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B.M. exep .B. py aocxooeca aoca e 3opo' 1986 56.14 68 616.89071 aocxooeca aoca/exep B. M., py . B. .: 3opo', 1986280 c. ...

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ao A. E. o (1976, 1981) peaae cceoa xapaepooecx ooe y opoco p cxoax aeyax xapaepa.

B oe o . Leonhard, A. E. o (1977) paccapae aeya e oco ae, a coooc ee c xapaepo, a a oc ec oee po oe, a ce, oo xapaepa eepaea, ee, cocooc, poopee . . Xapaep aop paccapae a ac oc. poe oo, cyeceoe aee, o A. E. o, ee o ocoeco, o xapaep oppyec ocoo opocoo opace, oc a eoe ye p opoce. o oece oaae (ec, pooeoc acoa eoeca a, cxoex pea, cooece x pea ce ocoeoc aoex aopo, cee paeoc pax op apye oee, oea coao eaaa, ya apye caooe) ec pae cee ec cxoa aeya xapaepa:

ea, paea yepea cxoa, a cpa aeya.

po coocaee o aeya o . Leonhard (1976) A. E. o (1983):

o . Leonhard o A. E. o eocpa cepo ea cxaceec acpea ---------------------- Boy eo epec ep cec Aeo-a o Aeo-apoa a o a Tpeo (o) Cec cpaeppoa epo-oop poeppoa o To e Cec Heyco oop Aceoepoec A. E. o opaae ae a o, o acca . Leonhard ocycy ooo pacpocpaee opocoo opace eyco oop , a ae aceo-epoec . B o e pe, o eo ae, cec acpea (cooeceo ocyoao-epecc apao o.

. ayy, 1933) opocoo opace paec e cpeac.

O peaae opeee opocoo opace (1418 e) o xapaepa p ocyoax opaecx cxoax, cxoaecx pax aeyax xapaepa.

B cooec c oee cxoo ooe A. . aypcoo (1912) B. H.

Mcea (1949, 1953, 1960) opoc e ocoe, ee ayaoe aee opoco, poe: caoyce, acpoee, co coe, poyee, ae ooee oee, ea, poe py, opya eao , ooecy, yyey, ooy, eyaa, pe pcy, epcy, pe opae, oee acae, paa aoa, oea ce ece, ooee oe, oea ce a oe.

ao poee O cooecye o 10 o 20 peoe, oopx a epo ae cceoa opoco oe pa oo ecoo (o 3) yepe. Ey papeaec oa opa o eco poea. Ha opo ae cceoa opoca poc pa aoee eoxoe, oepaee oe. Taa cooa opa paccapaec a oee peoeoe ee o cpae c aepa oea a a e, oo pee oce ocx opoco.

aoe yepee ae o 1 o 3 ao o cooecyey y aeya. Ccea oeo ooe c, a co xapaep ca oceye (aa cyeo oe) aoy y aeya o eceoc oocc (aa oeo oe). poe oo, aeya caec eopeee, ec o ae oeo oe e ocy ceao papaoa oaae (aoe aocecoe co) o ooy o.

B oo apae O (1981 .) pacopoae o ae cyeo oe oo e pooc, a cee cyae, oa ccey ceao ca epe coo e a xapaepcy oo, a ce xoe e opoco. B ocoo e opaoa peyao aaec c pacopoa o ae oeo oe. C o e cpoc pa, oopo o epa cooeceo aoy y aeya oaac a, oyee a oox aax cceoa. Oea paa pooc ceye ope: opeec cee oopoc, oaae eaoo ooe oceoa, ooa cooc ccy, cee opoeoc, oooc opaeco ppo cxoa aeya, opaee caooee cooc pea aca, cxooeca cooc ee-oy oee aooa.

B pae aocxoo aco pacp opaco aao pee Oo 10 o 25 e. B eco opace oooc pee O opae, ocoeo oceoa ee oooo opaca. B x cyax opeeee a aeya pooc a opao ye opoca peea eo poee. p accox cceoax peoea eoa opeee a aeya, xapaepa c oo aoo (. B. py, 1983). ao peca coo apo, coepae oca o aeya, cocaee c yeo epeco oeeecx ocoeoce ee oooo opaca. apo-ao pec oaoe poe o x opy opeeec aeya xapaepa peea.

Mecoc oopo oc opoc (MMP1) papaoa (1943) ocoa a aae ocx coc cxec ox. O coco 550 yepe ( ocoo apae), oocxc oey caoyc oceyeoo, yopoa y eo ex x cce ypex opao, eo ooe c opya, a yeo cxoaooeco coa, ocoeoc eo caooe . .

Oceye o aoy yepe pae o pex apao oea: epo, eepo, e oy caa. Opoc coyec a yax, a pyox cceoa. Aepace cceoae peoey cooa opoc oceoa opace o 16 o 55 e p eeyao oee (o Becepy) e e 80.

Oe a coepaec opoce yepe pacpeec o 3 oeo oco (ec) aa. oo ocox, eec oeco ooex a (aooa, peoc, peo, opo, ccy, ooao epeoc, opo a paeoc, epca, peo . .), apyxc a ex e 550 yepex. opocy paeo 16 oopxc yepe aa peecpoa, ceecya o ocyc poopeoc oeax a o e e yepe.

Oeoe a a xapaepcy ooe oceyeoo caoy ay cceoa eco epe ceecy o ocoepoc peyao. a cyeceo oa MMP1 o cex pyx opoco.

aa (L) ceecye o ee cyeoo peca ce aoee aopo cee cooec c oep coa opa. Bcoe oaae o o ae ae aac y px oce.

pep yepe:

e cea oop pay (yaec opae oe).

oa oaa a apa o, o oe cea ceo (opae oe).

aa aoc (F) p oapye cox oaaee ceecye o eocoepoc oyex peyao. Taoe oee oe aac p o cxoecx cocox, p eoa oceye yepe, coepaxc opoce, a ae p aepeo cae peyao.

pep yepe:

Bpeea axoyc o ac ao-o o c (a).

o ye, ec ce ao oe (a).

oa ycy, o oe aec opeee caoy cee oy-y pyoy (a).

aa oppe () cy e ee oceyeoo cp pye pcye ey cxoaooece e , aoopo, e eo peepy opoeoc.

pep yepe:

Me e ecoo, o oo e oop pye (e).

po oo, o oaa oc (e).

aa ? pecppye oeco yepe, a oope oceye e co oe.

oaae o aa oeac e oo oeoc, o cooyoc coooe c oaae ecx a. p oaaex o oeo aa ce 70 T-ao po oc caec coe, a ce 80 eocoep. Oao ae p cox oaaex o aa po oc oe poaapoa o cxooo p ocoo coocae peyao c o. Bco ooe oaae F ceecye o ee yppoa oceye coeo oeeoo coco, apaa, cy. Bco opae oaae F pa ccy, cpee oceyeoo poeocppoa coee coax op oee. Oao oaae ae o ocoo cooocc c ec aopa, c a ae. Hapep, cyeo-cepo pae aco aae co ooe ec F, xo oee, oe oceye aa o eoa, apae a cceoae oaaex poecco, e apaa cy cxoo e . Oeo, x cyax pe e o coeopao exae cxooeco a, oop oe ooae a pecy. Paoec e aee cy, ac o oo, a ye caac cya.

Oea oyex peyao pooc o cey oco aa.

1 aa oxop (cepxopo, coaa peo) epe cee cpoaoc oceyeoo a cox coaecx yx. Bco oaae o o ae ceecye o acoe eopeeeoc coaecx ao, o ea a coyce y opyax.

pep yepe:

Hecoo pa ee ye ae oa (a).

ye aco ae yco, yo 'o ooa cya opye (a).

II aa epecc (peo epeccx ee) ceecye o peoaa epeccoo acpoe, ecca, eyoeopeoc.

pep yepe:

Paoa aec e eo aeoo ape (a).

e pepc ecoo co (a).

Bpeea yepe coceo ecoeoc (a).

III aa cep (ooao aoc, ece aopo, ax peoy). Bcoe oaae o e xapaep cepox oce, cox exaa cxooeco a o y ece.

pep yepe:

a o pecyex acex pex (e).

oa e aa oopo (e).

B ae cep e e oa (D. N. Wienez, 1948) cex, oex ox poe.

pep yepe o epo oae:

aco oya oo ope (a).

Me ecoo pcy oo poa (a).

pep yepe o opo oae (o oocc oco oee coax cya ocoeoc ocp oceye coeo opye caoo ce):

eoacee oy e oep (e).

ya, o oe peyea co ecac, o oc oo coyc opyax (e).

Toe poe cep oaa, o oceye ycae, yppye pecae o coao-ox epax coe oc. o caec xapaep ox cepe, oppyx oae epe coe cxooece poe, ece x, paccapaec e a coaea ee, a eocoaaee ycao oc c c ee coao cxeco epeoc (W.

Sanocki, 1978).

IV aa cxoa (ycoc, peaa ooao apeoc eocpeceo oee).

pep yepe:

Bpeea e oe xoeoc oy o (a).

Boe e a peopy a poy (a).

Vaa yeceoceceoc (paeoc ycx ecx ep xapaepa).

pep yepe: o.

ya, e opaac paoa eceo.

oe oxoy.

VI aa apao (poc, poc aea). Bcoe oaae xapaep c ocee aaae acooc aea, oaco, ypco, eeo ceo acpoe, yoooc cex poecco, oeo oopeoc.

pep yepe:

Ec e poa po e, oc opao oeo (a).

copeoe acpoee e cea eo cpa e-y epec (a).

B ae apao e (D N Wiener, A. Harmon, 1946) oa oex ox poe.

pep yepe o epo oae:

Bpeea axoyc o ac ao-o o c (a).

ya, o a o ce (a).

pep ox poe:

Bpeea e ooy pxo ae c, o o x ye oy e paccaa (a).

oco e ec ooy, o oc aaa (e).

VII aa cxace (peooc, ca peo opaeoo oee). Opaae cooc pea peo cpax, cecoc, eyepeoc cee.

pep yepe:

Me ecoo cpax co c ya (a).

B oe o e o pyo oop epe ce acco (a).

VIII aa ope (yacoc, aya). Hapaea a ee ox ep oc, oopoeoc o opyaeo, aya. Bae ce ae yepe, oocec poyo cxoaooeco coae (pey, aa).

pep yepe:

oa opy oo e, cy cpae e (a).

Opyaee e aco aec epea (a).

oy ac pee ycy ce oo, ae axoc cpe e (a).

IX aa oa (oa aoc, opa peo).

pep yepe:

ߗaea oc (a).

Bpeea o c ey cpee, e ycea x caa (a).

O aa coao poepc (poepc cpaepc, coax oao). Hapaea a ycaoee cee cpaeppoaoc poeppoaoc e, ooao cepe coao .

pep yepe:

eoe oe (e).

Ec ao o oya, oy ooyc eo (e).

pa aea yaco oa pa e (a).

B oceee pe eoope aop coepeo epo yaa, o pee aa ecx a, eee a ocoa oceoa cooecyx oeo cxec ox, oxo cooecy peyaa, oyae p oceoa cxec opox cpaax opa epo-cxec paccpoca (.

, epe, M.. Mpoo, P. B. Poae, 1976;

. H. Co, 1978), B c c peoe oe, cxooece ooae ocox a. Be a c yeo oo pee a cxapece, a cxooece ooae.

oce opao oyex o ce oeo oco aa peyao epeoa x oaaee cpx ao caapoae T-a epaec po, opcoa cpyypy ocx ocoeoce, paeoc pax ee coo.

eppea po oc MMP1 oceea ceax ocox. ae , o p eppea peyao yaec ae oex o a poe, eo coa, peapoae eo (epoeco) pao (cxoeco) ac po, coea oaaee o opeee aa.

coa opa po oc o MMP1 peeax 30 70 T-ao. Cpee ae o opao pye cooecy 50 T-aa. . . epe coaop (1976) paccapa oaae, pacooee ey 60 70 T-aa, a poee oco aeya.

Ho pacooe (yoe) po oc ae ceo aaec p oe oceyeoo peca ce aopo cee, p ccy. Hepeo ey cooecy coe oaae o aa oppe. eoopx ox oo aa po, c apao op, xo a e ae coe ooceo x cxecx paccpoc. Tao ooea po e ox opee ca paeoo cxecoo eea ceecye o paeo ooao yoe.

ooe aee paec aoy po. o ao, . e. ae oee cox oaaee o aa cxoeco epa (4, 6, 8- 9-), ec pao cxoecoo coco ceecye o apye oao c peao eceoc, eopepoaoc, pacepoc. Hea ao, . e. peoaae cox oaaee o aa epoeco pa (1, 2- 3-), p a oeo cooo oea ceo po ec pao ocpoo aeoo apye.

a ce pye oce opoc, MMP1 e ae oooec-aoceco oe. po oc, oyae p cceoa c oo o eo, xapaepye ocoeoc oc oe cceoa. ooy o e oe oeac a aoceca ea (. , epe coa., 1976). Oao oyaea p ao cceoa xapaepca ocx coc ooo cyeceo ooe apy aocxooecoo pecp-cpoa. Ta, o, xapaepyc oeo oaaee o aa 6- 8- (apaooe ee), aac a eoo p apaoo ope, o p pyx peox cxoax, acoc p coo ec, poeae c xpoec peo (oop) cpoo.

oyaee c oo MMP1 ae o ocoo cooocc c eco coao, aepaa ae aocxooa ooceo ocoeoce oe oceye aa o eoa, apae a cceoae oaaeo eeoc, c peyaa cceoa c oo pyx ocx eo.

Opoc MMP1 peec cxooa o cex cpaax pa c oaeo eo aaae caapae cooec c coao-yyp ocoeoc acee. Ha pycco e ae papaoao ecoo apao opoca oocopoeo cceoa oc. x ocoe: aaa oa opoca MMP1 aopaope eco cxoo epacoo ayo cceoaecoo cxoepooecoo cya . B. M. exepea (1974), apa . .

epea M.. Mpooa (1969, 1976), papaoa MMP1, ocyecea . H. Co (1971), oee oee aae caapoa eo cceoa oc (CM).

oa cceoa coy oy a opoca MMP1. o ooe copa cceoae a ee-apa eo ( yep oe oee oc oceyeoo). pepo ec cooae a aaeo oco a poe peo (J Teylor, 1953).

Opoc Teop coco 50 yepe. yoca ooa aoe yepee peaaec oceyeoy a oeo apoe. Coaco cpy, oceye oaae pao eo apo, acoc o oo, coace o e coace c coepac x yepe. yepe xo coca MMP1 aece ooeo a. Opoc Teop aapoa T. A. He (1966).

po pep xapaepx opoco a peo ( coax ooae oe, yae p opeee oaae peo):

Bo pe pao e pxoc co apac (a).

Me pyo cocpeooc a e-o (a).

Booe epoc cea a ye peoy (a).

aco cyac, e epo, ec pye o aea (a).

Cepeee e e ecoo (e).

Co ye pepc ecoo (a).

Hepeo ye a pcy cpaxa (a).

Oo cooe paccpo e eeo (e).

Oae cea eppye e (a).

Cocoe oeo opo ecoo e (a).

cea oc cpe c pyoc (a).

Oea peyao cceoa o opocy Teop pooc ye ocea oeca oeo oceyeoo, ceecyx o peooc. a ao oe oeaec 1 a. Cyapa oea 4050 ao paccapaec a oaae oe cooo ypo peo, 2540 ao ceecy o coo ypoe peo, 15 ao o cpee (c eee cooy) ypoe, 515 ao o cpee (c eee oy) ypoe 05 ao o o ypoe peo. C oo aopoo aaa ae Teop ee 4 aopa :

aopa: aop A xpoec cpax, ca c peooc, cecoc, eyepeoc cee;

aop B aoc eeao epo cce ypoax cyax;

aop C paccpoca ca, cae c o ype apee;

aop Dyco coceo eooeoc.

o a pa aopo, p cceoa o ae Teop aocpyec e peoa, a ocyoaa peooc, oca pepacooeoc peooc (). .

Xa, 1978;

A. ooapoa, 1983).

opoaoe cooae oo a opoca MMP1 oe pec eocaoo ocoep peyaa, aeaa oea oopx ccey eooa -a ocyc oeox a. o ooeaec apae opoc a ypye oceyeoo cococye e y eo coaex eocoaaex ee ycaoo. B c c eocaoo ooee opoca opeee ypo peo ao , a o peo B.. Hopae (1975), e oee, o oce aeo e cea ooe cy o eocpaoc, ecpeoc oeax, coe oaae o e aco ceecy oe o oco poc.

Opoc cpa epoo. B y pyy eo ac opoc, peaaee e opepoooo cpoooecoo opeee epoo. ooo oocee opoc cya peapeo, opae-o, aoc epoo. p x cocae apoa yac ae pep, a eoc, pocoa, aeoc p epepoa opox ox, cooecye oppe c py eca, peaae ax cceoa.

Oo opoc coyc eooecx cceoa.

po aece pepa xapaepcy pex aoee x opoco cpa epoo.

Onpocu Xea Xecc, aa ao (BFB). O caapoa a ox opace o 16 o 60 e.

p coa eo aop cxo oo, o ao ox epoa oc ceec xapaep x, oe o ox c opaeco coaeco aooe, peoaa yaa a eeae paccpoca ao cxecoo xapaepa.

Oceyeoy aec c c epee eecx (apye pe, oee aax, pcy ac, axap, yco apa cepa, poae py ..) cxecx (apye pe, aae, pyoc oaa, aaoc, cpax ocaac ooy . .) ao. Bceo aoax yppy 63 coa epoo. Oe eppepyc o oece oaae c yeo oa, a e opaca. Boo 3 a cyapx oeo: opa, peooea aoca epoa, epo.

o oaae caec ae ec ooaoc, opaa paey eeay ppa, xapaepy cxocoaecx aoea, peoaae cyyo cxoepoecx paccpoc. oy oaae aop pa aee ope eo cxoepa. Aa xapaepx oceyeoo ao pooc c yeo ceyx aopo: peepa eeaa oyoc (caoo), aaoc, o, aoo, ace, cepxyceoc, apye cecooop, oe pea, cpax.

Opoc pae poc, eoc cceoa c eo oo cocae 510 , oce cpx ao pooc c oo a, ae cpe oe epeoc c oo ceao a caape.

Hepomuecu-enpeccu onpocu T. Taea (1968) papaoa cp aoc epoo p accox cceoax ex peapeo, opaeo, aoc. Coco 77 opoco, oe a oope a xapaepcy coco ooo cooec co cey aa: oeepoeco, epecc, eeax paccpoc, cep, ao-oeco coa. Oe a opoc oeaec 1 a. Oa oea o 9 ao cooecye ope, o 9 o 18 ao epoec ee ce 20 aopaeoy epoy. Oeaec coooee oaaee o pa aa. Ta, coe oaa.e o aa oeepoeco eeax paccpoc ceecy o epace aceeco coco pyoo eea. p a oex oaaee o o aa cy o cpoooeco oope oeeoo coco o ae c peoaa oaaee. p a cox oaaee o y aa pe e o coo xapaepe epoecoo cpoa.

Onpocu A. ooapoo (1976) ae 83 opoca, pacpeeex o 8 aa:

, eeax paccpoc, epace, cxace, cep, oxop, epecc, eepcoaa epeaa.

Oea pooc c oo ceaoo a. Paa opae, coe ooe peya (o ce, o oo o eco aa). o cyapo oee e p ooe aeop: opa, epeo paee epoece epooooe ee, paee epo epooooe coco.

a, ae p cceoa opae peya, aa oea, oeaeo aeey ae cceoa. ae ooe peya apac aeeo cceoa pay. p coeo peyae opoc o eoxooc aeeo cceoa peaec yao. Tec, o a aopa, oaec coo aoceco oooc. Ta, epo c oo oo eca aocpoa 88,2 % cyae. Peya, oyee c oo opoca A.

ooapoo, coo cee oppepy c a, oyae p pee opoca Xea Xecc. Aop caa oeae acoc peyao cceoa o o oceyeoo yaae, o p opaeo ooe cceoa p oace paae peyao oyac eocoepe ae.

o a A. ooapoo (1983), cp-opoc cyoc aop epoa a cpoooecy xapaepcy oeeoo coco. O aoopa paec epo ex oooeco aoc, apep papae epoa epoooooo coco.

aa peao oco peooc Cepepa (C. Spielberger, 1970, 1972) paae oe peo a coco peooc, a ep, coca oc. Tpeoa xapaepyec pao ecoc, eoc o pee, ae ocoaaex epx epea apeoc, oaoeoc, ecooca, oace, paeo aae eeoc eeao epo cce. Boae peoa a pea eoea a pae cpecc, ae cxoeoo, coao cxooecoo xapaepa. ocy peooc aop pacapae a coca a, oa ec ocyoa pao, oocc pepacooeoc.

oca peooc o ooceo ocooe coco eoea e ypoy coey aooy cax pax cyax. oca peooc ec pecoe, oeae ooee pea peo. aa peo Teop cyoc apaea a epee oco peooc, a e coco peao peo.

aa Cepepa yae epea aopo oco peooc peao peo. Oa pecae coo opoc, coco yx oa. oaa oco peooc ae ce 20 yepe, oope oceye oe oe o 4-ao ccee: o oa, oa, aco, o cea. pep yepe o o o-ae: co epea -a yco;

capac ea pecx cya pyoce.

oaa peao peo ae coco 20 yepe. x 10 ocapy, a 10 opa ae peo. Oea yepe: e, o coce e a, oay, a, epo, coepeo epo. pep yepe o oaa peao peo: e axoy cee eca;

e o e ypoae.

aa Cepepa pae poca, oa oocc cpecc-eoa, peee ee peye oe ao pee. B CCCP ay Cepepa opoa, aapoa caappoa . . Xa (1976, 1978). e oye opepooe opa:

ypoe peo2034 aa, cpe ypoe 3544 aa, co ypoe 46 ao e. Cyape oe oyac ye ocea peyao c oo a, yaeo eppoae yepe. Meoa oe peca epec oceoa ox c epecc peoo-epecc coco paoo eea.

Meo eaa Pxepa. Papaoa (1972) cceoa oc aaa coax ooe, ocoeoc ooe ax pyax. Tec ae pecaee o o, a oceyee ce, a o xoe e ce, a o pyx, a x opyae, a, o x e, oe ea pecae o o py.

Tec caapoa a ax opace 1860 e ae 3 apaa ox ex e 40 opx yepe (߻, O, Oa). B opoce ec 6 ocox a a ee.

I. aa coaoo peoaca (o eaoo ooy). Opae oc xapaepyec epeaeoc, a epeco coe eoc, eyaee opyax, x eo. Cooeceo a ooeo oce pacoaac a peaee, yee oco a ce, yaaee ee py '. a, epo ae yaec opoc o aoooe c opyee, opeee ace coao po.

pep yepe:

Ca, o e copee pyo... 3210123...copee eo aoea ca pyx e.

II aa oaoc (ycyoc). Ha oo oce a, eo cyae cop, coepae, eepee, coe opoa, a pyo ycye, peo cyae cop, epee.

pep yepe:

Ca, o copee cpec 3210123... copee peoa ceo-ypa py, e...

a oe, yaa pyx.

III. aa opo (eocaoo opopye ce yopoee, c co ypoe caoopo). epx xapaep eyopoeoc, eococo, cooc aoc, eoce ocya, eyee pacopac ea. cepxopox xapaep paea yopoeoc, ycepe, paoc o aaoc, ecocooc aoc eaooy oee. pep yepe:

Ca, o e pyo ec ce 3210123...oe eo ep.epyeo...

ye IV. aa peoaaeo acpoe (oaaae epecce). Ha pax ocax o a axoc: peo ae ypye, ao coe caoaay, o ecaope, e cpae papae, aco ypyee, coe peepoy caoaay, caope, e poe papae. pep yepe:

ya, o peo... 3210123...oe aco ypea ce.

V. aa opoc ayoc. a, eocppye coe oaae o o ae, xapaepyc a oo oce oepoc, pacpoc epe py , opeoc ;

a pyoayoc, eoepoc, ocpaeoc o pyx e, eee cpa cocey opeoc . pep yepe:

Me aec, o ycy copee 3210123...copee oc py oyeoc..

.

VI. aa coax oooce (coao caecoao ce).

Coaa caoc, o e aopo, xapaepyec eoeoc, cao cocooc caooae, ecocooc e paoc, eo aae.

, aoopo, poooo oc a, e a oece, coe caooae e paoc, c oao aae. pep yepe:

Me aec, o o xapaepy 3210123...copee eoee, ay copee oee....

e ooee a ocoa a ocee aepyx oceye ye aepyx poe. B epo cyae co oaae paccapaec a poee ooaoo epa oeoy aa, o opo yaae, apep, a oyeoe cocoe, caoopo. a pa po oeox, o xapaepy ycaoy oc a cya cceoa, ao oeo cyae oee oeca aoo poa oeo peye aeoo aaa.

Oceye o aoy yepe oeae co ocy o. Cya x cpx oeo epeocc a a poooa c oo ceaoo a. Cepxy a ae poooa ooae cooecye cp oea caape e. p pyox cceoax, oa e eoxooc epa yae po, epeo oeo caape ocyecec c oo a.

Aop oepa peya cceoa cxoaaeco eppea, oao o yaa, o aa paoa ax e oaea, ca o cee aocec po e peye ax-o oeyax paoo, o pecae poco e oepex aeaec aao ce ey oe paa.

p oopo cooa eca xoe cxoepa oo yec ee aoooe ey pao o. Ta, p yceoc ee caooea ooo ce oe ye pac oee eo pao , aoopo, ye ce oe oac, ec epa e poc ooy oee. Oea paa o coep oa ycao, opeeee coa coao-cxooec aopa. B xoe ee a oea ae oe ec.

a oooc pee eca eaa Pxepa a yeeo oaaa X.

oa eoo (1982), poo cceoae aoooe ey pao o e eoopx cxocoaecx aoea. O oceoa ox, cpaax, c cxocoaoa eo oe eya eaaepco , eeco oe cepa, poxao aco. B aece ocox eoo cceoa aop cooa ec eaa Pxepa pec paee B. A.

Tao (1974) eo oeooo ocpypoa, oopo xapaepca oc occoaec ye oe ee o caapoy aopy ocx coc. cceoa X.

oa eoa oaa coy cee oppe ey eoa. Aa oyex ax oo aopy e a opaa eaeo paa coepea ooao-epa. x ep ec ea opao eaeo-paa, a opo eeae. Cooeceo ee ocoe ooaoo oaa ey pao o op poeoo oee paa (pyooco, apepco, pyooco apepco). Aop oaa, o ccea aoooe paa ooo poecce ee e ec cao, oa pecae pae o poecc, opaa po oeca aopo e ooe aee eoc ee, ocoeo cxoepa. Aaoe ae oye B. A.

Tao (1974, 1978), ya aoooe ey cxoepaeo o epoa.

Baoc ax cceoa aaec o, o ae ycaoo ooo ooe eaeo paa, coe oe ee ee ooe pay ypa poecco ycaoe oaoo ooaoo oaa, papaaa ocyec peaaoe epop.

Meo Popaxa. Cy aepa eoa Popaxa (H. Rorshach, 1921) coco a c oxpo ooe cep opae, a. aoe opaee eocppyec oceyeoy oceoaeo, p o ey peaaec oe a opoc: o o oe ? Ha o o oxoe? B poecce cceoa oceye e oyae ao ooeo opa. Bce epecye cepeaopa opoc oy aa oo oce ooa cceoa.

oyee oe-eppea ocoo pooopyc. opaa eppea pooc o cey ce aeop.

1. oaaoa ocoeoc eppea. ec pecppyec, pecae oe eoc, . e. oxaa ce opaee (W), oocc ao-o ea (D).

2. eepa, xapaepca aeca oea. p coa opaa oceye oe oaa peoee ope opae (F) e e, oop oe pax coeax c opo (FC, CF, C), oyoa (c', c), ycapa coao opae ee (M).

3. a op. opa oeaec ooe (+) opae ao (), oop oaae, acoo aeao opae opa a, eo oyp coao opae.

B aece pep cya eppea opo cooecyx opae x eae.

4. e coepa eppea, oopoe oe ca paoopa.

Hapep, opaee payec a eoe (H), ooe (A), oo (Fi) . .

5. ooee aop. pee ceo ec oe oeea opaoc (Or) oypoc (P) eppea, a ae ye e aop, oope e e ocoo papaoao cce ooae, peca coo ae aecee xapaepc oea (apep, epceepa, ocae eco eppea . .).

oaae opaoc oeo paaec acoc o eoc op. p oeax o ope ey co eox oaae opaoc ooaaec ao () ceecye e o opaoc e aa, a o aooeco eopaa e. e ooex aopo ooe oy ee ae, ocoeo p oceoa cxec ox.

Ta opao, aa eppea oceyeoo oyae opeee opaoa , apep: a. II a eoea, oax py pyy py.

Oe popeae : W +H, . e. opaee eppepoao eo (W), oceye eoeece cyeca e (M), a op ooe, ocoy oco oceyex ycapa ec yx e, o coepa eoe (H).

B oocex cceoax a paoaa opeeea cxooeca xapaepca oaaee eoa Popaxa. Paccop cxooecoe aee eoopx oaaee.

pee ceo o o, o pecae pa oxo oceyeoo eppea opae (op eoo eae). aeoe oeco eocx eppea c ooe ao ceecye o oace oopae, cocooc cey, poc ya. Ec oc eoce eppea c opae ao op, o paccapaec a apyee cee, ocyce poc.

Bop ea opae ocpoe opaa ec aoee ac ceecye (p a ooeo op) o opeo eeyao aoc oceyeoo. Mee poe ea (Dd) c eao opo oc peyeceo y cxec ox, opox o exapaep.

a ye yaaoc, eepa c ae aeop ocea, ocoa opa o oc, o H. Rorschach, oe oyea oo p aeo ye aeca oeo.

Haoee aco poooax cceoa, o H. Rorschach, oec eepaa op.

epea eeoc oceyeoo poecce axoe cxoca caa c peee ax pooo oa. Heoxoa ae poc oxoa ayapye opaa, op aoee oeaeo ope opae. B c c poe ooex op cyae aece coeopaoo oaae eoc epe, oop paccapaec a opaa eoope eeyae ocoeoc oc.

eceece eppea (M), o a epayp, xapaepy cee ypee aoc, opecoe oopaee, ceecy o yox aoee yax eex oc.

C oo oe coacc, o ec, oo ycaoe cxoca, c eopeeeoc, o ye cao o cee peye opeeeoo ypo aoc, oec aeceo o ee ype aoc, e oycoea e aopa, ocoy e a aooo opae e coepc.

eppea, oopx yaec e opae, oocc oee ooao cep, pe cee yac op yaae a pae opo co copo eea.

Pee poooax oc oe c yeo pax oeo yco cepoo ea (c', c). o paooc oeo oocc opeeee oepxoce (epoxoaa, aa . .), ye ceoe (peeoce c, p.). eppea x oaaee, oay, aeee papaoaa. B eo oo caa, o oe paccapac a ooaae ecooco, peooc.

p oee coepa eppea (H, A p.) oy cp epceepae ee, peoee e p pyx ocx ocoeoce.

aoceca eoc oex oaaee eoa, ecop a x aoc, eea.

Cyecye acoee pe aocece cxe peycapa ye aa eoco ap, ce oaae yac o aoc. Ta, a oaaa eoxooc oecoo paccope pa oaaee (W + M Or) oe eeyax oooce oceyeoo (B. A.Wysocki, 1957).

Opee aoce, o H. Rorschach, ec ycaoee a epea oc. ec o ocyc pecae H. Rorschach o cpyype oc. a ye oeaoc (B, H. Mce, .. ecao, . H. ea, . . apaccapc, T. A.

He, 1969), oe cxooece peooe, ye H. Rorschach, acoo eooce poc, o e poopea e eop oc. H. Rorschach cxo ooe o o, o eoeeca aoc opeeec a ype, a e oye. B c c a oae aoc, oopo paaec oc e oeee, e eee cepeo (cpyyppoa) ae ee cy, ee aopo o poepc cpaec. aoe x o cooecye cooyoc opeeex ep oc, cax c peoaa o aoc.

B cepee yceoc ype oye pecaea eceec eppea, e eo. o x coooe (M: C) ycaaaec epea.

Too Popaxa pecae coo aeceo o a oa poepc cpaepc. B pooec C. Jung c eo oae poepc a coco H. Rorschach pecae poepc a poecc a y oooc yxoa ce acoc o ocoec, yco cpe. poe peoaae poepcx ee ooe oop a o poepc a o aooeco coco, o H.

Rorschach eoopao oepae.

aee H. Rorschach oeae, o o poepc oo cce pooco oe cpaepc, oao, coaco aopy, cooae ao epoo coae o eyoco, o oe cea o o peao poooooc cpaepc poepc. Bcy x ocoec oc oe cpaec.

Aa epea, o H. Rorschach, xapaepyec oooc oapye y ooo oo e a epeoa poepcx cpaecx ee. epo cocpeooeoc a cocex epeax y ax e epeyc c epoa opae aoc o ee pe.

oap xapaepyec ocyce aoceoc a eceecx, a eox oeo. H. Rorschach paa oappoa(OM OC) oapa (1M 1C, 1M OC, OM 1C) epea acoc o oeca oeo o ey eceecx, oao ooo paecoo ae o paeee e ee oa a epea oec oe oap (. .

ypay, 1979)..

Ta opao, o cea o o o, o oxo H. Rorschach cceoa oc xapaepyec aoc. Cc ee o, o H. Rorschach, aaec e coo aaeeco acca e, coo eo eco ae (B. H. Mce, .. ecao, . H. ea, 1969).

B acoee pe oeeceo aocxoo aaec ce oee acoe cooae eoa Popaxa pee ' eoopx eopeecx paecx aa.

o cao c peooee pa pyoce. Ta, .. ecao (1978) ca copoa eoa ooc cpaeo oo cye ooae eppea cepeax ax. E. T. Coooa (1980) yaae a poc cooece oex oaaee c opeee apaepa oc. Oa e cae cycco opoc o o, o e ec Popaxa cpyypy oc ace yae ocoeoc.

oee pooy cooa eoa Popaxa y ac oo peecoa cepeoe eo yee acee paecoo cooa p oaeo coocae c a, oyae c oo pyx eoo, eopeeca papaoa eo eoooecx oco.

B c c oo yaa a pao, aop oopx coo peya, oyee c oo eoa Popaxa p cceoa peax coco (H. H.

Caeca, 1970, 1971), ec (B. M. exep, . . ypay, 1971;

. . ypay, 1972;

. . ea, 1978;

. . ea, B. A. Topa, 1978), p aoo o-peypoo oeca (A. M. Be,. . Bacoa, O. A. oocoa, 1971).

ae ao papaoy eopeecx paecx oco eoa Popaxa, cococy eo paecoy pee, c oopa . .

ypaya (1979) eoecoe ocoe . . eo (1978).

Aa poe ae ocoa ya, o eo Popaxa aocxoo oaec oe a opao ae aoc yax coc oc, ocoeo cxoepaeeco peaaoo paoe. cooae eo ex oooeco aoc pecaec a eee epce, oao ec ae, oyaee c oo eoa Popaxa oece c py cepeao-cxooec eoa eoa, cyeceo oo apy aocxooecoo cpoa.

Teaec aepe ec (TAT) peoe H. A. Murrey C. Morgan (1935) coco 29 ap c opeee opae (pc. 12) oo eo ap, oopy pe oceyeoy oo, o o oopa a e y apy. Bceo oceyeoy, acoc o oa opaca, p poee cceoa peaaec, a pao, 20 ap 2 ceaca. Oao oycac ocye o x pa, ocoy cyecy pae oa cceoa.

aaa oceyeoo o ao peex ap coca eoo c pacca ( pacea cpee 5 a apy). poo cceoae o TAT, oo peypea, o pe e o cceoa oopae e o ocoeocx epaypoo opeca. B eceoc e aoe, a o opaaec ae paccaax oceyeoo, o o o e o ye oop, ae cya coac, a pape coepa paccao o cyae x a c paccaax opeeea eca, oopao oopea cya.

B poecce cceoa acoc o ee oceyeoy oy aa opoc a: O e ceac yae o eoe?, aoa eo poecc? . . Beo, a pao, aay oceyeoo aec ycoe, peyee oce paccae p ocox oea: o peo cya, opaeo a ape, o pocxo aco oe, e a cya aoc?

Pacca oceyeoo acac ocoo, c cae ay, oa pyx paex e. Oo pea ceopae cpoy aooy, oa oceye ca acae co pacca.

pee e pcya eppea cooyoc paccao, cepeaop oe pacoaa ce oo cee o oceyeo (ceeoe ooee, poecc, opac ..), B cyae, ec oceye cxec oo, eoxoo aeoe yee aaea, cop oe.

o e ooo aopo oo eoa, ecoo aepacoo cxooa H. A.

Murrey, aoceca eoc TAT ocoaec a pa cyecoa eoeeco cxe yx po poxc ee. epa x paaec cpee ay ooay cya, c oopo caaec eoe, cooa cooec co co po oo opeoc. Bopa ee coco o, o o co epaypo opece aop opaec a cocee epea coaeo eccoaeo opaae cocee opeoc, yca ocx xapaepax yax epoe.

Ta opao, coaco oee H, A. Murrey, oceye ye oop coax paccaax o cee ae yax co a, pca co yca epea.

oce eeoc, oee oc H. A. Murrey coye oe opeoc (o ocox epo peoeo eop oc), oopa pecae coo ype cy opaa, aco cyay a opeeeoo poa oe a aee, oaaeoe cpeo. Coeee ae c ao opeoc aaec eo, ceoaeo, ea ec aeco cpyypo aoec cpe oc, paoo eca, oe o pooeoo eca, oopoe cocae ey eoea. P coexc ey coo e coca coe e.

oeec poecc, aa H. A. Murrey opeoc oc oce cya, oa, peecye aeo pea. Ca aee pea oocoeo o cya, oopo a, e, a oopy apae, aa aa, oope opaec a aee (poe eo ycyo aoc) ae poe epao aoc.

Paccapa ooee opeoce, H. A. Murrey peypeae, o o poecc eocaoo ye, cae, o opeeeo epe x pae oo o oec poeccy opaoa ycox peeco. Peeopa eop .. aoa ae oaaa aeoe e a eee aopo epx, cepoex, opx, cxoex, opeoce. epe e aceceo apee exa, ope eo e e. pye co ooe opeoce H. A. Murrey e ax ex, a copeoae, opaae . .

O S. Freud epeaec H. A. Murrey c eoop ee eee oc a ߻, Oo, Cepx-߻. p o oaaec, o co o aoo e eccoaeoe. C eop H. A. Murrey c cxoaao peayec ae o oo ae, oopoe aop pcae epea eoea pae ece. Oao, ope ocy cxoaao, H. A. Murrey e cae yc, cxoe eccoaeoo, a-, acoa.

Teopeecoe ocpoee H. A. Murrey apaeo pee ceo a eaoe pacpe oaooo acea oc. Bc c aop ee (peypea, o e cae ay acca coepeo aoeo) 44 epeex, cooecyx oeec opy poecca cxe. B x co xo 20 x opeoce, 8 cpx opeoce, 4 opeoc oece ype coco , aoe, 12 ox ep, oope oy xapaepoa oee oc. Ha eee x epeex x oceyy eppea (apecc, co . .) caoe aeoe e, ecoeo, oaa cxoaaece oe. xapaepc oex opeoce aop ae coe paoe ocae , oop opeoc pcy coo cee.

Aa oyex c peee TAT ax cpoc cey opao: ep ao ec eee epo, c oop cye epye ce (ec o ooe ee eco). pee oo opoca aop eoa peaae p pepe (ooo pa, cayc, po p.). epea aaa cceoae eaoe paccopee oo, o ycye, yae eae epo, ycaoee oo, o ec eoopo poe ya. aoe poee epeeo oeaec o 5-ao ae.

ae a yee ae cpe, ca aoo x ae oepaec oeceo oee. aee e cpaea oea c, cxox o epo, c, cxox o cpe. B pyooce TAT (H. A. Murrey, 1943) epec yca paccapac oeo. -Ocooe aee e oa eaa oe ecyx paccae .

Aop ee opa aa, ya aec paccopee cpyyp, c paccao. o ace aaa, o A, H. A. Murrey, eca oee cp aooecx ee coco (a, epecc). H. A. Murrey oepae, o paoo aaa coepa paccao eoxo ece cee o oceyeo, eoopoe ae eo pooo acoeo.

Aop cae, o ae, oyee a ocoe aaa paccao TAT, o paccapac a paoe oe, oope eoxoo poep py eoa, a e a oaae a. aec eocaoo coa aeoc oo eoa cceoa oc, o pacca TAT opaa a oee acpoe oceyeoo a oe, a acoy ey cya. eoe cooae opaecx pyx ax, exc y cxooa, ooe peoaa oooc ex x ocx ee.

D. Rapaport (1945), ca o coee y H. A. Murrey p aaa paccao oceyex p cceoa eoo TAT a poe aapoa, peaae paccapa x a poy oaaeo eeoc p eopeeeoc cyoo aepaa. eppea peyao peaaec aa opax xapaepc ocpoe paccaa, epy oepe x ooe o eo caapoo ocpoe. D. Rapaport (. o E. T. Coooo, 1980) paae ae aeop opax xapaepc, a yca, epea, oae y oceyeoo cya cepea;

oea epcoae paccaa;

eee cpee ycaoo, oaex a ocoe oaae oo oc;

pec apep, oae c c pea ec pyx coax op, pecyx ocyece cpee oceyeoo.

. B. eap, B. B. Hoaea, . . oo (1972) po ceye ocoe aeop aaa paccao oceyex.

xo yoee oceyeoo o oe aa. aec o ocae, oa ae e eapoaoe, o ce cpoc opao, p o ocycye opeoe coepae, o oceye oee eoxooc coceoo ocpoe cea oee oooo aepaa, oo epaypx poee, oo . ., o oceye ae paee apa cea, eo epexo o oo ceo pyo, paccapa x a paoee, pao-ooe. xo a ce ap paccapaec a poee o ca apye oe. O oe cece eeyao eocaooc. xo cyax oca oex ap ooaae o epe opaeo cya cece ooo ea ocoeoce ex o aoo poa (ya cpea), o ocoy aoc cya oceyeoo.

o epcoae oe eceo, cpaaeo, coepaeo apecco. Bce opaa cooecye ee oc e co aecee xapaepc. Hapep, eceo o xapaep peapoae aoo acoe pee, opaax cpeee ee cyecyeo ooe ye oeppoa coce oooc, oepae xopoeo pooa.

aeop coapa paccapaec a poee oa ooo epcoae, paee eo o, coyc ey. o ocoeoc coapa cy o pcye ooy ccee eepcoax ooe.

Ocyee o ceo xapaepyec ea epexoo o ooo apae paccaa pyoy. Paac ocye cpaoe, ceecye o peoepcx eex, eopae, ec oaae oepoc. ace ocye xapaepyc aopa a poee ca e.

O ocp (o e oay) poee apye aaca ey e ype aopa ocp, c opoae ocex.

oeco eae ceecye o oee oceyeoo cya cepea.

Hapep, aoe oeco eae poee caocoeoc oceyeoo, eo eacoc eoopoo oppoa opyaeo.

Oee pe paccaa xapaepye cepy coa oceyeoo, pcyee e oaco pecae, eoc ooe accoa. pacca o oo ap ceecye o aepecoaoc, ee ay o aex peax.

Taa cxea aeop eppea paccao o apa TAT pecaec a peoeo cooa aocxoo.

E. T. Coooa (1980), aapy oooc paecoo cooa eoa, cae, o aoee peee o axo e epoo pyx opax coco e aex oo coao, aco eocoao, caaxc y ooo cocoo x papee. p o ca oy peca oco epec ae ocoeoc aeo cep oc, aocpyee c oo TAT, a opeeee eyx oo, ooe, eoce, oapyee aex oo, xapaepx ooo exao cxooeco a, xapaepca pa yao-ocx ocoeoce (ycoc oopooc, ooaa ycooc aoc, ooaa peocaoc), caooea oceyeoo (coooe ey ߻ ea pea, cee p ce).

Cyece eocao TAT . . apaccapc (1982) cyecye ypoe ex eppea, oop ee e oeceae ocaoo aeoc ae, eo oo eacoc o cceyeo. ooy ceo ao oepaeoe E. T.

Coooo ocoeco, e yea oopoo eooo cooae TAT pae: ce ee o eoo aooepoc o e oee e oeae oooc, ee, ycao oc. ooy epaoepe po epeoc ax TAT a xapaepcy oc oee ooo.

B aocxooeco pae, a pecaec, oooc pee TAT e opaac cxoe aoea. C oo eoa oyae epece oce xapaepc p aex cxoax, aooo epaa oc.

oaao aee eoa oe aeo cep ox opee (H. .

eo, 1965;

T. H. opoa, 1975). Teopeece paece ace pee TAT coeco aocxoo papaaac . H. eo (1967), C. B. yae (1969).

Meo cceoa pycpaoo oepaoc epe oca S. Rosenzweug (1954) o aae Meo pcyoo pycpa. oe o ao ceaoe pyooco o cooa oo eoa c cooecy caapoa opa (S. Rosenzweug, E. Hemming, H. Clark, 1947), oopoe acoee pe ocaec oco.

a o aa eoa, eo aaa yee ocooo acea oc, pea a pycpa. B aece cyoo aepaa coyc pcy, opaae aoee aco oae oe cya, cya, oope oy py cppoa oc (pc. 13). o, opac cepa eeoc e c pea ooe x cya.

B oe o ap TAT peaaee ec pcy ocaoo ooopa o coey xapaepy , o ec aoee cyece, cya oo, o oy o oceyeoo cpaeo poce oe, opaee o coepa paepy.

Ta opao, aco eo coxpae eoope oex peyec eca coeco accoa o e pe paec oooy pacp ex aceo oc, oope cceoae ac c oo TAT.

Maepa eo coco 24 pcyo, e opae a, axoec o pycpaoo cya pexoeo a. Ha ao pcye epcoa cea opae pooc coa, oop ocaec pycpa cocea pyoo a.

Ha epcoae cpaa eec yco apa, oop oceye oe ca coce oe. ep a epcoae pcyo ycpae.

Te cya, oope aecy eoe, oo opae a e ocoe py. epacya pec, , o epoo S. Rosenzveig, oooe.

B x cyax aoe-o pece, ecyee cya, oceyeoo oecypaae, cae c oy, pycppye p cocoo. Cyecye cya oo a (apep, 1, 3, 6, 8 p.). Bopacya oe, cyepoooe. ec cye ec oeo oe (apep, 2, 5,7 p.).

B poecce cepea oceyeoy pyaec cep pcyo peaaec cpy ceyeo coepa: Ha ao pcyo opae oe oee .

O cea opae oop opeeee coa. pecae cee, o ye oea pyo eoe ae ep oe, oop pxo Ba a y. He capaec oeac yo ecye o oooc cpee. Oceyeoy a pepe epoo pcya eocppyec, a o oe aa oe. Tec oe cooa p yao, p pyoo cepee.

a oe oceyeoo oeaec c o pe yx pepe: apaeoc a pea oc. o apaeoc ec 1) cpaye pea oc ee pec a, ae y cyea epoc;

p o oa oy-o eec oaoc papeee coec cya;

2) paye pea oee ce;

oceye epe a ce oeceoc a cpaee cya e ocpae pycpaoy cya a aopy ce;

3) ye pea oceye yoec o ypeo py paccapae cya pp opao, a eo, o oe cpaeo, co oo ooa oya.

o y pea opaec a: 1) peceo-oae oee oceyeoo aee pycpa pece cec oepaec (o pece pecaec a eaopoe, aopoe eaeoe);

2) caoae ay po oee oceyeoo pae coco a ߻, oceye ocyae oo y, pae co y, opae oeceoc ooe;

3) eoxooco yopcye ae eaec a opeoc pape oy cya, oceye peye oo o pyx , ca epec a papeee..poe oaae, o pe xo co pey ee cpae.

oa x 6 aeop, aa oopx oyae coe ycooe ooaee, oya 9 oox aopo oe ( 2 ooex apaa).

p oee peyao oe oceyeoo cpaa co caap.

Hecoaae oe e oya oe, a coaae oeac 1 0,5 aa (oceee, ec oe coep oy oey, a coaae co caapo oo oa x). o oee oeo cocac po cox ax, a o p ocox opaa o ooe.

B poecce cceoa epeo oceye ee ee oeo. yea oo ee aapyc. p eppea opaaec ae a yee coao aaa oceyeoo, aco eo oo c opya, pooc oea aopo a poe, yac opa . ee. Opaaec ae a o, a oae oceye co pea. cxec opox aoee ac cpaye pea, a opo ece ye pee oeac paye pea. Ta opao, opo eoe oce cyae apae co pea a eee opyee oe pecx ee p, e yoec o caa ypeo a py , a caoy cee, . e.

paccapae pycppyy cya pp opao. caoee oaae, a ocoa oopoo oo cy o cee coao aaa a, ooo p a cpee-pyox ax. Oao eec apyeo epaype caap e oy acoa c o e.

Paccopee eoa, oceoo ye pycpa a oco xapaepc, acae ac opac eoop eopeec acea poe pycpa eo.

epec pycpa a oo peax ex poe o 30-x oax aeo coe , ecoeo, oo oy ocy pao S. Freud. Ho cxoo, oope aac o poeo, cpo oapy, o pae peocx po o oa copoa ea, a cooae x aece oco cepeax cceoa eo pyoe. o ocyo cyo pa eop pycpa.

B acoee pe oo oop o ceyx ocox copeeo apyeo cxoo eopx pycpa: eop pycpaoo ca (N. . Mair, 1949);

eop pycpaoo pepecc (. Barker, T. Dembo, . Lewin, 1943);

eop pycpaoo apecc (J. Dollard, 1939);

pceca eop pycpa (, 1949). Haoee aepeo epeco, a pecaec, coaa S. Rosenzweig pceca eop pycpa.

Coaco o eop, pycpa ee eco ex cyax, oa opa cpeae oee eee epeooe pec a y yoeope ao-o eo opeoc. pycpa, o S. Rosenzweig, o cocooc pcocoe cya cpecca, xapaep coco oee.

aa opaa ocyecec, coaco o eop, a pex ypox: eoo (aa ocoaa a ec aoo, ae . ., coa, aa o eox oec) ;

aooo aa opaa eo o ecx apecc (cooecye cxooeco ae coco cpaxa, cpaa, ooeco ee, pocxo opae p cpecce);

opao cxooeco ypoe. Ha o ypoe cpoc, a opao, eop pycpa, eee cooecyx pepe c o pe apaeoc a pea oc, o oopx oop paee.

o papaee cxeao oepae, o poo cce eop pycpa ae ce p ypo a aopoae. Ta opao, oo cea o o o, o pycpa oyec peao poo (xo papaoa S. Rosenzweig eo peaae ye peeo ypo a), pae ce oe cpecca, a e opaaec yee oo peaa oo e a ypoe cxecoo.

B o ae a pecaec oee cxooec opeeee H. . eoa (1.967), oop o pycpae oae cocoe eoea, paaeec xapaepx ocoeocx epea oee aeoe oeo epeoo ( cyeo a oae) pyoc, oa a y oce e pee aa.

Meo cceoa pycpa oe oe cpa co po aocxooecx cceoax. yee pycpaox pea ooae o pocxoee epoo, cococoa pao opaa cxoepa. poea pycpa ee poe ooee poee cxoa cxoe. B oeecex cceoax oeaec oooc pee eo epeao aoc epoo (H. B. Tapapa,. B. epo, B. . pe, 1971) epoooox coco (. . aca,. C. popoa, 1976).

Meo eaoex peoe peec cepeao-cxooeco pae ao. C. . Bao (1931) yaae a o, o o papaoa pec H.

Ebbinhaus Th Ziehen. B cepeao-cxooeco aopaop B. M.

exepea eo eaoex peoe pec cceoa oopae (B. B.

Apao, 1911, C. . Bao, 1931). Cyecye oeco eo apao.

B eaoeco cxoo opeee a oco apaeoc cooac apa eoa eaoex peoe A. Myerson (1919). O oac ooceo coo peaepoaoc ooae peoe oceye oe pa ecox, peoex ey. o e H, . eoa (1969), o apa o eca o. Peaepoaoc eeoc oceyeoo aeo epe cae aee eo Meepcoa a poeo. pep eo Meepcoa:

eoe, ey paey (xopoy) ...

yycae cya oecec, popeae ceoee yaee, e eo poo, ye oay ya.

B apae A. F. Paye A. Rohde oceyeoy peaaec 66 eaoex peoe, oope o oe oo. cpy coep yaae o eoxooc ea o a oo cpee, e oya, e poyca ooo peex peoe. Ha ocoa aaa eppea oyex ax cceoae eae aee o ocoeocx ooe oceyeoo opya, pecae oo e poooooo oa, py, ye, ooe, aoo eo ooee caoy cee, coey yyey, ea, aoa, oca . . p o oy e ae oxopoc, c o caoyce, peepa eoc. o e T.

Bilikiewicz (1960), o eo pe a yax, a pyox cceoa ooae cpaee o ae e ocoaaee epea. ooy aop e o ao ae eoa eaoex peoe ocpoe cxoepaeeco cxopoaeco pao, a ae pee pa coax opoco o ycpocy oece cxec ox. po pep eooex peoe apae A. F. Paye A. Rohde:

Mo poecc...

yyee...

Xoe a...

Haa ce...

Ec ...

ece ae apa eoa eaoex peoe J. M. Sacks S. Levy. O ae 60 eaoex peoe, ooe ecoo oe eeppoa pyco aaa pa, e apae A. F. Payne A. Rohde. peoe oy paee a 15 py, xapaepyx o o epe ccey ooe oceyeoo cee, pecae oo e poooooo oa, ooo , eco o cyeoy ooe oe. Heoope py peoe e ooee cae o cpaxa oace, eeyc y eo ycy coa , ceecy o eo ooe pooy yyey, apaa aoooe c poe py, ee e.

Ceye oe, o eoope opoc oo apaa oaac ep oceyex, a a acac o copo x . ooy.. Pye (1969) peoeye cpy cooa ooy, o cceoae pooc c e pepo a a.

ao py peoe oc xapaepca, opeea ay ccey ooe a ooey, opaey epay. po pep peoe apa oeo c oeo:

Ooee cee o cpae c oco pyx cee o ce....

1. oxa, epya, pacaac, ecaca, eaca 2. He oe xopoa, epa, eee pya 3. He xye e ye pyx O Ooee yyey yyee aec e 1. Oe pa, ea, cpa, ox 2. He oe ce, ya, ep 3. Ce, poo, ec, eec;

a e, a acoee O oecea oea oeae ee y oceyeoo capoo cce ooe, oao oee epceo aeceoe yee ooex peoe, poooe c yeo aaececx ax.

Moe oe, ocoeo paccapae cceoae a eeaey x poeypy cpeec cp p cox yox epea, a opao-ycoe oe, e opaae ccey x ocx ooe. cceoa eoo eaoex peoe oo peecoa ycaoee oaa ey ccey o, ocoaoo a oep.

o a.. Pyea (1969), c oo eoa eaoex peoe c xapaepe ox opee ee cce ocx ooe. M pe o eo oceoa ox ece (. B. py. 1981) p epoooox cocox c e oppoa py oeo cxoepa. . . apaccapc (1982) oeae, o eo ae ooee peya cpecc-aoce cce ooe oc, o pecae epec paecoo paa eo oceeo eeoc, oo aeo pe oee oce oy apy apye ooe oc, ex ycaoo ooo, eo ee (ocoax eocoax). ooy eo eaoex peoe, pae poco eco eppea, oe oaac ocoeo oe p opax epo-cxecx, o ce cxocoaecx, aoeax.

Meo Bapea. peoe ao (peecopae-c) ec E. Wartegg (1963) paccapae a cxoaocec, aac paeco pooe aoepo appoax pex paecx papaee.

Oceyeoy peaa c ya c e a epo oe ococ pcya. Bceo ax apao-ococe 8. a apa coep a-papae:

oy, ocy , ope px pax ooex, apxoa apa, oyopyoc, ypy oyopyoc.

ccey peaae ooy poo ye ecee apa a, paccapa x a aae cocao ee pcya. oceoaeoc aoe apao eoxooe oo pe e peaepyc. epe oceye ay apaa poce ee. o e oca cceoaee, ec Bapea oe oece poe eoa. R. Meili (1969) poo apae ey eoa Bapea Popaxa a ocoe oo, o oa o ocpoe a epepaoe eppea aax cyo.

Teop, coaa E. Wartegg oce oyex eoo ax, pecaec a eeco copo. Aop ac coopaoa peya cox cceoa c pa aooo ce epo eeoc .. aoa.

Ta, ya epoa pcya, acepa cyea epceepa aa, apay paccapac a poee peoaa ope ooo oa poecca oye, oa a epceepae px a pa o pcya, cepoe oopee ao pxo o ceecoa o opoa opooo opoe. ccoa ey coepae pcya eo eppeae paceaec a poee apye aoooe ey ca ccea. Ha ocoe aoo poa aaa cpo o pcy aoy ooy peecopaec po. Ee oee coeo ocpoee xapaepooecoo po, ocoaoo a ocaoo pooo oee yac pcye ex x ao. aa-papae pcac ece xapaepooece coca. Ta, pcy o opoy ay (oca ) aapyc ae xapaepc ax coc oceyeoo, a aeoc, oaoc;

o peey ay (p oceoaeo yeaec pe epae ) eeycpeeoc. Ha pecaec, o poooc o co eco epe aoae ocpoe cxoaao.

He pa eopeeco acpo, apopoa ae aopaop (A..

epeeo, 1985) eo Bapea p oceoa ox ece opee.

Oapyeo yeeoe pae ax, oyex y ox oex py. p oee peyao opaa ae a ae oaae, a xapaep pcya (peacoc, cooc, cooc eaa), op ea, pecee pcyo paec epax ooeo, caapoc pcya, eo eppea oceye.

Tec opa ea epa papaoa eapc cxooo M. Lusher (1947) paccapaec a poe eo, apae a oocpeoaoe yee oc.

B oo apae eca coyc 73 ee apo 25 pax eo oeo.

ae coyec copae aop, coco 8 ex apoe. epe eac (eo-c), e, pac ee cac oco, ac, cxooec epoeea. oeo (cec pacoo ceo), ope (cec eo-pacoo epoo), epa cep, e coepa aoo ea ooy o e oaa aoo-o cyeceoo oec a oceyeoo, ep, oop paccapaec a opae ea, c ooe ea.

epe oceye a eo oe oypyo pacaa apo poc eo pa x oy, opaey aoee p ey e. p o oceyeoo peypea, o a op e o eo yc, opy oe e, opaca epepa. Bpay oceye apoy epeopaa oaa copoy, oce eo eo poc o 'pa ocaxc aoee eo py apoy. Ta opao cceoae pooc o oa, peyae ccey oyae oooc acpoa oye eoo p. ooae oe ea oceye pea aa:

oe peoee + peoee X epaoe ooee = aa, epe C oo oo eooo pa ycaaaec papoae apoe cxoe ope.

eppea peyao pooc c yeo aeop y cpyyp ea.

o ye ea M. Lusher oae cyeoe ooee oceyeoo ey, oycoeoe eo ooa cocoe oe cceoa. Cpyypa ea opeeec o oe ae ea, eo cxooecoo coepa. B cooec c ye cpyypo ea c oo ceax a oya caape xapaepc ocx coc oceyeoo.

po aece pepa copaeoe cxooecoe ocae cpyypoo ae ooo ocox eo: a, c e copye yy yca ec oep (. e. a cepo cyeoo), acc, occoe, eepoo, yce;

eo aee ooe cooce, yoeopeoc, eoc, o paoc. C c ye + 1- o yaae, o cye ye ecoa ye coa opy ce ocao ooaoo oo, aoeaeoc co cpeee ea ax-o oo ec, peyx ep oa c. C co ao, aoopo, yaae a eyoeopeoc cyae, a ecocooc caoy e ee ( aeca coeac c eycyoc, copoee oec co copo), a papaeoc, ecooco, cooc cpa co paoc.

ac coa cxooecy eop, a oopo apoac papaoa ec, M. Lusher a coeopay eppea eo, cay, o eo e, c eeeoc eoea. Ta, eo-c e paccapaec a co o, e oo accoc, po-e co , o e ae aoc. Ta opao, aop ee aop, ypae eoeo. Ho (eo-c e) pepaaec aoc eoea , aoopo, e (po-e e) eeoc eoea, eo aoc cypyc. eepooe ea paccapac M. Lusher a eoopoe eoey. a pyx acx ea pac ee paccapac a aooe, caopeypye, p o pac e copye aaee, a ee ay.

oo pepe eepo- aoooc. M. Lusher oyec ee aopa aoc accoc. C eeepooo-acc, eeepooo a, pac aooo-a, ee aooo-acc. Ta opao, ea cac c eeeoc eoea yopoae oc. Bop ea peeax ocox eo oocc coaeo cepe cx, peeax ooex eo oeo caec c eccoaeo cepo.

Bopoc o ooocx pee eca epa aocxoo pecaec a cop peee eo e oe ooa. Coaaea poecce cceoa cya opa ea ec eca ceo e oe ooecc c oeeeco peae oceyeoo o cya ooe. Taa pacpea paoa coepeo epaoepa. oee oo, ece pyoc pecae oea caoo aa opa. Bop ea coa opa eeoc, aca o pa cyecex oeo, epeex, ex aoe aee yy o oeoc pax coeax. R. Meili (1961) coepeo cpaeo yaae, o acoee pe ee e oe ocaoo oo oe pea opa. Ccac a cceoa caoo M. Lusher M. Pfister, R. Meili oop o o, o op cyax, oepyex c oo eco epa cepa (ec ex pa) ac e oo o pea a e. Ha eo oaae e cya, oopo o pocxo.

Bop ea cyeceo ac o oo eeoc (yo o-o cea c eo apoo e), o oo, aoo oeca ex apoe oceye poo op yx oeo oeca. Moo yepa, cae R. Meili, o cyecye acoc opa ea o acpoe. B.. pae (1981) e o o, o a peoee oo oo ea co oe aop, ae a ocoeoc eooo cya, a yao-ooece ocoeoc eoea.

Ta, ocoeoc cya aop ooc e yoeoc aaa a ooay oey ea, paep eoo opaa, ae opac p paccapa cep xpoaecx opao, oaxc o aeoy ae, e oa, aceoc poc eoo opaa. ocoeoc ocp ea, ac o oceyeoo, o .. paey, oocc yaa aea yceoc ey, opac, coo-yypae xapaepc, o, ooaoe cocoe oe cceoa (apep, coooe cocoe cxeca apeoc.) oco x aopo ece epa e yac, o oe cyae e oecpyec eo cpoo caapae.

Ee oee coe c eopeece oocoa eca epa. a ce pye aopee ceac oac cxoaoc, R. Meili e o o, o eoxooe ycoe cooa eca pae o aea aya papaoa eo oco. Bocoe eca epa e e aa-o cepea aya eop.

peee e paccye M. Lusher ooceo cpyyp ocox eo ocoa a cyyo oopeco coe oy paccapac a ceye. J. De Leeuw (1957), aapy ec epa, e o o, o eoope pece ae, ocoeo oyee e cxecx aoea W. Furrer (1953), pecac e, epec, o eop M. Lusher oe coe ac epeea;

ec, eppea oyaex c eo oo ax yac oea.

peeoe e e ec ooo ooo oaa o eca epa. Opa oooc cooa eo oye coo-y oo, paepyo xapaepc oc, ceye oep oooc eo pee oe ooao cep oc. Bc c opeee epec peca oaae y ea, opaae cyeoe ocpe ea oceye. Tao oxo pacpae ocaoo epece epce cooa eca epa aocxoo cpae pax aex coco yax ocoeo pyox cceoax. ec ec epa oe oeo oaa ay ooaoo coco ooo , ooo, eo yy. Hecoe epec peca p aoo poa cceoa coocaee ax, oyaex c oo eca epa eo opeee cee poc ea o . A. Pay.

Opeeee cee poc oex xpoaecx eo. Meoa peoea . A. Paye (1958, 1966) oocc pye eoo eae.

Maepao ye c epea oceyeoo, ae a-o papae eae. Meoa apaea a cceoae ooao cep oc. Oa ocoaa a opeee oceye cee poc eocppyex ey ex apoe, opaex ocoe xpoaece ea.

Boo ecoo apao eo.

B oo apao ee apo pec oopeeo, yy pacooe a oo ooo ce. Oceye oe pa aoee p ey e. oa aae coco ope px oceyex oa eo. o apa o oxo ecy epa, a a cyoc oceyeoo coaec cya opa.

Bo opo apae eoa e ae ee opa ea, xo cpaee oex eo, e peycopeoe cpye cceyeo, ec eec.

Oceyeoy eocppy ee apo o oeoc peaa a xpo aec e oe o ceye ccee: oe po (+3), po (+2), cao cee po (+1), epao (0), cao cee epo (1), yepeo epo (2), oe epo (3).

cceoae pooc c oo ceaoo aopa ap (eo apa a eo oe). Oea oecea.

o eoo (coeco c . B. opco, 1969) ya cyeoe ocpe ea aoo, p eecx copx. Co e o aoy ey papaoa ae oaae, a cpe oaae cee poc ea y opox opoo py (Cn), y ox ece e cop (Co) p copx opaeoo (C-d) ooeoo (C+d) aeoo oa. poe oo, o opye:

Cd C = ------------- C opeec oaae C, xapaepy pay oee poc ea ooo p aeo ce.

Meoa poa cceoa a oex ox, a py ox. aoo ooo oe ycaoe xapaep eoo p. Cpaee x po ae, p ee ooaoo coco ooo, pecae ae epec.

a ooe apa eo cooa pe cooece eo oeo. oo oaac ao, . e. ap, opaee ocoe ea cepa ee opy pya. Cooeceo aoy ey oceyeoy pe ee p apae ap, oopx oa o ey coepeo ea aoy, opa opaea oee ace, a peeee ace eo. cpy peycapae eoxooc oopa ao ape-aoy aoee e oxoy apay apy, oyc eeoc pep oopa e yoc. cceyc ocoeoc oaoo apaeoc ocoo eeoc ooc pecpa eoc eo oeo p x coocae.

III. ATOCXOOECA CEMOTA OPEH p aocxooeco cceoa ox opee oapyac coeopae, aocec ae, ee e, epeo eeoc aeo-ocx coc. poe cxeco aoo p o oc cyap xapaep, o e oy apecoa oo cep cxeco eeoc, ooy x oca ye aco pea xapaepce peyao cceoa, oyaex c oo o o eo, epy oepe acao ax, aoce opeecoo poecca. B o e pe ceye oe, o paec e cyecye eo, oope c coepeo aocec e a p cceoa ox opee. Hapep, pa aoa 10 co o y ao p ocyc ec opeeeoo ce a ec oce pao a aeo-ocx ee o opeecoy y.

caee poeco ooe oee y ox opee ocoeo eo ec p cceoa eoo acca. Pacpeeee apoe a py pooc o peepo ooeo, e c c pea coepae e, o e o ecyece, eo, eaea paa. po pep oe aa o eoe acca o opee.

oa A. poea acca, pyoocyc coa acax a apoax co. Ta, oy pyy oa oea a, y, pyy opo, yc, epa, oa. Oee py oa oopaa o oecy y coax: a, pa, oa, co.

oa. p acca ea ceye py: e cyeca ecoo ycoo oa: p, eoyeee pee ycoo, ecoo cpeeo poa:

pace ycoo, ecoo cpeeo poa;

pee, ee oeceoe co;

e ycoo ecoo oa..

Bo opo cyae ao o oppoae oo cyecex ce, c acca poeea e ocoo o paaecoy py. Bec ac oaac cyao oo pye, o e ooy, o o c epe popa, a c c paaec ocoeoc x co. B ocoe acca, poeeo oo., e e aa-o ea ccea. oa oopeeo pea acca ecoocae pep.

Hepeo oe opee p acca y ep a oe aa cpay e e ce apo a e (a ea ppoa) py.

o xapaepy poee acca o opee epeo oo cy o apyex y x eeapaeoc e, pox epoyoc ceo.eeoc, xo oee oex ocaoo cox aa ceecye, o eeya ypoe y x e ce. pepo oo ec peea e acca, ocpoea a ecoocax pepx. O o e ceecye poeee acca a pax ypox ooe . apy c ocaoo ooe epeo a ocoe ee acpaoo paa pya ocaec oeco ex, e pyppoax apoe (x c e oe e, o ca o cee oop oo).

p oe aa o eoe ce oe ae poo ooee o ecyece, opa paa.

oo . oee oy pyy o, ayy pyy ce o e coe oepc, a aepco ee xooe oepce. O e oee ec, o ac cae epoep o py ooc ooe eae. Bec p oec aopo ee cpe oy oeac, y oo oo epea y, a ac e aoo exa.

eoc ayaa cax, peepo ooex pao oapyaec, oa ooy opee pe apoy, e opae aee py o pya pee. opoe oceyee ax cyax o oaac o aae, oop, o a apoa e coep opae pex peeo, oope oo o oo, o a oycoeo-opaoe peee (ec acaaee, o oo a...

o o epao). oe opee x cyax eo poo ooee ocaa paoc pee aa. Ta, apep, peec apoa, a oopo apcoa poa, oo, ya, a.

oo C.: Poa, oo a e c.

oo O.: Ec paae papac, o a, poa, ya ecoo poa, a oo cpeeo poa.

p cceoa eoo ce epeo y ox opee oapyac e paoaooc e. Oo o e aae oo oe ecox apaax (oa o x pa). p o peoee aoy-o pee e oaec. Ta, oa. oo o e aae peae oo: Moo oe oey, y apae ac e cee ac, a a o paeo op. A oo e oeyo ce ac o poocy, a o e. Bce ac o ocao opoca. Ec o ope o epoe peee, a o poocy opoe.

oo . oee oy pyy coe, epocoy ay cey cae epecy aoy. p o o paccyae cey opao: epeca aoa co axe ae. a ya ce, o ocaaoc eoee xopoeo. Booe-o, e aooc ca o x peeo, o, pyoocyc oeco, c epecy aoy. poe oo, e e oeoc ope, aaa . ae ae-y y opcoa. Ta opao, ec oy a aa: epcyeo-ya, a opo oycoe eoxooc opeoo oea a po opoc. aae, peyee ooe epex popo, oo peae a: ec oy p aa. ep a ca o.

p o pyoocyc eeae ceo yxoo. O o coeca coacoaoc, ceecya o ceoe. Bopo a p paccope c o eoeeco eoxooc cooa y y ce epe peea. Ec pe a ce pee, poe eco, c oee e, e o coe ppoe. e paoaooc aac p oceoa ox opee py cepea eoa, peoaa eeapaey oceoaey eeoc (apep, coooee oco c paa), a a paoaoocpoee apye eeapaeoc e (. B. eap, 1958).

Cyae, eaeae accoa oapyac opaax ox opee. Ceye oe, o eoa opa e apye accoaoo poecca aco oa, oa o ee ocac eae p cceoa py eoa.

Meoa opa peye o oceyeoo ye yo oee coe pcye, xo aee coa cao o cee pe, e o, o oo opa pcyo, aee pcya pe, e coa, o o ao-o ac coaa (. B. peay., 1934;

. B. eap, 1958;

A. P. yp, 1962). Oapyaee p cceoa eoo opa y ox opee paccpoca cooece acpao-ccox peeo-opex ooeo aao-ceeco eeoc oo pacea a peya apye aoec cax cce. e oo oc o ocoeco, o ox opee epaoa oaac pee coec apa eo ce.

p cceoa eoo opa ox opee epeo oeaec coeopaa eoc, c oopo o opa opa oocpeoa. opa, ocoeo coa acpaoo coepa, e peca x ao pyoc, a ox c eeyao eocaooc cece opaecoo opae oa.

o. B. peay (1934), o oopaa xapaepy e x ox ycy coyo e pcya opo cocooc acpapoa (cee poee cxeco eeoc), a yp, opa coco caeoo opae eceoc, oycoe ayo ooo opee.

C. B. ooa (1972) papaoaa ey cceay aaxc y ox opee p cceoa eoo opa opao, paex oocpeoa. Ta, eec op opao, eaea o coepa. Ca oocc op eca oaeoo o aaoo coa opaa, apep coy cpaeoc caa c oo. aee o pye opa C. B. ooa ooc yco, xooe, eccoepae op, apep cooae opa oe, .

p o oocpeoa paec opa, e ca o cee aoo o o coepa. Bop a ocoe ayaa yceoo eae, apep coy paya e apa (Te apa o oeopee ea, paya oo copooaec ea. Te e cooecye acpoe, oopoe ae p paye). opa o coy: oae a. C. B. ooa ee ae opa, ocpoee c yeo aoo-o paea, oo eyao paoo opeo cyae, apep coy aeacaea (oa aec, o oaeo y. Co a eyoo).

Bopy, xapaepy ox opee, pyy opa, o C. B.

ooo, coca ocoae a epao ope c oepe eeapaeoc ec. ec oece opa, oa oocpeoa pac opa ecox peeo, ope op c pacaoc c coec ocee, apep coy paya cea, ycopoe epo eoe (Cea, ycopoe epo eoe c a o epe, oxa ooy, yae, o coa o, eoea, a eyy oc, ecoeoc eo cyecoa, oo accopoa c ycopo...

Ceaco ooeca...);

cepeooc opa, oa coa coepeo pax opa coyec o o e y aop opao.

.. Xepcoc (1982) ycao ecy c ey xapaepo opa cxec cocoe ox opee. B coco oocpe oeaec peoe cee ca aeax opao, ceee cepeoo ycao, yopeee y.

Heaeae accoa aac accoao cepee. Peea pea x cyax caa e co coo-papaee, a c a-y ocopo papaee (pe, yo). Aaeca peea pea ooe e oycoea ae opeoo eeo papae.

ox opee coeco cepee epe e, pe (o A.

. aoy-Coecoy, 1928) peee pea: xoaece, oae, o coy.

pe oeco x oo opacae c eee poecca. oa yaec oapy cooeceo coepa pea ae eepex coecx papaee. p oec x oaaec aeo yee ae epo, peea pea oocoa, opaae peoe epea ooo. Ta, p oxopeco ope ope a eepe papae oaac aa oee ypex opao, oope oe poepy caee epe oye.

B accoao cepee epeo oapyaec coeopaoe eee ocp co o opee. Coa x popea oeceoe aee c c pao paoo x cocax eeo. B x cyax oo oop o pacaa ccoo cpyyp coa (aooec ocea, o M. C.

eecoy, 1938). pepo oo oe cy ceya accoaa apa coeco cepee: yeco xooc.

C peoaae cyax, ecyecex accoa, c ayaae cax pao peeo e ca aaec y ox opee e ecooo ypcoa peoepca. B peyae ceaoo aocxooecoo cceoa T. . Teea (1965) ocaa cpyypy peoepca. cxooec aa oo aopy ycao ae cpyype peoepca ceyx ooeo: caoc cye (xooeoc accoa, oep eeapaeoc, cocaa);

epeeoe yco ooe peoepca aee ee, poec eaeaoc opa peea ocye, peeoo-oeoo o ooo cooc o ooe o ooy ooceo eaex oeo cye. aex ee T. . Teea o ay ocoeoc peoepca, a oopeoc, yaa, o o cece eaeao o ooo cya. Oca e ooaeoc coeopa eyec aoc caa.

M ye po opa peoepcx cye ox opee, aaxc p oe aa o eoa ce, opa. Ocoeo eo ec peoepco eoo opeee o. Bo pep aoo poa peoepcx opypoo:

ao pee eaoc, oopa oepae yc oceo. poe oo, oa ao aae o xooa aocepx .

pya o accoa ecox ao oaoo pax e. B poo cyae o, ec pyae axoc eoaoo ca pa coeo eea, e yy py pya oa, pya pepac epyee.

Bcyae peoepco p oce o cca poax paccao. Bo a o o pacca oyoo o:

oy, pee e opac ce, ce peapeo ec: o caoe pyoe o oooa ce, a e cepee. o acaec a, o eopeec oo e oe co epao, a a paoe o o ye e o. eo o, o o o e yeec. e a pae ocyece eocyece. oca o epao, oy poeocppoa copaaa pepaee e eocyeco ocyecy.

pecae epec oae o opee epeocoo cca oco.

p ye paeo opeeco eee cp cc oco oaaec ox eocy ocoa payec opao. pep oo:

O oe e o. Ooy oe cyo. oo o o eaeo aae. oo, a ce ppoe, oec aoy Hoa o cepo pe. He ce o ooo, o ec. ooo ec ooo cpe eaecx e, a yo cpe cox. He oe ooo, oo epoe.

Oao epeo (p ooceo ee paeoc opeecoo eea) oe, oeppy pe e oo, a paoe ooae oco. Bx cyax peya ec cooecee oco c paa. Hapy c pa oapyac ooe pee, aco o opao-ececoy cxocy, apep:

He ce o ooo, o ec. Xyo cea cayy c oooeo ooo.

o oce ca.a paca oce.

oa ocycye opaoe cxoco ey ocoe pao. Ocee o coeo pee aa oaac apaoec, peoepc. Ta, oo O.

oec ocoe oxy oy caa o pay Ec ca opea epao, e ceye o. Mopye o o cey opao: e pa, xapaepyec oooc ooe oey. oxy oy ya caa. A ec opea epao, o ocae opaca copoy o. ec oo ec o, o oe, oop yaec, oa.

Oo coooee oco pa ooe paoaooc oo o e ocoe oe ooc ecoo pa oo x e oa peoe, a apa pee o ca pa.

B ex cyax, oa ae ooe cye e, o, oo oop o cocaax. Cocaa aac y ox opee p x ooceo coxpaoc. . B. eap (1962) ooc cocaa apye oecoo xoa e xapaepye x cey opao: pao pea aoe o aae aeao paccya o ao-o peee, oe eoao cac c paoo xoa ce o oo, eaeao accoa, a ae o coco pooa paccyee oceoaeo, e cpa oyeo o.

cocaa ee aoa aaec p aceecx cocox e eoceoaeoc cye. Oao y ox opee ooe cye oa e c c coaeoc, o oycoe coeopa apyee accoaoo poecca, oe ac e opppyc ccey. ae p pace oceyeoy, a ceoao o aae, o o-peey ocaae coe peee, po peoepce, apaoece opo. poe oo, y ox opee e yaec yo opeeeo c ey cee pyoc aa oee oox cye.

Cocaa ee oapyac p cceoa eoa, coepa oeco pepo oaox o pyoc aa (acca, cee, opaoae aao . .). Ta, pao o aa o eoe ce, oceye eao oo pepo oee ayy, pyy aepco cae o (o poooaoc, o yoc py). oceye oee pye aa o oe pao. oa ccey oaae ey paoe peee, oceye oop, o oo o aae o o-paoy, ocaae coe oooe cyee. p oece pa ocoa y ox opee ae epeo aac cocaa, pep oopx poc e.

peca epec cceoa epeoo eeoc ox opee.

poeee cepeao-cxooece cceoa (. . oo, 1965: . B.

ao, 1965;

. E. oao, 1965) oaa, o p ope oapyac apye ocp, poec coeopax ocoeocx ooa pex opao ycox eoo opa pcyo c eo oypa opae, o eex, pacoycpoax p poe a pa, opae.

M coeco c E. C. Baao (1970) cceoa ooae pex opao o opee p pyo ocpoe oa, oa aae c caoo aaa pecae oceyeoy oooc e ex x oe, eee opaex aa yco, eee peopeeex ye eec peo opae. Taoe ocpoee cepea ooe oee oo poaapoa eee oaaex poecco o pee x acoc o oecoo cpo eeapaeoc e.

B c c a paa peoea A. M. apae (1965), ocpoea o py p Mopco o eoa oecoo pee aa ooaa p, p oopo yaec cy o oceoaeoc paccye, o xapaepe oeco, oepaoo copo cex poecco p oaaeo eeoc. oye ae, ceecye o a p ope paccpoc oaaeo eeoc, xapaep cee paeoc oopx ace o y cxecoo eea, apye oaooo ooea ocoo eeoc. Oeac paee apye oecoo cpo eeoc eoe xo occ coopae cep epeoac axao ope. ocy ycex eocaoo yac aee ocoo eeoc. oa oeac eeecoopae, eeeapaee xo ae oa, oa a ye eca oa ac coo p. Heopoae xo oc xapaep cocaa a oee ypoe oe aa. Bac ee peax ocoa oe. B oex paeax p yaac cyyo opae ocoeoc. Hapep, ye aeo paee p 5 cxoco c yepao, oo aoo oeac o oe aa paccya o pocxoe yepaa o epoo oooc eo oapye ae.

Ooee ox oy ceecye o opeeeo ooao ce.

Ocycy cooece ey oeco oyeo opa ooe ooa pea, a ae opaee ooae pea a ca oa, xapaepyec yeee oeca oox oe. ac ox poecce oa ce e oeaoc eoopoe ooaoe oee a ce pox o.

Paccye ox poecce oa oc xapaep peoepcx, oac oocoe, ocyce coepa, opo o peao cya. aco oe cox paccyex pea aeop ce aea, ococe, xo oee aa oo e peye.

oyee ae eocppy aaec y ox opee paccpoca ao copo oaaeo eeoc, a oec xo aaa oe opaoc cyo p ooaa pex opao. pe paccpoca eco ca c xapaep ox opee apye e aeo-oc apye.

aoc ope ao cceoae ooax poe oceyeoo. Xapaepca ooao cep ox e oo ec peyao cyeo oe pao oee ooo eo aoooe c opyae cpeo. Bc c oo aee oooc oeo pecppoa aocxooeco cepee ooae paccpoca y cxec ox, epy oepe y ox opee. Ocoeo pyo ae oe ooaoc ox c ee e coppoac py ooa eeo, p epeo paex ex ooaoo yoe (eopeee aea, o ..

pyy . . acoy, 1970).

Beaee o ooax ocoeocx oceyeoo caaec poecce caoo cepeao-cxooecoo cceoa, ae e pee ceax eo. p o yaec xapaep ycaoe oaa c oceye, eo ooee cya cceoa, epec oee ccey eo pee. oe opee aco epao oocc aocxooecoy cceoa, aeae cceyeo o epa.oc paoo oyca pee aa e e a aey eeoc ooo. ooae paccpoca, apy c caee poecca ooe, pa opeeey po o, o ooe cye ox opee cepee e opppyc.

B aoce ope cxap ooe aee pa ooe ooo oe, eo oco o o ae. Bce ooe oe aeo epe cococye cceoae caooe o eoe T. eo C. .

Pye. ox opee xapaepo opeeee coeo eca o ae opo y ee oco. Oo o oc acooo opo, ecee oe opy aoe coe peee e, o ca ce opo cxec ec. coepeo opo, oop oo .,a oe axoyc -a a. Bo ee cpaae o ee opoe. Oeo, oa-o oa. oa caooea oocc poooooy ocy, apep p oxopeco ope ope p eoopx apaax pea ecoo oec, poeaeo c ceecoa. ec caooea opyec oee pecae o coe eco opoe.

Oao ocoeoc caooe opeec e oo opy cxoaooec cpoo, o cae eo pa. Ta, a aao ae oxopecoo cooopaoa, oa caee o eece oye ocoeo eo aya, o po pa ce coaec o. p aeo aoc ee poecca, oa oeecoaec-oxopece oye cec oxopec-peo paoa ep co aey aoc, cpeaec c caooeo pyoo poa. Hapep, oo O. opye coe peee p cceoa caooe cey opao: opo. B coe pe cocoe oeo opo opeea oca occ. aco TO. Ta o ooe yxoo ecoo coco opo e ca ce o. paa, y e ee opae yepyeo c, o o ycoo. opoe eoea o eo cop.

Haaec paeee oe caooe pyx oax a, ooaaee ey opoccy o ooo. Ta, oo., pacoaae oey ey oco cepeo a opye o cey opao: Mee pae oe o oe coco pacxoc. Booo, o epa ccea oepaac aoea poo. Be co o paoaa epeeca aa, a o e cea poxo ao e ce epa. ooy opa pao c epeeco ao e c aoee ycoo epo cceo. Ta. o, c o pe pae, o, ooo, caec oe, o pepac pyoo e, coepeo opo. Ta opao, o cyae ee eo c ayec opoccoc oco o ooo ocyce yeo coa oe.

B opeeeo cee o aeo-ocx apyex oo cy o peyaa eo, apaex a yee xapaepa accoa. p o oe ax yaec oy p ooa eoa, eee eco opee peee aa, . e. coepa ee poeoc (coec cepe, opa).

a pao, aop ca-papaee oo oe a coa, acee ooa coepae (ea, cace, cpax, o . .). Ocoeo oaae o acee peya oceoa ox opee eoo opa.

paee o oocpeoaoo aoa opa oaac e ooaoo coepa, a x c co coo-papaee opyec o o peoepc, c yeo e coo cyecex, coo cax pao. pepo oo oy cy ceye opa: coy ea paepya a ( e Poya aa ec ea, coe, poa cop), coy epoec ocyo껗 cpea ( ya o oax peoc), cacee apaee epae (cace oe o oo oe), pyaapoc (ec ae apoc pya), coee ac c oo cpeo (coeac x paoc).

Oapyee ax opa ooe p ae o a ooax ee oa ae ex cyax, oa p oo eco cceoa x pyo yo.

p oceoa ox opee o eoy Popaxa (. . ypay, 1979) oeaec x coeopao ooa oxo eppea caocpyyppoaoo aepaa. p o aaec aeoe yeee oeca caapx op, oceoe oee x ox coa eaeaoo eoo, eooy ooe. pep ax oeo: ao-o ca (a. 1)', coae co (a. 1).

oppeo x ocoeoce e oo ca caee poecca ooe.

aec ocycy eceece eppea, x oeco ae ee, e y ox ece.

poee paex ooax ee, ooao yoc cepee ec ocyce ax-o eox eppea.

Hepe acype oe a oxoe a yy coceoc (a. VII). B eppeax ox opee cpeac eoo, eoopx cyax eppea oocac o cee, apep: o eoe, y eo o a ece, e y e eyo (a. III). Hepe eppea paceoo coepa, oa oo eppepye opaee a aoe-o pacee: eo, oop paa (a.

VIII).

p cceoa o eoy Bapea (A. T. epeeo, 1975) y ox opee oapyaoc eocaoo aeo-aeaoe ooee cya cceoa.

Hepeo oe pac pcoa, e ocya cpy, o oppoa ee.

Pcy oc paeap, epeo coec xapaep. Oeaac cpoopoaoc oex eae pcya. eoopx ox pcy a e cooocc co a.o-opao. p o oeac cepeo (p paeo cxeco eee). eppea pcyo oc opao-peoepc xapaep. Ta, oo . o e c c aa aa pcye epa epexyo. o pcyo o aae a oo.

aco apaax aa y ox opee cpeac oycoee x peo epea ac, coepae eoo, ecccee apeayp.

Hepeo oe poypy oce, coepeo ee oeoc, eooee opae. Taoo poa eaepe (o. . apoy, 1926, c eceo opo) pcyo pecae oee px, , ac eoepecx yp . .

Ha pcyax aax ox ea ae, pcyo oyaec e, epae.

o a . A. Baae (1972), oe opee coy cox pcyo ocoo ee oa. p cceoa eoo Bapea oe ooac e apaaa, oao pacpaa opaee a pcye pee aco eaeao:

pyy po-pac e, ey ep . . Ta e, a p cceoa o Popaxy, y ox opee oeaoc aeoe cee aco oe caapx pao.

Cyecee peya cceoa oco-aex ocoeoce ooo oapyac p pee apo, oaxc ceo eaepeoc oo ooao aceoc. C o e oy cooa pepoy ap, ceao oopae oopa, eoope pcy aopa TAT (aeo e ce pcy o cep-oaa oceyex epece e coca). o ae H. . eo (1965), oe opee p cceoa c oo x pcyo o opaac epecee eeo pcya, o a opao-acpay eo xapaepcy, epeo oopay o opeoo coepa. a pao, ocycye cyeoe ooee coepa pcya, cpeee a-o eppepoa eo coepae, e eec ooa oec.

B aece pepa po ocae ap xyoa Maocoo Ocee:

oo H.: Mooo eoe pe eye. Oeo, aa-o cea. o ce oc, ceea paa pa.

oo.: Mooa ea yee.

Tao e xapaep oc oca o opee ceax pcyo cep TAT:

oo H.: ea c, acco ayac (a. 8FG).

Ma yae ao: o a cpo c (a. 1).

oo H.: Pee eoea cey eo oa (a. 14). oo B.:

ea c yoa (a. 8FG). e ape.

Pae oo a c cpyeo ce. cycco yo (a. 1).

peee pep e o ce oopo. Heoope pacca o pcya ao, pcy o oeo oxo. ae e poc cceyeo oo a ae oy oey oaaeoo pcya, eo pacca coc pepyey eae. B o e pe oo B. ae ecoo oox epc pa cea o ape, aa x ea ooaoo oeca, o paccaa oo oxapaepoa a coepaey. Tao apa oea eoax a cceoae e ceecye o paoaooc eo. Ceye oe, o paoaooc e, o a ae, oeaec y ox opee c pae ooa eeo.

B paccaax eoopx ox oeaec oa cepeoa ycaoa p oca pax apo, apep, oo H. ce pcy aapye c o pe aoc accoc opaex a x epcoae.

Hecoo oac peya cceoa eoo TAT ox opee, ocoeo aooo (B. M. exep, T. M. pacoa, 1980). Aoc poea ope x cyax, o e oca cceoaee-co, aaec ee paeoc ocoo yepa, ooceo coxpaoc ooao cep. ox opee, ocoeo aooo, pyeap ae ocoe opeece co, a ay ooaa yoc, epeo y x poec coeopaa cooc, ooceo coxpaa paeca pcocoeoc. ece ocoeoc oepe cepea a. p cceoa eoo TAT y x ox oeaac eca ooaa coxpaoc, y x e aac xapaepe ox opee c ao e aoc aoea, o e aooo aoac, aoo-opae ace cee. B o e pe paccaax o pcya TAT poepoac oeee epea ox, ocoeo peooo xapaepa. Ta, o ae, a oopo opae oe cocpeooex y oo ooo, oo cocae pacca, eoo oopoo ec ea aoopa. B paccaax axoo opaee ooee ooo eceo-opoe , aoopo, po-eoooe. Oee cye ox oc xapaep peoepcx, oao eo opeeee pcya epe pay peoepc opay cee e aaoc. eca oceyex aa xapaepe cpaax aooo oope apoe coa, o oa paao paccay ae aoooo opa. Ta opao, cceoae oapyao coeopa co ca ocx coc, pcyx a ope, a aooy, p eco ce epx.

T. H. opoa (1975) oapya p cceoa eoo TAT y ox oeye opee coeopaoe yae opaoc ceax paccao o epe ee aoea: o coepeo opeoo paccaa aoo caapo oceoaeoc opeeex ec aee eoy po-cecex ce paccay.

ooaoe cee y ox opee oapyaec p pee opcecx pcyo. yco opa ec oo aoee cox, ooex op ooax poe, x oce coca eoea, eo ooee cya (C. . Pye, 1940, 1976). Hapye yca opa y ox opee cac co coeopa paceee eea o (A. C.

oac, B. B. eope, 1970).

Haoee pao apyaec opcecoe ooee e cya, e c, o C. . Pyey, peeoo-opcec. B eco epe o cao c eocaoo caopoc poe aya. Ooceo eoe pe oee coxpa oaaec ocpe-o opceco poy, apep apayp.

Hapye yca opa p ope ocaoo paoopa. B pe cyae o oc apa xapaepoee opcece pcy eppepyc pao, oa a pye ocpac opao, oepxoco. p aeo paeoc cxecoo eea paccpoca yca opa oc oee o xapaep.

Oao x cyax oe o ce ocoeoc pcya oy pao opee eo ap, o o e yaa o cya. cxo opeee apa pcya ac eo eppepoa a opcec, oe epeo aece oecx ocpa ea ee cea, eceoc epee o ae.

Ocoe apye y ox opee a cep pcyo, paoo pa cea oopx peyec eca pepoce, epeoaoa oex paeo cooec c eoc cea, o oe oceo eee oaooo acea poecca ocp. Bocpe aec coe eeapaeoc.

B ocax opcecx pcyo aco c e e ocoeoc, o p ocpoe cea o pcya TAT: opao-oeo oxo, peoepc oepy xapaep cye, oa paoaooc e. x poe cococye cy ccey o ocoo cca eeoc ooo.

po xapaepoe ocae o opee cep. opcecx pcyo cpya, oopo opaaec ycy o epeo xoxoy o ce eoe, a ocec cec, o po oo a opoa, aa eo eoaa eo:

Xa-xa-xa! opoa e caooooy ye ao-o eec ya ooe epey, paec, oec e oxa. Pa po po eae. A ae o apea. aec, a o ye c capao, poo. yo yaec. cocoe aeca ey opoa e y. o po a opao eeo.

y e cep pcyo ocae pyo oo:

ao-o eao e eoe pe ooxy. Bo e o o epeo, a oe ppo. Ey pcc ceo co, pae oe e, oeo, o e. Bo cec ooy. Bpy o oycoa, o o-o eae ey ca. pocyc , o o opoa ooa. ooa e y. o eo payo. Xoe ooxy cacocop caaa, e e oxa.

B pe cyae oo ooceo pao yaae pae cea cep opcecx pcyo, o a opoc cceyeo ao cc oe o pacca oo yca peoepc-opae oe: Ec y ace opo, o e c paoee pe;

Copac a oxoy, cc apaee. pyo oo, yo ce paccaa o cep pcyo, epye eo ooa oec o oeco paccaa:

aopa pe eoe pe aoo ooxy, oca. cy. Bo ce ey o-o oycoaoc poe. ae ce cee. pocyc oaaoc, o opoa e ey . Bo, o xo acyeoc po caa opo.

eee oco o y ox opee oapyaec p cceoa ypo paeeoc x xapaepyec epa ooee peyaa, ooeo opaeo oee ccey oe aa.

B ope o oceyx aa ao opaac peya peyeo aa.

e ocoeoc ooe xapaepy eeoc ox opee cya aocxooecoo cceoa. ee ae xapaepc ocx ocoeoce ox opee ae eoa MMP1. opeec pe e ee aea ax poooo c oo eo a yoax po aocxooecoo cceoa. Ha o ceecye o o, o p cxooeco cceoa y ox apaoo opee oapyac xapaepe ope ooe paccpoca e aeo-oco cep.

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