, eeyaa eocaooc caoc peoco e coce aeao peco oe oceye cox oooce, c pyo xapaepooece ee ox c opaee epo ycao.

Ooceo ao ye aocxooeco acee eece cop, o cao c eocaoo papaoaoc eoecx peo, oox oeo pecppoa ae ooax ee. M coeco c . B.

opco (1969) -poe cepeao-cxooecoe cceoae eecx cop c oo eo, apaex a ee eoopx ocoeoce eoocp. oyee ae oaa ocyce cyeceo pa apaeoc cyeo oe cee poc cex' xpoaecx eo y opoo py y ox ece e cop.

p copx c opae ae oo oeaec cyeceoe (cacec ocoepoe) cee cpeeo ycooo oaae o ce xpoaec ea. Ocoeo cea a paa pax yacax cepa ocp ex (pacoo opaeoo) xoox (ceo oeooo) eo. Bx cyax oaae pa oe poc ea aeo opaca (o 54,4 o 74,1).

Oapyea ae pea paa cee poc oca xpoaecx (poe oeooo) eo p cpae cop c pa ae paao.

Ocoeo ea a paa ocp pacoo (3 aa) ceo (2 aa) eo.

o eoe cooece eo oeo 25 32 oceoax ox e cop o aae, aeo opa ea, a 7oyc o. p cop ae oop eo oeo poo 18 ox, a 14oyc o. oe e cop oyc 16 oo (13 peeax ooo ea 3 peeax pax eo). B coco cop o oeeo 23 o peeax ooo ea 3 peeax pax eo.

peee aepa ceecy o opeeeo acoc ey ocoeoc eoocp y ox ece x ooa cocoe.

poceaec e apae ey cyeo oco-oycoe oaae eoocp ec cpoa paccpoc acpoe y ax ox.

Ta opao, pecaec oo cepee oy oeoe oepee a aex co y ox ece. B pe cyae o ocoeco oe cooao ex cxapeco cep, a a oapyee y oceyeoo cop ooe pecae paa o ocoeocx ee aoea.

p cceoa oapyaxc epeo eeoc ocx ocoeoce ox ece pee ceo oeaec ee eppea e, oopx e yaec ce pecaeoe oceyeoy o.paee (. . ypay, 1975, 1979). a pao, oe oppoa opaa pa ay-o ea opae. p o aaec coeopaoe acpeae a eax. aco ae eppea oocc pa ac ea eoea ox. Hapep, oa E. poecce cceoa aa 30 oeo aoo a, epec xoc, o'c, po, a .. B o e pe oe ece pae peo a oe, cae c ee eo eoeeco yp.

ox ece xapaepe eapy ocp, opaa ep eeco cx epe. Aaoa eapyeo a ocp e c cee ypo ooe oc. p oceoa ox ece c pao cee paeoc cxecoo eea aee apae ey oee ocoeoc epe e.

C eee eaa y ox ece cao ecoe yeee oeca caapx eppea, xapaepx opox opaax pcye ope epee cepeo. Oao oe o ox opee y x apye ayaa peaa pooo oa, a e pacpe py ayapyex cee o.

C apacae caoy yeaec oeco opao, xapaepyxc aoc, caec oaae e.

Ta opao, eecoo eeyaoo eea xapaepo coeae ax pao, a oee oeca caapx eppea, ocyce eceecx eppea, cee oeca oeo c eppeae a a eoo, eoc, cepeooc coepa.

C popeeoc aoea cao opacae oeca oeo o ey. B coaaex o ece opaax e opye a opo, p yoo caoy ec oe coc aa ea epece ecox eo.

pep ax oeo: oo, po (a. II, III), o... pac, oyo, c (a.

X).

Meo Popaxa yceo cooac ycaoe c ey ee oc y ox ece aepaae eoeoo oaa (. . ea, 1978;

.

. ea, B. A. Topa, 1978). p o o ycaoeo, o p eocopoe oaa oaa ox xapaep cxaceoooe ep, paea poc cxecx poecco, ooaa cyoc c opoc aea. p paocopoe oaa ae oeac cepope ep, poc cxecx poecco paea ee, ooaa aoc oea yaeoc.

Ceae pa opeec y ox c ycopo opaee p eye po pa oaoeee aoea.

p cceoa eoo Bapea (A. T. epeeo, 1975) oe ece ae, e oe opee opoe, cooa ee apaa. B eoopx cyax peyeceoe cooae pacoo ea o xapaepo pe paooo coco oceyex. Ca pcyo oc xapaep epao eapyeo. Hepeo o ce ae oeac e epceepa. eee oeca caapx opao ococ eoc pcya, eo peypoaoc, a e eooc, cepxee, a o ee eco p ope.

Cpaeo ao p oceoa ox ece coyec oc opoc MMP1. M. . aye, M. . eee, . X. peop, . H. a (1972) cooa o peyaax pee opoca MMP1 oo ooex a a ec Papca (1952). o ae Papca oye peya, ceecye o ecyecex pax ey o ece, opo a o opee, a oea oaaee x pyax aeo epepa pa.

p cceoa o opocy MMP1 aop oy y ox ece cae pae po, e oapyae ao-o ce, a o ocoa p oy o epeeoc eoa epeao aoc.

Hepooc MMP1, oo opoao, epeao aoc ec apopa e peye oaaec, oao o eo oe a epece peya, poe yao-oco oe ox.

o a C. A. pooa O. H. yo (1978), p cceoa ox ece c oo opoca MMP1 oeac oe oaaee a epoecx, a cxoecx aax, opaae cooc ocx ee. oee paee oe po o aa 2, 8, 6, 4 7 aop paccapa a poee pooo cepa ee, cax c oe opoc cxecx poecco, coeopae ocp ocoa opyaeo pa, peae a aoeae. ae, oeo, oye aopa p aae ycpeex oaaee, a a o oea, o p paccope peyao oceoa oex ox oeac cpeee yopo oac cox pa, ee peca ce ye cee, co ypoe coao eaaa, ee cxoaooooo oee.

Oceoae ox ece o eoy MMP1 o poeeo ae aopaop. Oapyeo, o cee paeoc ooe po oc o cpex cacecx ax oppepye c aoc aoea eo aop eaop eee.

p aae oeox a oeac e ee. Oa x xapaepoaac ae oee oaae oppe ceecoaa o cpee ooo peca ce aoee aopo cee cooec c oep opa oee. Bopa ee poac aeo oe oaae aoc, o p ocyc cxoecoo coco aopo ocpoo ooaoo cpecca aao ocoa ya o ea ooo yc e apy aoea, o oc coyc, aoc opyax;

p o epeo oeaoc oee oaaee o py ecx a, a opao epoecx oxop. Oa apaa coooe a aoc oppe cooecy oco a ooe ox ece 'coey aoea. Hepeo y ox ece oeaoc .aeoe oee oaae o ae . Bco oaae o o ae oeac y ox c oo aoc aoea eaop eo eee p eeyao ce acx copx. p xapaepooecx eex ox ece aoee xapaepo oee oaae o ae 6, ceecyee o poc aea. p paex copx oeac o po, xapaepyc a o aa 4 6 (pc. 23). o ceecoao o cooc cop acoa ee (.. epe, M.. Mpoo, B. B. Poae, 1976). x ox.xapaep pyoc coao aaa, ecoe peepeee opao-ec coa opa. p oeo aoc (pcoeee oeoo oaae o ae 9) ae oe epeo oapya cooc apecc ocya. o 68 (pc. 24) aac y ox c cop, oeo papaeoc, oaoc, p ee (. H. Co, 1971). O ae e cyae ec c xpoec peoopaoae.

Ocoeoc oc ox ece ya ae c c oo eo eaoex peoe (. B. py, 1977). oyee p o ae oo xapaepoa.ccey ocx ooe ox ece. Ha ep a cyao aeoe peoaae coecx pea a yx, opaax ee epoa oox ox aopo. Hapep: Ec ce po e... capac, o ce o xopoo: , c oop paoa... oe xopoe.

pep ceecy o paeoc y ox cya cceoa ep aeo oc, yeoc. oa p ee ocao cceoa, p ece ee pycppyx aopo cya pyo ooe eeco aeo poop paoc, ooc. o ocoeo o aeo y ox c peoaae ape cxecoo eea aex ee. B pe cyae cocaex o paax ac apeccoc: Ec ce po e, o... yy opoc epe e e ocaoc.

Boeax ox aco oapyac ee, oope oy ooae a peepo apycece. O cooecy xapaep ox ece ocoeoc oc, oope cxapeco epaype oy aae epcoaoc eo (F, Mauz, 1937): cea xoe... pyc a ao oea;

Moe cao oo oo o... o, o aoe;

e o poc.

oy .

Hecop a ee yy opacy pa, oeaac aeo eppopoaa ayaoc ox opoco, cax c aoeae.

Ooee oe pooc aoo poa ppaae pa: ae ooe oe o paccapac pa, oo ocpaee c c yco coa , cpaxa, opaae aoooe oee, ooee pooy . .: oa e e, o py... e pye y ooo eoea;

oa-o .... ao, a ce, y e e o pao;

Caoe xyee,. o e cyoc coep, o... aoe.

Aa oyex ax cooec co cee paeoc cxecoo eea y oceoax ox ooe oop o xapaepx oo aoea popeccpyx apyex caooe. o epe yye cxecoo eea apaca e eocaoo poc cee, eooea eaopx ex aopo, ycaec peoaae yx pea, caoc ce oee aco peyeeo-oceca oea yyeo. oo c pae eec caoye pay: ya, o ocaoo cocoe, o... aaae cey opao: ...yc cye. apaeo oeaec ycee caex o apye p ee ooao apaeoc pa. pa caoc ooao aoa: Mo a ... c oa.

Meoa eaoex peoe ae oeoe pecaee o xapaepooecx eex ox ece oe cooaa opeee cee paeoc cxecoo eea. ae oy oo pee aocecx cepx opoco, a ae yao ocpoe peaaox epop.

CTAPECOE CAOME p aocxooeco cceoa paccpoca a y ox capec caoye oapyac oe pao oo cpay e oc acc xapaep, oxaa pae poe a. Oaaec apyeo a exaeca, a ccoa a. Peo pae paccpoca aoa. pa aoa oc xapaep ao oceye aae oce aoo oope e oee 23 co poax 10, oo ocee. Hapyee aoa (caoa ae) ocae ao cee, o oe e oy ao coecea, a ec aco oope oo yaec oc, o c c apye yepa ye epe ecoo y o e oy ocpoec eo o. Haaec oceea ypaa pex aaco a. Ec aae oe oapya peyeceoe ocaee a a eye ee eco eao co, o oceeo aac co oee oaeoo pooo. Ta, oe e aco oee eoe pe o co e a, e popeey oce ayeca, cape aa y. oceeo ypaac aepa a.

Hapyaec ae, epy oepe aoe. oe e oy cocpeoo coe ae a e-o. -a oo e yac pocee po a ae a ypoay ea a pcye, oca o opy ca ae ye . .

Oe pao oapyaec peo popeccpyee cee ypo poecco ooe oee. Cye ox oepxoc, apyeo paee cyecex opoceex pao peeo e. Oaaec coepeo eoo oee pocex aa o eoa ce, acca.

oe e oy oopa ooax aa eco peea. Ta, p poce ooa o coo oo, cao y oa poco oope epecee e pee. Opeeey po eeyao ecocoeoc ox capec caoye pa cee cxeco aoc, ypaa epeca opyaey, acooe epae cya cceoa.

e aae aoea o epe popeccpoa eeyao-ececx paccpoc c eyoo apaca ee pe. B epy oepe o apacaee ocyee ccoo (pecco cpecco) copo pe. Hapyee oa opaeo ooy pe ccooe oeee eo coceo c oaaee cee paeoc caoy.

Opaae a ce ae ooceo coa peea aoc aa epo capecoo caoy. oe ocoo cpec oe c opya, oop. Pe coxpae ececeoc oa, oy, copooaec paeo o, eca. Hepeo oeac eapaee caa, pe cyx oe ey ecey, e cyac ocyce coecea. Hecop a ecy oopeoc, ecoo oey peey aoc, oee x ox c opya e oe cococ -a ocye pe ccoo ooe -a oo, o oe cpo ep ece. p ecee ax ox coaec oc aoa c c ooceo coxpaoc peeo eo, oc eco. Ha cao ee x pe e oe y oe, ea ao o o ccoo apy, coepa. o ee aaec aooae (Th. Spoeri, 1965). E. Bleuler (1920) ca oep o peeo aa c paccpoca a. O opeeeo c oo e c o aoeeec exaa capecoo caoy ceecy ae C. A. Bacop (1959), oapye, o p yxoe o aao e epeo pocxo cocaae ee ae eo cya.

oep o peeo aa po ocoeo pae paccpoca aoeco pe. aoeca oooeca pe c poo peao y pe, x apye xapaepy cocoe o y.

Moooeca pe ooeeec ec oee coo opo. Ec aoeco pe cao cy opoc, aa coeceo, o oooeca pe oycoea a aopa, a cya ee e a aac papoax peex ce.

Paccpoco paepyo oecoaeo pe p capeco caoy cpeaec a oee pax aax aoea. p o aaec oocoa, pacaa pe, ea ox opao, cepeooe oopee pa oex oopoo, epae apaa. Hepeo pe ox aax cax capecoo caoy poo eaee aa-eco, eocaoo eeapaeo. Hecoo oe cya apaca paccpoca aoeco pe.

To ocoo popeccpyee oeee coapoo aaca. Bo e pe pe y ox capec caoye p ce eoc coapoo aaca eoe pe coxpae oc ececeoc poooooc eeoc ecoooc pe p aepocepoeco caoy (C.. c, 1956). o epe ocye coapoo aaca opacae oeco cepeox oopoo, ox po cyex co, pe ox caoc ce oee paeapo, oeppeo, pepaaec eo aop co, epepa. B cxox cocox capecoo caoy y pe a cpeca oe oaaec papyeo, pe x ox coc eoy opoa, oopo oa yaec yo oee coa, coea coo.

Xapaepy paccpoca peao y pe p capeco caoy, yaa a ae p o epax apaa. oa o apaa oecoo a, oa coo aeoc pooo ooe. Ta, oa paccaa o coe ece, oop: My (eco oe) e oca. Taoo poa epae apaa cpeac a oee pax cax aoea. p peo paex aec ecx paccpocax aac coeopae apaa, oa eoxooe coo aeec coa, xapaepy ae-o coca peea a, eco ac oa oop o peeoe, eco apaa ceoe eco aya . oa coo apaaec aeec eooo, opaoa oopoo oy pa po ee oaa, apep eco a oa oop (ca co a). Hepe epae apaa o coy:

eco aya ao, eco ocpo opoa. oceeo apaaece ae co aa oc ce oe cya xapaep, cooeceo yeaec cocooc ox aea oyee pe o cpa x. eco, o epae apaa, a o oaaa p ye cecopo oopo aa . C. e (1961), e c oo coeco aeo, oopa ocaa a ee, poecc ooe.

Xapaep epax apaa p aaecx cocox opeeec ocoeoc apye e, ypee cpecco pe. p capeco caoy epae apaa e ceoc, oycoeo oao opaee o o peeo o. O c, a p aepocepoeco caoy, oec. x aa cooecye apaca eeyao ececx paccpoc. peoco ooe epax apaa p capeco caoy, ooo, ec ecooc coecx po, oycoea yo aecec paccpoca. o capec caoye e yaec oopee pocoo pacpocpaeoo peoe, o ceecye o paex apyex aoa, yepa oope coecoo pa.

Ha pax aax aoea oapyaec apyee oao y pe.

cceoa oao (ooaae) y pe poep oooc oceyeoo aa pee, x opaee a pcye. oo eaeo cooae pcyo pao cee cooc peacecx, cyx, oypx, c epceo e ee, c cooae ea e x, a oepeepa. cceoae pe x cyax ao-o cee coaae c cceoae oecoo oca.

B aae aoea p ooceo epo aa oaaex peeo oeac o p aa x peeo o opae. Cee caex o apye ac o cooc oo-pocpaceoo ocp eoxooc oo pcyo eoca ea. Ta, aeo xye ocpac pcy c pocpaceo epceo ye ocpac pcy, oee a oo ococ. ae apye ox p ocp cyx pcyo. Ta, opaee ya, a oopo cpe p epaa, oe ee ocpac oeac epo, oa a, ye o cy ya, oe po coepey ecocoeoc.

Ta opao, oo oaa, o apye oao y pe p poco capeco caoy opeeey po pae oo-oceca eocaooc, ee aoaa oaoy oecy ao oaac o ocee ee paeoc paccpoc ocp, x ocee ooee apacae. Hapy c a oee ox aax aoea y ox capec caoye oeac e aececo aa.

ox c poco opo capecoo caoy oeac ae ocoeoc aecec-aaecx poe, a oa eoc oca ocyce oco eoxooo coa. Ta, ocaa o ceo coa aeo e cea ooae o, pe ee eoc aeo yeaec o epe ee aoea. o acaec oco eoxooo coa, o aececa aa p capeco caoy oeaec a ooceo ox aax aoea, oa a cey oopeoc pxo peea acoaoc, pocxo cee peeo aoc. ocoeca cyeceo oa aececy aa p poco capeco caoy o co oaox aececx aa.

Aececa aa ec y ox poc capec caoye p oopeeo a epceepa. Booee epceepa p capeco caoy cao c aooeco epoc papaeoo poecca caoc aoo opoe (H.. Taapeo, 1934, . B. ae, 1951).

Ec epceepa p oaox opaex peeaeoo aaaopa aeac ca o, ac x peooe, o p capeco caoy o ooo ooe epceepa a o x e aeae. Aaooe ee paax oaoo aoo aaec p oopeeo opae peeaeoo peeocpaeo aaaopo, p capeco e caoy o ee o pao yoo opae op ooo oa, e ocaeo a oa aaaopa.

aeee yyee paccpoc oao y pe eco cao c popeccpoae e oo aecec-aaecx, o oo-ocecx paccpoc caoy, poeo apye ooece opaa coa eo ae.

Hapep, oa . o poce oceyeo aae oaaee e pee cey opao:

apaao xopoo... o. o oayca. aoa o ae... ae.

Toa o oeec: o poce oceyeo oa oa pa aae pee ecox eax a coe. Oao o cyae oa oapyae co ecocoeoc, ceecyy o oo ae oao y pe.

cxoo apye oao y pe p capeco caoy ec acoa eoooc aa peeo p oo eyceoc oca. ae aaeoe ocey coo oo e ooc peaoy oey.

Hapy c yco pe p oope a capecoe caoye y ox oaeo ccey cey. o cceoae yo oop, a a eo cpaee apaecx paccpoc a pax cax aoea ooe oapy eoope x xapaepe ocoeoc. C o e poep cocooc oceyeoo ca pooo, o oy, a ae ocpoo a aaee aoapoae pa. p capeco caoy oeaec opeeea oceoaeoc paccpoc ceo pe. Baae yxyaec oooc poooo ca, ae ca o oy , aoe, cca ocpoee aoapoax pa.

Ec aae aoea oe capec caoye ee oy ca o oy, oapya p o ooe oeco apaa aee ee oepa (y caoc yoa, eoppyc), o ocec o e oy ae cca ocpoo aoapoae pa cepeoo y o e e apay, ypae cxoco c ya. Taoo poa ecccey epey epax y, epexox ooopao oopec px, E. Kraepelin aa ceo apae.

e apa p capeco caoy ca c paccpoca pacca, ae-cec cpaec apye (E. Dolaris, 1923;

Morlaas, 1929). o a ae, y ox capec caoye oaaec apye occee caec epe aa, oeaec yyeec co peee aae o cex y. Hecoea po ocpyo apac e-ee apaecx paccpoc oe e oy opoa y ecoe pcy, yp . .

B apaecx apyex p capeco caoy oy po pa epceepaope exa. O poc e oo cxoo coco, oa oe oopao ocpoo oy y e yy apay, o a oee pax cax oe. Ta, oo H. o peoeo aca o oy: Ba e opaac o oo. o opoe o cpe Ta. Baae oa oaaac, a, o e yee pcoa (apaa eco ca) ae acaa: Ba e pcoa, pcoa opaac o oo. o opoe o axoe epyc oo. Ta o cpe.

aa apaecx paccpoc p capeco caoy ceecye o oceeo oe pacae ce y ceo pe e peyeceoo ae ao-o oo ee copo, a o ae p oaox opaex cocycoo eea, poeax c cpoo oopo cecopo aa. p o apaece poe e oepea paccpoca yco pe, a ae p oe Aeepa.

Paccpoca e, oapyaee p capeco caoy, a apaece paccpoca, oac eyoo popeeoc. Baae o apyee oa poaoo. ee cyx pooc aoaec. oc caoc ce oee ac apaec, oope co peee oe epeca aea e cpa ae p opae x a a oyee o. Hepeo p e coo aeec py, aac c oo e coa. Ta, oa X pay Hae caoap ec a ooo ae cey opao: Hae caxapo ec a ooo;

pay He ac o poa ae a: He ac oaoo poa. o epe apaca paccpoc e epae apaec cec py epa. Hapep, oaa aec a aaa, apy apy, epea pa . . Ha ox cax pocoo capecoo caoy ya a epe coe caoe aee, oe ypaa cocooc a, e oa y o p pyx ao.

PECEHHE EMEH pece ee ooc aoea, poec peyeceo pecapeco opace xapaepyec eyoo popee, oceeo oa poea e ocaoo pecc (o e oocpe) ocaoya poecco.

Mopooec cycpa pecex ee epo-apoec poecc.

Oao oaoeeec opooec aoea o py cyeceo paac apo, apep, p oe Aeepa oc o xapaep, e p oe a.

Haoee aco aoea o py cpeac oe Aeepa a, a ae xope eoa. Ocoe pyoc epeao aoc peca epe a aoea.

aoc oee a Aeepa ocoeo ao aocxooecoe cceoae c cooae pa e-pocxooecx eo.

p ye cxoaooecx poe p oex a Aeepa pyoocyc p paeee aoea a p ca. epa (aaa) ca xapaepyec ee eea, a a, e paex pyo-oaox coo, opa pae caoye - oa coa (aaec, aocec, apaec), pe, epaa,yo cxec pacao, oe ey cyyo eeaoe cyecoae.

B epo ca oe Aeepa ae aocxooecoo cceoa ao oac o ax p ceo ee. Ha epe a cya popeccpye paccpoca a. ec opeeec eocaooc a, pacpocpaac aae a co, xpoooec e aay aoea. B pe cyae oeac yepeo paee, e oe coe oay. O oo oapyac p paccae ox o cox coe opeeee epo, p paccpocax paa o o, o pocxoo aaye, ecoo e ee aa . .

Ca o cee oe ao e poypy oayope ocoa. oay oo c p' cooecy opao apaeo pe ox. o epe apaca aececx paccpoc oay ceaoe epao oocc oapyae ecee poaa a e ac x e ao.

ae ceo oay oeac p poe oe Aeepa oee oe opace, oce 6065 e Bpaee aececoo coooeca cy ocoo aaac p oe Aeepa aececa eopepoa. B c c caoc o aee cceoa y a p peooe oe Aeepa. B ecee c o poepec a a co pooo eye, ycaaaec, acoo oo opepoa o pee ece. B poe a aoae 10 co p oe Aeepa pa aoa oc ao e xapaep, a p capeco caoy.

apye aoa p oe Aeepa ca c paeo eocaooc aoo a. Ta e, a p capeco caoy, p oe Aeepa aaec peoe ocaee yepa a, popeaee aco xapaep caoo ae. o ee oapyaec o pe ece c o, oope po co ecocoeoc p oe ao oeco coecea, ee oee oeo oo cyae poe a aoae. O.. Cao (1968) p cepeao-cxooeco cceoa copoc aa ce oep xapaepoc oe Aeepa ocae yepa a. o a aopa, copoc aa ce p oe Aeepa aeo e, e p cocycx eex, p o o ycaoeo, o cpoe yeee pao ocpoeex ce axoc poeye ey 1 c 1 oce x pee.

B opeeeo c c aecec paccpoca axoc xapaepe aax ao oe Aeepa apye ocp yepa ooo aepaa, ocoeo acpaoo xapaepa, coa ox ao. o ycaaaec p cepeao-cxooeco cceoa, oa oceye oe ocpoec a ccey eco ae cepeo, apep 34 e c py opeeeo oceoaeoc. Ha ae oaa, o ae cepeo opayc c o pyo ye Haao ca oe Aeepa, pae ecoe e ocpooc o ye epe ecoo y.

Oopeeo c paccpoca a oeaec eeyaa eocaooc.

oe oaac ecocoe p oe ecox aa o eoe ce, p eoxooc oopa ooaee oe ecox peeo e. eeyaa eocaooc ee oee ycyyec aeac ye o epo apye cx opox y pe, oca pacca, oope ocec oca ao cee paeoc, o oo oop o aa, ao apac.

pepo oo oe cy ypaa o aao ca oe Aeepa capx ao, epy oepe aoee epepoax, ox cox, aoee oo popeex eee . B opeeeo cee o cao c popeccpoae aececx paccpoc. paa o ao peecye pa o opo ca aoea pyx apaecx paccpoc , ooo, ec epoaa eo eee apac (. . epep, 1960). O o ceecye oapyeoe a ceyee ocoeco: p ypae o pex ao oea y x e ocpyo apac.

Oapyee ocpyo apac aae oe Aeepa ee ooe aocecoe aee p cceoa e pecae cooc. ooy peaa copoa ecoy ypy aoe. O e oe ee ocpoec e oo o a, o e epe aa opae. oa epe yp opyc yoeopeo, o oceye ye e ocpooc, oee oo, oceye a ypaae cpy eco oe aa ooe ypy-opae. o, o aey e, oo paccapa a epoe poee eocaooc ocpyoo pacca cao c a aae yacae y, caoc oecoo a (M. C. eec, 1966), acya p opae aoo oac op ooo oa. Hapye ocpyoo pacca poc eoooc coca ey poo, apxoa e axao oc peyeo ope.

Paccpoca pe (yco ceo) ae xapaep epo ca oe Aeepa. p o oeac apye o poece co. oa eec xapaep peeo eo: oa caoc eyepeo, poae. ac o paccaoe yape. peeceo xapaepx opo ca oe Aeepa aaecx paccpoc ec oapyaea oe epo ca ceaeca aa. oe e paa ax o, a aa oa oa aa (oo c o e ooy oaa pcyo, opaa ey c peeo, cpaa, o x oa aa, a o aa oa), pa oa oe paa. O e oa coe oo-paaece ocpy. po pep ceaeco aa.

oa C. o ooy o oe paa pa oa oop: Bce poce. oa . oa cpaa e o opye cey opao: He a, eo e oy caa. x a apoy oo, ee oo. ya y a ca. Oa e aec oc o oa aa aa oa a: a oa a pae poea, e aa.

Ceye oe, o oe epo ca oe Aeepa, cyoc, a pae ee co opo, epeo oeac pa, ceecye o oaoo, peyeceo eeo-aoo oaa, opae oooo oa. o ye yoaec a ceaeca aa ocpya apac, a ae coeopaoe apyee cea epeo aaac a cyaa ao.

Hapye cea (aay) xapaepyc ypao o pecae o papoc ce. p ac o oy co 1030 ocpooc a 100030, 102, a 1002, 390 a 30090 . . Cooeceo apyaec ocpe ce, eo eec p oax cpae x. o a ae, oe aao ca oe Aeepa p cpae ce pyoocyc, a o ae p aox opaex op ooo oa, oeo ce e o papoy ae ceo ca, a o ae xox eo p (A. P. yp, 1962). Ta, o opee, o 398 oe 401, 1978 oe 2120 .. ocec o, o p oe Aeepa epy oepe caoc eoo oee cex oepa, peyx epexoa epe ae-o pap. Hapep, oe e oy co a ca, cya oopx peae 10, o o e pe cee oepa peeax 10 ee oy yoeopeo o.

e cyao ao oapyac p oca o cex pcyo epecc oee opaee a pcye pee (p ocyc paeo ae-ceco aa), o aoooe ey e yaac.

Bee aoo poa aocxooecoo cpoa, ceecyeo o peyeceo oaa aooecoo poecca eeo-aoo oac, ee aoe aee aoc oe Aeepa. Ceye oe, o eo p epo ca oe Aeepa oo oy ae, eoxoe pee epeao-aocecx opoco. pepo oo oe cy cpaee aax poe oe Aeepa oe a, paee oopx cxoo ca cao c o pyoc.

B oe o oe Aeepa p oe a paccpoca a oa e oopc cpyypo e coooec. B aeo epe eaee o pyo ocae a p oe a coaec cee aoo a, eycooc eo oepa. o a B.. y (1973), aae oe a p cepeao-cxooeco cceoa a ec aea oeaa cocooc ca, ceecya o ocyc epoo apye eocpeceoo aoa. O o ceecye ocpoeee 7 co 10. o e aopa, paccpoca a p oe a ooe pe c op ac a opao o ce a.

apye poooc pepoy c paccpoco a cxecx poecco e pyoc epee, epoc poaoo opoe, aoo ycao.

a pao, p oe a ocycy oay. eopepoa ox e oc xapaep aececo, o o ceecy eoope oe ox, oa pay yaec cocpeoo x ae a pye opoco, cax c ecoaxoee, xpoooec a;

o o e oo cy o eoop oce caa ox. Taoe ee aoae peypoay opepoy, oopy oea ..

eo A. M. yep (1940) p oe a. Haaea aopa oa coxpaa aeaoe oeee, ec e pxooc e eo c oea, pacooe o cpee ee: oa pao axoa aaa oe, aypoaa c , ea x ecoooee. op eeoc peo apyac, ec oe oea e a oo. ae e, o e aopo, oy pa opeeey po a ooe apaecx, aocecx aaecx paccpoc, a apye opepo. B. A. poc (1946) oea aaoe e p ox opaex paaecoo eea, oope o e ca c paccpoca a, p acox aox opocax oo yec, o a a yo ae ooy ec, o o axoc pyo pye pecae, epexo oopoy apye. e peypoao opepo occ apyee eeyao eeoc caoc oye, acoaoc.

Caoye ye cao aae oe a oc oee py xapaep, e p oe Aeepa. pocxo a ccoa cex cx eeyax y, apyea x oopa. B epy oepe o opaaec a ocoeocx oc ooo, ee oopo o aoa ceoapaecy apy, o xapaepyc peoaae oc 'accoc, -apacae acoaoc ocye pe.

Ec ee oe Aeepa ooae ee coc oeoy acpoe, yeeoc, ecoocy, o p oe a o aeoe opyee, aco c opec oeo. aee p oe Aeepa oo oe ey oocey coxpaoc pa oc, coae o coe eooeoc, ooay oaeoc.

Haeaec oe epo ca oaoe paccpoca 'pe, oca pacca oca aoeo pa o o-po ca oe Aeepa, oapya p o coeopay ay, ooy oop o aa apoecoo eea, poeae ae, e p pyx (oyxoex, cocycx) opaecx opaex oooo oa. o ca xapaepe cpo aececo aa, oopa, axoc po c c paccpoca a. o a ae, aececa aa oapyaac p oe Aeepa 95,4% cyae.

p coo apae oe a aececa aa a oeea .y (22,2%) 27 ox. Ta opao, aececa aa, o a aepaa, oee xapaepa oe Aeepa. Oao ae aececo aa eco ape e ec cepe apyeo po aocpoa oe a, a a oa cpeaec p aoee pyo epeao-aoceco ooe coo apae oo aoea.

p oe Aeepa ye aae oapyac e oo-oceco eocaooc, ae e a p capeco caoy. x coeae c aececo aae p oe Aeepa coae coeopay apy apye oao y pe. p oae o peax peeo oapyac apye aa x, o pecae o x aae cocax ee coxpae.

p oae pcyo c opae peeo oe e oy e oo aa pee, o yaa coca, aco epao x aa. B aee yx ox oapyaec apa oeco ao.

Oe aco p oe Aeepa oapyaec oeee pe cyece. p o pa cpoc paaec epao, opac a ooe, poycac e e aeac oee coa, eoope coa ocac eaoe.

Ee o oe paex aecec-aaecx paccpoc a cax pax aax oe Aeepa oeaec eee oepa, oc oocee apapa. Ca aececo aa p oe Aeepa ye pcy pye apaece apye: oaaec eoo poooe co co o oy, apyeo ccae ocpoeee aoapoax pa.

cea pe ec co ao, oo -copo peeo y. B ee ocyece pa yace ae, peeae cyxoo aaaop.

p opae ooo x apyaec y pyx. epoe opaee ooo yaax aaaopo oycoae ceoc poe aa. A. P. yp (1950) oaa, a cee apaecx poe opaaec epoe apyee y ooo peex aaaopo. ocec coeopae apaecx poe p oopo o cecopo aa. Ta, p ocee ceo pe axo pa pacaa oeaecoo cyxa.

Paccpoca ca p oe Aeepa oac oe paeoc eopaoc o aaox paccpoc p aececo aa, oe cece ocpoo apye pooopae. Moo ya, o yace yoax eeo opaoa apaecx paccpoc p oe Aeepa ao. Ec p aececo aa cocycoo eea ccae ocpoeee aoapoax pa coxpae, o p oe Aeepa a copoa ceo pe cpaae ye cao aae aoea. Taoo poa paccpoca ca c apyee pae xapaep opae aoo-eex oeo oaoo oyap (A. P. yp, 1959). paccpoca ceo pe popeccpy ooo pao po opaoa acoo apa, oapyaeo p oe Aeepa ye a oe eo pacopao cecopo aa, a oa pae, oa paccpoca yco pe ee oc xapaep aececo aa. aaa ccoa aaec-apaecx poe (ocee oepea epe) oe ocea oece xapaepo oaooc opae op ooo oa p oe Aeepa.

Opaae a ce ae oe apaecx paccpoc p oe Aeepa o ceo apa. B paccpocax ca p oe Aeepa aey po pae oaooc opae oa. ec o poc a cxoaooec co oaooo ae. p ceo ee y ceo pe papyaec oceeo, apyac aae oee coe oe popeee ee (poooe co, co o oy), a ae oee poce (ccae, ocpoeee aoapoax pa).

C ooo pa ee oao apoecx opae eeo-aox oeo oaoo oyap ca xapaepe oe Aeepa aecece paccpoca. B eee aececx cpoo, a eco, pa yace pocpaceo-aocece, aaece, aecece apaece apye.

Paa epe aec, oycoee apyee exao ocp y, ope (coaece), aaec p aa. Aec p oe Aeepa oe oxapaepoaa a epa. Haaec aa aececx paccpoc o a aaeo epao aec, ec peyao apye poecco ooe oee ccee ocp y, a ypoe opo cao cce, aoceco aec, oa apye poecc aaa cea oo pocpacex ooe ooe,a ypoe epo cao cce (B. M. Cpo, 1962). p oe Aeepa epexo o epao aec (ee ee ooo, o poeae c apaec e oa cca poaoo) aoceco (oe coepeo e ya e aa y, e oa x o ax-o ao) ocyecec oe cpo e c c aaec paccpoca.

Paccpoca ceo pe e, ee a pax aax oe Aeepa a epeao-aocec pep p eoxooc opae ee o oe a, p oopo eoe pe coxpaec acae aoapoax pa ee e oa poaoo. Ceaeca aececa aa ocae acao cee paeoc aae opo ca aoea, a ae ayeaec, a epepaec cecopo- oopo-aaec poe. aae aaece paccpoca p oe Aeepa e ce py pya, a a acaac oo a pyoe. Ta opao, y ox c cecopo aae oo oe ae aecec-aaecx poe. o aeo apye aa peex paccpoc. O pcoee cecopo aa oe cy o acye popeccpoa apye oa pe, opaeo ooy. p o oaeo poepec e oo oae o pe, o coxpaee oooc oop ycaoe. p coxpae oopo pe oop o pacopao cecopo aa. a ca p oe Aeepa oaaec oee eo, e ca opao cecopo aa, p oopo apyeo oopee.

pcoeee cecopo aa e oopo aa po ooy cy pyx apaaecx cae co.

opao cecopo aa xapaepo apyee oeaeco epepo. oe e paa x oe coax, peoex oope. Ta, oop a ocey ap coo, oa eco a-a a-a pooc a-a. oeaeca epepoa oe poepc p oope co coao pe. o xapaepy apaa oo cy o epae x oe.

pep ax apaa: yoa (yoa), apaa (apaa), caop (aop) . .

Oo a ca cecopo aa oapyac e ooo. Baae o oecoe pecoe oopee epoo coa ya coa, ae oooec oopc co, pacooee cepee oe coa. o a ae, ooo cpeaac 76% cyae oe Aeepa, oa a p oe a 3,8% cyae. o ocoeco ae ocoae ca, o ooo co, e opeeeoe aee epeao aoce ey oe Aeepa oe a. Bo e pe ceye o, o ooo aaec p pyx opaecx aoeax oooo oa p popecco apae, oce epeeceoo eaa. oa ooo peecye coeopaa aac coo, poac coa a coax p poece copooopo pyx co (ocaa, ooo).

Aaece paccpoca p oe Aeepa oc ee xapaep. B c c oo eoopo cee ycoo xapaepoa aaee p oaoo apoecx aoeax aaece ap cooec c acceco cceao aa. O pepo oo ec ecooece ey cee paeoc aaecx apaecx paccpoc. py a pepo oe cy yee peeo aoc p apoecx opaex oooo oa. M y 5 ox ( cya oe Aeepa 2 oe a) aa p cecopo aa oope. ocax ox oeaoc paee pae peeo acoaoc, aeo oee paeoe p oe a. o ceecye o eaeo acoe cyae opoao apo coo oac. Apo op ox oeo oa (oecao oepxoc) o cea coycye apo cox oeo. oa ooe opaee oepeae cooe (cya, oaec acoaoc pe c aaa aoea) o apo ox oeo pcoeec cooy opae (cya, oa aaac aae oea peea aoc ceec acoaoc). a ocoeoc pe p oe Aeepa ocec oeceoc oao apo, ae, apy c oaoo, yo apo op ooo oa.

epae apaa p oe Aeepa yaec oapy ee a ca pacopao cecopo aa, a oa paep aecec-aaecx poex. oo ceye pe ooy oey peey apyy. o ecooece apaaecx paccpoc aaeyc aaecoy cpoy ceecye o a cpx apye ocp pe ec pao coeopao a aaecx paccpoc apoecoo eea, a a aa apaaec-aaeca ccoa exapaepa accecx oca aa cece cya.

apaeo aceec coa (aa, oeco ao, ocpyo, a ae eooopo apac) o opo ca oe Aeepa oapyaec paea oaoo-epooeca coaa ape eoo epa o epaoy y, oee eoo oyca oeoce, e apcoa, apye oxo.

B pe cyae aac cyopoe pa.

Bce oaoe co oapyac a oe yooo caoy, p eoooc opaoa aeopax o, eaoaa poo pa, p paeo aay. Opee caoye p oe Aeepa a oaoe, oapoe, , . epep (1962) yaae, o oo paaec oee eco, e p o capeco ee o paeoc eo oo cpa co caoye ox c eee apao. Oao p a paeo ee y c oe Aeepa eoe pe coxpac coae coe oe, yco coceo ecocoeoc, aeae ooae pea a oceee .

Bopa ca oe a xapaepyec o apo eyoo oooo popeccpye ee, opaae ee cepxy , aa c eo aoee cox poe aaa aoee poc, eeap, aoapoa c oeee peoco eea. pocxo a ccoa cex cx eeyax y, apyea x oopa. Ha oe pyoo oapoo caoy opeeec xapaepa aa aceecx coo, epy oepe paccpoc pe. Xapaep aoo pe aeo epe opeeec epo oaae apoecoo poecca.

p oo apae oe a a ep a cyae aee peeo aoc, o o oo acoaoc pe. Heyoo ocyeae coap aac, ypoaec ocpoee pa. Moo e opaeoe ooee ox caoy poeccy pe, oopa oceeo ypaae oyaoe aee. p coo apae oe a cepeo pa peex paccpoc aoae aao cepeo p oe Aeepa, oao c eoop o. Ta, cecopa aa p oe a ae poeae e oope.

Xapaepe oe a cepeo pe oee peepea opeeey ay. Baae coe oopo coyc c eee oa paccae (co paooo ac), ae o ce oee ypoac, peypyc coc cepeoo oopeo pae, eco coa, caoc ce oee eccce. oa coa x acoo cae, o e opee x epoaa cc, apep: Bo yopa pe pec, paaa... paa-a.

pacaa pe p oe a xapaep e aa oopc oee coa pa. xoa p oe a aae poaa, oeea oo oope, cea oe, aa ey opoc. ae poaa xoa ceec co, p oopo peea pepoy ec aoaeco, epooo, ea coo cca. aa xoa p oe a opaae ocoeoc ee apoecoo poecca epexo o acoo apye ce ey ca ccea ooy (. . epep, 1957).

Tpe ca oe a Aeepa xapaepyec yo caoye, oe a ey eea opa . Bee cxece y pxo ooaeoy pacay, oa c o coepeo eooe.

B e xope eoa ocoy po pae ooceo eeo (o cpae c oe a Aeepa) paaeec caoye. B pe cyae eo poe peecy xopeaec epea, o apye aocy, e oee, o -a oceeoo aaa eeoo oppoa caoy aec epo aoea epeo pocapaec. Heyooe popeccpoae caoy, oaa coaa ca xope eoa c py opa peceo ee. B e ooe aee pa paac pae ca aoea xapaepooec ee, pae ae pea, coeopao poc a aap, ocao p eeco eae M. . Acaaypo (1928). o eo oapyaec cya aocxooecoo cceoa oe aeo eyco, papae, pa. o epe yye ee xapaepooece poe cec epae opyaey, opec aoy acpoee.

Oeaec eca cpoopoaoc opae oex copo poe cxeco eeoc. B aeo epe eeyaa ecocoeoc ox ac o pyx paccpoc aoo a. ocec eca epaoepoc peyao p cceoa ooo pae , c c e y cceyeo oe ae coc oooe eaee o eoopo opaoc apye cxeco eeoc.

Bpae apye a aoae yepae. p aya 10 co oe xopee eoa, a p ceo ee oe Aeepa, ocpoo e oee 34 ox ex e co. . . epep (1967) e o poee epoc poea cxecx poecco. Pao oapyac apye oo-ccoo a, paaec eoooc ocpoee ecox paccao.

C eee aoea a cey ca, xapaepoaec eycooc a epaoepoc eeyao paoococooc, pxo apacaee ocyee eeyao eeoc epoa ee poe (. . epep, 1967).

Aao-aoco-apaece paccpoca p xopee eoa e oca aoo pa, a p oex a Aeepa, oao eoopx cyax . .

epep (1967) aa co, e poe aoo pe p oe a pey pe, opaeoe e ooee (co eea oop). Tae ee pe aa a opao p a yooo caoy acoaoc.

EPEPAH ATEPOCEPO Teee epepaoo aepocepoa xapaepyec ooopae ecx op.

Oepao eee aece ocoo op aoea epepocepo-eco ace. O eyx coo ace coaeoc cxecx y.

cceoae ee ooe eo opee aoeeece ocoeoc aceecoo coco. Oea paeoc coaeoc ee aoea ae ocoa cy o eoc epa, ec oe oaaee ee coco ooo.

O a coaeoc oo cy p cpae peyao aae oe cceoa. B eoopx cyax, oa coaeoc aea, oa oapyaec ae poecce cceoa ao-'o oo, ooceo eo, eoo. Hapep, oa paaec yee ay oe oo oe cceoa eoo oca, yee aeoo epoa apye oope co, a aeo ae cceoa eoo oopa aoo.

Ocoeo eo oapyaec coaeoc p cceoa cea eoa, apae a yee paoococoocaa ye, peea, oppeypo poe. pe coaeoc p cceoa eoa ox epepa aepocepoo eoao. Cpe x oo e a ocox a, cooecyx aoee xapaep cpoa ace.

epceecoo cpoa xapaepo aao oe aa cpo ee oe pao poac coaeoc. B oceye oec oeaec paopeeoe yyee oaaee. pa coaeoc epceecoo a p cceoa aa ye oc aoopa xapaep. Ta, apep, a oc ce epo ae oo apaae 48 c, o opo 1 18 c, pee 1 23 c, eepo 51 c, o 1 12 c .. p cceoa aa peea x cyax ae oapyaec aea paa ee oe aa a pax eo aax, oece poeex pae ope pee coe oyex p o oo.

p oceecx cocox pa coaeoc oc o xapaep. Ta, p cceoa aa ye oeaec oceeoe yeee apaaeoo a ay oceyy ay pee. Ha poe cceoa ypoe oe aa ocoo caec c c apacae coaeoc. Cooeceo p cceoa aa peea oeaec oceeoe yxyee ea pao. p oceecx cocox coaeoc poec e oo p cpae pee oca ce pax aax ye, o peeax oo o e a. C o e oo oea oeco ce, aex o a ae 30 c.

p epepao aepocepoe oo ycao opeeey oppe ey xapaepo coaeoc eco cae aoea. Haao ca aoea pcy -epceec coaeoc. B aee c popee eee epepaoo aepocepoa coaeoc cepee poec o oceecoy y. B x cyax yaae op aceecx cpoo oy paccapac a oceoaee ca ecx poe eoo aooecoo poecca.

C coaeoc p epepao aepocepoe eocpeceo caa eocaooc aoo a. Oa axo coe opaee poycax oex ce aax ye, yee oy cceoa oeca oo aax peea. Ocoeo eo oa oapyaec oppeypo poe oeac poyc y, e aepa cxox pacooex po c aao y, poyc ex cpo. O o apaca oeceo oy cceoa, o pacpeec xoe oa epaoepo, pya.

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