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B.M. exep .B. py aocxooeca aoca e 3opo' 1986 56.14 68 616.89071 aocxooeca aoca/exep B. M., py . B. .: 3opo', 1986280 c. ...

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cceoae oo oooeo apaee. Oceyeoy aaec 10 co peaa oo, o x ao, oopa aoy oxo o ccy pcyo. Ha coe e 2030 apoe c pcya, peycapa pae oooc oocpeoa. pcy e o cy po cpae aoae coa. Oceye oe ycao ccoy c ey coo pcyo, apep, coy ope apoxo, o o . . a pa, oopa y pcyo, oceye oe oc o coeo pee. ae poep, acoo oopae pcy ooa oceyeoy ocpoo aae aae oa coa e ca oya eaee o coco yeo oeco a.

a eoa opeeeo cee ooe cy o eeyao ypoe oceyeoo caoy o oocpeoaoe aoae eocyo.

B eoopo cee o peyaa oo cy o xapaepe accoa y oceyeoo: acoo o aea, acoo opae pcyo cooecye aaoy coy. Oao oooc cceoa accoaoo poecca o eoo opae, peopeee poee o cceoa oopo cooaex pcyo.

cxoepecoe cceoae a c oo a Becepa. Bce eo, apaee a cceoae a, xapaepyc oae oece opeeee oyaex c x oo peyao. aoap oy oyee cepee ae epe ececo y oy cooa xapaepc cee cxecoo eea, a ae oapye a coco o o e eyeo aooecoo poecca, o c c poo eee.

Oao ce epecee e pe pecey e ye ao-o oo copo y a. oyaee c x oo peya pyo cooca. ooy aocxooa oe peca epec a aaea aa a Becepa (Wechsler Memory Test, 1946).

aa a Becepa coco cep eo. oyaee c x oo peya cypyc, p o yaec ceaa opaa a opac. cceoae oyae oooc oe a o a cepea e oo c oo cyapx oaaee, o o papocy, o ooe peyao oe oex aa o ax-o cpex e. p ce cyccooc pee cxoepecx eoo aocxoo ceye oe, o aa a ea ooo cepex eocao, pcyx o cxoepec eca cceoa eea: e cceoae ee eo co cpaeo oopo opao ooe aepao. a ooceoe aee cyapx oaaee, oyaex c oo a a, oo ya, o aoee peyao cceoa ec eo oepex py cxec ox c pao cee ececoo ce ca aocxooa cpe opepoo oaae.

aa a Becepa coco 7 eo-cyeco. cceoae o pooc o pe pecppyec a ceao ae.

I cyec aaec poepe a oceye x oecex ax.

a pa oe oeaec 1 a. Macao o cyece oceye oe apa 6 ao.

II cyecopeeee opepo. poepec ae oceye eyeo oa, eca, , e o acoee pe axoc, ao opoe. Oea oeo a e, o peye cyece. Maca peya 5 ao.

III cyec cxec opo coco pex aa. epoe ocae o 20 opao ope. Bopoe oop o a aa o Ao . Tpee aae aae ce o 1 o 40 epe 3 e. B o cyece ccey e oe oaa oceyeoy oo.

Ec aae o oca o 20 oeo e oo a pe o 30 c, peya oeaec 2 aa, p a oo o, o a o e pe 1 a. p pao oe aa cpee e a 10 c peya oeaec 3 aa.

p ocpoee aaa e oo a pe o 10 o 30 c2 aa, ec oyea oa oa, o pe a oee aa e peeo,1 a. eoooe oee aa eee e a 10 c3 aa.

Ce o 40 e oo a 2045 c oeaec 2 aa. p oo oe p coepeeo oe aa a pe o 20 c oee paec ooe a. Macaa oea peyao III cyece9 ao.

IV cyec apae a poepy oeco a coc aoa yx paccao. B ao paccae oo e 23 ccoe e. epeca aeo acaec. Oeaec oeco pepoypoax oceye ccox e o aoy paccay, ae ocaec cpeee apeecoe. Macaa oea ** cyece23 aa.

V cyec ocpoeee p po opao ope aaoe ooy cyeco eoa Becepa cceoa eea. Oceyeoy aa p p. Bao oceye py a oy py oe, e peye. B epo py coepc 4 p, pacooee cyao ope, ocee 8 p.

ccey oeae oce p, oop oceyeoy yaoc ocpoec. ae aec cpy ocpoo p p opao ope. peoaa ae y oceyeoo eeyaoo ce, cpy oo ope pepo. Bo opo cep oa oeco p py apacae o 3 7. ec aaoo pecppyc peya.

Oea o cyecy pooc coee peyao, oyex oex cepx.

Macaa oea o cyece 15 ao.

Ec oceye e coco ocpoec opao ope p 3 p, ey peaa oop a cocoo 2 p peya oea 2 aa.

VI cyec yaa pepoy. Oceyeoy peaa ocope a epe eoepecx pcya (pc. 1). co 10 c. ae o oe ocpoec x a ae oa.

Oea pooc cey opao.

B ype A ae yx epepeex c aa, eaco o x apaeoc 1 a;

pao ocaee o ooe py pyy a a;

ooc, pae , ocaee o pa yo,1 a. Macy aa.

B ype oo apa c y aepa 1 a;

epe ax apaa oo apae 1 a;

a aepa co ce e apaa 1 a;

16 oe ax apaax1 a;

ooc poopx1 a. Macy Pc. 1. Opa pcyo cceoa yao pepoy ae a. Becepa 5 ao. p a x peya oeaec 3 aa.

B ype B1 ae poyo oo 1 a;

ce ep ypeeo poyoa coee c epa apyoo 1 a;

ae poyo oo paee oo1 a. Macy 3 aa.

B ype B2 op poyo c pa yo a ao pa 1 a;

pao ocpoeee ep paa ea copoa 1 a;

paa ypa a cee ooo ya 1 a;

pao ocpoeea ypa peo epx poopx 3 aa. Macy 3 aa.

Oa acaa oea peyao o VI cyecy 14 ao.

VII cyecape accoa. Oceyeoy aa 10 ap co, x oaex accoao ooe. epe 6 ap ee accoa, ope 4 ap pye accoa. p epo poe o pacooe epeey. ae p, a pa pyo ope, aa epe coa ao ap poep aoec accoa.

po pep peex cceoa ap accoa: ee ypo eep, cepepo ooo;

pye ayca epo, caa eyx.

pa oe opeec peo cceyeo xopoo, p epao yaa a oy. aya ey cep 10 c. a pa yaec oe eee 5 c. Oea pooc coee cy yaxc oceyeoy ex accoa, paeeo a 2, c cyo yaxc pyx accoa.

ae cypyc peya o ce cyeca, x cya cocae aco oaae (A). o ceao ae pooc opaa a opac. C oo pyo a opppoa oaae poc cooece c oaae eea o ae cceoa eea.

Aa a a oaae, o oa coco oo yopeex cceoa a eo;

c x oo opeeec cocoe paopeeo oopeeo a, oeaec oec-ccoa accoaa a, xapaepyec cocooc pepoy pex opao. p o yaec cocoe aoo a, oooc ocpoee poo pa eo eaoaa. oooc cpae peyao oe oex cyeco a papaoaa ceaa aa (eopaa), ooa epeo epece oaaee o oe cyeca ccey opx ao. po pep ce peyao cceoa. Oceye, 42 e, o ce aa o ae a, apa 64 aa. o eo aco oaae (A). Ha ae cooecyy opacy pay, oyae peya 104 (64 aa + 40 ao opaco pa). o opppoa oaae () oceyeoo. C oo ceao a o peopaoaec ae oaae a () 110.

o a, o a oceyeoo cooecye eey c oaaee eea (IQ), paoy 110. Ta opao, ccey a oyae oooc (p apaeo cceoa eea ycaoe eo coo ypo) yec cooec ecooec eeyaoo ypo coco ececo y. Ha pae o e cea oaaec a. Ocoee apye ccey cae p opeee aeoo oaae a aao ca aoea. ec opaca paa epece aco epy cee a. ooy a ee oaae poyoc a. Aaoo oy a D. Bromley p ye eea capex coooca acoe ae e c c opaco, a c opaco a ooecoo eeyaoo pa yya (1625 e), acooy oaae a pa opacy pay opaca 1625 e. Tao oaae oee eo e aaoe cee a. poe oo, pecaec a eocaoo pee yax cceoa ooy, o e ae cxooo, peopoo, coco eea a y oceyeoo.

oeo, o oecee oaae o ae a Becepa e a oo xapaepc ececo y oceyeoo. oo eoxo ae aece aa oe aa o oe cyeca.

Tec peo pee eoa. Tec peoe A. L. Benton (1952) cceoa aoa pcyo pax op. Pcy, c oo oopx pooc poa eoa, oee p op C, D, E. Bce p op ae coco aa 10 apoe-opao. Ha apoe opaeo ecoo pocx eoepecx yp. Bpe co apo 10 c. ae oceye oe ocpoec apcoae a apoe yp o a. p o oea oea pooc o oeceoy aeceoy oaae. oecea oea oea ecoa, paoe pepoypoae oeaec 1 a, epaoe 0 ao.

Cpaa coooee pao epao oex aa, oyae coeopa oaae yceoo yepa. ec ae e ooee op F I, aa x coep o 15 apoe. Ha ao apoe4 aopa yp.

oee epece aece aa oyaex c oo, eca eoa peyao. A. L. Benton cocaea ceaa, aa oox oox pepoy ao ap-opaa. p o paac o, aaec y opox e, o, e opaeco epepao aoo.

o a J. Poitrenand F. Clement (1965), ec eoa eca ee epoocxooecx cceoa. Ha oo pye oceoax oapyeo aeoe opacae ca opaecx oo c opaco, ocoeo oce 60 e. poe oo, o poeeo cpaee peyao, oyex c oo eca eoa p oceoa paec opox cpaax opaeco epepao aooe.

oye ae cacec ocoepe ae, ceecye ;

o o, o ec eoa oeo e opaecy aoo. cceoae, poeeoe y x yx py opaco acee, oaao, o yaaa paa ax c opaco aeo yeaec. Oeeo, o ae oo opaeco o ooo y cxec opox , o oe oceo aopo epeyoe. Hae yx opaecx oo pecae oy peoc ae y oe capx oceyex, cxec opox.

Hapep, a ape cceoa o eoy apcoa e ae, pye yp oa ea. Te opox e o: oceye a apcoa oy yp, o o coae o oca ee ycoe eco, o o e pacooee yp a pcye, oca aey ypy pa epx yo. Moy pye o aoo poa, p oopx epeeac e e yp, o ce o e cac aooo opaecoo opae oooo oa.

pep opaecx oo: oo pae (o B1) a pae oy ocox yp (oa aoe paceee opaa po eoooc ooa yp-opaa) o ocpoe ce yp oo ee (B2). Beeo ooo ec o oo aoo poa.

Pc 2. apa-opae ece eoa Haoee e o, cpeaec y opox oceyex: epecaoa ao yp cpaa aeo, epaoe epeeee ao yp o epa, oopo opy oc ao oo yp, coae poyc ao yp, coae poyc eeo yp, oopo opy oc epeeee eeo yp.

pep opaecx oo: o ac poyc ax yp, oopee (ya) ax yp, ya ocoo yp, pacooee epepeco yp ey a yp ao, oopo yp a pcye a .

pep ex oo, aoee aco aaxc p o opaeco epepao aoo: ee eopa yp o paepa, oopee ao yp oo o e opae, oopee eeo yp opae, oaa (caee) yp, ee epceepa yp, aeoe caee yp, ca yp, o poyc.opaa.

METO CCEOBAH POBH TEEH MCTEHX POECCOB Caae apo opeo. Meoa peoea A. H. epeo (1911) cceoa eeyaoo ypo.

Oceyeoy peaa ( opacae cooc) coca 6 pcyo, papeax a ac. epe 3 pcya papea a 4 ac, a ocae a oee oeco opeo. ep eep pcy oao, o papea o-paoy. oopx cceoa eaeo e ecoo aopo, aaoo oopax.

Ope pcya ac cyeoy e opeeeoo opa, epeepy.

Cocac o o e opaa.

p oe aa opaaec ae e oo a pe oe peya, o oaeo o pecppoac ocoeoc pao oceyeoo. Ta, paoe oee aa peye aae aaa peeoo oceyeoy aepaa, oce eo ye oceoaeo, aoepo oex opeo cocaec pcyo.

Cyecey po p o pae eee oopx cax eae pcya.

p eeyao eocaooc ao aa ocycye oe ac coca pcyo, paa ecopoo o opeo pyoy (o eoy po oo). Taoe oee aa ceecye o ocyc y oceyeoo aa.

Xapaep pao oceyeoo oe ceecoa o apye poc e, oa epao ooee ope ocac a ece, ae ecop a ocay cceyeo.

oae paccao. o oa aoee ao yopexc eo cxooecoo cceoa. Peya cceoa ceecy o occe cea paccaa o coco a oceyeoo.

cceoa pec ceao oopae pacca, ae ceo oyeoo xapaepa, p. Hapaeoc aa eoopo cee ac o cocoa eo poee (C. . Pye, 1962). Ta, ec a ec paccaa oceyeoy, o oeaec ocpe cca paccaa, o o oceyeoo peyec oee aeoe cocpeooee a. Ec e oceye ca ae pacca, o oop ee eo oecpye eocaooc a.

ae oceyeoy peaa ocpoec pacca (yco ceo).

Opaaec ae a xapaep oecoap aac, oooe ae apaa, e pe, ocoeoc ocpoe pa, aooc , aoopo, peepa ocoeoc. Cyeceoe aee ee ceyee: acoo ocye oceyeoy cp cc paccaa, cae o eo c opyae eceoc, ocya ey opceca copoa paccaa.

oae cpoo, epeocoo cca paccaa aco ae apyeo p eeyao eocaooc, xo epeca p o oe o aaoy ecy.

poee cceoa eoxoo poo cep eco, oaxc pao cee cooc.

Moy pee ec c poye coa (eoa aya). a o ec, cye oe ca eocae coa, coopayc c coepae paccaa epeo oaoc c ocey paa. p o oy oapyac apye poc e coa cac cyao, oa o accoa c o pacooe eocaey. oycaee p o eee o oo oa e cpae oce aea cceyeo.

oae cex ap. Meoa apaea peyeceo a cceoae eeyaoo ypo ee oo oeo c peye. Oao oa oaec o oa cex paccao e, o poecce cceoa oe yaec yo ec xo paccye cyeoo oe ocoeoc exaa occe ae (A. H.

epe, 1911).

Boo pae apa, oa oa. Ocoo aaec oae o ceao oooeo cep ap pao cooc, oex peyeceo peaceco aepe. Oo c o e coy op pepoy. cpy coep pocy cyeoy oxapaepoa coepae ap. Oca apy, oceye oapyae e oo oooc o ee ce, o poe co aac a, ocoeoc pe (eco, paaeca eoc, e . .), coe ooee opaae co. Oo opoe oceyee aae aapy apy (po ce cyx), e e opoceee ocoe ea. ae, oeac o ecyeceoo, o cooca ocoe ee, ca x oeo, a opao pocxo pooee ce ap.

apyee oa cex ap oapyaec p cocox, xapaepyxc eeyao eocaooc. Ocoeoc pe p o oy oaa oeee coapoo aaca, apye ocax yoo coa, aaece apaaece poe, ee ooa.

Oe oe oaaec a cceoae p oaoo opaeco aoo. Ta, p cyao ao (aoa oaa opae) oe ca apye, aaec eoooc oxa cpay c cya, poec pe ce (A. P. yp, 1962). B c c .oe oe ao peaa pae oa o cee pcya, oopx, oao, e opaac ce c ey pa ooea, ea pcya.

p opae ox oeo oooo oa oea ap pooc e ca peapeoo aaa ee eae a ocoe aoo-o paea. p o oo oppyc ee, coae ooa o ap (. . Ea-xoa, 1957), ocoeoc apyaec ocpe eco epcoae.

cceoa oe cooa pyo apa o eo, oa oceyeoy peaa opcece pcy. B x cyax aae epeo oaaec oee co , poe oo, oyee peya oo cy o eoopx ocx ocoeocx oceyeoo, o oa opa, o ye oyc a yy, o ee cooec cya opcecoo pcya co co e oo.

O apao o eo oo paccapa papaoa H. . eo (1965) apa eo TAT. Ec p cceoa eoo TAT oceyeoy oop, o o apae a yee eo oopae, o p oa H. . eo cpy cooaec, o cceyec ocpe ooo. Ta opao, eec ycaoa oceyeoo. o e cpec poeocppoa oooc coeo oopae. B oee peyao opaaec ae a aoc oceyeoo, eo ooee coepa pcya, cocooc e ooa oec pcya.

Ocooe ae ye oceyeoo e ooa oec ap paec peoeo A. . a (1970) eoe Coocaee ap c ooao ace ceo. Meoa a aoae eoy ce oceyeoy peaa 4 pepoy xyoecex ap, oopx oy o oe c o o ee ooaoo eaecoo coepa. B o e pe ce epe ap o e eoope oe opae pa (ooc aa, epce . ,).

Meoa apopoaa A. . a a opox oceyex ox opee. p o y ox opee ea ecocooc ycoac epea pyx ( ao cyae epcoae ap), oc x ypeee cocoe, aepe ac.

caoee oceoaeoc co. Meoa peoea A. H. epeo (1911) cceoa coocae, . e. cpaeo oe ecox ax x ooex py pyy. oe aa cye oe ycao pa oex eeax pcyo , pyoocyc , opee oceoaeoc pacooe cex pcyo, ycao c co, opaex a x pcyax.

cceoa eoxoo ooo ecoo cep cex pcyo. cep oac o cee cooc. C o e e coyc pacca pcyax cpya. ocee oee co. poe oo, p cooa apayp xapaep aa ecoo eecec ocyoc ooo aoeoo cee ooea opa. cceoa oy cooa ap cooecyx cyeco eo cceoa Becepa Me.

Oceyeoy oc, o a apax opaeo aoe-o coe, , ec o x pao, o opy, paec, o oyc c pacca o o co.

ae ccey pecppye poooe opo pacooe o pcyo acae copooay oee aa opoy pee, xo paccye.

Ec aae cpay oec ooo, o oo a o yaa oceyeoy peo aa ce caaa. Bao ooee ooo oapye oa. B pe cyae, ocoeo p ocaoyax opaecx aoeax oooo oa, oo ceecye o apye poc e. Ec oo, ecop a ocay cceyeo, e oe pao pacoo pcy, o o oo ypoc cep cex pcyo peaaec ey pao ope o oe coca pacca, oop opaa oceoaeoc pa co.

p oce o xoa cox paccye eoxoo c, o cyo oco pepe coocae x pcyo o pee e oo oe cex pcyo cep ee, a yaac ee, oae o pcyo o pyoo.

apye ycaoe pa cea o cep pcyo ceecy o eocaooc ypo poecco ooe oee. Ocoeo ceo o oapyac p opaecx opaex oooo oa c peyeceo oaae ox oeax (. B. eap, 1943;

A. P. yp, 1947), oa oe oca oeo a pcyo, o cooca x e oy pxo coepeo ee oa o paaec a x pcyax co. pe aoo poa ox c o cpoo xapaepa acoa epoc e, x ooe paccye eocy oppe.

Meoa e apye poc e. papaoaa (B. M, exep, B. A. Xy, 1982) a ocoe eo ycaoe oceoaeoc co.

Hepoc e cepeao cya, oepyeo c oo eo, xapaepyec ypao opo a eeya poecca, paccoacoae aeopa eeoc.

Meoa ae ce ecoo cep apo, oo coyex ycaoe oceoaeoc pa o opeeeoo cea. epa cep (pc. 3, a) coep 4 ap, opa (pc. 3, )6 apo. e ap opo cep, oao, e cooecy ceo paccaa, o o coepa poopeae ey ea, o x oppyc eoope ocoe pa, pae ay po pa cea.

Oao o c, o oco epcoaa o cyeceo e oac o pyx apo opo cep.

Papaoa apaee apa, ooe poo oope oceoa ooo o eoo epe eoopoe pe, apep, poecce ee.

oe c apye poc e e oy e ap-apea.

O ac x cocae o apa pacca, caoc o oo eccce. Heoope oe, yec o, o pacca c oyaec, oaa ce ap copoy a cceyey o o, o e oy o aae.

acca. Meoa acca peec cceoa ypo poecco ooe oee, oceoaeoc cye. B poecce cceoa ec ooee ooo cya cepea xapaepy aa, eo yepeoc eyepeoc paoc pee, eo ooee oa ca o x aeae oce oca cceyeo, cpae oyee o ocaae x. Meoa epe a peoea . Goldstein (1920) oceoa ox c aaec paccpoca. ac oa peec oa . C.

Bocoo . B. eap (1958).

cceoa eoxo aop apoe c opaee pax peeo, pace, ox. opae oy aee ac. Ta opao, oo oop o peeo coeco acca eo , a aaoe, coec pee apa eo ce, epaoa, o e ceecy cceoa T. . Teeo (1959) B. M. exepa (1965). Ta, apep, ocoeoc opeecoo e ee cya p peeo Cep apo cceoa poc e acca. aeo oee pyo oaaec peea acca o cpae co coeco ox co ce ypoe poecco ooe oee, . a oa coep oe eeo (ea pcya), poopyx ecyecee, opee accoa.

Haop apoe acca oe ceao oooe, peycapa oooc pax cyee ooe. Hepoyao ooee aop apoe peopee oee aa, apep o opeo-cyaooy y. B c c eaeo ooac aopo apoe, oooe aopaop cepeao aocxoo Mococoo H cxap.

B poee oa oo e a ocox aa, a epo oceye oee eee caocoeo opay py: oea, ee, oe paeoc, opy pya, epee pop, . ocee e py, a yaae C. .

Pye (1962), peca aoe pyoc ee. Ta, oeee ece aco, eco, epoepa aepy peye ee aoee cyeceoo, acpaoo paa, eo x cpoco. pye e oocc pae pecae, oxapaepoae a apoax o-paoy: pecae pax poecc, , aoe, peeo. Beee cye x py ceecye o opeeeo coxpaoc poecco ooe oee. Ha opo ae pocxo opaoae oee pyx py pace, ox peeo. o a xapaepye oee coy cye ooe.

Beee oa aeo pooopyec. Oeac ce pypo pae ooe. p o ao oe poooe ooee ooo oapyeo oe cpae o ee, e oopec a oa oceye. Ceye pecppoa paccye ooo poecce oe aa, a a x epeo coepc opoa oooo cye. Hae ecox ex, ooex py (apep, e py oe, paeee a ecoo py ocy) ceecye o eocaooc a.

cee. ae, oyaee p cceoa eoo ce, oo cy o ypoe poecco ooe oee, o cocooc cyeoo e cyecee pa peeo e. Cyecy a apaa eo ce coec pee.

Coec apa pooc p oo aa, coepae cep 5 co.

Oceyeoy oop, o 4 5 co cep c ao-o epe oopo o oy oee o oey x pay, a 1 coo e cooecye peoa oo ceo. Ec oceye cpay e yco cpy, o 12 pepa ccey peae coeco c : Bac, eop, Cee opp ea, a aoa;

ooo, c, cp, ceaa ooe poy, a cao o p. ec o, o p oe aa oceye yco, ey peaaec caocoeo o oceye pep, epa apaao a ceao ae oeaee ce coo. p ocyc ao ccey aae cep co oeae poooe xapaep pee.

po e pep cceoa o eoe ce ee coeco apae: px, cap, oe, ae, ex;

ce, xpap, oa, o, pee.

Cyecey po. pae ooee oceyeoo oye oa ca o x ae c oo cceyeo, a o opye ooe pee acoo o ocy oppe.

poee peeoo apaa eoxoo ooo aop apoe, aa oopx coep opae 4 peeo. aec cpy: opaex a pcye 4 peeo 3 e ey coo oee, x oo oe oy pyy, aa o coo, a 1 cyeceo o x oaec oe ce. a peye apae, oee cep pec oceyeoy opeeeo oceoaeoc, c apacae cooc. Hapy c o aa y eoy oa ceao o cep pcyo, e e aoo poa ooee poec. opoe ax cyax o a, o aae eoo, o a oycoeo opa oe, apep: opaex a o pcye peeo e e pyy 3, o ec acaaee, o peaa ceyee peee oe o oa, poa, ya a eceo. Taoo poa eoe aa pe p oceoa ox opee.

Beee cyecex pao. Meoa, a o cye aa, e cocooc cyeoo epepoa cyecee pa peeo e o ecyecex, opoceex. poe oo, ae pa aa, oaox o xapaepy oe, ooe cy o oceoaeoc paccye cyeoo.

cceoa oyc o cea ao, o ccey yco pee cyeoy aa, apep:

Ca (pace, cao, coaa, aop, e).

pa (ap, po, pa, aaa, paa).

peapeo aec cpy: B ao cpoe ec 1 coo axoc epe coa, a 5 coax. Bce coa, axoec coax, e aoe-o ooee coey epe coa. Oao o x pa 2 aoee cyecex, xc eoee paa coa, coeo epe coa. Bepe oo 2 oepe x. aco oceyee pcya aa, eaeo pocya cpy, pee x x cyax oepxoc, eoce. Toa ceye opa ae oceyeoo a o, o o e yco cpy oop ee.

Heoope oe, oo p eeyao eocaooc, e cpay oa, o o x peyec. B x cyax eaeo ece c pe 12 aa.

Coa aaax oopa a opao, o oceyeoy pxoc poeocppoa co cocooc yo acpaoe aee ex x o oaac o oee eoo, pocaeoc aa, o eepoo cocoa pee, p oopo eco cyecex ec ace, opeo-cyaoe pa. Ta, coy pa paoe peee peycapae ae cyecee pa, a po paa, o e pe eoope oceyee ec pa coo ap. p ao pee aa ceye oaeo ocy c o peya. oa ae ocaa cceyeo o o, o pe e o acpao ae x o, e ooae oceyeoy a paoe peee. o ceecye o eocaooc yeo ypo poecco ooe oee. Ooe pee oy oc xapaep oex eoceoaex cye (apep, p aceecx cocox). B x cyax oe p opae x a a oyey oy ca ee cpa.

Opaoae aao. oe oo aa oceyeoy eoxoo ycao oece c ooe ey o. poe oo, a p cceoa peye eoo, oe eo oapyac apye oceoaeoc cye, oa oceye a pe epecae ceoa paoy oycy pee aa. Aao pax aaax cpoc o pa pa, ae epoc cxecx poecco aeo apye pa ox oee aa oceye aae o ac e aao o py peye aa.

Paa opaoae pocx cox aao. Opaoae pocx aao pooc c oo ceax ao, a oopx cea pacoaac ap co opa, o aao c oop ceye e apy co pao ooe aa.

pe cpaa epxy epoe coo coo ap yaao, a ee yo e 5.

Hapep:

epeco ap poooa aoa, o, oa, py, ee Oceyeoy oc, o, a e a epeco e o poooe, ap e o pya. Coeco c oceye oo pe ee o, oee py oac py po ocpoe pep.

Oaeo pepa ao pa aa, e aao cpoc o-paoy py. eoopx oceyex o cy peypeee o oooc oo.

oa, p oe aa oo oc apeec pepo opaoa poop. Taoe ocee oaaec yce p opeeeo eeyao coxpaoc.

B aae peyao ao e oo oapyee oo, o opoa x oooc oppe. eoo c apye oecoo cpo e, oao o a cocaa oe ac e opppyc, oa a eoceoaee cye c c coaeoc cpac o, a oo o x aea. Oapyee oooc cpae oo xoe cepea, eoyee x aee ceecy o opeeeo coxpaoc poc e.

oo coecoo apaa eo opaoa pocx aao, oo ooac pee ee apao. B aece pepo oo oo ooac eoop aa Paea, a ae apoa cooecyeo cyeca eoe aaecoo cceoa eea Me.

Opaoae cox aao peycapae eee cox, acpax oecx ooe. B c c oe pyoc o eo , a e a C. .

Pye (1962), pee ee p oceoa co cpe c opaoae.

Oceyeoo cpypy o o, o epxe ac aa pacooe 6 ap co, ao oopx pcy opeeee ooe. ooe aapyc, apep: oa cao ac eoe, aa oa o opeeee, ope oea paac oeceo ooe . . ae ae oceyeoo opaaec a pacooee e ap co, p c oopx o oe cooca c o opao. po ao ap o ca o oep, oop co ooo ap opaa. pepoe peee aa oc cey xapaep: aa ec ac poaa, aaoo oy, a oa ac caa.

Ocyee coeco c o oyex oox pee ae cceyey aepa, a ocoa oopoo oo cy o apyex oecoo cpo e, eo eeapaeoc poc.

Beee aooepoce. o pye oo oec p eo, pax o cee cooc. Heoope x oy oe p ooceo coo ypoe ooe.

1. ucoo p. Oceyeoy pe p ce. Aa x pacooe oo ey poo o p. oceoaeo pec ce oee coe p:

1 3 5 7 15 12 9 6 9 19 2 9 3 2 2 4 7 11 16 11 15 18 9 13 16 8 po pep pee aoo poa aa:

1 3 5 7 (9, 11) 15 12 9 6 (3, 0) 2. Meoa . . coo (1968) peaaea aoc oope. Oa coco 3 cepeax aa opacae cooc. cceoa eoxo aop pacx ex pyco.

Oceyeoy peaa y aa cceye aop:

I aae II aae,, III aae, p aae oe aa opaaec ae, peecye aay eeoc ycee pa aa, acoo cepeoe pa oceye oyc eeoc, a a y eeoc cyae oye (apep, ee o ae p, ec oc pyc ooo ea). Cyeceoe aee ee oapyaea p cceoa ee epeoc ooo, eeeo e po o a peaey aco oe aay.

Opeeee cpaee o. eo pec cceoa e.

opeee o eoxoo poaapoa e p pao peea e e x aoee cyecee. Cee ooc opeee ac o pao, oope pae oceye xapaepc oo oo peea e. Haoee o caec (M.. oooa, 1963) opeeee, p oopo oeaec poooe ooe pa (apep, co o ee, eoxoa y pao);

paoe, o eee ooe opeeee ocoao a poox paax (co o ee);

a oee o cye axoc opeeee o aae peea (co oo, o ec ca) coepeo eocao ec opeeee, oeaee ae pa peea (coepe, a epex oax).

p cceoa eoo opeee o ceye oea e oo cocooc oceyeoo e ocoe pa, o ocpoee opeee, eoc opypo. o eoo eo oapyaec pacaoc cye, oa eaa, cooc peoepcy.

a ocao eoa cpae o. p o pocxo e oo aa coc peea e, o ycaaac opeeee ooe ey eco peea, e. B c c cpaee o oee co, e opeeee o, ce poecc, a ce aa ce, pey epepo cyecex pao a oe pae ecox oeo.

p cpae ecox o oee aa e a aa: aae ec cyecee pa aoo x, a ae x pac coaae x oeo e, oope oycoa pay ey . p cpae ooceo oopox oeo ep oaac pooe, a opoe pa. ooceo oopo o oocc: ac xpooep, paa poeyc . .

Pc 4. Haop yp eo oppoae o Hapy c T. . Meeo (1966) peaae cpae paopoe o:

apea oa, oo apaa, oyc aoa, a o, ac pea.

poeee aopo cceoa eoo cpae eoopox o oaa, o oe opee aco oyc ao xapaep opox, ecaap paa. Xo caapoc oo oo paa xapaepyec cacec oaae, o apa oe cooac p aocec apaeo cxooeco cepee, a a p e oapyaec eoc ee o opee cax pao.

Cpaee o ooae eeyay eocaooc, peoepce cye.

oppoae cyccex o. cceoa cocooc oppoa o aco peec eoa, papaoaa . C. Boc . C. Caxapo (1930).

Meoa a eca coa, paoe oee aa oceye ceecye o ocyc y eo eeyaoo ce. o a . C. Bocoo (1938), c oo ao eo oo ocapoa apyee y opaoa o e oo p x paccpocax e, o y ox, y oopx e cepeao ocao pyo ae apye opaoo e.

epe oceye ecope paea aop cepeoepecx yp, oaxc opo, eo eo (pc. 4). Ha cpo o eo e copoe x yp ec ycoe ac (, e, yp, a). pooo paec oa ypa cey oce, o ac a e (apep, e) coepeo eo e oaae, ycoa, o ec o aope ypa c aaoo ac pcy o pa. Oceye oe ycao, ae yp xo y pyy, . e.

opee oe e. oce oo oceye opae ecoo yp oce co oey. Hapep, o cae, o e oocc ce yp oo e ea. Toa ccey epeopaae oy oopax Pc. 5. Haop yp eo oppoa o o A. . oopoo ooo yp oaae ac ecop a o, o oa oo e ea, oa e e.

Ec oceye opae p yp, pyoocyc oaoo opo, ccey a e opao oaae ey oooc o oe.

Ta opao, ocaec oa oooc opee oe e acoc o paepo, o pecaec ooo py, a a paep yp xapaepyc y paa oa ocoa coo.

Peya oa oeac acoc o oo, coo xoo oaooc oceyeoy oe aa, acoo o eo paccye p o, a ocpaac oo cceyeo. p o cceoa oapyac aeo oce aeca oceyeoo, ocoeo ec pea a eycex.

Meoa BocooCaxapoa ecoo ypoea A. . oopoo (1962). e oo ypoepcocoee eo oppoa cyccex o ecoy opacy.

Oceyeoy oaa 16 peax apoa yp (pc. 5), oaxc opo (2 a), eo (pace eee) eo (4 apaa). Ha oopoe x yp aca x ycoe ooae, apep ay. Oy yp a-y (apep, 5) a oceyeoy poc oopa pye yp oo papa. ay oopay ypy oceye epeopaae o ac a oopoe yeaec paoc oooc coeo opa. O peyaax cceoa cy o oecy xoo, oaoxc oceyeoy oppoa o.

p cceoa ee o eoo opeeec x cocooc eeapae oceoae ec, yee ec aa oopeeo ecox apaex, opaca eopeee pa. ocoeoc xapaepy eee poecco ooe oee y oceyex.

oae epeocoo cca oco eaop. Meoa peec cceoa ocoeoce e eo ypo, eeapaeoc poc.

Oceyeoy aa ecoo aco yopeex eaop (ooa ooa, ooe py, aeoe cepe, a ya, e o) oco (oo o o eaeo aae, y eeo, oa opo, Coo e opoe e, e oae) poc oc x oee, epeoc cc. Moo peo oceyeoy pec cooecye pep coe - poaoo.

yaoe cooae oco eaop ceecye o eocaooc ypo ooe. Ec oceye epo oce epeoc cc oco, o ee e oaae, o ee y eo coepeo e apyeo, a a p oce oco oceye poe eec y eo a oe aa e peyec ooe ooo aepaa. poecc ooe ooo aepaa cceyec py, oee co, apaa o eo.

Cpaee oco. Oceyeoy peaa apo, a oopx aca ceao oopae oco, a aae cpypoa x, e apa o aaoe, o pooooe o ccy. Hapep, E. A. Pye (1953) peaae cpaa cey aop oco:

o ocee, o oe.

y eeo, oa opo.

ao o, ao pxo.

a ayec, a oec.

oo o o eaeo aae.

oa poa op, oa ay ap.

Oceye oe oopa ap aaox oco:

1. o ocee, o oe. a ayec, a oec.

2. y eeo, oa opo. oa poa opoa ay ap.

3. oo o o eaeo aae. ao o, ao pxo.

p o oceyee oapya e oo oae epeocoo cca oex oco: cooca x, o epepy cyecee pa o opoceex, cyax. Ta opao, peya cceoa apao eo opeeeo epe ceecy o ocoeocx accoax ce, acoc cococy e accoa o caoy pay. pepo oceeo oe cy ooee oco: o ocee... y eeo..., oa oo ae ceyee ocee: pee e ce, ao aae oa. a cye y a ocee.

Oecee pa ocoa. o apa peoe . B. eap (1958). ec pyoc aaec e coo cooa epeocoo cca oco, coo oooc cocaa a pe cc. Oceyeoy peaa cep ae, a oopx aca oco eaop, aeo oee oeco apoe c paa. Cpe pa ec cooecye epeocoy ccy oco cxoe opao-ececo ooe.

Baae yeac, o oceye oae epeoc cc oco, a ae ey peaa oopa ao ocoe cooecyy o ccy pay. Hapep, ao ocoe aec a op 23 pa:

y eeo, oa opo ooo eee eea, eeo ye ye, He oaa eo o o oce ca a paca oce, Oee cy o peyaa Bo o aae, oceye aae yce epeoc cc oco, a ae coocae ee c paa a opao a epeoc ycoe p pao a aepa, coepa ooe. o apa aa peye oee cooo ypo ooe, e oo ocee epeocoo cca oco eaop.

Haae 50 co. Meoa apaea a yee ocoeoce accoa. poe oo, o peyaa cceoa oo cy o oace coapoo aaca ee peeo eeoc ooo. cpy coep pocy aa op a oo cpee e 50 co, a cee aa pacooex oae peeo. pooce o coa acac. o ceyoepy pecppyec apaeoe a o pe. Ec oo oe cpo aae coa, e ceye eo ocaaa. Coa, oope ccey e yce aca, aec poepo.

cxec opoe aa coa ea o 56 co, ex oe pa, apep, pacopa, oe .. eee x e paccapaec a pa epoc cxecx poecco. Moy oapye aocoepaee accoa o coy.

cpy oe ycoea peoae aa oo cyecee. Ec oceye ee e oe, aec ooea cpy: B aaee e oo cyecee. Coae paa oe aa. Ec oce oo oceye aae e oo cyecee, o ae ceecye o aeo epoc cxeco eeoc.

eoc coapoo aaca poec aeo yee pee, eoxooo a oee aa (opoe aa 50 co a 1,52,5 ), oope ox ex e co, aa ope cpy axoxc epe aa oceyeoo peeo.

opa. a eoa peoea . C. Boc papaoaa a o eoo oocpeoaoo aoa. B oe o peoeo A. H. eoe eo oocpeoaoo aoa p opaoa opa pecac aeo oe oooc cceoa accoaoo poecca.

opaa opa, coaae oceye oocpeoaoo aoa.

Ta opao, c oo eo opa yae caocoey cey poy ox. ec ocoeo o cya apye e, o ocec ao peopeeeoc, e peaepoae poecco e yco oa (. . oo, 1969;

C. B. ooa, 1972), oa a eoe A. H. eoea op opao oocpeoa opae ccey.

Meoa oe poca. Oceyeoy a co co ya apaa oop, o ceac o yc coa, aoa oopx o oe cea ao-y eco pcyo. cpye peycapaec, o aeco pcya ao po e pae, a a oa oceyee ccac a eyee pcoa. poe oo, oceyeoo peypea, o coepeo eoyco aoa pea coec ye ooae.

Coa, oop opayc cooaee pcy-opa, ooaac apaee. p o yaec opac oceyeoo, ypoe eo yypoo pa.

Oo aae aa coa oee opeoo coepa, a ae, yec, o cceyeoy ocyo oee aa, epexo acpa coa, apep:

ece pa, ea paoa, yc y, oe, ea, cace, o, pae, paya, oa, oea, o, paa, cpaeoc, coee, pya.

poee oopx oceoa o eoe opa ccey oe pacoaa apae aopa o, coyex oocpeoa. Bceo oceyeoy aa 1015 co. Oaeo yo a coa, ee ae ooa oec.

B poooe oa acac paccye ooo, oce c ey coo pcyo. Bocec oceyeoo poc o pcya ocpoec cooecye coa. o peyaa oe aa cy o ypoe poecco ooe oee: oe oceye ooaa coo coo, acoo opaca p o eo apye, oa oocpeyc coa acpaoo xapaepa. He eee ao ycao xapaep accoa, oop pyoocyec oceye p oope opa, cooece opa aaoy coy, peepa opeoc accoa , aoopo, x peao acpa, ycoo-coec xapaep, ae accoa o caoy pay. Cyecey po pae ooaa aceoc opa. B opeeeo cee oa opaae ooaoe cocoe oceyeoo.

a ye yaaoc, o peyaa cceoa oo cy o oeco a oceyeoo acoo oocpeoae co pex opaax ooae ao x.

pecae epec oa eo opa, peoea ..

Xepcoc (1979, 1981, 1982). ee ece e coo poeee cceoa, coo eppea oyaex ax. Meoa caapoaa, poee cceoa aop pe ee aop 16 o. C oo peecpoa ycaaaec oooc poypoa pax aeop pcyox opao, ae eee aeax a oee cooecye aaoy o. Aop ae eppea opa pep, e coye ece Popaxa (oe eo cooac apaeo). p acca opa o aece xapaepca yac ceye aop: acpaoc (opee apye opa, eaopeca, eoepeca, paeca paaeca coa), aop yao aoc, aop aco (paac caape, opae oopec opa), aop aeaoc. C oo yaax aopo pooc opaoaa oea pcyox opao.

eppea opa, o .. Xepcocoy, ae oey oecex coooe. ec yac oecee coooe opao paoo a, oeco yao ax aeax opao.

peca epec eee .. Xepcoc ocoe eoe, ao oaec opaa. o ooe pea, paaec po (peeo eco) pae eyooc o apaocax caax a aoe pepacoe coo..., o epeco.... ooe pea paccapac aopo a poee opoeo ec aea a cey eeoc. Oa o opa opaa ae ceo cpeaec p pee oceyeoy aoee cox oocpeoa o. opeee yex Ooae ope cpy ec o paee eocaooc aoo a, o eacecx ee.

o eopaye opaa oac opa, ocoae a accoax o coy, a xooex coax, a oope ecox pcyox opao ooy o. eoe eo cce aaec o, o p ocpoe ceye opa oceye coye peyy, pacoppy ee. oa o po oy, o ce opa poecce cceoa oaac aoca. eoe ae opaa aac o, o p pee ooo o oocpeoa oceye aec ae peyy opay o paec ee opaaae. eoe paccapac aopo a poee peo. eoe yopoeoc opa peoaae ae coo paeco xapaepc, poec ope cooeceo aa paepy ca pcya, coe peo oaox paepo pcyo pacco ey . o eoe opaae cocooc apoa caoopo cya cceoa aoee aco cpeaec p aaacx cyepeccx cocox. Opaec paec coooec aaec aoe pcya oee e a 5 o epao oc, a poax, ecoaax epeceaxc . o eoe, o a aopa, coocee ox c opaec opae oooo oa.

Ec eo oa .. Xepcoc eo opa peaaea eeapaeoo ayoo cceoa, o eee p o oecee aecee oaae ocoe eoe oy oaac cooa, oe p eppea ax cceoa, poooo ex yao oooeco aoc.

Accoa (coec) cepe. Meoa accoaoo cepea a peoea oe pooo coe poo cooaac cceoa cxec ox (B. M. exepe, M. . Acaaypo, A.. ao-Coec, B..

poooo).

cxoaa paccapa eo coecoo cepea a ocope ocax cpx oeco, oecx papaee, pay c o pecco co oyee poecce cceoa ae.

o .. aoy, p pao ooeco aae peyao cceoa eoa coecoo cepea opae oooc ye coecx ycox ce a: epx poecco o opo cao ccee, ooe yaa ee opoo a o e coecoo papae (A.. ao Coec, 1928). Coa-papae c yco caa, oee peee pea pee yco peeca, ca c caa eee poo oceyeoo ye oopaoo oope.

B aocxoo coec cepe coyec aaa xapaepa accoa oceyeoo copoc x opaoa. C o e oceyeoy aa apaee oooe p co 3040 cyecex, ex ao-o c. aec cpy a aoe ycaoe coo oea , pe ooy, a oo cpee. Ec peceyc e poep, oe oceye ceoa aoy-o oee opeeeoy oycy oe aa cpy oe cooeceo yoea (apep, oea oo cyece coo-aoo, poo opeeee).

B poooe oa pecppyec pe oeo pea ee coepae. Opaa ae a aooc peex pea, cooece x coy-papae , aoopo, cya, ee xapaep, ocyce c ey coo-papaee coo-oeo. Moocoe peee pea ceecy o ecocooc oe cpy. Oao eoope oe, ocoo oea o coo, oe a eepe x coec papae a ooco oe.

Cpe ae epo p oceoa opox cocae 0,51,5 c. B eoopx cyax aaec ocoeo aeoe yeee aeoo epoa p oec eepex oceyeoo coecx papaee ( ee x cepe ae ocae poe). Oao o ee e epeoea, a a oa aeo-a eoao oaac coce pye coa (. B. eap, 1958). ooy ee coec cepe ax aeoex co oo apoac a aeo ye aaea, oo eo cya, yax ocoeoce oc ooo.

Xapaepcy oex peex pea oo poo coaco acca A.. aoa-Coecoo (1928), paaeo:

I. He pe coece pea:

1) eoee (, y, o, a .p.);

2) xoaece, yao ocpooe coo-papae;

3) coye oecee e o ya coy -papae co ep oce coa;

4) cpacae, e ee ooe coy-papae, a ec peae a pye papae, ocyae ee cpe:

5) oae (e a, eeo caa, co e . .);

6) opocee (ao?, o?, oey?);

7) epceeppye, oa o o e oe oec a ecoo papaee op.

II. Bce coece pea:

1) yao-opee (apep, opoMoca, aa oya);

2) oeopee (opoepe, aae);

3) acpae (opoyypa, aaocya).

a acca ooea ee o o x coecx pea aaec, oac o cpacax e, o x e a ao-o papae opyae ooo ocaoe (M. C. aoa, 1956;

. . epoac, 1957).

Cyecy pye apa eo coecoo cepea. A. . ypaa (1955) peo ooac ep apaa coecx papaee-: aa peeo, aoa, oao cyece paae. coece papae oac opacae cooc.

B. ao (1965) peo cpyypo-accoa cepe, e oopoo cceoae paaecoo oecoo cpyyppoa pe (ceo eeoc). B aece coecoo papae coyc eaoee peoe c ocyce opeeex ace pe. a eoa ooe oapy aee poe paopaoc e, peoepca aaeoc pacaa pe ex cyax, oa ec o ee ao ae.

Moocee cceoa cxec ox eoo accoaoo cepea oo oapy ocoeoc peyao eo p pax oooecx opax acoc o ca aoea.

oop co-aoo. a eoa ec, cyoc, apao coecoo cepea, p oopo oee eo peaepyec xapaep oex pea. B peyae cceoa ycaaaec coap aac ooo, ycooc paoo oyca eeoc, cocoe a.

poee oa oyc cea ao, coepa apaee oopae coa, apep: yo, o, p, ceoee . . Oceyeoy aec yaae aoy coy oopa coa poooooo ae. poep yce cpy epe 12 pepa oo o coeco c oceye, a ae peoca ey oooc caocoeoo oe aa. ccey acae (o ceyoepy) pe, oeee aae aoa o coa-papae, coepae oeo pea.

p oee peyao opaa ae a cooece peeo pea yco aa. Ta, oa eco aoo aac co o ooe coa, e cae co coa-papae (aaece peee pea). Cyeceoe aee ee ea aeoo epoa oe yee eo p acpao xapaepe coa papae ceecye o eoopo eocaooc ypo ooe. Aapyec epepoaoc ooc oex pea, oooc oopa ooy coy ecoo aoo. Xapaep pa oee coapoo aaca p eeyao eocaooc opaoae aoa paee aaoy coy ac e (pac epac, cyo e cyo, oea e oea). o yee aeoo epoa yxye aeca oex pea oy cceoa oo cy o oeo coaeoc oceyeoo.

CXOMETPECE METO CCEOBAH HTEETA cceoae eea o eoy Becepa. Meo Becepa cceoa eea y pocx (1955) ec apao, o cece epepao paee poo yopeeoc eca Becepae (1939). ec oocee oa oo eoa, coyee P, oe pyx cpaax. B acoc, P cxoo oyc a aae aypc apao eoa (HAWIE), oopo eoope opoc aapoa, a ec ec eo aoo caapoa a oceyex. B Coeco Coe eo Becepa aapoa copya epacoo ayo-cceoaecoo cxoepooecoo cya . B. M. exepea.

C oo eoa Becepa oy oceoa a cape 16 e. oceoa ee coa cea apa eoa Becepa (WISC), aapoa caapoa A. . aaco (1973).

Meo Becepa coco 11 oex eo cyeco. aa x e coep ax-o ox, e cooaxc pae cepeao cxoo peo. Bce cyec paee a 2 py epae (6) eepae (5).

I cyec oa oceoeoc coep 29 opoco, apaex a epee oea eoeecx a. o oea a opoc oo eco epe cy o a oceyeoo, o pye eo epeco, o oyeo opaoa. Peya o oy cyecy ao ec p cape o e oeeoo poecca (cee c aoea, poeae c py eeyao-ecec cee). Cee pyoc aaaex oceyeoy opoco oceeo apacae. o p xapaepe pyx cyeco. po eoope opoc:

2. ao op ? 24. o aca ay? 29. o aoe oceoo?

Oo cceoae aaec c oo opoca ex cyax, oa oceye e cpaec c ec opoca, opaac peecoa.

pa oe oeaec 1 a. Macaa oea epo cyece ao.

II cyec oa ooc coep opoc, oxaae ocoeoc oee oceyeoo ao-o opeo cya, a ae opeee oae epeeceoo cca oco. Maepa o oy cyecy ceecy o coao yypo oe oceyeoo. Caec, o c oo II cyeca cceyec pa cc, oe paecx a. Ceye oe, o o eoo ooac e B. M. exepea C. . Bao (1913), cceoa c ee oo cxec ox. po pep opoco, aaaex ooy:

3. o ceaee, ec aee a ye co aeaao oepe c aca apeco aeeo apo? 14. o oaae paee: Oa acoa ec e eae?

cceoae aaec c peeo opoca. pey opaac p oapye ecocoeoc oceyeoo eo oeax a pe, eep opoc.

Oe oeac 0, 1 o 2 aa acoc o paoc oa aeo opoce cya o ooc, oo cee ooe aeoo oee cye. Ta, a opoc o o, o ea c ae a ye co, y ec oe, oaa oae oceye eoxooc eeeoo opae ca: oyc oo ;

oec a oy. Tao oe oeaec aa.

B 1 a oeac oe, ceecye o o, o oceye oae, o co e ec eo coceoc: oecy o yaaoy apecy;

ca .

ooe eoae oo, o ceye cea c co, oeaec 0 ao: e cay oa;

poy ycopy ypy. oae oco Oa acoa... oeaec 2 aa p oa oceye ee acpaoo cca: e a ocoa ooo cya cpo ooee;

ooe ya cooyoc pao.

Oe ope pepo ceecye o eocaoo cee acpapoa oeac 1 a: o xopo ocyo ee e a, o eoe xopo.

yaoe oae oco oeaec 0 ao: ec acoa peea, o ee e a, o acya eca;

aco cea pea pae pyx .

Macaa oea o II cyece28 ao. Bpe e pyec.

Peya ec, a 1 cyece, ao ac o opaca, e yxyac cyeceo p cape.

III cyecapeeccoco 14 aa. epe a aa poepc p eocaox oeax a 3-e 4-e aa. Apeece aa, peee oceyeoy, xapaepyc apacae pyoc. Bpe poao a epe aa oycaec o 15 c, a 5 10- aa 30 c, a 11 13- aa60 c, a oce120 c. a cpoe peee ocex 4 aa oaec 1 a. paoe peee aa oeaec 1 a ( o ce aa, oope e poc poep).

pep apeecx aa:

4. Ec eoe y apo a 6 o., a a 10 o., o coo o oe oy ca? 8. Coo pee opeyec eoey, o po 24 , ec o e co copoc 3 /? 14. Boce eoe oy ao paoy a 6 e. Coo eoe opeyec, o o y paoy a o?

o cyec ceecye o cocooc oepa aoo a oeppoa apeec aepao, Cocooc oe apeecx ec ye e oapyae c opaco aeo ee yxye. Peya o cyece p cape ecoo xye, e p oe cyeca oopee p, o aeo ye, e cyecax, o oopx pe ye e.

IV cyec axoee cxoca ec ecoo ypoe apao eo cpae o, oopo aae opaaec ycaoee cxoca.

Oceyeoy peaac cpae ae o, a aec-aa, ao-ae, oxaa-aaae, yxa-epeo.

Bpe oeo e yaec. Oe oeac 2, 1,0 ao. Oea oea ac o ypo, a oopo oeo aae. Ta, p cpae o e coaa oo ceye oe: e, coaa oe, ep (oe a oeyao ypoe);

e, coaa e (oe a yoao ypoe);

oa o e o (oe a opeo ypoe).

Ceye yaa, o epeo oea oea opeeee ypo cpae o peca oe apye pey o cceyeo oa a. Boo oe, aa oopx eca apyea. Ta, oo opee ae, o cxoco ey o coao aaec o, o o ep, oaoo ocpo ocpaee eoeo. p opao oxoe oee ec oo oop o oeyao ypoe oea. B cao e ee pe e o o opeeco aoc. o pep ceecye o epaoepoc ooo oeceoo oxoa oee peyao.

B o cyece oeaec a opao oec xapaep e.

Macaa oea o cyecy 26 ao. Xo o cyece pe oe aa e opaeo oee ee e ox oceyex e ca x xye o cpae c oo oceye yco, e e eee peya ec aeo cac c opaco.

D. Bromley (1966) yaae, o oe caoc e oo eee coco oppoa acpax po, o ae pae x. oa o cooa oco, x oe eee oe eee acpae, e oe oee oox.

V cyec ocpoeee pox po peec cceoa a, a opao oepao, a. B ao cep p eec 2 paoax aa. Bopoe aae cep peec oceyeoy oo o cyae, ec o e cpac c ep. p, coaco cpy, ocpooc po opao ope. ooo pepae cceoa ec ecocoeoc oceyeoo oox aax ao cep.

Bpe e peaepyec. aoe pao oeoe aae oeaec a. Macaa oea17 ao (p ocpoee p po ope 9 opao 8 ao).

o D. Wechsler, eoooc oceyeoo oop po ope p p oe ceecoa o caoy. Capee (ooecoe) e oaae aeoo a pocoe aoae (o oe aa o oy cyecy o epepa aepocepoo pe ye e). Ceye oe, o o cyec e coo xapaepye cocoe y a o ce ee ooopa, coo opaae ocoeoc aoo a eaoaa po ao.

D. Bromley ycaoa, o ocpoeee p po ope c opaco caec eaeo, oee aeo y capo apyee ocpoee p opao ope.

VI cyec coap cy oe coapoo aaca. B c c e o coap aac ac o opaoaeoo ypo, o ao eec p cape.

Oceyeoy peaa 40 co poc a x opeeee, oc x aee.

Baae o ecoe aco yopeee coa (e, a, poa, apa, ea, copae). oceeo aae ycoec, ccey aae opeee ae coa, a epep, paa, aa, apo . . Payeec, o cyece ycoee aa oc ooce xapaep oapyaec p cpae e coo oex co, coo py co.

Oe oeac o 0 o 2 ao. p o pyoocyc cey pep: oe oeaec 2 aa, ec o 1) xopo, yao oopa co;

2) ocooe cooae coa coapo oe a;

3) oo ecoo opeee ocox coc coa;

4) coo, ooaee oe, oopoy pae opeeeoe coo;

5) ecoo pax oca coc opeeeoo coa, oope cooyoc opaa oae oceye ae oo coa.

B 1 a oeac pae, o eoe oe: 1) ec eocaoo e co;

2) opoceeoe, e ocooe cooae oo coa e;

3) pep oooo cooa coa e.

B 0 ao oeaec o epa oe ocyce peaoo oa opoca, ae oce eo oope, eoae ae coa, peeoo xapaepo oece. Hapep, oae coa poop oe oeeo 2 aa, ec a o eceyx oeo: pecoe peee, peee cya, aee, pec a pee;

1 ao aaa, ocy, ocyee;

0 ao pa' oop.

Bpe p cceoa coap cyeco e peaepoao. Macaa oea 80 ao.

epecee 6 cyeco oocc pye epax. Hecop a o o o peyaa x oe pooc oa oea, oopa cpaaec c oaaee oe eepax cyeco, ca o cee o c ocaoo eoopo.

o yeeo oaao cceoa D. Bromley (1966). Ta, oa ycaoa, o y capo ao ec peya oe aa o cyeca: coapoy, oe oceoeoc oe ooc. y eeoc peyao p cape aop oce xapaepo aoc, eoxoo oe aa;

ocyce peoa^ acaxc cpo oe;

ooceo pocoo aa. cyec ep copee eeyae oce, oope yepac p cape, e eeyae cocooc, caec c opeeeoo opaca. epexo oca eepax cyeco.

VII cyecpox coopeye o oceyeoo ceao ae (pc.

6), cooec c opaa pax cyao oopax p, oca o ao po ee ooaee, co, a poec epepoy p. eco cceyec cxooopa, cocooc oye. Bpe oe aa opaaec 90 c. aoe pao oeoe aae oeaec 1 a. epe aa e yac, o cya pepo. O cocooc aye ooy aepay ceecye oee oceyx pepo, oa oceyeoo peypea o aae xpooep eoxooc o aae a oo copee. p cceoa o eoo pax opacx py ycaoeo, o oaae peyaoc oapyae oey ee ce oce 40 e.

VIII cyec axoee eocax eae ape. ec ec cocooc oceyeoo e cyecee pa peea e.

Oceyeoy peec cea aop apo. Ha ao opae e xaae ao-o oo cyeceo ea. co ao ap20 c. a pa oe oeaec 1 a. Maca peya20 ao.

IX cyec y ooca cy cceoa pocpaceoo oopae, ocpyoo e..Oceye oe oapy cocooc epeece peoo opaa c apo-opaa a opeeey ocpy, oopy o o acae occoae ex yo. Haop apoe-opao caap (pc. 7). Bpe eo peaepoao;

a yceoe, copae cpo, oee ocex 4 aa oee paec 1 2 aa. B ae oa yaa pep pee oe oe aoo aa. Maca peya48 ao.

X cyec oceoaex ap ec eo opoa o peeo xapaepce apao eo ycaoe oceoaeoc pa cea o cep apo.

Bceo peec 8 cep apo. aa cep peaaec opeeeo ope, e cooecye co oceoaeoc apo. Oceye oe yo cc opaeo c oo apo cop, po, o D. Wechsler, cocooc yopoe py aopo oecy ccey. ec oeac xapaep oe aa (cyecy ye xye apa) apaeoe a o pe. B acoc o oo oea o oe aa paa o 4 o 6 ao. aa ope x pee ycoc. Maca peya 36 ao.

XI cyec coee yp epe cocooc cocae oex paeo eoo ccooo eoo, cooyoc x paeo. Oceyeoy peaa 4 papeax a oee pae yp (pc. 9) co eoe. Bpe eo peaepoao. a cpoe oee aa ac ooee a (oea oex aa o 8 o 13 ao). Maca peya 46 ao.

ae o ceao ae epe (cpe) oe peyao oe oex cyeco epeoc ypoae, ae, ooe aapoa papoc. ocaec oeo epa eepa oaae, a ae o oaae. ocee 3 oaae ocac c oppee a opac.

D. Wechsler pae cyec a ocoe, ao ee peya c opaco (coap, oceoeoc, cocaee yp, oapyee eocax eae), e, oope oapya c opaco oe yxyee peyao (ocpoeee p, cxoco, ocaoa pox coo y ooca).

eee o eco epe ycoo. Heoope cyec, oec opac ee (cocaee yp eocae ea), pcc pye cyeco c ee peyaa , aoopo, oepee eaeoy opacx ee cyec ocpoeee p axoee cxoca oocc pye oepex ee.

Cpaee oaaee x yx py eco D. Wechsler oy oe eepopa, yepa (DQ):

THP TP DQ = ------------------------------------ x 100, THP e THP oaae o cyeca c eee peyaa, TP ae o cyeca c epee peyaa (oye peya yoee a 100 paaec poeax). a ye yaaoc, D. Bromley p epoooecx cceoax ooe aee pae ee oaae poyoc, oop opeee eeya ypoe o ooe oo a, oc a ooecoo eeyaoo Pc. 8. Tec Becepa. Cyec oceoaee ap Pc. 9. Tec Becepa. Cyec coee yp pa. oooo eoea, o D. Bromley, oaae poyoc pae eeyaoy oaae (IQ). capoo eoea IQ yepaec a oee eee ocoo ypoe, ao eyoo caec oaae poyoc.

Ta Paea (aa popeccx ap). Tec coa I. C. Raven 1936 .

Baae peoaaoc, o c eo oo yy cceoac ocoeoc ocp, epe. o o cao c e, o eopeeco ocoo eca, apy c eope eoeea C. Spearmen (1904), ec paaea eacxooe eop ocp op. Bpaoe c eco oc, o p pee axc ec aa cya p ocox cxecx poecca: ae, epe ee. ooy ec Paea e caec cyyo eeya eco, a eco ceoeo eea, oop ooc oo ay Becepa. p pee aa o aa Paea ooe aee ee oepa aoo a, eo ocao oe pacpeeee. B acoc, ae ec e aopo ocp, oop coae opeeey ycaoy epeo eeoc. C oo eca Paea cceoae cy copee e o eee, a o cocooc cceapoao, aoepo, eoo eeyao eeoc.

Tec Paea coco eepax aa, o, o e T. Bilikiewicz (1956), ee aoe aee, a a o ee yae a, popeee oceye c c opaoae e oo. Tec coco 60 a, pax a 5 cep. aa cep ae 12 a, coepax aa apacae pyoc. B o e pe xapaepo ycoee a aa o cep cep.

B cep A cooa p ycaoe aoc cpyype ap. aae aaec ooe eocae ac ocooo opae o peex ao ae paeo. Boee aa peye o oceyeoo aeoo aaa cpyyp ocooo opae oapye x e ocoeoce oo ecox paeo. ae pocxo cee paea, eo cpaee c opyee eocae ac a.

Cep B ocpoea o py aao ey apa yp. Oceye oe a p, cooeceo oopoy ocpoea ao oeo cyae aao , cxo oo, oopa eoca pae. p o ao opee oc cep, cooeceo oopo pacooe yp ocoo opae.

Cep C ocpoea o py popeccx ee ypax ap. yp peeax oo ap ce oe ycoc, pocxo a x epepoe pae. Ooaee yp o eea oec eoy py, oapy oop oo oopa eocay ypy.

Cep D ocpoea o py epepypo yp ape. Oceye oe oapy y epepypoy, pocxoy opoao epao apae.

Cep E ocoaa a pe paoe yp ocooo opae a ee.

Heocay ypy oo a, o p aaa cea yp.

B cpy oceyeoy cooa, o ey peco o 60 aa, opaa ae a x cee cooc. ae yaaec, o ao aa oo pae coepc opae opeeeo cpyyp cocae pa yp.

yp pcy opaa pacooe e cyao, a cooeceo opeeeo aooepoc. cao xapaep pcye ao ape aooepoc, oceye coe a eoca pae. Oepeoc oe aa oaea.

epe 5 aa (A1 A5) poepc ccey y e, ec o, o oceye o aae, ocae o oe ye c yeo pee coepeo caocoeo. epe 5 aa oc p eoxooc c oo cceyeo.

aoe paoe peee aa oeaec 1 a. ocaec oee co ao o ce aa o oe cep. oye o oaae paccapaec a ec eeyao c, yceo pooeoc oceyeoo. oaae oe aa o oe cep cpaac co cpeecacec, yaec paa ey peyaa, oye ao cep, opo, oye p caceco opaoe ax oceoa ox py opox , a opao, paceae a oaee peya. Taa paa ooe cy o aeoc oyex peyao (o e oocc cxeco aoo).

oye cyap oaae o ceao ae epeoc poe.

Paac 5 ceee eeyaoo ypo o ae: I cee ce 95 % ocoo coopa ee;

II cee 7594 % ee e cpeeo;

III cee 2574%cpe ee;

IV cee 524 % ee e cpeeo;

V cee e 5 % eeya ee.

peea paa oocc opeeeo opaco pye ceecye o eeyao ypoe oceyeoo ooceo o opaco py, oopo o pae.

C oo ceao a aco oaae oe epeee eeya oe (**).

aa oo. peoe Anstey (1943) ae ap Paea. Cacec o oaao, o ec oo oee 20 eoee o ooe a aaeoy aopy G o C. Spearmen (1904), oop cepeao oapy, o ec, apaee a ee oex cocooce, ca ey coo a ooe oppe pe oy o cyecoa eoeo oeo, eepaoo aopa G, oaaeo e a ce yaee epeee (ec).

Bee C. Spearmen eepa aop payec a aceca y epao epo cce. Ta opao, o ee paccapaec a ooec oycoeoe coco. oe eepaoo aopa o cx op ec peeo cycc copoo pax apae. B ecoo aa oo o cx op caec apaeo a epee oeo (poeoo) eea. ocoy caec, o eepa aop ocoeo ycee aooec apye cxeco eeoc, aa oo paccapaec a ec, ocoeo pee cceoa eea cxapeco pae. p o ae caec, o oe o epax eco, opaax eeya ypoe, peecoa aoea, aa oo opaae ypoe oe cceoa, . e. pe o-a e o ecax c ee epee peyaa.

aa oo coco 4 pepo 44 aa, pacooex o cee apaca pyoc. Ha peaaex oceyeoy apoax cax apcoa poyo c oa, aooe yopeex p pe oo. poyo pacooe opeeeo oceoaeoc, aa oopo ooe ycao ecy aooepoc poo o p. Oceye oe caa, coo oe, o eo e, oo poyoe, oyp oopoo ooae oo pxoo e.

Meoa coyec cxoepecoo cceoa eea, p o a oee cex 44 aa ooc 25 . C oo ceax a cyape oaae epeoc poee, cooecye opeeeoy ypo eea:

oeco oex poe eea aa (poe) 3144 (91100) Oe co 2530 (7190) Bco 1724 (3170) Cpe 616 (1130) He cpeeo 05 (110) H oeo, oea peyao oe aa o ecy ec eca oocopoe e oe xapaepoa ee o cex eo poex. Oao eoa a oaec oo pocoo, oa ao ac o ypo oeopaoaeo ooo, eo oe cooaa e oo yax, o accox cceoa c c oe pec oece eo, apaex a xapaepcy ypo ooe. poe oo, aa oo oe cooaa peapeo opaeo cp-aoc epeo paex oope pae pyoo cep.

METO (METO) CCEOBAH HOCT oc ec aoee co cxec ocpyo, oopo eco epeeac oeco coax ooecx aopo. eee ae ooo x aopo cyeceo opaaec a eo aoooex c py aopa a oc eo. C cao ooopae oxoo ye oc pae ace ye oc cxo pax oe, o oac eoooec cooeceo oy, oeo ao ay oaaec cceoae oc.

B ocee o aeo opoc epec cceoa ocx ocoeoce cxec ox a aocxoo, a eco cxap. o ocec po ocoec: o-epx, ee oc oaa eco epe oooeco ceoc oy cooa pee opoco epeao aoc;

o-opx, aa peopx coc oc oe oaac oe ycaoe oox p pocxoe pa aoea ( e oo cxecx, o coaecx, apep, eo oe, aoea cepeo cocyco cce);

-pex, xapaepca ocx ee ee aoea ooaae a pecae o eo aoeeecx exaax;

-eepx, ye ocoeoce oc oe ae paoaoo ocpoe oeca peaaox epop.

a cooc o oc, ceye cpay e coacc c e, o e aoo-o ooo eoa ee cceoa, a o paocopo o a e pecac, oop oe a eocy xapaepcy oc. C oo cepeaoo cceoa oyae acy xapaepcy oc, oopa ac yoeope ocoy, ocoy oa oeae opeeee oce poe, ee aee pee opeo aa.

B acoee pe eco oeco cepeao-cxooecx peo, eoo, eo, apaex a cceoae oc. O, a ye yaaoc, paac ocoeoc oxoa cao poee (pe e o pa pao, eoooeco), paoopae epeco cceoaee (oc yaec eaoeco cxoo, cxoo pya, coao aooeco cxoo . .) apaeoc a pae poe oc. oeo, epec cceoaee coe epe aa epeo coaa ocec o, o eo cceoa oc coao cxoo epyc a oopyee aocxooa, eo aocxoo acyc ceaca, paoa oac cxoo pya.

He cyecye ae coo-y eo e oee oepo acca eoo, coyex cceoa oc. Ha (B. M. exep, . . ypay, 1978) peoea aece ycoo ceya acca eoo cceoa oc:

1) aee e ey eo (yee opa, eca ecea, aa cyeoo oeoo aaea . .);

2) ceae cepeae eo (oepoae opeeex o eeoc, cya, eoope aapaype eo . .);

3) oce opoc pye eo, apyec a oee caooee;

4) poee eo.

a ye o aeeo, papaee x 4 py eoo eca ycoo oe cooao a opao paaecx aecx ex.

. Leonhard (1968) cae aee o aex eoo aoc oc, oaa ey peoee cpae c eoa a ocx opoco.

p o o pae ocooe aee oooc aa eoea eocpeceo, ya eo oeee a paoe oae ocaoe, cee, cpe pye aox, yo pyy p oo oece copaxc. oepaec ocoea aoc ae a o, ecye oa oceyeoo, c aco oee oe pep ocx poe, e coa. Haee e oo acco-coepae. B poecce ae aocxoo aapye e e, oope o , c o pe eeoc ooo opeeeo cya c o e oaae ecoe e a caayc cya c e, o cypoa opeeee oeeece pea oceyeoo. Haee o peaepeoe eeapaeoe ocpe, oycoeoe aae eeoc (M. C. Poo, 1979). B eco ecee aapyc ocoeoc opa ooo, pcye ey ocoeoc ocx pea, eo ooee coceoy xapaepy, ocoeoc oee oceyeoo opex cyax. ocee . Leonhard paccapae a ae eoec y aae oc. M. C. eec (1971) ocooe ae cceoa oc ooo ye ye eo aoopa, cocaex o poce paa, o eyxc pae.

cceoa oc poecce eeoc pec ceae eo, o oopx pe ye e. Ceye oe, o ooo aocxooa ao aepa a e cxooece eo, apaee a cceoae oaaeo eeoc. Hapep, o peyaa po a ayae 10 co oo cy o a aaecx ee y ooo opee (pa aoa a ao), o aeo aeo ypoe pa . .

aee eoece eoooece pyoc oa epe aocxooo c c cooae ocx opoco. oce xapaepc, oyaee ae caooe, peca ae epec aocxooa, oao p o epeo yycaec y eoxooc coocae ax caooe c oaae, oeo peca oc. aoee aco yopeex ocx opoco oo MMP1 pacoaae yoeope oeo aa, oo cy o aeaoc caooe oceyeoo.

Heocao ocpy ox ocx opoco ceye ca x y oceyeoo eeapaeoc. o epy oepe oocc ooeaec opoca a a peo. Ta opao, opa, oyaey c oo ocx opoco, oo aeao oe p cpae ee c a oeo oe oc, a ae p ooe ee peyaa cceoa oc poecce eeoc, poe eoa. oop eo, oox o o oc opoc, opeeec o oo aae cceoa. Hapep, p ye ypee ap oe o ooo o ooe coey aoea cyeceo yoec eee cepe eo a eaoex peoe.

o poe oae ae eo oocpeoaoo ye oc, oope apyc a ocpoe ceeco, aco cya, coae cy aoc poecca ocp aoee aope yco poe ee, ycaoo, ooax coco pyx ocoeoce oc (B. M. exep, . .

ypay, 1976, 1978). E. T. Coooa (1980) cae, o poe eo, opepoa a yee e ocoaaex e oe ocoax op oa, ec y e ece coceo cxooec eoo pooe aoee y oac eoeeco cx. Ec oco cxooecx peo, cae E. T.

Coooa, apaeo a yee oo, a a ce eo ocaec oe xapaep opae eoeo eeo pa, o poee eo ca coe e ee coeopax cyex ooe, ocx eppea, pe ocee aeo e cea oe, e cea, a pao, oco a.

Ceye o, o aao poex eo aeo pe oo epe eoecx peo, oope paoo ac y pyy eo (B. M. exep, . . aca, 1970, 1976). ee poeoc oo a oce aocxooecx eoo eo. oee oo, ec ocoa oaa, o ecea c oceye, apaea oco opao, oe coepa ee poeoc. B acoc, o oe ocyo p ocye c o ex x ex o coepax yo oec poee cycca, e oeceo .

aocxooece eo acee poe poeoc poaapoa B.

. Pee (1976). p o ycaoeo, o p eo (opa, cceoae caooe, ypoe pa p.) ee ocoe eooay ooo cy e opaae pa opa oeo. Boooc oye ooceo ooo oeca oeo oceyeoo aeo epe ac o ocoeoce poee aocxooecoo cepea. Ba aopo p o ec, o B. .

Pee, eocoaoc oceye cx ee pee eo. o ocoeco, apep, o yeo oa eo TAT H. . eo (1965). o a ae, aeo epe p poeoc pcy eoe acca. B c c ceye coacc c B. . Pee, o e cyecye eo cceoa oo ocx ocoeoce oo oaaex poecco. Ocoy po pae coae ooo oee aopx yco ayaa poecce oe aa aopa poeoc, o eco epe opeeec e oo a, yee cxooa, o ec oco cycco.

cceoae ypo pa. oe ypo pa papaaaoc cxooa o . Lewin, B acoc, a coaa eoa cepeaoo cceoa ypo pa F. Hoppe (1930). B cepee ycaoeo, o ypoe pa ac o oo, acoo yceo oc oceye cepeae aa. B. H. Mce (1935) paa e copo ypo paoeo pay cyeo-ocy. oce eco caa c caooeo, yco eooeoc, eee caoyepe cpeee e oaaex coe eeoc cee oee pyococooc. aee aop yaa, o coooee x oeo opeeec ypoe pa ox, ocoeo p cxoex aoeax.

poe pa e ec ooao, cao oco xapaepco (. B. eap, 1969, 1972;

B. C. Mep, 1970). Moo pa cxo ypoe pa, opeec cee pyoc aa, oope eoe cae o ce, cooecy eo oooc. aee oo oop o eco ae ypo pa cooec c e, acoo ypoe pa oaac aea ypo oce. B peyae eeoc eoea (o oocc yco cepeao cya) ycaaaec, aoe, eoop ao oc ypoe pa.

B oppoa ypo pa oy po pae cooece eeoc oceyeoo eo peooe o cee cooc aa, oee oopx poco ey yoeopee. B. C. Mep (1970) paa ooe aee coa aopa, ca, o oo o e eeoc cyecy pae coae op oce pax coax aeop acoc o ooc, ceaoc, aa a. o aop pae ecy po ycox cepeaoo cceoa ypo pa ae paoe oee cepeax aa p opeeeo caooee oceyeoo oe e ocpac a yceoe. Oca eae p aoc ae oopa cepeax aa, Xapaep pea oceyeoo a ycex eycex epy oepe opeeec e, acoo ycoa y eo caooea. Aapy ay ypo pa, B. C.

Mep axo, o eoc pyoc pcocoe oc eeoc ye ee ypo pa ac o coc eepaea (peooc, cpa- poeppoaoc, ooaoc) o ax cyyo ocx coc, a aa ypoe pa, aeaoc eaeaoc caooe, cee ee ycooc, o caoyepe.

oo caooe, ae ypo pa cyecey po pa ae oe, a ooee oceyeoo cya cepea ' cceyey, oea eeoc oceyeoo cepeaopo, pecppy xoe oa ycex eycex, xapaep cepeax aa.

B aopaop . B. eap papaoa apa eo cceoa ypo pa (. . ea, 1967). epe o y pa pacaa oopoo copoo epx 24 apo. B ao py (o 1 12 o 1, a 12, a) apo coepa opoc apacae cooc, apep:

1. Haca 3 coa a yy ػ.

1.a Haca 5 co a yy H.

3. Haca aa 5 opoo a yy ˻.

3,a Haca 6 e a yy .

10. Haca a 5 caee a yy C 10,a Haca a 5 ecx coecx oapco a yy ˻.

12. Haca a 7 paycx xyoo 12,a Haca a ecx pyccx xyoo a yy ʻ Oceyeoy cooa, o ao py apo pacooe o opacae cee cooc aa, o apaeo yx pax ea apo oaoo pyoc. ae ey peaa cooeceo co oooc pa aa o o cooc o x. Oceyeoo peypea o o, o a aoe aae oycaec opeeeoe pe, o aoe ey e oop. Ba ceyoep a pa, oa oceye epe oy apoy, ccey p ea oe caa oceyeoy, o o e yoc ooeoe pe ooy aae caec eoe. o ooe cceyey cycceo coaa eycex.

O aeo pooopyec. Opaaec ae a o, acoo ypoe pa ooo cooecye eo oooc (eeyaoy ypo, opaoa) a o peapye a ycex eycex. O oe oce yceoo oe, apep, 3-o aa cpay e epy 8- 9- apoy, pye, aoopo, pae ocopo pao o aae, o epy apoy o o e cee cooc, o ceyy. To e caoe p eycexe o oceyee epy apoy o e cooc o eaeo eee pyy, oa a pye, e o 9-e aae, epexo a 2-e 3-e, o ceecye o pae xpyoc y x ypo pa. Booo aoe oeee ooo, oa, ecop a eycex, o pooae pa aa ce oee coe. o ceecye o eocaooc poc e.

H. . aa (1971) ycaoa, o peee apae . . ea opoc, apaee a ee oeopaoaeoo ypo, pyo oac papoa.

Cee x pyoc opeeec e oo oeo ex a ypoe opaoa oceyeoo, o o oo ac o pya eo epeco. B ocax oee oex pepe ycaoe cee cooc aa H. . aa peoa cooa ap, oaec py o pya oeco eeo. ec pepe cooc ec oeco pa ey cpaae apa. poe oo, opo oceoa oo ycao pe, apaaeoe opo a oee aa pao cee cooc. B ocao poeee cceoa ypo pa oa H. . a e eoc.

poee cceoa oy cooa aa pyoo poa, p oope oopx oo ooceo oeo ycao x paa o cee cooc: y ooca, oa cep a Paea. aoy aa eoxoo oopa apaeoe, pepo paoe o cee pyoc, Peya cceoa oy pecae oe aoc oee x aaa e paa.

peca epec cceoa ypo pa c oeo eoopx oecex oaaee. Taoe cceoae oe e aee oeo xapaepc cee cxecoo eea oceyeoo. oa oa eo cceoa ypo pa a pepa B. . opaec (1969), cooa oo ce cyec a Becepa (WAIS). Oao oa B. . epaecoo pecaec a coo aocxooecoo cceoa, ooy ecoo opoa apa eo eap- ea.

Coaco cpy, oceye oe 24 apoe, coepax pae o coe pyoc opoc, pa cooeceo co oooc 11 ( x yac epe 10). Bpe oea e peaepyec, . e. ao yec aecoe oee aa, oao oceyeoy coey p eoooc oe a opoc cpay e caa o o. a ecoe apacae pyoc aex apoax opoco, oe cooeceo oeac aax, apep, pa oe a apo 1 1, a 1 a, 2 2, a 2 aa, 8 8, a 8 ao . . p o, a e a o B. . opaecoy, opeeec ea ypo pa (cyapa oea pax apoe) ypo oce (cya apax oo).

poe oo, cec cpe oaae, opee ee eeoc oce yceoo eyceoo oea. Hapep, ec oceye oe a 7 opoco, ocaec oeo cya ao o apoa, pa oce yceoo oea, ec a 7. Aaoo opeeec cpe oaae ee eeoc oce 3 eycex oeo. oe opa apo oce oceeo oea oceyeoy peaa eyaeoe 11-e aae.

Meoa cceoa ypo pa, a oaae paec o, ooe oapy oce ocoeoc ox p ope, pypo cxoe, ec, cxoax, epepao aepocepoe, opaecx opaex oooo oa, poeax c xapaepooec ee.

cceoae caooe o eoe eoPye. Meoa peoea C. .

Pye (1970) cceoa caooe. B e cooa pe T. Dembo, c oo oopoo oapyac pecae oceyeoo ocoe cace.

C. . Pye aeo ea y eoy, pacpa ee, ea eco a ocea 4 (opoe, yceoe pae, xapaep cace). Ceye ae, o cooae a ocea xapaepc aoo-o ocoo coca aeo oe cococye e o oceyeoo, e peee aepax eo a po opoce ca paaex, oa ooy peaa aop opeee (yepe po, opo oo) poc ooa coe cocoe (H. Heirmann, 1967). B eoe eoPye oceyeoy pecaec oooc opee coe cocoe o pa caooe aa c yeo pa aco, opaax cee paeoc oo oo ocoo coca.

Meoa oaec pae pocoo. Ha ce ya pooc epaa epa, o oopo oceyeoy oop, o oa ooaae cace, pe epx oc cooecye coco ooo cac, a aa cae ecace .

Oceyeoo poc ooa a o epo pyoo coe eco. Tae e epae pooc pae caooe ooo o aa opo, yceoo pa, xapaepa.

ae pcya ecee c o, oopo c eo pecaee o cace ecace, opoe eopoe, xopoe oxo xapaepe . . Bcec, oey oo cea oey opeeeo ece a ooae cox ocoeoce.

Hapep, o oyo eo oca oey ao ece a opo, cae o ce opo o, ec o, o ao oe, oo o cae o.

Coeopa apa eo oca T. M. ap (1972) c cooae ao a c 7 aeop, apep: ca oo, eca oo, oee eee oo, cpee oo, oee eee opo, eca opo, ca opo. cooae a c ao paae, o ae aopa, oeceae oee oe pa e o oceyex.

B acoc o opeo aa, coe epe ccey, eoy oo o pye a. Ta, p oceoa ox aooo oyec aa acpoe, ceeoo aooy cyex oce. p oceoa ox epecco coco oc a acpoe, pecae o yye (ocecoo ecccecoo), peo, yepeoc cee . .

B aae oyex peyao C. . Pye yee ocooe ae e coo pacooe oeo a aax, coo ocye x oeo. cxec opo , o ae C. . Pye, pcya ee opee coe eco o ce aa oo y e cepe.

cxec ox oeaec ee ooc o oeo oca ceae oooe ooee cceyey, paee, o e C. - Pye, ay po opeee coeo eca a x a cxec opo, eaco o x caooe peao eo cya.

oyaee c oo o eo ae popea oco epec p coocae c peyaa oceoa y aoo ooo ocoeoce e ooao-oeo cep.

p o oy e apyee poc cee, epecca caooea, opoc. Coocaee ax o caooee c oe oaae o py cepeao-cxooecx eo eco epe ooe cy o pcye ooy ypoe pa, cee eo aeaoc. Moo ya, o caooea p eoopx cxecx aoeax e ocaec ocoo, xapaep ee ac e oo o ceoc cxoaooecx poe, o o ca oe.

oc opoc Aea ec apao, coa aopo (H. J. Eysenk, 1964) poecce epepao e peoeoo Maycecoo opoca (1952) a e, a pey, apae a cceoae aopo cpa-, poepc epoa.

o cpa- poepc coa cxoaaa. C Jung paa cpa- poeppoae paoae ce ooa) ppaoae (cecop y) cxooece .

o e . Leonhard (1970), pep pae cpa- poepc C. Jung ocoo coc cyeoc oeoc e. H. J. Eysenk (1964) cae cpa- poepc co cee oye opoe epao epo ccee, paccapa o aop, c aeo epe poe, a peya aaca poecco oye opoe. p o ocoa po paec coco peypo opa a coooe ocox epx poecco. H. J.

Eysenk yaae ae a aee o ooecx aopo: eoope apo poeppy eoea, oa a aepecca eo cpaeppy. Te cpaep poep paccapac H. a oc pooooe, pa oyya, oop pae o o epe pac. o H. J. Eysenk, cpaep oee, eep, ee oo pye, yaec x, o ooop c , e ca a yc. O ae oye, pcye, ecye o e oea, yce. cpaep aepe y, e ee apa a coo, oo epee. O eaoe, opoyo ece, oce, cec, peoae ee ece, ee ee apeccoc, c. Eo o yca cpoo e opopyc, a eo e cea oo ooc.

B poooooc cpaepy poep cooe, ace, pocee. O peoae oe c y. Cepa oae o cex, poe x pye.

apye co ec apaee. He oepe ea oye. Cepeo oocc p pee, o ce opo. opopye co yca, peo ocyae apecco, e xo ce. Ha poepa oo ooc. O ecoo eccce, coo e ece op.

Ca H. J. Eysenk cae, o ocaa xapaepca po- cpaepa aoae ocay C. Jung, o e ec eo e. . Leonhard cae, o ocae H. J. Eysenk cpaepa cooecye ape oaaaoo coco oaae, o aop cpa- poepc e ca c epa eepaea. o e . Leonhard, o po- cpaepc peca coo cocey cxecy cepy, pe cpaepa opeeee e ee p oye, a poepa p pecae, a o o oyaec ypaec oe capy, a pyo oe yp.

Ceye oe, o oa pe . Leonhard aeo epe cooecye a B. H. Mcea (1926), opee oc, c o-cxooeco o pe, a cac pecc, a c epoooeco copo oy aopoe.

J. Gray (1968) ca opoc o eoc apaepo c epo cce po cpaepc, pe ocy caoc epo cce cooecye oc poepc.

p o J. Gray apaep c epo cce paccapae acee ypoe aa caa epa ccea paccapaec a ccea oee cooo ypo pea o cpae c co epo cceo p yco oec a x oeo oaox ecx cyo.

J. Strelau (1970) ycao, o cpaepc ooeo caa c co poecca oye ooc epx poecco. B o e pe e cyecye c ey cpaepce co opoe ( oo .. aoa ca opoe ycaaaec ceo ycooo opoe, B oe J. Strelau pe e o peeo opoe, cocoe ycooo oxpaeoo, . e. yx pax o opoe). Bce p coca epo cce (ca oye, ca opoe ooc epx poecco), o a J. Strelau, opaeo ca c apaepo epoa. Bce o ceecye o epaoepoc coocae oo oc o H. J. Eysenk c a ce epo eeoc o .. aoy.

aop epoa ( epoa) ceecye, o H. J. Eysenk, o ooao-cxooeco ycooc eycooc, caoc ecaoc paccapaec c c poeo aoc eeao epo cce. B o ae ocx coc pooooe ee pae copaoc oopaoc. p o a oo oce oaaec eoe ee op, a oopo cpaec oepeoc ceoo cxooec epypa, ey eypaoeeoc epo-cxeco eeoc. Ha pyo oceoc, cxooec ycoe, xopoo aapyec opyae coao pocpee.

aopy epoa ooc ceo aa po coao H. J. Eysenk aeo cpeccoo oee oaoeea epoo, coaco oopo epo paccapaec a cece oce cpecca pepacooe epoy. Hepo- opaae pepacooee epoy, peco. p paeo epoe, o H. J. Eysenk, ocaoo eaeoo cpecca, , aoopo, p ecoo oaaee epoa ooe epoa peyec c cpecc, o pac epo.

poe oo, opoc Aea eea opoa aa (aa ). Oa cy e oceyex c eaeo peao ycaoo, . e. c eee peapoa a opoc a opao, o oyc eaee oceyeoo peya.

Opoc papaoa 2 apaex opax (A ), oox poec oopoe cceoae oce ax-o cepeax poeyp. Bopoc oac, o cpae c MMP1, pocoo opypoo. Ba pecaec a cee y oppe ey aa cpaepc epoa.

Opoc coco 57 opoco, x 24 o ae cpaepc, 24 o ae epoa 9o ae .

cceoa peecye cpy, oopo yaaec, o cceyc oce coca, a e ycee cocooc. Ha opoc peaaec oea e paya, cpay e, a a aa epa pea oceyeoo a opoc. Ha opoc oo oea oo a o e, e x poyca.

ae pec opoc o ceao epa (o oeae oey, a a ooe cooa e paapea co ceao popea ooa), o aecee a apo c cooecy opao opea ya ( oceyeo yea). po e opoc.

Ta, o cpaeppoaoc ceecy ceye opoc ( coax oeaec cooecy oe, p pooooo xapaepe oea o caec oaae poepc):

Hpac a oee cyea opy ac? (a), B ex e, oope e ey a coo apa? (a).

epec oo e a eepax oax? (e). peoaee paoa ooece? (e).

Macaa oea o ae cpaepc ao apae opoca Aea aa. O cpaeppoaoc ceecye oaae e 12 ao. p oaaee e 12 ao oop o poeppoaoc. Bopoc, e a epoa:

ycyee ce oa cac, a oa ea e ao-o p?

(o ae epoa yac oo ooee oe).

ae yac oa ypoe acpoee?

eo oaeec epeea acpoe?

aco ep co -a yca peo?

O epoe ceecye pea 12 ao oaae o ae.

pep opoco o ae :

Bcea eaee eeeo epooo o, o a paa? (a).

Ceeec oa ep ya? (e).

Xacaeec oa? (e).

Bcea oeaee a ca cpay oce poe? (a).

oaae 45 ao o ae paccapaec ye a pec. Bco oaae o ae ceecye o ee oceyeoo aa xopoe oe.

Tee a poec oeax a opoc o py aa, oao aa a ayaa coeopa aopo eocpaoc oee oceyeoo.

Ceye oe, o aa opoce Aea aeo e cea cococye pee ocaeo aa. oaae o e epy oepe oppepy c eeya ypoe oceyeoo. Hepeo a c pae cepec epa cooc eocpaoc oee, o oaae xopo eeo, cpay e opee apaeoc coepaxc o ae opoco , ca x opaeo xapaepy oceyeoo, a o o ae ae oaae. Ta opao, oeo, aa oe epe ceecye o oco poc, e o eocpaoc oeax.

o H. J. Eysenk (1964, 1968), y poepo aac cece co, y cpaepo cepece cxoaece. oe epoo paac o ecy cpaepc. o ecy epoa a pax ocax pacoaac opoe oe epoo (cxoa). ox opee aaec oaae epoa, y ox epecco coco co. C opaco oeea ee yee oaaee epoa cpaepc.

ae H. J. Eysenk yac yoe. B acoc, cyax cxoa p cceoa c oo opoca oapyaec ecoe pae oaaee. Ta, cxoa oe cxaceecoo pya, o a ae, epeo oapya poeppoaoc. Pae op epoo ae oac e oo o oaae cpaepc. ox cepe epeo xapaepe co oaae yppoao co oaae epoa, epeo e cooecy oeo aaeo eco ape.

B ocee apa opoca Aea (1968, 1975) ee opoc o ae cxoa. o aopo cxoa oaec ee ooe o cxeco op, a pepacooeoc cxoy. Oee oeco opoco o 78 o 101. o a S. Eysenk H. J. Eysenk (1969), oaae o ae cxoa ac o oa opaca oceyex, o e y e, oee coe y opoco ox e.

ac o ae o coao-ooecoo cayca oceoax. Oao aoee cyeceo paa o aopy cxoa oaaac p cpae opox oceyex c o cxoa, . e. p oee eo poeax epoax, a ae c a, axoc ae.

Cyecye ae oc opoc S. Eysenk(1965), aapoa oceoa ee, aa c 7-eeo opaca. O coep 60 opoco, cocaex c yeo opaca eppepyex o aa cpa- poepc, epoa .

Opoc cceoa aeypoax coc oc papaoa H.

Schmieschek (1970) a ocoe oe aeypoax oce . Leonhard (1964, 1968).

Coaco e, cyecy ep oc (aeypoae), oope ca o cee ee e c aooec, oao oy p opeeex ycox paac ooeo opaeo apaex. ep c a aocpee eoopx, pcyx aoy eoey, eoopx, yax coc, pa apao op. cxoao ep oca ocoeo oo paeoc. o ae . Leonhard, epo, a pao, oa y aeypoax oce. .

. epep (1970) poo aao ey o aeypoaa oc .

Leonhard o E. Kretschmer. Beee py aeypoax oce oe oaac ooop papao opoco oaoeea opao cxap, o ce p ye coaocxecx oppeo p eoopx coaecx aoeax, pocxoe oopx y po pa oce ocoeoc aoeeo. o e . . epepa, oe aeypoax oce oe oaac oeo ye coc oc poceo cxec ox.

. Leonhard ee 10 ocox o aeya.

1. epe oc, xapaepyec cooc oeoy acpoe.

2. acpeae oc, co cooc aepe, acpea aea peo (apao) pea.

3. oe, aeo ae oc.

4. eae oc, c peoaae ep poc, ao ooc epx poecco, eaa.

5. Tpeoe oc, c peoaae xapaepe ep peooc.

6. oe oc, co cooc a oea acpoe.

7. eocpae oc, c cepec epa xapaepa.

8. Boye oc, co cooc oeo, yco peaoc cepe ee.

9. cece oc, co cooc paccpoca acpoe, cyepecce.

10. apoae oc, coe aeo aa.

Bce py aeypoax oce oec . Leonhard o py aeya coc xapaepa eepaea. aeya coc xapaepa, ocoeoce cpee oocc eocpaoc ( aoo cxoa cepecoo pya), eaoc ( aooaaace-ca cxoa), cooc acpea ( aooapaoe cxoa) oyoc ( aoo eoe cxoa). Ocae aeya . Leonhard ooc ocoeoc eepaea, o opaa e yy aex pea.

Opoc ea coco 88 opoco. po xapaepe opoc.

e epoc:

pep ? (a).

Moee paea oeco, yo oa? (a).

e cooc acpea:

Ocaaee epo co epec, oa o ooe a oyca ecpaeoc? (a).

acyaeec a e, o ooe oop oyea ecpaeoc? (a).

opcyee oce e, ec a y cpeaec oo pec? (a).

e eaoc:

He oa y ac o ooa ao-y pao coe aece ee coe e peaee poepe pao ce o ceao? (a).

Papaae ac, ec aaec caep c epoo, capaeec o opa?

(a).

e peooc:

He oc ece o po, coa? (a), ecoo ac eoxooc cycc e ope, o ycy eoceey oay? (a).

e ooc:

a yac epexo o eceoo acpoe oe ocoy? (a).

Cyaec c a, o, oac ca oeo acpoe, ypo caee oxo pacooe yxa, oopoe c ecoo aco? (a).

e eocpaoc:

Cyaoc a pa, epea eoe epoe opcee? (a).

Oxoo oe eapoa cx? (a).

He pyo a cya a cee c aep epe oo ayope? (e).

e oyoc:

eo aaee e? (a).

Moee , cepc a oo-y, yc xo py? (a).

Coepaee o e aoo eae, yce ocy? (a).

e coc:

Coco aoo-ece? (e).

Hpac a'a oece? (e).

e apoaoc:

a yac coco, oa pecoe cac? (a).

Moee o e paoapoa ac oae? (a).

Oe a opoc aocc pecpao c, a ae c oo ceao oooex e ocaec oaae o aoy o oco aeya. cooae cooecyx oeo eae oaae cooca. Maca oaae o aoy y aeya 24 aa.

pao aeya caec oaae, peocxo 12 ao. Peya oo pa paec e po oco aeya. Moo oca cpe oaae aeya, pa acoy o ee cy cex oaaee o oe a aeya a 10. Meoa ea a aapoaa cceoa ee opoco c yeo x opacx ocoeoce epeco (. B. py, 1975).

aoxapaepooec aocec opoc (O) papaoa H. .

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