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B.M. exep .B. py aocxooeca aoca e 3opo' 1986 56.14 68 616.89071 aocxooeca aoca/exep B. M., py . B. .: 3opo', 1986280 c.

B oco aac ocoe p eoece pe aocxoo.

poc cee o aoee aco yopeex eoax aocxooecoo cceoa a, a, cecooop, ypo ocoeoce poea cex poecco, ocx coc ooo. B paee, oceo opoca aocxooeco ceo, aec xapaepca ax, oyaex p oceoa ox opee, aaao-epecc cxoo, ece, oopee, capec caoye, pece ee, epepa aepocepoo, aooo, c ocec epeo-ooo pa, opa epo-cxec paccpoca, cxec aoea ecoo opocooo opaca. Ocyac opoc aoc aocxooecx eo oooeco cxapeco aoce. cxapo aocxooo. . 32. op,: c. 272276.

Peee po. . . apacapc -pe. ay . A. ype 4118000000-021 M209(04)- aeco 3opo', I. OA ACT ATOCXOO MEHCA CXOO aocxoo ec paeo eco cxoo ay, oe a ce e cxoo.

Meca cxoo oocc ecapo, opao oac cceoa. Oa cxo cxooecx eop papaoax a x ocoe cxooecx eoo, ocoa po oopx coco pee ayx paecx poe, ayax e.

O ae cxoo e, acoc ye eeoc oooo oa p pax aoeax, ca . M. Ceeo .. ao.

E. B. opoxoa (1978) oepae, o ea a e yaec ax pao cxoo, pao a eop cxoo ooaae eca paa.

Oa eop e epapo caa c o cxooec oe.

Coeco ee cxoo pcy oe eoooece p aeecoo copecoo aepaa. pcy oe poe, xoe a pee cyyo eco poeao coooee ooecoo coaoo eeoc eoea, c ey cxo eeoc oa, cxocoaece coaocxece oppe, poe op aoo, coooe ey coae eocoaae opa cxeco eeoc.

. , apacapc (1982) ececeo cpee eco cxoo pacpocpa cxooece a a ooo oee co aceo e paooxpae pae opacae po cxoo e, popecc epce y pa eco cxoo.

Ta opao, eca cxoopaa aya, pae oopo opeeec cey e (M. C. eec, B. H. Mce, 1966;

M. M. aao, .

. apacapc, 1978;

. . apacapc, 1982): yee cxecx aopo, x a pae oee, x poay eee;

yee ex x oee a cxy;

yee pax poe cx x ae;

yee apye pa cx;

yee xapaepa ooe ooo eoea c ec epcoao opyae eo pocpeo;

papaoa po eoo cxooecoo cceoa e;

coae yee cxooecx eoo oec a cxy eoea eex poaecx ex.

Meca cxoo oopeeo cyae po cxooeco eco ay (B. M. ao, 1978;

B. Me, . Mee, 1981;

. . apacapc, 1982).

B cooec c papeae e poea co epe e aaa eca cxoo ec eco ayo, a cooec c eopeec peoca eoa cceoa oa oa oecea cxoo.

Cyoc eco cxoo o-paoy opee pax cpaax, epeo p o e e eoo e cxoo, paoae oo cpae.

M. C. Poo (1969) po xapaepcy eco cxoo, coy accaoy cxey aepacoo opaecoo ypaa Psychological Abstracts, coaco oopo oe eco cxoo cooecye coepa o eco cxoo (payeec, c yeo ococyx aepaco cxoo eopeecx oe). Ho ae aepaco epaype A. Lewincki (1974) oeae p pax o pe a pee eco cxoo. epa xapaepyec e, o co ecy cxoo ye cxecx paccpoc, oax c c e aoeae;

cooeceo opo, eca cxoo oaec a eopaeca cxooeca ca, aaac yee cxecx poe oc (ca ac poeccoae ocya, ocypoae cyeo oee, cceoae pyooeo epcoaa pep);

c pee o pe, eca cxoo paccapaec a oac pao cxoo, yaa c oo epex peo, aaa ae oaee xeopcco acee cocooc coca oc apaea a papaoy cocoo ycpae eaapoaoo oee. Taoe oae eco cxoo o oepyo cpaeo pe . . oo (1977), oe p o opeoe oe aepaco cxoo o coeco, xapaepyeec ceo pcyx epo cxooecx eo, apaex a opao a ocaa ex x cxecx cocooce coc oc (cxoepece ec, poee aee eo, oce opoc).

oo, o ceoe epeecee o eco cxoo o e, a oo o xapaepoao e, coecy cxoo eooo. B o e pe oe eco cxoo oe oaac eecoopa p pao ey eoooeco oxoe, a a oo cococye ecoy cye oe pooo pya aa eco cxoo. o ocoeco o oeeo B. ao (1971, 1976), B. M. exepo (1976), B. M. ao (1978).

Moo ya, o ooee eco cxoo eco aoe e, a ooee ee ooe.

p ao oxoe o eco cxooe oo oa oac eco cxoo, paoe aee oopo opeeec opeoc cxapeco, epooeco, coaeco. y oy pe paee B. ao (1971), paccapa ecy cxoo a ac eco, cay epe coo oee eocpecee aocece aa, paa ae cocae pae eco cxoo, a aocxoo, epocxoo, coa-ocxoo.

Paeee eco cxoo a ao-, epo- coa-ocxoo aeo epe ycoo. x aeo cae cooae ao epecex oace eoo cceoa, papaoax pyo, a ae ae opao aoo, ec peeo ye ecox ay.

oe aocxoo oa e ocoa epyec c oe cxoaoo, xo o oce e oece, ecop a x eee cxoco eco opayx coa ope. aocxoo, o opeee . B. eap (1969), cceye cpyypy apye cxeco eeoc, aooepoc ee pacaa x coocae c opo, p o oa ae aa cxoaooecx e ox copeeo cxoo. cxoaoo ec ayo cyyo eco, paeo cxap, oa oeppye a opao ec o.

cxoaoo, .e. oa cxap, aaec ocae pao cxecoo aoea ae, ee oe. A. B. Ceec (1970) ocooe oe cxoaoo o cxoo o, o epa oeppye o ec (oo, aoee, co, cpo) coye oeaooece pep (ooee oe, cxo oe). Oao ceye ae, o aocxoo ae coye ece pep, a a e ocooo cooece c oa ypaa coe paecoe, paoe aee. ae aocxooecoo cceoa oaeo ope o cooocc c cxec cayco ooo, co cae ee aoea, c eo ao. O.. Poc (1974) cae, o aocxoo a e, a cxoaoo, yae aooepoc cepeo pa cxeco oe, o peeo ee cceoa ec e aooepoc ce coo cpoo, a opeeeoe eo cpyype cooopaoa, .e. o, o peecye cxoaooec opaoa aoeee oe. aocxoo eoxooe eo oe aoo cxecoo.

cxoaoo, a e, a aocxoo, ec ayo, yae paccpoca cx, o oyc o p o pa eoa. Ec aocxoo yae cxece paccpoca eoa cxoo, o cxoaoo ocoo peae eoy o-ocae'oy. ooo yepe o o, o cxoaoo aocxoo c oo o e ayo, oa, oeo, cy o ocoeco, o aocxoo, cxoaoo e eo c o e e oeo, apye cxeco eeoc.

Oao, ya o e e poe cxeco aoo, apep paopaoc e peoepco, aocxoo ccey x cxooecy cpyypy, a cxoaoo a ecoe ocae x pao, pocea ocoeoc x ooe c c py aae e paccpoca e.

OCOEHHOCT AA ATOCXOOECOO CCEOBAH aocxooec cepe cyeceo oaec o pyx o cepea, peex ee, apep oo, ox, pooo.

aocxooec cepe, a o pyo cxooecoo cepea, o cycceoe coae yco, x e e ocoeoc cxeco eeoc eoea ee aoo (ocoy pe e o aocxoo). aoo cepea xapaepo ae cxecx poecco cpoo opeeex ycox, yaex cceoaee, oooc ee ee x poecco o apaee aeeoy ay.

. B. eap (1969) ppaae aocxooec cepe poo coye coaeco ee yoa poa, c oo oopx pa oo opee cocoe y oo oo ypeeo opaa. Po ceeco apy aocxooeco cepee pae cepea aa, oee oopx peye ayaa ycex oepa, oo coyex eoeo coe eeeoc. Ta opao, cxeca eeoc ooo cceyec c c cyae cepea.

Hapy c o epa, pcy aocxooecoy cepey cepeao-cxooecoy cceoa cxec opox, ey ec cyecee pa.

Ocooe pae oycoeo e, o aocxoo oceye aea, cpaaeo cxec aoeae. o aeo caaec a exe poee cepea, eo pooeoc, eoxooc yea ooe oceyeoo cya cepea. B pe cyae cepeaop xoe oa, c c c p o ocoeoc oee ooo, ye cyeceo e co ay, o pye, e peoaaec pae, eo . .

(1966) aece ocooo pa oo cxooecoo cepea ee eoxooc poep cyecoa c ey pa aopo. p o aop, ee cepeaopo, aaec eaco epeeo, aop, ec o e eaco epeeo, aaec aco epeeo, cooeceo paae a a cxooecoo cepea: cpoopoa cepe cepe, a oop ccac. Haoee aco cxoo oyc cpoopoa cepeo, oop, o e P. Fraisse, ec ca accec cepeaop oecye a eacy epeey aae ae eo eaeco peya.

O cepee, a oop ccac, oop ex cyax, oa eee eaco epeeo pocxo e ao-o c c eeoc cepeaopa.

T pepo cepea, a oop ccac, ec aee a poc apye cxeco eeoc p opee oa cxecx aoeax. Coeopae x cyae aaec o, o oe o ooo, cpoopoaoo, cepea, p x cepeaop oyae oooc aa cepee epeo eopae ee eaco epeeo.

aocxooec cepe oce cyae o oopeeo cpoopoa cepe cepe, a oop ccac.

Hae cxooeco cepee eeo cpoopoaoo cepea cepea, a oop ccac, oce coy aoc oeca aopo, oope oe ya aocxoo p ooe aepao cceoa. C. .

Pye (1965) p cocoa oee yco, x a cxecoe cocoe oceyeoo yeax o yeax pcye ooy cxooece ee. ep coco aaec ee cya, oopy a pe oa oeaec oo. Bopo, aoee aco pee coco aaec ceao appoa eeoc ooo. Tpe coco oaec o peyx e, o eee coco cxecx poecco y ooo ocaec eee opeeex apaooecx peapao.

o paeee cocoo oec a cxecy eeoc ooo aocxooeco cepee eoxoo ya coe co peceyeo opeeee e oa. B o e pe oo poox aocxooecx cceoax oy aac ee epecex pex cocoo oec a eacy epeey. Ta, oo cceoa cocoe a y ooo acoo e o ocaoe ceao ocpoox yo. Coocaee peyao ca cceyeo oee oo paocopoe xapaepco y a y oceyeoo. cceoae a o eoy aya ec co oo coea c eee cypyx opox eeoc op ooo oa peapao (poa, oea).

aocxoo oe, acoo o ooo, peca ooee oceyeoo cya cceoa, e o eo eeoc poecce oe cepeax aa ocoo cooca c oyaee p cceoa peya. p o aocxoo e oe aa, o acoc o e cceoa o, oop pyoocyc ccey cceye, aeo e cea coaa, ocoeo p cepo apaeoc cceoa.

B cxapeco e aocxooecoe cceoae peceye ceye aa.

1. oyee ax aoc. ae oc cooae xapaep x eoc oapyaec p coocae c peyaa ecoo ae pe cyae c peyaa1 pyx aopaopx cceoa (apep, epoeaopa).

oo, o aocxoo e oe ca epe coo aay oooeco aoc ao oeo cyae c c oyae a cxooecoo cceoa. Hoooec ao o aaa ca-cxapa, oop pee ee a pa oe pao oea peya aocxooecoo cceoa. B o e pe aocxoo oe o o o, o oea e oecoo oceoa, oopo o pae yace, o ocaoa aoa, o'apye'e ocoeoc cxeco eeoc ooo eo a, ooe peca oco epec (ec, oeo, cceoae c caoo aaa e peceye pye e, o oopx pe e ae).

Hepeo aocxooecoe cceoae cococye paey e coo cxecoo aoea ycaaae x coeopae. Ta, p eco ape aoea ee oa oopec o epoooooy y, aocxoo p ceao cceoa axo xapaepe ope paccpoca e ooaoc. oeaec pa aoca ao epyeo opeecoo poecca oec oooc coepeeoo aaa ao epa. e p aax paax oooo opaecoo aoea aocxoo oa oapyae ee cxecx poecco, ooe pao epepoa cocycy, oyxoey apoecy ppoy aoea. Hepeo opeoc yoe cpyyp cxecoo eea pecaec eca cyeceo p oo aoc oe, oa pay ao eca coaa, oopo aecpoa cxo. Ta, cxap caac c cxoaooo coco, p oopx oaaec pyo epeaa aoca ey cxoae cxoaooo ee oc oce ope epoe. B x cyax oapyee p cceoa ocx ee aoo e o opeecoy y e ee a, e oeo coaeoc, apye ooc cxecx poecco, pcyx opaec opae oooo oa, aeo oeae peee o-aoceco aa.

2. cceoae a cxecx apye c c pooo epae.

Moopao pooe poecce ee aocxooece cceoa oy oe oaaee epa a eee oe, ceecy o eoc poooo ee, a ae xapaepy ocoeoc acye pecc cpyyp oppyeoc p o cxecoo eea, ec pe e o poeccyao aoea. py coa, p o yac ocoeoc oec eeoo cpeca a cxo. ec oo e a aopa, ax aee paeo a: ep po cpyyp cxecoo eea ocpoe oceyx peaaox epop, opo ecoe poocecoe aee opeeeoo p cceoa coco cxeco eeoc ooo c c eee.

3. ace cepo paoe. cxooece cceoa e aoe aee poee cyeo-cxapeco cep. cxoo p o e oo peocae ae, oeae peee aocecx opoco, o oeo ycaaae cee paeoc cxecoo eea. B cyeo-cxapeco pae ao e oo ycao ae ocaoyaeo poecca, o opee cee paeoc caoy. eo paeoc caoy pe cyae opeeec ocoe cepoe cyee. Hapep,.ao aocpoa ec;

ceye, ec paoapyee coepeo e o pe paa aea, oaeo ycao paeoc cxecoo eea, y eecoo caoy. To e caoe oocc oope cepoe aee e opaaec, apep, ocaae eoc, o yoe cee ee paeoc.

p poee cyeo cep po cxooa e opaaec opoca oooeco aoc opeee cee paeoc cxecoo eea. B oceee pe cxoo ce ae yacy poee oecx cyeo cxooecx cep. Cyee cxap oea a opoc o a cxecoo aoea y cyeoo o paeoc cxecoo eea. Ocoe aa cxooo oo copypoa M. M. oeo (1980). B paax cxooo cxapeco cep cxap ae cpoao-oooecy xapaepcy eec aoo, cxoocpyypo-aec aa oc oceyeoo.

o ocoeo ao cyax oapye epeo paex op cxecx ooe.

Ocoeo opacae po cxooa p ocyc y oceyeoo cxecoo aoea. oae xapaepa coepeoo pecye eooo x cyax e cceoa cpyyp oo opeoce, pcye cyeoy cce ooe, ycaoo, eocx opea, e pacp ypee cxooeco cpyyp oc. cxooeca cepa pooc e oo oe ocx coc oeoo, o epeo oea ee caoc oepee cee, a a oyaee cxooo ae cococy aeao oee x oaa, ooa cy o x ocoepoc.

cxooeca cepa ocoeo aco pooc o ea, oopx yppy ecoepeoee. p o opeeec ypoe x oaaeo eeoc xapaep pcyx yao-ocx ocoeoce. p ao cyapo oee oo cy o cocooc oceyeoo coaa poopaoc cox ec pyoo .

B paax cxooo-cxapeco cep aco peaec opoc o a y oeoo aoo-o aooecoo aeoo coco, a ae pyx coco, ox a eo oe coepe pecye (epeyoee, cpax, ope).

Baoe aee e ycaoee oooc ooe opeeeo cya ax coco, a pacepoc, oep opepo, cepa oea x a aeco oe oceye eo poeccoao eeoc.

p poee ocepo cep ex cyax, oa cxap e axo ocoa aoc cxecoo aoea, cxoo, aapy ocoeoc oc oeo, ooa yc o, oop o pyoocoac p coepe ex x ocyo, o ce o coepe cya.

ceo aa po cxooecoo cceoa p pee opoco oeo cep pe e o aoce epeo paex op oope, cepx poe ope (ocoeo ee poco op), cxoa, epoo, peyao-opaecx opae oooo oa.

B pyoo cepe ec cxoo e oo oapyae pa aoea, o oaae, a aeo oo ao, acoo cea pyococooc oceyeoo, ec coxpae ee eo cxe, oope o cooa cypoa exao oeca cxecoo eea.

B eco cxap cxooece cceoa eoxo pee opoca o o, e ceye yc peey accoo ceao oe. o opoc oe eooo peac cea eo-eaoec occ. Ta. oeee peea c eoc accoy oy e oo opaeo caaec a ocpoe eaoecoo poecca, o epeo po epoec pea epao apaeoo a yey peea, eo co ecocoeoc p cpae co opo e. Ee oe papye cxy peea cya, oa, ooo pace e eaoec ayeoc, occ apae eo a yey oy yceo ocax, xo eceoc yeo e aaec yceoo eopa.

4. ace peaaoo paoe. *Copeea cxap ocooe aee pae paoe o peaa pecoaa ox. cxap e opaaec poeee ao epa aaee ooy opee oepax o eapcex cpec, o oe oaoc o occaoe o eo ooe oece cee, a pooce.

O pao ocpoex peaaox epop ac poaa aa. o oocc e oo ope opaec poecca. paa oaae, a aco ocyce peaaoo pao c o epoa po x eee aoo pa oc, ae x ox pyococooc aeo xye oaec ee.

_ *Peaao ace eeoc ecoo cxooa cepae pecae oopax: M. M. aao. Peaa cxec ox2-e ..:

Mea, 1985.216 c.;

ece opaaoe oco peaa cxecx ox /o pe. M. M. aaoa, . BaeM.: Mea, 1980.400 c.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Peaaoa paoa oa ya e oo ee, pecee cxy aoe"'^' " " ocaec coxpa ee &"^10oao--^^"" eeyao eeoc. Pe&:.a1" "^ paoa oe eo p yapoao oxoe ooy. B c c popeae ooe aee o-cxoo-ecoe cceoae. p o yac e oo ocoeoc e ooo cee coxpaoc eo a. ceo ao a xapaepcy ocx coc ooo. oc ooo yaec a eo-cxooeco, a coao aceax. p o oy po pa ae o cxooeco coecoc ooo c opya, epeo opeee eo paoe pyoycpoco.

cxoo oe y coa a, opya ooo oce c oo, eex pyax, a pooce. B cooec c oye a cpoc cxoop-peoa. cxoepaeeca paoa.

Peaaoa paoa e oa opaac opa cocaee peoea peeo xapaepy aoc aoea. Oa cea oa yapoao pooc ocoo oae c paa-cxapa.

Peaaoa paoa cxooa oe peyao p ocaoo aceoc eeoo ypee apa cxooo, a a oa pyoea oa pooc cceaec, a e poeyax ey y cxooec cceoa. Peaaoa paoa e oa pooc yep aoceco cepo paoe ecoo cxooa.

5. cceoae eocaoo yex cxecx aoea. aocxooece cceoa pooc c ayo e aaa ee eocaoo yex cxoaooecx poe ex x cxecx aoea. p ao o caoe aa, a pao, pooc cceoae ox py ox, opaex o a y x yaex cxoaooecx coo. ec ocoy po popeae caceca ocoepoc oyaex ax. Bo coco oo o aoo poa cceoa o cceoa, peceyx e epeao aoc cep, e pe e o oceoa oex ox ocoepoc peyao ocaec py cocoa, apep, yopeee cxox o apaeoc cepeax eo.

Ec p cceoa, apaeo a peee opoco -o-paecoo xapaepa, aocxoo cpec oy oy cyyo yay xapaepcy poea cxecx poecco y opeoo ooo, o p apaeoc cceoa a peee eopeecx opoco cxoo e 10 e ca epe coeo a ao-o o poecc, yae ceao coax ycox.

p ayo-cceoaeco apaeoc aocxoo-ecoo cepea ocoeo aoe aee popeae coee aecoo pa, . e. yea a cxoaooecx cooopaoa c c eee oe (B. M. exep, 1976).

yee cxooeco cpyyp oo oo cxoaooecoo cpoa oaaec oee yce p yee ca aoea coocae aocxooe cx ax, cooecyx pa ca oe, apep, ee ee, ca acao paeoc ecx poe p apaca cxecoo eea.

6. ace cxoepa. ec, a poee pea-aox epop, cxoo oe paoa o pyooco paa-cxapa, cxoepaea o ocaee aa a cxoaocecoo, a coao-cxooecoo xapaepa. Ececeo, o aa eeoc peye oye cxooo cxoepa. M.

. yo A. . axapo (1983) ae ca opoc o poa cyeo-cxooo o cxoaoce eco cxoo, oa o ocee ec opepoay coao-cxooecy paoy.

peeo cxoepa oo e ceece aa aocxooecoo cceoa.

o, o-epx, yace aocxooa aoce cxecoo aoea, a a o pee x opoco ac oe oaa cxoepa op ee aoee aeax "op eca poee ( caoape ayaopo).

Bo-opx, aocxooecoe cceoae cococye oapye ax ocx coc ooo, a oope oceye cxoepaeeco paoe ceye opa ocooe ae.

C o e coyc cxooece oce eo ocaoo pooo aaoa, ocoae a a xapaepce oc poecce eeoc, a a caooee, a ae poee. Coeae cxooecx eo, xapaepyxc pa oxoo, ooe oy aoee ooe pecaee o oc ooo.

p o o yac e oo eee oe oce coca, o coxpae ooe oco eeoc, a oopy epy oepe oa apaea cxoepaeeca paoa.

aee, cxooec cepe cococye aaa poyoo oaa c o, a a ae cxoepaey pecaee o eo eeyao ypoe epecax. cceoae ocoeoce poea poecco ooe oee ooe cepee opee x ypoe, a ae ae ae cxoepaea coca eea ooo, a poa, ya, caocoeoc, oc, oc. B aoo coca eea pooco yoc pyoopa, oepxococ cye, peepa oopoc, opoc e.

Xapaepca eeyao eeoc o oo opeee ccey ocpoe cxoepaeecx epop.

cceoa B. A. Taoa (1976, 1978, 1979, 1984) oaa aoe aee eoc cxoepa ye ax xapaepc ooo paa, oope opaa ocoeoc x epcoax aoooe, cee x cxooeco coecoc. ae pao x aopo ooe ey ye aae ee eco epe oo poopoa ocoeoc ooaoo peapoa ooo a cya xapaep cxoepaeecoo oec, oc poyoo eeoo oaa, o cpo cxoepaeecy ay a pax aax eeoo poecca.

cxooec cepe oe pa opeeey po ope eo cxoepa. Ty oy oaac oe ycaoee p cceoa ocoeoc oc ypoe eeyao eeoc ooo, xapaepca ax eo coc, a oopoc, yaeoc (p o ceye paa coceo yaeoc pooc pee ye). Byaeoc e ec pao, oca ao oc. Oa eec pae epo y ooo oo e eoea ac o eo opaca, ocoeoce eo cya, oaaec eoaoo oe c pa , .e. ac o oopoc o ooe opeee aeop e. Byaeoc, o ocoeo ao, oaaec pao a pax aax ee oe pe cyae oa yeaec p xpoeco ee epoo aeo-ocx pea a coaecy oe c c eyce pee eee.

o ocoeco oepae aee pax cpoo poee cxoepa, o ocyo ocoae e pa eooo cxoepa (. . aca, 1966) copo cxoepaeeco oo (M. C. eec, 1971).

B pe cyae aocxooec cepe oc cpyypy cxoepaeecoo poecca coyec oeoo oepe aex cxoepaeo ooe. B x cyax oo oop o ceao eoe cxoepaeec apaeoo cxooecoo cepea (B. M. exep, . .

aca, 1966, 1970). aaa cxooa aaec o, o oaa ooy ecy coxpaoc y eo cxecx y, oope ae cae pyo apye, oepy ae pecypco pooco oe aa.

cxooecoe cceoae oe p o cooao ee caooe coco ooo eo cyeoo pooa.

Oapyaeoe cepee yyee oaaee cxoepae ae coye pao y ooo oceco o.

METO CEPMEHTAHO ATOCXOO Ha oopye aocxooo axoc oeco cepeax eo, c oo oopx cceyc ocoeoc cxecx poecco coco.

coyee aocxooecx cceoax eo xapaepyc apaeoc a e cxecx poecco. B aocxooecx eoax occoac opee cya. Papeee x peye o oceyeoo opeeeoo a eeoc, yee oopoo ec e poooo cceoa. B cxooeco cepee oepyec ea poea cya, peya pacp, a a oee, xoe y cya ee axoc eaeax coooex (C. . Pye, 1958). Peee cepeaoo aa coc pacp aoooe ey eea poeo cya peyae ee aaa oca aeaoo cocoa pee cocax ace cya cooece.

Paeee aocxooecx eo a aecee cxoepece, . e.

cyae epe ex x cxecx y, e oocoao. eo o, o eo, apaee a ee aecex aooepoce cxeco eeoc ox, ocy oce cyae caceco opaoe.

cooae e cxoepecx eco e aeceoo aaa oyaeoo c x oo aepaa epaoepo po oo oa (c. pae cxoepece eo cceoa eea).

Beca ycoo eee cepeao-cxooecx eo a coece (epae) peee (eepae). ae oyc eepao eoo, ccey, a pao, e opaaec pecpae oyex peyao, o ye paccpoca capaec c y ooo o, oop o pyoocoac, o aae, epecyec paccye ooo o ooy poeaeo poecce oceoa pao. poe oo, ceye ya, o oe aa o eepa eoa eeo yacye ccea poecco ypee pe oceyeoo.

Paeee eo cooec c x apaeoc a cceoae o o cxeco y ae ec yco. a pao, oco eo ceecy co peyaa o coco ecox y. oco aocxooecx eo oaa po aaoo. He opaeo cceoa oo a, oo ae, oo ee. Bc c o ooopc, o poeea a o e pypoa eo ae ycoa ee cooae pooao yoco oe.

C pyo copo, cyecy py aocxooecx eo, ex oy apaeoc. Ta, ocoeoc ee accoa oapyac p cceoa eoa acca, ce, accoao cepee, opaax.

O o e cxec ee oapyaec p cceoa pax poe cxeco eeoc oceyeoo a ooaoe yoee oe cy p cceoa co pa eoa, a poa a aoae, opa, c oo apo c ooa oeco, p opeee ypo pa. oea coaeoc opeeec p cceoa aa ye, peea, oppeypo poe, p opaoa aao . .

caaoo ea a pa oopa cepeao-cxooecx eo. o, o-epx, coeae eo, oox oee oo cecopoe cceoa ae-o poe cxeco eeoc. Hapep, p cceoa a yopec po a ayae cyccex yocoea, co accoax ap co, pec eo, ooe cy o paopeeo oopeeo a, o eocpeceo oocpeoao aoa . . Bo-opx, coeae x o apaeoc eo ooe cy o ocoepoc, aeoc oyex peyao. ae, oyaee o-cxooeco cepee c oo oo eo, cea eaeo oep peyaa, oye c oo pyx eo.

p ope cceoa o o eo ceye o, o apaeoc ee oe ec ae p eaeo a ep oee cpy. Ta, T. . Teea (1967), ya cxooecy cpyypy peoepca, ycaoa, o oeco peoepcx cye, ex cepee, yeaec p ee apaeoc cpy, p oopo ayapyec, ycaec oco-oeoa o ooo. p ce oa cca oco ooopo apy c oo cpye (a oaee cc oco?) aop aaa opoc ecoo o ope (a oocec ocoe?). aco ooo oo ee cpy o ocaoo, o cpoopoa peoepco.

aeoo oeca aocxooecx cepeax eo ao cyae ccey oyec opae x co. Oo oceoa ooo ooo ocaoo 89 eo, paex cooec c aaa cceoa.

aeco aocxooecoo cceoa aeo epe ac o oo, aoe oeco eo eec apceae cceyeo. Baee ooo o co peo cepeaoo cceoa ooe oee apa o, oopa aoee aeae eo, a ae oy p cceoa oee ocoepe peya, a a ae, oyaee pa eoa, yy cecopoe xapaepoa ocoeoc cxeco eeoc oceyeoo pe cyae oepa py pya.

B ope eo aocxooecoo cceoa oy pa cyecey po ceye ocoeca.

1. e cceoaepeaa aoca ( acoc o peoaaex aoea), opeeee y cxecoo eea, yee eoc epa.

Ta, e-peoaaec opeec poecc, pec o eo cceoa, p oceoa ooo ece c e ycaoe paeoc eeyao ececx paccpoc pye. oopax cceoa xoe ee pac eo, pacoaae ae oeco pax o pyoc apao aa.

2. Opaoae ooo eo e o, apep, eocaoo paooy cyeoy e ceye aa aa o eoe opaoa cox aao.

3. oa cyecey po pa ocoeoc oaa c o. Ta, epeo pxoc oceoa ooo c apyee eeoc cyxooo peoo aaaopa. p yxoe acao coyc aa, paccae a peoe ocpe. ae poe a aoae coa cyeoy e aac, a pec ceo e. p oxo pe, aoopo, ce eo appyc cyxooo ocp.

B poecce cceoa eo oo pe o opacae cooc o oee pocx co. cee cocae oceoae cyex, o oopx oa apaa cy. Bx cyax oa oee pye aa oc apoo eepo. a e ocoeoc xapaepa coco ceoee, oa yceo oc oee coe aa eeo eeapo-poce (A. M. yep, 1957).

oco aocxooecx eo oaec pocoo, poee cceoa c x oo eoxoo aoo a, pcy. Paoy aocxooa oeae ae aopaop oeaax opac cocoo a, ao. aocxoo oe pacoaa ec accopeo eo, oop oopx oe poya. Hapep, e opac aa coecoo oo peeoo apaa eo ce, a x apao ee co peyeca p opeeeo ocaoe oa, a oa eaeo cooae oox. oceoa ooo e pe eoy, pea poee oopo ccey e oae ocaoo epe. ooee eoopx a cceoa peye opao op o . Ta, e cooa pooee coe aopaop a ye, pyoocyc oaae op, oepy cceoa, pooxc pyx aopaopx, c oo a, ooo, oaxc paepo poc p, x oceeoc.

Ocooo a peye eee paoy aopaop opax eo oa ye ecx. B x cyax oa yoea e oo eopeeca oooc pee ao eo, o eoxoo ee apopoa a cacec ocoepo pye oceyex oepe paoc peooe o apaeoc o eo a yee ex x cxecx poecco aeoc oyaex c ee oo peyao.

eoc oo oo eoa cxooecoo cceoa opeeec c oo o aeoc aoc (oocoaoc), eex cepeay cxoo poecce coa cxooecx eco. M. C. Poo (1981) yaae, o xo a ocee o epeo caac coe o eoooeco cpooc x o, o e e eee e ypa coeo ae.

Haeoc cxooecoo eoa (eo) ooe xapaepoa eo c o pe caoc peyao, oyaex p oopo cooa oo eoa p aaox ycox (peecoa aeoc) e p cooa aoaeex, aex op eoa. B c c oe ao cooa paeco eeoc eo, aeoc oopx oepea ye aoe aocxoo oo, p papaoe epe ox eo ceao poo x yee a pee aeoc.

Baoc oe, oaaee, acoo cxooec eo (eoa) epe eceo o, o o oe ya ep, acoo xopoo o oe y aay. oe aoc coee, e oe aeoc;

pa cceoae ec pae aoc. Ta, paa aoc o coepa, o pep, . e. o eocpeceo eaco ep.e oo, o oe pecaa eo (apep eoa, apaeoo a yee opeeeoo poeccoaoo coca, a pepe oe eoc pao oceyeoo oceye a pooce), o ocpyy, oaaa, acoo peya eoa (eo) oy paccapac a epa aoo-o eopeecoo ocpya, coca, apep eea, a, peooc, epoa . .

A. Anastasi (1982) coepeo cpaeo e o o, o e oop o aoc ooe, ooeo, apep, o ec ee coy y aoc. p opeee aoc cea oo yaao opeoe peaaee eoa. o ocoeo ao ya p poee aocxooecoo cceoa. Ta, eo oaaec pao a acoc o coe epe cxooo aa, apep, aoc eoa Popaxa ye ocaoo coo p oceoa py ox, oopax o oooecoy pep, o oaec eca o p eoxooc poee yao-oooeco aoc. Meo, apaee a ee coaeoc cxeco eeoc, e oaa coo oooeco aoc, o oce oe eca cyeceo, oa epe cxooo cac opea aaa epeao aoc ey co coaeco ece.

B aeo epe aoc ex x eo ac e oo o caoo aocpyeoo aoea, o o eo ca, o e ye pe paee, oceo aocxooec cceoa p ope.

POBEEHE ATOCXOOECOO CCEOBAH OOTOBA AEH B poee aocxooecoo cceoa oo pa ecoo ao.

ep ocyecec ca ee o aoca cxooa c o coc opypoe eco aa. Bpa peae opoc o o, acoo oeo ao opeo cyae oe oaac aocxooecoe cceoae. C aae aoc aocxoo. B ecee c ea pao o yoe epecye eo ocoeoc ee aoea, ooe epeao-aocece peoc peoo ey ey cepoo cye. Ec pe e o opoe eoc ee, cxoo ece c pao ocyae cey epaeecx epop, peoaaee oooc x a pae cxece poecc, aeae cpo oopoo cceoa.

ecee c o peecye oaoee aocxooa c aepaa cop oe. Ocyce e epecyx cxooa ax acae eo copa ooe aae. cxooa pecae epec e oo aae, o ocoeoc ee oe, peya pyx aopaopx cceoa oxecx, cepooecx, epoooecx, oaooecx. ae ceye aeoe oaoee c ac o cxeco cayce ooo cop oe coocaee x aepao c e, o cxoo aae aopaop. o oe ao:

ecooece cxecoo coco ooo oee o ac paa eo oee aopaop ae cxooy ocoa oa ye aae cceoa peoo cyoe oeee apaa co copo oceyeoo cooecy opao cpo cepe. Ta, oa oceye o eo ac oapyae o e cxooop, a ycox aopaop eocppye peoe aeee cecooopx pea (oe aco p cy apaa ocoeo ox oaac peya poax, poeee oopx copooaec pecpae pee).

Cocoe ooo pae oe ay po yceo poee cceoa.

epe aao cepea eoxoo yec ocyc ax-o epyppex coaecx aoea. pece cceoa ec oyee o cxopox cpec (ceye ooop oooc poee oceoa ooo, oyeo oecye a eee epx poecco eapca, ex cyax, oa o peycopeo aae cxooecoo cepea). Heeaeo poeee cceoa oce eccoo o, ecoo epeyoe, p yce ooa , aoopo, eocpeceo oce e. oope cceoa eaeo poo o e pe , o epe.

Oaoee c cope oe cocoe ooo ooe cceyey yo aay, ocaey epe ca, ae peape a cceoa op eo, oepeoc x pee.

ecey c o aa c paccpoca acopx ax, a ocoa eo coca epoe cyee o coco y ooo ececo y. B aee ecee yoec cocoe a (paopeeo oopeeo), eo a, xapaepyec cocoe coa. Opeeec opepoa ooo o pee, ece coceo oc, a xopoo o o a coceo oeecx copecx co. opoc o aa xoe epyeo, ececeo ece oe cyae e o aoa ae, opee cxecy ooeoc ooo. B ex cyax, oa peoaac paccpoca a, oaeo ao c, a ca oo oeae co a. B ecee ec ae ocyce coa oe, ooee ooo oee eo cxapecy oy ay poee aocxooecoo cceoa. p o ooy eoxoo pac eaeoc aoo cceoa, cxo eo epeco, yoee aoa, aaee ee .. eaeo, o p o oce ccey e ccac a eoxooc opeee ypo yceo eeoc oceyeoo. opao oxoee cxec oe coaac a cceoae a, a, cecooop.

oa ecea aocxooa c o cyeceo e a ae xo cceoa, pae ey ceecy apaeoc. B ecee c o cc ocoeoc eo oc o aoea, oea ee poecce oe caoyc coe paoococooc. Opeeec yyp ypoe ooo, eo opaoaoc, py, py epeco, opeoc.

Boe aa o ao eoe peecye cpy. o e P. Fraisse (1966), cpy cocae ac oeo opeee cepeao cya oa oecea copyeco oceyeoo c cepeaopo. ooy oooe cpy paec oe aoe aee. O cpy ac o oo, a oceye oae aae oeae ooee oy aa co copo oceyeo. Hepeo oaa eeo oopea cpy oe c po oxx peyao oe aa oceye, oop o oxo o, o o eo peyec, o cae, o cepeaop ca oocc cya cepea opao. ooy P. Fraisse e o o, o eo cpy cococye coa y oceyeoo opeeeo ycao, oopa oa a ce poe cepea a oo oee ocoo. cpy oa opaoao (o pae P. Fraisse, oaao), peapeo cao aoo, cooecoa yce oooc oceyeoo. cpy cocaec a, o ea oooc ee paopeoo oa. B eoopx cyax aae pao o eoe cpy ceye ope, oc o-y pepa. Peya cceoa e ceye oea a ycee eycee. Ec oo e cpaec c aae, ceye c py oo, a a oa ocoe eyaoo pee ea cyee, eyepeoc cox ooocx, eocaoo eo oa cpy. oe peyao ao opee, acoo eo oaaec oo cceyeo paec oa cceye oepaec cy eacecx poe o c c apo eo oeee cya cepea. oceee ycoo ooaae a copoee cpy.

Heoxoa a oo oee oa oa ac ccey ocoec poooo oa. a ca A. Binet (1910), poee cepeao cxooecoo cceoa peyec epo, eoo ya oo epe. coa ceye oa e oo a pae aco yopee cepeao cxoo a aaex apaao-yax eco. ec coepc yaae a aoe eoeeoe ycoe poee cepea, a aeoe pooopoae. B pooo oa aocc o oooc ce cye oceyeoo poecce cepea. oa oce cceoa poooe oo a yaa a coeopae ee e oco o ooo, oope po eaee o pe oa. Ocoeo ao oo pecppoa paccye oceyeoo o ooy pee peoex ey aa. Mopoa pee epeo ae oe aepaa oo, e oa pecpa eo. Beee poooa ao ooy, o ooe cppoa aee cceyeo ope aa. paoe eee poooa cceoa ooe ocec cpo ooe, aapy ae oceoa ceao oopax py ox.

pooo cceoa ye ec a oex cax, oope ae cpec.

B aae poooa y eo oep o pecpaooy ypay, aa, ooaaec oeee yaaec a a ooo. B ypae, oo x cee, oeaec opac oceyeoo, ao, a ae yaaec, epoe o cceoae oopoe.

eaeo ae ec aay y o oa, oopa ooe p eoxooc a pooo peyeo oceoa aoo ooo. pooo xpac aax xpoooeco ope.

Oo aocxooece cceoa cxec ox pooc e ao o coo aapayp, o cyeceo yeae y cycceoc, oopa oae p pee aopaop ceaoo oopyoa, cox ycpoc, a pae cceoae ececeoy cepey. o opeee A. . aypcoo (1925), ecece cepe o oa coec poooe eaeco, eec xapaep pao coo cepea, cxecy eoea co cpaeo pocoo ececeo ocaoo oa.

Ba epeo oe py pecaec ae a cceoa aa oyex cepee ao, x ooee oooa ae, oopoe oo opaa aecee ocoeoc ee cxecx poecco y oceyeoo.

p o aa e coo xapaepca.ax, oyex c oo oex eo, coo yee oo x, e a opao ocoe apye cxeco eeoc. aee cea oo oeo a opoc, oop ocae co epe aocxooo.

M. C. Poo (1969) e o o, o peya aocxooecoo cepea e caocoeoe aee, o o pae ocoy po x eco aa. B acoc, aop ee poee aocxooecoo cepea p aa, pecae oceoaey epa cxooecx ax ecoe aee. ep a aaec pee oy ooy o cxooeco po, e coaec coceo cepeaa cya. o, cyoc, opepoo a cceoa. ccey oyae xapaepcy pa ox ax ooceo ea, oea epeaeoc cxecx poecco. Ha opo ae cceoa aocxoo epexo ocy ax cxooecx po, oe oopx c aoe epooc oa poc cxooeca cpyypa apye. Ta opao, ec ccey cpec a aoee oooec ceece ( acoc o copypoao eco aa) eo cepeaoo cceoa. ocoy oa a opoao aocxooeca eoa e ee peaeo aocecoo ae, acyae pe a cceoa, aac, o M.C. Pooy, coocae peyao cooax p cceoa cxooecx po. o e aopa, coceo oooeca aa oyex cepee ax ye xo a pa pao aocxooa ocyecec ye coocae oapyeo cepee cpyyp cxecoo eea c eco apo aoea.

opa ae e oe eo. C. . Pye (1970) e, o a e, a cao cceoae e oe caap, e oe caapa cocae ae. B aeo epe xapaep ae ac o yax coc aocxooa o paoe apy. aopa, apep, opeeec aooc ocoeoc ae. aee e oo oopee, ae ca, poooa oceoa.

B pe cyae ao opoo oxapaepoa cxecoe cocoe oceyeoo, peee ao. o ocoeo ao, oa cxecoe cocoe ooo aopaop oaec o ocaeoo ea pao oee, o p oapye ecoo opaca ey caoyce ooo peyaa cceoa. pep oceeo: oceye pee ao aceecoo xapaepa, o cepee e oapyaec cooecyx poe coaeoc, ocae a, aoo a. Pecpa cxecoo coco oceyeoo aa ex cyax, oa oo oc xapaep oyex peyao.

B ae oeac ocoeoc oee ooo, oycoee cyae cceoa, eo ooee caoy ay cceoa. Oaeo pecppyec ae ooeo a aaeoo ycaoooo oee (oo e cea ec pao cy apaa aaec paax cxoex coco, ocoeo p a cepeco coa). caoooe oeee aco ca o coee ocoepoc eoopx oyex p cceoa peyao, apep, eaee o eeyao eocaooc x cyax peye cepex px ocex oaaec. B acoc, epeo p ycaooo oee oceyex (ocoeo oa cceoae pooc ex cyeo-cxapeco cep) apy c oea, a ceecy o ce ypo ooe, c oo pee apaex o apaeoc eo oyae ocaoo epepoae pee oex aa. Oao oapye cepee ao epaoepoc ypo oce cceoae oo pooc c oo ooo oeca eo, pacoaaex oe o ooo poee cceoa e o cee apaca pyoc coepaxc x cepeax aa. poe oo, x cyax eoxoo poo cceoae oopo oa c epaa ecoo e.

B ae e opaac epee pexc poecce cceoa eo pecpae aa oe eoe oceye peoex ey aa. Ha ocoe aaa ax cepea eoxoo e eye aocxooece ocoeoc aaoo oy, a cxap a oo ao paeoo e ee eco ape aoea opy cpo.

aoc-xoo e cpyype cxecoo eea oceyeoo coeo poa aocxooec cpo.

B ae yaac oapyee p cceoa ocoeoc a, a oceyeoo, e eo cecooopx pea, ocyce ae pao oeo coaeoc cxecx poecco, xapaep ooao-ocx poe. oa e ey po oe pa ocaa aocxooo ocyc y oceyeoo ex x cxecx paccpoc. Hapep, p epeao aoce ey epoo epoooo eee ope o ey cxoae opee c cxoaooo poe pecaec a o ocoeco, o cepee e oapyac xapaepe ope apye e aeo-oce ee.

Bce o eo coae oee eee oy apy cpyyp ocoeoce cxeco eeoc oceyeoo, paa aa oopo oeae aey ae aocecx peooe. ocee e o aeop, a a cxooec cepe ec cooae eco oceoa cxec ooo: ae aocxooecoo cceoa cyeceo oo xapaepcy cxecoo cayca ooo, cya ocoo yyeoo ecoo aaa.

Xapaep ae ac o ocaeo epe cceoaee aa. Ta, p oopex poecce ee ooo cceoax ocooe ae yeec cpae oapyaex peyao. Hapep, oopo ocey ooo c coaoeo acee, opaae ocooe ae a eee paeoc y eo o epe ee e oeo coaeoc. y aay ca epe aocxooa cyeo-cxapeca cepa. Hapep, ao oope y cyeoo ec ecoee, o peyec e oo acpoa y eo cepee eocaooc ypo ooe, o opee oee oo cee paeoc eeyaoo eea. oceee oa pae pyo cea, pyoocyc ec paa, a cepoo pee ooe ycaoee ypo eocaooc poecca ooe pae oe ay po. Oe a opoc oo coepa aee.

ATOCXOOECE CHPOM a cxap, aocxoo o cpoo oa aoeeec oycoey ooc coo, pao cxecx paccpoc, ypee aooycoex, aocax. B o aaec oa aoceca aoc cpoo o cpae c coa. B aoceco e paa paa aa cpoa ec ocyo opeee oooeco paeoc aoea. eco, oao, o eee cxapa ece cpo aeo e oao o coe oooeco ceoc, oce ac o pya oee, p oopx peoeo aaec o o cpo, o cee cooc cpoa, opaae pcye ey aoeeece aoeece exa.

cxoaooece (ece) cpo o co ocoeoc cyeceo oac o aocxooecx. Moo ya, o pae o oycoeo e coo opo cpoa, eo cocao, coo pa ypo yopoa epao epo cce, a oopx cpo ec. B ccee epapx oox poecco paa ae ypo (A. P. yp, 1962, 1964;

. . oo, 1971, 1977):

aoooec, xapaepyc apye opooeco cpyyp ae oa, poea x oxecx poecco . .;

ooec, aac ee ee ooecx poecco;

ao- epocxooec, oopoo xapaepo apyee poea cxecx poecco cax c coc cx;

cxoaooec, poc ec cpoa coa cxeco aoo. Ta, p cxecx aoeax apye opooecoo cycpaa oooo oa pcye ee poea oxecx poecco po apye ooecx poecco. Baa ae e yopoa cx, oocpeoao apyaec eee cxecx poecco, peo coppoax a ocoe ooecx. A o, co oepe, po aoo opae epao epo cceo ooo eoea cao opyae cpe. cxoaooec co, a opao, ec aepa ao coo aoeeeco e.

Taoe pecaee o epapx yopoa cx eoea oce eoxooc ycapoo oxoa ee ye. p o, a yaae . .

oo (1971), ec ece (cxoaooece) cceoa oapya aooepoc poe apyex cxecx poecco, o aocxooece cceoa o a oe a opoc, a apyeo poeae (cpyypa) cax cxecx poecco, pox poe. Ta opao, ec cxoaoo ocapye ae eco ape ex x coo cpoo cxeco aoo cey x ee, o aocxoo coe cceoae apae a pacpe aa opeeex ooeo ooo eeoc, ee ee aopo, aee oopx ec po oppoa aaeo e coa.

o pae ey cxoaooec aocxooec- cpoa eae o pa ey cxoaooe aocxooe, o oopo a pe e, aeo epe opaae cey pcyx y oac a eoo o-ocaeoo, oop oyec cxoaoo, cepeao cxooecoo, oo a oopyee aocxooe.

ece cpo c oocpeoa paee coxc apye cxeco eeoc, oa a aocxooece cpo, oocec oee oy ypo epao epapx oppoa cxecx y ope aoo, aeo oe epe opaa eocpecee, pcye apye, po-cecee aoooe. Cyoc cxoaooecx cpoo e oe oa e aocxooecoo aoooecoo aao eax x ocoe e, , co oepe, yee aocxooecx cpoo eooo e eoo ecoo opae oea cceoa.

Cceaa aocxooecx cpoo papaoaa aeo ee, e cceaa ecx cpoo, xo oce ee aea o coepeca.

Cpo aocxoo, a cxap, paac aeo epe cee coe ooeoc. Paee (1976) po aece oo pepa aocxooecx cpoo eee . B. eap paccpoc e.

eceo, a x o xapaepyec coe, aeo epe ceeco, cpyypo, oao, a o cye caoo pa ccea, e ec oee ooee py, apep, apye oepaoo copo e, apye a ceo eeoc pye, oee opee, ec ac poee epx, apep, aoc e, eoceoaeoc cye. Oao ey y a aocxooecx cpoo e ycao ae aoooe, oope cooecoa paee e cpoo a oe ae. oee oo, eee ax opex, yx aocxooecx cpoo ae aeo oe eoxoo aocecoo poecca opa, e eee oee ox cpoooecx py, ocoaoe a oepyo acpapoao ee pao, ox ecox yx cpoo.

ooy, oop o pao cee ooeoc aocxooecx cpoo, ceye e cpo ooae, opaec a oee coe, oaope, apye cxeco eeoc. epy oy ee ax ooex aocxooecx cpoo pep . A. ype (1982). B peyae cceoa, pooxc cyeo-cxapeco pae c oo oeca aocxooecx eo, apaex a yee pax copo oaaeo eeoc ece c e oox oy ee ae o oc cyex, aop e ceye aocxooece coooec (cpo):

opeec ccoa, opaec, oopeec, cxoaec coooec cxoeo eopaa, xapaep peax cxoo.

a x cpoo ae p coo. Hapep, opeecoo coooeca aoee aooo c co pacaa cex poecco, ccoa oco-oaoo oepaoo-poeccyao cep e, o poec eeeapaeoc ceo eeoc, ooao-xooeo peoepce, po cxeae, coe, cae poecca ooe c paoao oxoo ee eyx pao, ayaa aex pao peeo e, eoee aooecoo oceaa . . Oao, a yaae . A. ype, e ce ooe, co opeec o o coooece oaeo ope c oaeo cee paeoc, ao a po aocxooecoo cpoa.

opeecoo cpoa o apye ceeoc opa, opaecoo cee eeyax poecco yceo paoococooc, cxoaecoo aea oycoeoc oee c apao epoc ae ypoe pa, p cxoeo peaa eopaa yceo eeoc.

Beee . A. ype aocxooece cpo paac aoceco pooceco ooex. Ta, aoee aocec oooec opa oaac opeec opaec coooec, aeeecxoaec. , aoopo, aoee paea ee paopoc opaoc pcya coooecy cxoeo eopaa yceo eeoc, aea opeecoy. o aee aopa caoc o p cooece eex aocxooecx coooeco c pya cxecx aoea, cxea oopx a papaoaa A.

B. Ceec (1960) paax oe o oooeco ceoc cxoaooecx paccpoc.

Beee A. . ype aocxooece coooec eco epe oapya cxoco c a coye eco pae oe, a opaec cxocpo. o a cpo ooaeo ae, xapaepca oopx oee a oooeco, x eee aeye ca peapeo aoc aoea. o ocoeco, a ae c aoo poa cpoo c opeee pya cxecx aoea a ocoa ooa x a pecp cpo. poe oo, . A. ype oeppye cox cceoax a, oye cyeo-cxapeco pae. Ha o ooe a oo epee pecp-cpoo, e paax opaecoo oeo-opaec oeo-opaec pecp-cpo, a paax cxoeoo cxoec epoec. Bpye oex cxoo oo oop, o pae epe, o yx pecp cpoax opeo aeo-oeo. Ta opao, aocxoo oe oeppoa cox aocecx aex cey aopo pecp-cpoo:

I opeec;

II aeo-oe ( e ey cooecy aaao-epecc cxo yoae aee cxo oeo opaca). I II oopeec;

IV oeo-opaec ( e ey cooecy oeo-opaece opae oooo oa epepa aepocepo, ocec epeo-ooo pa, ocoa . .);

V oeo-opaec ( e ca ec, epe apoece poecc ooo oe);

VI oco-aoa ( e aeypoae cxoaece oc oycoee aeo epe-aoao oo cxoee pea);

VII cxoeo-cxoec ( epeae cxo);

VIII cxoeo-epoec ( eepo epoece pea).

Hoooeca ceoc aocxooecx pecp-cpoo cyeceo opacae c c opeo aae, ocaeo epe aocxooo. Ta, papaee oeo- oeo-opaecx pecp-cpoo oe ao epeao aoce co paaeco ec. Papaee opaecoo oopeecoo pecp-cpoo ooae yo ppoy aocy coco, poeax c eeyao-ececo eocaooc.

Beee aocxooecx pecp-cpoo pay aocxooecx cceoa cyoc ooaae pye aocec-opax peoea, aaxc ax poeeoo aocxooo cceoa. Bao acee oe aocxooecoo pecp-cpoa aeo ye, e copypoaoe B. B.

Hoaeo, E. T. Coooo A. C. Caoco (1979), oa o aocxooec cpoo cooyoc oeeecx, oaox oaaex ocoeoce cxeco eeoc ox, paex cxooecx ox. aocxooece pecp-cpo oocpeoa ec, x cooae eppea peyao ye cococoa ce o aocxooa cxapa.

HOHAHE PO TECT B ATOCXOO cxoepece ec, cooae oopx ecx ex o cx op ocaec cycco, cyeceo oac o papaoax coec aocxooa poo peex eo a yoax po.

cxooec ec o cae opeeeo y c oo ye caapoax pea oc a cy, eo peaepoae o cee pyoc pee oe aa, oopoe ooe ycao ypoe pa o y o cpae c ycpee oaae, xapaep ao oy.

Tec c eca aopo pyo cxooecx eo. O paac aaoo peex peo. ocaoo cpa a ax eca, peaaex cceoa eeyaoo ypo, a eo Becepa, a cepeax eo, ay oo, pecaey aopo ocaoo oopox aa, pacooex o cee apaca x pyoc. B c c ceye o yaae pyoo ceaca oac ecoo A. Anastasi (1982) ooceo oo, o aa eco aeo e cea cooecy oy, o o eceoc ep.

o apaeoc (o cceyec eco?) oo e ec eea, epeco, a ye, ceax cocooce, xapaepooece (oce), ec cceoa oex y a, a, ooc cxecx poecco . . (B. M. exep, . . ypay, 1978).

e p coa epx cxooecx eco papaoa ece peoa (cxopaec y), oop ec oe cooecoa oaeo ope (W. Stern, 1912): coa coaeca eoc (. e. c c opeee cxec ocoeoc oc);

poa coaeca eoc ooe paocopoee ee epecye ac yao ocoeoc;

yepcaoc, pooc ea pcocoeoc ca pax aeop yyo;

paoc;

execa pocoa;

eoc pocoa oeceoo yea;

ae ecx op acaa, acoc o oopx oa oea peyao ec ooeo opaeo.

B aocxoo oooc cooa cxooecx eco oo paccapaec ae x pooocae eoa a yoax po, p o oepaec cyyo epea apaeoc eco a oey oex y, e ye cpyyp cxecoo eea. B o e pe yaaec, o aocxooece eo a yoax po a yye aece aa cepeax ax, pa o x caceco opao, o e pcyx eca eco peaepoaoc aa caapa oox cepee poe cxeco eeoc.

Bopoc o pee aocxoo eco e oe peac aepao.

Pa eoecoo xapaepa ey eca aocxooec eoa a yoax po oo oop o oooc x coeaoo pee acoc o aa cceoa. O paoepoc ao ocao opoca ca C. .

Pye (1935), peaa oo ec py eoec cpeca. y oy pe ocaa . . aoo (1977).

acac opoca o oooc pee eco aocxoo, B. H. Mce (1971) ae yaa a paoaoc opoa ax caapoo ecaapoo cceoa, peocepea po ecpoa ocea e ye cxooecoo ae, paoo cooa, ocoaoo a a ooopa coc oc, ye oxa oc ee pa, epapo coea ooecx opaecx yco oc cao oc, pecae ccey oeceo oycoex ooe. Oao aa ocaoa opoca peye yoe oaa pee cxoepecx eco.

ae cxoo, paae ecooecoe apaee (D. Rapoport, 1945), e pa epoceeoo ae oaae IQ a a epe a aee papoca, . e. aaa oeo, oyex p cpae oe aa o pa cyeca Becepa. Ta opao, aee IQ oaae eocoo, epyaoo ocyae epe aopo papoca, e ypocoe, payaoe aee.

ocaea o coee xapaepca IQ a oaae cee pa eea.

oy eao epe cococy ae ooceo ypaeoc pa coc, xapaepyx IQ (. B. ao, 1963). . A. Ba (1970) paccapae peya ca o Becepy a xapaepcy e aao, a ocyoo ypo yceoo pa. Oao a oaae yceoo pa IQ caae cceoae e aco, a ooce a peeo opeeeo pye oceyex. A. Anastasi cae, o IQ o oo yco coco paa oey eoopx ax eco, a eo yo eppepoa. Ta opao, IQ oceee pe paccapaec a pec oaae, ooceo ceecy o coco y eea. C cao o, o oe cceoae oaac ooac ca oe IQ, pea o cyap.oaae, cacec oaae, o opppoa oaae.

Bopaa po cyyo epeo apaeoc eco, . B. eap (1971) e o o, o epee oea cxecx cocooce oo pa paoep o cyae, ec paccapa yceoe pae oo a oece poc x cocooce, a oe a x pepecc. oa, o pae e ec o oece poco cocooce, opa pecaee o cxeco oe a o eo exae pacaa, a eoc eao o ooe pa, e co cceoae cxecx y pocoy x epe, oppy coeopae aecex aocxooecx xapaepc p pax aoeax.

Moo ya, o peee opoca o aoceco ae eco aocxoo e ooao. oyee p cceoa o Becepy ae opac a aeaec opaoae peya oceoa ox py ox pao oooeco paeoc e cea pe pee opoco yao oooeco aoc. Ca D. Wechsler eppea oyaex c oo eo eoa peyao p oceoa ox opee paa ooe aee x aeceoy aay. Ta, p o oeaoc ecooece paoc pee aa cee eo pyoc, aepoaoc ae a e poecce cceoa ax ocoeoce e, a peoepco, ee peep ooe, . e. coc, e oaxc oeceoy opeee.

Ec ee oa copoa opoca. ae ao ooceo paocopo o eoec pea ec, a eeyaa aa Becepa, e oe peeoa a yepcay aoc. B acoc, o ec e ae p eo, ocoeo xopoo apeoeoax ce p e opeecx paccpoc e, apep, eo acca, ce, opaoa opa . . Ocee epeocoo cca oco y pa ox opee oaaec coxpa, opao oee eo opao ooe p o aoea ec eoa cooece oco c paa. aoceca eoc eca Becepa eoaoa p pax apaax ecoo aa, oop pyoocyec aocxoo. Oa aeo e, oa pooc epeaa aoca ope opaecx opae oooo oa, coc a opao aeceo eppea peyao p opae ope o cxoa epoecx coco. B o ooe peca epec ae G. Dahl (1968), cceoaeo cxoaooec opace py cxec ox (ope, opaece opae oooo oa, epo), cxox o oy, opacy IQ. Cyecex aocecx pa o p o e oapy. oa cyec (y ooca) oa ox c opaec aoea oooo oa o ox opee epoa. Ha o ocoa G.

Dahl peocepeae o epecoo cooa eca Becepa pee opoco eco aoc.

Bo e pe cceoae eeyao eeoc c oo eco ooe oy ae, xapaepe oceyeoo cpae c py aea o e opaco py, opeee o o ooe eo yae ocoeoc. Boooc caapoao oe ocyx p oceoa peyao ee ooeoe aee p xapaepce y cxecoo eea oeoo ooo py ox oe oooeco paeoc. poe oo, ae o aece aa peyao p yee x oeceoo ae oaac eca peya opeee ocx ocoeoce oceyex (. H.

ea, 1969, 1971).

Moo ya, o cxoepece ec oayc oe p oceoa ao-o aeop ox ae, a pax aax ee aoea ooeea. paoepoc aoo oxoa oaaa D. Bromley (1966), cooae eo Becepa xapaepc y eea p cape. peoaaa acca cceoa eea p cape poeea eoo oepex cpeo. yee a eea ye oepex cpeo ae cpee ae pax opacx py. p o cpac yae pa, apa oo oo poecca oyaec epao, e opeeey ee.

Pae ca eeyax y oo poce oo o e pye o'ya (poo) eoo. Ta, p o oo eae ca eeyaoo ypo a eoopx ooeeecx aax y oex , poce po coaecx coax aopo ooe x cao cao. poe oo, p ao opaa cceoa oo yec cxo ypoe eeyao eeoc. Oao poee oyaoo cceoa peyec oooa ex ocaoo epex aopo cyeco. Haoee peya D. Bromley cae coeae oox eoo oepex cpeo oyaoo.

Bopoc o cooa eco aocxoo ee ae o ooaeoo pee.

aeopoc cye ec oe oaa oxy ycyy. M xoe caa ee, ocoaoe a eoopo oe x pee. Moo, oao, oaa, o aoee pa o x peee oe oece aocxooecoo cceoa apy c py peyeceo aece eoa p paoe opeeex oaa x cooa.

Ceye ae o, o ec aocxoo oy cooac p pee eca yx, opex aa, a a o, ae caoo pooo aaoa, ec e ae ocaoo cecopoeo pecae o cxeco eeoc oceyeoo.

M.. poec (1974), paccapa cyccooc poe o oooc pee eco cxoo, oepae, o ec e oe oo ycaoe px ce cxeco eeoc, o ooe cpoa peya eeoc, e ca x c opeee epee o o cxeco y. Te e eee, cae M.. poec, ec ooe opeeee aooepoc (epooce, cacece). aooepoc co e pea, a cpoo pe, aece, ae x ooaae poocece oooc cxooa. Oa e ecoo aaec oe c oo cac oco poe a o ae yceoo pa, eo exaax aooepocx.

B aocxooeco cceoa ec oy pa cooaey po, apep, a yaaoc e, p eoxooc papoa cee paeoc eeyaoo eea pye ox oaoo oooeco paeoc. M oe o ec a opeeex aax oceoa ooo, apep, cceoa y eo a, e epoc cxecx poecco, o oy eocy xapaepcy ceo eeoc aeo-oco cep ooo c oo ox eco eooo. coy o ec, aocxoo eco epe cyae co oooc e o xoy cepea ay.

B oe o cxoepecx eco eo a yoax po oo cceyey pea o ae oeo aeca pao oceyeoo, ya eo yaoc opey aay cceoa a ao ae, oaa ooy opoay oo, ooy opee oy eo aeo pa (A. .

aoa, 1976;

B. B. Hoaea, E. T. Coooa, A. C. Caoca, 1979).

poe oo, cyape oe, oyaee p cceoa c oo eco pe cyae acpy yao-oce ooece ocoeoc, pcye oceyeoy o oe. Hapep, xapaepa ooo pae eeoc cecooop oe pec p cceoa o eoy Becepa ae o eeyao eocaooc.

Heoxoo ae ocaoc ee a oo opoce, ee eoec aoe aee. Ocoa peaepoaoc ecox cceoa cococoaa coa o oooc paoa c eca, e e ceao ooo. Tao cceoae cy coe ecocoeoc p eppea oyex oeo, a pao, oyae ooe peya, oeoc oopx o ocaae, yy yepee eopeoc eoa. Ha aec coepeo eoyc, o cceoa poo , e aee a oac aocxoo e yee poo aocxooece cepe c oo paox eoo.

EOHTOOEC ACET ETEHOCT ATOCXOOA ceoe poeee aocxooecoo cceoa o oo ac o ooe, caaxc poecce eo ey ccey o.

oo, o e oe eoo aoa, o oopoy ooe cpoc, e aee oo aopoocoeoc oc ooo, eo cxecoe cocoe, aaa cceoa , cooeceo, ooee ey oceyeoo, ocoeoc oc aocxooa, eo yypa, a, poeoe ae oceyeoy, oaey epe eoy ce cya, . . Mooopae x aopo ec po oooc pax apao oaa, ycaaaeoo p aocxooeco cceoa.

Ec aop, oycoee cocoe ooo eo ya coca, e oepe ocaoo epe aey oy yac aocxooo p paoe a oee, o peoa oc cxooa oy copypoa ocaoo eo.

Ta, ccey oe cooyyp eoeo, c po pyo epeco oo coe poeccoao py, a, epa, ea, ep yoy e, opoeaeo acpoe o ooe oceyeoy.

cceoae oe epe e oo oc xapaep aea, p oopo aeaop e cpae yooc p e oyeo aeye o. ae ceo poecce oa ccey oe coxpa eoyoc, eccpacoc. oycaee o o oy aapoac ecee c , o oo ope ocye oo, oop pyoocoac coe cye oceye. pao epao pecppoa o e ca oycoy x py. aco o pe oa aocxoo yeaec o, o oooe cyee o cya e axo oepe aepaax aeeo poee cceoa. oceo opepyc a oooo poa ooe pee, aocxoo pcye coca eepoe aee o ee y oceyeoo cxecx poecco. ex cyax, oa y oceyeoo eoxoo coa eaee o oooc pee, apep p cceoa ypo pa, oycaec aeya a ooo a oyeo oe, eoopx cyax ae poopyeo.

oa ccey ooae ooy o aae ao opoca, ocaae, oopee eoopee oex eo cye, oao pee aaox aa. p o pecae epec eoc oo cceyeoo, oooc oppe oox pee, oyex oceye.

Coxpaee aocxooo o pe oceoa eoyoc, ecpcpacoc oaeo. ae p o apoo oee oceyeoo e ceye ee po coe eyooce, papaee, a a opae ooa pea a oeee oceyeoo oa e yaec e pa oce oyc oee cya cceoa.

B o e pe ecpcpacoc cceyeo ae oe opaeo caac a peyaax cceoa. o oe aepax cceyeo poe epa, oceye ae ee coe ooee cceoa oaae aeo xye peya, apep oapyae aeo ey peyaoc a poe a aoae 10 co. eccpacoc cceyeo epeea p aocxooeco oceoa ee, oa aco pxoc coaa poy cya, o apoa oceyeoo.

ceo ay po pae ypoe poeccoax a aocxooa.

O oe xopoo oooe eopeec paec, yoo a oco cxooeco ay ocaoo cey opocax eco cxap. p o aocxoo e oe opaac ec y eo ooa ya aao a. oo o e ca peeceo coe ee, aocxoo oe ocoo ce a oo ayo epaypo o poea cxoo cxap. B coe eeoc aocxoo oe cooa ocaoo apopoae xopoo ey ece aocxooece eo. ae a oo oeo oeca cepeax aocxoo-ecx eo ooe ceacy oae exo poee cceoa, po p o ecy aecy oc, e apaeoc poee cepea cooec c oapyae eo xoe a. Hace poepo aeca pao aocxooa ec eo yee a aee o oye aepaa, oo e oapyee ae. Bce o peye e oo ocooo oe poeccoaoo ypo, o , a ca . C. Boc (1935), paccapa aocy a coeopaoe cycco oye yype aoc.

B paoe aocxooeco aopaop o peycope opo a paoo cxooo opaa ocoo ocyao oo . B o aaec oo ocox peyec epaoao opaa aocxooeco cy o cpae c paoo apeex a oee opoax py o pya aocxooo.

eeoc aocxooo ooc pe eo-ooece peoa, peee oo cxapa. Oo xceo aoe, aaec coxpae poeccoao a. Co peya aocece coopae aocxoo cooae oo cxapy, apaey ooo a cceoae.

aocxoo e oe ec co peooe ooceo aoa, ee pooa c pocea ooo.

aocxoo e oe aa o oeceoc, oopy aaae a eo poecc, a a eepoe aee oe cococoa aece yepa ooy a p epao aaeo ee, a cyax p eaeax ep coao paooo opa.

aocxooecoe cceoae e oo poe-. oce poee cceoa y ooo e o oa c o coe cxeco ecocoeoc c c oeee cceyeo. Hapo, aocxoo cea oe coxpa ecee c o acay cxoepaeoc, cococoa ocec ee ycaoa ooo pooe ee aoea peyao ee.

OPAHA PAOT ATOCXOOECO AOPATOP* aocxooece cceoa cxapecx eex ypeex co caoapo pooc aocxooa, e ceay oooy. oeco ooce aocxooo cxapeco oe ycaaaec acoc o oea pao. p o eoxoo ya aoe oeco oe oe x oopo, oeco ocyax a o caoap co epx ox, ae ceapoax (ecoe, epapecoe, eooecoe, cyeo-cxapecoe) oee, paoa aocxooa oopx oaec coe ceo, pooy oe paoy o oeo pyoo cepe. Ha ocoa oox oeo eca ac o ycaaae pepy opeoc aocxooecx cceoax, . e. oeco yaxc x a o ox.

B c c ao a oe pao aocxooa paax poee ooo cceoa pooeoc caoo cceoa, pe, apaaeoe a aa oyex ax oooy ae.

C. . Pye (1970) e o o, o oceoae ooo ooo oo a e ee 23 (oeo, 23 pea). Taa apaa pee a ooo oceyeoo ocec oo pyoeoc cepeao-cxooecoo cceoa, aeo oooy cepey, yee aepao cop oe, opaoy oyex ax, x aa oooy ae. p ao pacpeee pee aocxoo eee eca oe oceoa, o e C. . Pye, e oee 20 25 ox. o oo yac p apae ox a oceoae aocxooecy aopaop, oopa o poyco cocooc e oe _ *Opaa aocxooeco cy cxapecx oax oce ceae eoece peoea: yxap B.., Py-e C. ., oepea . H. O paoe aocxooa cxapeco oe.M.: . ., 1975.24 c.;

Bopoo. ., exep B. M., ap C.. Opaa pao ecx cxooo cxoepooecx oax .: . ., 1980 22 c.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ oyppoa c py aopaop o, apep, oxeco, cepooeco, e poo coyec aopaopa exa, a ca poecc cceoa ocae a oo.

Bc c p apae ooo aopaop ea pa oe pe opoc o a oaa aoo cceoa eo copypoa epe cxooo ecy aay. Moy opa, o a cxec oo acoo coeopae, o eo oceoae oe peca epec. B eco epe o a ec, oao, pyoocyc paec coopae, opoc o eoxooc apae ooo aocxooy ceye pea cooec c o oo, oopy oe pec cceoae ao cyae.

B eoecx peoeax Mococoo H cxap peea apya aocxooa, ycaoea p oopao xpooepae. Oo cepeao cxooecoe cceoae c oo eoxooo aopa eo aae 33,5 . B eee paoeo aocxoo, a opao, oe poec e oee 2 ax cceoa. a pao, oco ox ocey e eee 2 pa. Ta opao, c yeo oaeoo yac ayx oepex o, ecx paopax paoe cepx occ, aocxoo a o, o a Mococoo H cxap, oe cceoa e eee 200 ox. oeco oceoax c aoceco e ox yeaec p yac aocxooa peaaoo paoe.

p a cxoepooeco oe 2000 oee oe peoeyec eee e eee 10 ooce aocxooo, o 1000 o 2000 oe5 8 ooce p 500600 oax 23 ooc. pee pep opeeec opeoc cxapeco o aocxooax. p a oe ye yoaxc ceapoax oee oo peycope ooeo ooc aocxooo pacea 1 caa a oeee. aocxoo ceapoaoo oee oe xopoo ao co ceo pao e.

B pyx oacx opocx cxapecx oax, oe o oopx peae 1000 ec, p a 3 oee ecx cxooo, eecoopao coa aopaop. aey aopaope aaaec oee o ceac.

Cooeceo yeaec eo apya o eocpeceoy oceoa ox.

B a aopaop aec aopa co cpe opaoae, oaoc oopoo xo coepae oo e coyex aopaop eo, popeee ceax ao oco, poeee eoxox oceo poooax cceoa, eee apxa aopaop. aopay oe oa opyac poeee cceoa o oe aoee poc eoa, o oe cyae aopa e oe poo ooc caocoeo cxooecoe oceoae ooo.

B oaoc aeyeo aocxooeco aopaope xo oeceee pao opaa paoeo poecca, pacpeeee apy ey aocxooa, epee apoa ox eoo cxooecoo cceoa, oaae ocyao oo copya aopaop paeco paoe, yace cceoax aoee cox cyae. aey aopaope oeae a opaa pao o oe poeccoaoo ypo copyo, oaae oo p poee ayx cceoa. O e opopye eee yea oeoc aopaop.

aocxoo oe oaa yo ae opoco oe eco cxoo, a ae cey eco cxap, e opaac o oac a eopeec pecae. O oaae, o yceoc oaa aocxooa c ca cococye coeca papaoa ayax ayx opoco, ecee a aye oepe ypee oao a ayae aocxooa, cxapa e.

aocxooeca aopaop oa axoc oeo oee, opoao o ex yo. B e o oee oa copoe, oopx aocxoo poo oceoae ox, oaa oe pax execx pao, opao ax cceoa, e oo pacoo yoacaee ycpoco oo, o o e acopaao ooo.

He oycaec oopeeoe poeee cceoa y aocxooa oo oae. oa aopaop o oea oa eec yco, o o xopoo (o e co po) ocee, cae eoxoo ee oopyoae, pacoaa epyeo ecee. B aopaop e oo eo eo, o oeao ae oceyeoo o aao ey oo acopoc. B aopaop e oo px ooe opac ce. eaeo, o oope cceoa pooc oo o e oee oeceaec ococo yco.

B cxooeco aopaop o aoo, ya aa, eoxoe poee cceoa a oco, ocaooe oeco ceyoepo, aapaypa (epoopa, axcoco, aapa ac copoc pea . .). Heoxooc ye ae ocec e, o aee o cceoa eaaec yx epax: o cop oe, pyo poooa xpac ece c .

B aopaop eec ypa pecpa. Be yaac: oep poooa aa poooo cceoa, a, oeco ooo, ao, ae cepo aa, oep cop oe, ep oop ocop, oep oee opac ooo.

oo caec ep, ec o oy o oceyec aopaop p acoe ocye ep pa. Bce oceye cceoa cac oop.

Taa ccea ooe aoee eecoopao ec apx aopaop ooae p epo e eoxooc a eoxo pooo, apep, p oopo ocye ooo oy p oceoa eo c c eee cxecoo coco, e ayo papao. o ac cceoa a aooy ey cocaec ce pooo.

B aopaop eec aaa epa, ya acac ce oe c yaae oepa poooa a cceoa. Ca pooo xpac aax xpoooeco ope.

B oee aopaop eoxoo poaapoa pacpeeee ox o oee aoa peeo oco oooec opa pya aoea. Oeo oee cpyec oeco oceoax c cepo e o pa a cxapeco cep.

B oox oeax eoxoo yaa aao pexc aopaop eo, pe a oopyee oe eo, pooec aopaop aye cceoa ee eco ya ayx pao a o. B oee aopaop oeo ec peaaoa paoa epee epop, x yac, oeco oxaex ox, eoc.

op yea oeoc oao cex cxooo cxoepooecx ypee, o ce e oeex aopaop.

II. METO (METO) ATOCXOOECOO CCEOBAH METO CCEOBAH BHMAH CEHCOMOTOPHX PEA oppeypa poa. Meoa apaea a cceoae a ec cocooc oepa eo, ycooc. oppeypa poa epe a peoea B. Bourdon 1895 .

cceoae pooc p oo ceax ao c pa pacooex cyao ope y. cpy peycapae aepae oo yx y (op x opeeec ccey). p o ae 30 60 c ccey eae oey o ece a, e o pe axoc apaa ooo. Pecppyec ae pe, apaeoe cye a oee ceo aa.

poepa oe pooc o apaee aeo oooeoy opay ye coocae. Oeaec oeco oo e oe aa.

Cyeceoe aee ee pacpeeee oo eee oa paoepo o cpeac o ce ae, aac peyeceo oe cceoa c c coaeoc. aec xapaep oo poyc oex y cpoe, aepae pyx, pacooex po ee oxox y. B pe cyae eecoopao oopoe cceoae, eee peyao p o oe ceecoa e oo o ee coco ooo, o o ocoeocx eo ooe cceoa. p opaeco epepao aoo oceyeoy aco e yaec yy aeco oe aa. opoe oceyee o aa (epa e y a peeo ae) a 68 oyca p o e oee oo.

C. . Pye (1970) peoeye paecoe oopaee peyao oppeypo po. Ha pae coeac e pe eee copoc pao (o oecy pocopex a ey pee y) eee ooc (o oecy oo e e epa pee). Tae pa oo ae yoeoc ox, eycooc x a o, aoopo, x paaaeoc, poyc yye aeca pao. oppeypa poa oaec oo pocoo, oa e peye ceax pcocoe, poe ao, apaaa ceyoepa. B acoc o coe epe aocxooo aa oa oe eo opoaa.

Ce o peey. Meoa a peoea E. Kraepelin 1895 . cceoa paoococooc ypaeoc yoeoc. B oo coe acaoc oo ooax ce, oope cye oe caa ye. Peya oeac o oecy coex opeee poeyo pee ce oyex p o oo.

M oyec o eoo oa R. Shulte oceye poo coee coax, cocox yx p. o ye apay pee a oee aa, R. Shulte peo p oye cye yxaoo ca aca oo e, opaca eco. Hapep:

3 7 5 8 4 2 4 2 2 3 5 1 7 0 7 Oao o apye eoopx ox oee aa ooy e oaeoe ycoe.

poee oa eoxo cea a. p ocyc ao, oeaax opac ye, x oo aeaa a ye ae (oaeo eo, eaeo ep opo ep). ooy aec cpy poo coee ce coax. Eo peypea o o, o ccey ye ea co oe. ae 30 c ay yy ccey eae oey o ece, e o pe ocaoc oo, ae ocae oeco coe oyex oo aoo opea pee. B peyae c oo paeco eppea ax oo oy pe paoococooc, oope opaa paoepoc e oe aa, ae coaeoc, paaaeoc, paccpoca a.

poeee cceoa c oo o eo e peye ocoo paooc cyeoo, oao oy caac eo poeccoae a. Ta, cee pao p cceoa c oo a peea oy eocppoa eoxe peya, xo pyx eoax (apep, oppeypo poe) y x cyae a coaeoc. M. A. oyaea (1967) yaae a po eoopx ocx ocoeoce, coc eepaea, x a e paoococooc. o oo yac p poee oa. o epoaaoy ey paoococooc o ea e, eo ceye cpaa c eeoc oceyeoo aee.

Ocae. Meoa a peoea E. Kraepelin. p cceoa e oapyac oooc ocyece cye cex oepa, cocoe a. O aaec oca o 100 200 ce pe ooo oo e ca.

cyeoo peypea, o ca o oe po ce, a cyx oo aa oyeoe p oepeo a co. B poeyax ey ca ccey paoepo ca o (pe xpooepa). Moo cpoa eoc ay ceyoepo. ac oa popeae cey :

(1007)..93...86...79...72...65...58.51..44..37.30.23.16.2.

p a oeo coaeoc eoc ay oe, ecop a o o aae caoc oee e, yeaec. Boo a a oo. ep o eax a opao p epexoe epe ecoceecye o eoopo eeyao eocaooc, apep:

(1007)..93......85.....78..71....64....58 . .

Bopo o ecax xapaepe a opao ox c eyco ae. Hapep:

93...86...69..62.....55...38 . .

p paeo caoy c eocaooc p (apep, p popecco apae) ocae eec ope cpy eco 7 aec 10, eco 1720.

pe o e cea yaec opppoa. p ooo oe aa oo o yaa ooy a oyey oy, o, oe o o oa, oop eo caaa.

Ocae ce o aa ye. Meoa peec cceoa ea cecooopx pea ocoeoce a. cceoae pooc c oo ceax a, ooee oopx ecoo. Ha x aax ecope pacooe ca o 1 o 25. Paep a60XX60 c. Oceye axoc a ao pacco o a, o e ee eo. Ey aec cpy oca ca o opy, aoe oaa yao aa cyx. Ceyoepo oeaec pe, oopoe apaaec a ay ay. Moo oea oeca ce, aex oceye a ae 30 c, o pe, a oopoe oceye axo ae ce.

oe peyao cpaa pe, apaaeoe oceye a ay ay peeax oo a cpaa oaae eeoc oceyeoo a opeeee ope pee. Peya oo pa paec. Cyeceoe aee ee ycaoee paoepoc ea oe aa. Oo opoe oceyee ey oc ce aax paoepo, a oa ae aaec y x ycopee ea cecooopx pea oceyx aax. Ec e oc eec epaoepo, o ceye yo xapaep oo e pa o oeo coaeoc aoao paaaeoc. ecoe aee oe e pa coaeoc, ocpoea paec a ocoa peyao oa, a a oa oe oeo opaa xapaep ace. Ta, p epceeco apae ace pa coaeoc o aa ye (a cee o peey) xapaepyec co aa ypoe, pe eo cao eee opay cxo oaae. p oceeco ope ace pa coaeoc oaec eco cxo ypoe ocee eyo cee oaaee, e aex x oea copoy yye. Oapyee aoo poa px ee e oo o aocecoe aee, o oe cooao ece poocecx cye. epceeca opa ace pooceco ooe aopee oceeco. Oapyee y ooo oo e ooo ce epceeco op po coaeoc oceeco oe paccapac a pa popeeoc aoea , acoc, cococye epepoa aepocepoeco ace o aaxc oo opace coaoex cxoex aceecx coco.

oa p paex paccpocax aoo a oo oycae paoe opoycae oee ca, oaae eco ooo pyoe, ee oxoee (apep, 8 eco 3). Coeae apyeoo a oeo coaeoc poec yee oeca oo ao oceye ae. B eoopx cyax aaec oa aoo poa cooe ooaoe co oaaec yxao, coca oopoo oo xo. Ta, apep, eco oo, o oaa co 2, oceye yao axo py 2 cax 12 22. oa p a caoy o ac o oxoo oa cpy oce ooeoo oce xapaepa oe aa oo ce e oc o oceyeoo peooe o o. p apoo e oee ooea cpy e ee ooe ea, ae opae y oceyeoo: A o pae e 2? B poc axo ca, o x axoy.

Ta ye oaa pao cee pyoc, o o e aoac ooy poecce cceoa x oo cooa oopo.

po a epeee. p aocxooeco cceoa po a epeee oy cooa cye o ooc cxecx poecco, xo e opeeec ce aee oyex c x oo ax: poecce cceoa ycaaaec cee coxpaoc coapoo aaca, poee cex oepa . .

Ceye ae, o oa epoc cxeco eeoc oapyaec ye apyex, caex o epee o ooo aa pyoy. B x cyax cye oceyee aae aec o o opay peyeo (apep, p coeco apae ce aec ceoa oycy, paoaoy p ee cyecex pao) o e ae peee coa peyeo aa.

Memoua M. C. eeucoo aaec aa o ooepeo ap co, ooaax oyeee eoyeee pee. B poooe pecppyc aaee cye coa pe ey aae oex ap, apep:

coaa oa 2 c a poa 1,5 c oa opoe 1,9c ..

p cceoa o eoo epoc cxecx poecco oapyaec e oo apye epeoa, o o, o aaee coa opaac opeee pyo o (apep, oyeexoo ep aceoe, eoyeex oo ee pacop) oope ox ex e co.

epeoae aoo coo. a eoa peoea a e epoc cxecx poecco y ox c opaeco epepao aooe p eco eeyao-ececo coxpaoc (p aax cax epepaoo aepocepoa). pcya cceoa, eoxoo e apaee oooe aop co, oop opooy eoey epyo oopa a co, a ao.

cyeoy aec cpy ooepeo opa aa co ao coa, oope o ceac yc. pep aop co:

py (pe, pa) ea (pyc, paoc) xpap (ce, pyc) oy (c, ca ca (paa, o a (cyo, ep) oc (oooc, capoc) ope (ea, cace) . .

Coeue c nooepeo euuc caaeu. cyeoy peaa aoy o cy ooepeo pa a pyx, apep, 7 oa 5, cye 6, ae opaoaec cye o 5, ae o 6 .. p o cyx cye pooc peyae ca. poeee ce oepa coe cyx aeo oeae oee aa. B poooe xo pee aa opo cye popeae cey :

7....12...18...23....29 . .

p o oo o epeoa, aaec peyeceo aae (oe ece) o oe c ccoaeoc (p epepao aepocepoe), o (p pyo opaeco epepao aoo) eee ceo aa.

ooepeoe umaue. a eoa ec oae eo oca.

Oao o 100 200 ocaec e oo o e aeoe, a a epeyxc, apep 7 8. Bac o popeae cey :

100..93....85...78..70.63...55...48..40 . .

a eoa pecaec a oee pyo, e peya, p e aeo ee oapyac e oo epoc cxecx poecco, o ocoeo x coaeoc.

cceoae epee a c oo oa a ye.

Meoa peoea . . opo (1959, 1964) coyec cxoo pya. Oa e epoc cxecx poecco, p poee xpooepaa oex ao pao oceyeoo ooe ae ycao ae oeo coaeoc.

cceoa coyec aa, paeea a 49 eo (7 a 7), oopx cyao ope pacooe epe pace p. ca epoo pa o 1 o 25, pacoo pao 1 o 24. Coaco cpy, oceye oe aae oca yao epe ca opacae ope, a ae oceoaeo, yae ope oaa pace ca. Pecppyec apaeoe a o oceye pe. ae aec pya cpy: oaa epe pace ca oepeeo o ope 1 epoe 24 pacoe, 2 epoe 23 pacoe, 3 epoe 22 pacoe . . a pao, pe a oc ce p eoxooc epee a oaaec o, e o, oopoe apaaec a ocae x o opy. o oaae xapaepye cocoe cocooc epee a y oceyeoo.

oceoa ox c oo o eo ay ceye peapeo poep a opox oy oaae, xapaepe op eo o ao ae.

.. Ceao (1974) xapaepc a peo ooac oeo epeaeoc a, ce o opye:

t = 2---------- t e t1 cpeee pe, oaaoe a 4 aax ye, t2 cpeee pe oe aa o aa opoa, yaaeoe c c e, o oe aa o aa opoa 2 paa peae oe aa aax ye. poeee cceoa oaa cacec ocoepy pay oee epeaeoc y ox yepyeo ex cpae c opoo pyo opox.

oppeypa poa c epeee. Oceyeoy aec aeaa ec, ye ceo 1015 cpoe oppeypo a. cpy peycapae epa ay pe yy. cpyec pe, apaeoe a oee aa. Ha opo ae oceyeoy peec aao ec aec yaae aepa ooepeo oo cpoe ay pe yy, a oceye ay eepy yy. B aece eca cceoa oo cooa cpa ypaa, pop opeeeo oece cpoe peeax ooo aaa. Oaea peapea apoa aepaa oa a opox cyex, a a o pa, oeca cpoe, y cpoe ac pe, apaaeoe a oee aa.

M cooa cceoa ac ao oppeypo po, coepae o 12 cpoe y.

opox cyex c o eo cxeco eeoc pe oe opo ac aa cyeceo e oaoc o pee, apaeoo a eo epy ooy. Hepeo oppeypa poa c epeee oec opo ae cpee, e oa. ec cyecey po pae paaae, a ae o, o epae ooe cpoe eepo y pocxo ecoo cpee.

METO CCEOBAH AMT Cyecye oeco ceax eo cceoa a, papaoax a oe cxoo, a oac pao cxoo. cceoae a ee aoe aee aocxoo, a a pae o coe cpyype paccpoca a aac p ox cxecx aoeax, ocoeo oycoex opaec opaee oooo oa. Ocoeoc apye a oy oo aocxooy e oo caa peooee o xapaepe aoea, eo oooeco paeoc, o o ca ee aooecoo poecca.

Peya, oyaee c oo x eo, ceecy e oo o coco y a. B poax a a opaac cocoe aoo a, e oeo coaeoc cxecx poecco. Ocyecee ececo y ac o ee cex poecco. Ocoeo ea po e eoax cceoa oocpeoaoo aoa. Ha y aoa cyeceoe e oaae cocoe aeo-oeo cep ooo.

Oao, ecop a ecaaoe, peyeceoe aaee eo, o oopx ye pe acoe paee, o cceoae a. oocex oa o peaaxc cocoo cceoa a oopa aoee poce o coey ocyece, e peye poee oa ceao aapayp o e pe ooe aocxooy ocaoo oo cy o xapaepe exc y ooo ececx apye.

Tec peo cyxoo a. Meoa poc a oca R. Meili (1961) coco yx ao.

ep a aaec cceoa peo a c oo yx cep apo. aa cep 30 apo, a oopx opae opeeee pee.

ap pec c epao 2 c oa a pyo. ye ceo coe x y cpea o opay epeoo aeap.

epa cep: opo, oce, , aa, ooo, co, , cao, a, pa, oa, ooa, ye, poa, apoo, peco, a, eyx, o, o, aa, opoa, a, oy, ac, cap, o, aa, oa, ao.

Bopa cep: paya, poa, pya, pya, ea, oa, ye, paa, a, cy, a, ooo, ya, ooa, pa.ceca, ya, epeo, oo, a, a, o, coaa, caea, ep, aa, pea, e, cpa, opcap, o.

oce oaa apo epo cep ea epep a 10 c, a ae poep, coo peeo ao oceye. cpy cooae oceyeoy, o pee oo aa o ope. Haaee pee pecppyc, a a oo oope pecee e yppoax aa. Oe cep apo o epe oooc ceye pe e o o e e. poe oo, o e, oa poooc cceoae peo a, oceyeoy e pe aoa p co.

p oapye aeo pa peyaax ce ooo po o aopo ee cpe oo ya o aoc ececo y, caoc oepa a.

Aao opao poo cceoae cyxoo a c oo ceao oooex yx cep co, ae poocx c epao 2 c.

epa cep: apo, ee, ao, ao, opoa, oo, apa, ea, poa, epo, oxo, yo, ea, apa, oo, pya, caep, cy, a, o, o, pooaa, ycyc, eo, py, eo, ca, epa.

Bopa cep: aa, pec, py, oo, oa, popo, o, oa, apa, pye, ya, apaa, caoa, oe, e, ca, yea, ya, poa, eea, oc, epe, cao, oe, oo, o, coopoa, a, caa, ao.

oyee peya oy oepy oeceoy epe poeax. Ta, yceoc oe aa poc ppaaec 100 % p ocpoee 1820 pex opao 2022 co, 80% 1516 opao co, 60%14 opao 1314 co, 40% 1213 opao 13 co, 20% 1112 opao 911 co.

Ocaa eoa oocc eoa opeee yepax eo pa. aocxooa oe oaac oee oe eo ya, oo cceoa ececy y eeoc acoc o oea ayaeoo aepaa eo xapaepa. p o oo oy oee oy xapaepcy a poecca aoo aoa, poepa aoeoc epe opeeee epa pee xapaepye aae. Moo poce, ae coa ye aoac, ac o o x pacooe py, o aco x yopee oceyeoo, o eo poeccoax epeco, o yac aoa accoax poecco. C o e oo coyc po a aoae.

po a aoae.

po a anouaue ucyccmex (eccox) yocoemau. Oceyeoy aa 10 yxcox yocoea (poa, aap, ca ..) poc oop e, oope o ao, epao ao ope. ae ccey oopo aae yocoea. opoe oceyee ooc x ocpoo oce 5 oope.

poa a anouaue 10 co. p o oceyeoy aa 10 yxcox co.

opa ayaee coa ceye a, o ey pyo o ycao ae y ccoe ooe. Ec o e peycope, oceye oe oe ce aae, cooa eoexece pe.

Oo opoe oceyee ocpoo 10 co ye oce 34 oope (oa, p pepoao a oce 2 oope). epe 2030 oceyeoo poc oop aoec ey coa. B cyax, e ocaee a opeeec ec, o poea pae, epe 1015 . B o poeye eaeo ea aa, cax c aoae coecoo aepaa, oo poec cceoae aa ye, oppeypy poy . .

B poooe oa oeac aaee o (pao ooo) coa.

pecae epec coocaee peyao po a aoae c ypoe pa oceyeoo (A. P. yp, 1962). poe pa ac o oe o cox oooce, o peyao, ocyx peecye oe. C o e oceyeoo epe a oepe oopee cpaa, coo co o epec ao. Coocaee ypo pa c pea peyaa ooe cy eoopo cee o oee o coeo coco. Ta, p opaecx opaex oooo oa, oa cpaae paccyeoe ooee ooo coey coco, ypoe pa aeo peae ocye peya.

Peya po a aoae oy oopae paec. o po aoa yoo aapoa ocoeoc aya. p coaeoc ececo y pa aoa oc aoopa xapaep.

poa a aoae e ae cye oea a. B x cyax oceye ceye oope, aa oe coa, ye e ocpoo co, yppoax peye ype. p o cyape peya oce aoo oope ao oac.

poa a accouamuy nam. Oceyeoy aa ec ap ooceo oopox co, ey oop eo ycaaac ccoe c. Hapep: pea ope, oo pya . .

ccey aae coa, eo oe ap aya. ae o aae epoe coo ao ap, a oceye aae opoe coo. Oo opoe oceyee o aae oce yx oope, a oa cpay, oce epoo aa co. poa a accoay a ec o apao cceoa oocpeoaoo aoa. eco oo oa o eo. B acoc, oa x xo coca a a Becepa. a oooe pae xapaepa accoax ooe ea poce, a o pae caaec a aoa, . A. Mae (1973) peo ceyy oa. Oceyeoy aoa peaaec 10 py apx accoa, cocaex o opeeeoy py ccoo c. o pae ooe o;

pooooe o ( ceep, oeac), o pao e (xoopa, cpaxyac), ece eaeoe (paoa, a oea), pa cece (yoo), ac eoe (coopaa, epoooc), opye oe pya (e oaa), acpae opee o (cycco apa). aee peaac ap co, opaye cyee (ope a), pe coocoea (oape), pyocoeaee coa (ypaopcap). oce poep aoa ao py co ycpaaec epep a 2 , a oce pee py a 30 . Coocaee oyaex peyao y ooo oo e ooo p cceoa poa a aoae ooe cy o oe ee coxpaoc exaeco oeco (ccoo) a, cpa oaae eocpeceoo oocpeoaoo aoa.

Oocpeoaoe aoae. Meoa papaoaa A. H. eoe (1928) cceoa oecoo, oocpeoaoo, aoa. Peya cceoa ceecy e oo o coco a, o o ocoeocx e.

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