Bopoíeæ 1999 2 Äa ûe ìe oä ÷ecê e yêaça ÿ peä aç a÷e û äëÿ c yäe oâ 5 êypca c op ÷ecêoão ôaêyëü e a, poxoäÿù x eäaãoã ÷ecêyþ paê êy o a ãë cêoìy ÿçûêy â cpeä e øêoëe. Coäepæa oáø p û aáop ay e ÷ ûx cëoâ âûpaæe, y o peáëÿeìûx y÷ eëeì y÷e êaì â paçë ÷ ûx c ya ÿx ayä op oão oáùe ÿ. Oâëaäe e äa ûì oäúÿçûêoì ÿâëÿe cÿ eoáxoä ìo coc aâ o ÷ac üþ oäão oâê êâaë ô poâa ûx pe oäaâa eëe a ãë cêoão ÿçûêa.
3 The aim of this work is to present the language required by the teacher of English in the practical day-to-day management of classes. It is intended primarily for graduate teacher trainees in Russian secondary schools.
Unfortunately, foreign language graduates are seldom adequately prepared for the seemingly simple task of running a class in the language being taught. Experience shows that teachers have a very limited repertoire of classroom phrases and make as little use of the foreign language as possible.
There are recurrent inaccuracies or even an unwillingness to use English for classroom management purposes. The given work will help students acquire a wide range of accurate, authentic and idiomatic classroom phrases and attain a certain level of classroom competence that will be of value throughout their teaching careers.
Foreign language teachers require linguistic training aimed at the classroom situation since, if they believe in the maximum use of the language being taught, they are obliged to use it both as the goal of their teaching and as the prime medium of instruction and classroom management.
Classroom procedures have to be verbalized. In other words, instructions have to be given, groups formed, time limits set, questions asked, answers confirmed, discipline maintained and so on. The role of this linguistic interaction is perhaps one of the least understood aspects of teaching, but it is clearly crucial to the success of the teaching / learning event.
Classroom situations and procedures are generally quite concrete, which means that most classroom phrases have a very clear situational link. This fact allows the teacher to vary the form of the instructions given as part of the learning process. For example, given a specific context (repetition after the tape) which is familiar to the pupils, the teacher should be able to choose from “All together”, “The whole class”, “Everybody”, “Boys as well”, “In chorus” or “Why don’t you join in?” and the pupils should be able to react appropriately. In fact, by varying the phrases used in any particular situation, the teacher gives the pupils the opportunity to hear new vocabulary in context and at the same time to develop the important skill of guessing the meaning of new words on the basis of the context. Similarly, the teacher can deliberately use a structure that is going to be taught actively in the coming lessons and so “pre-expose” the pupils to it. For example, the future tense might be pre-exposed by choosing “Now we shall listen to a story” instead of “Let’s listen”. Systematic variation is then a valuable pedagogic tool.
There still exists a belief that (1) pupils cannot really understand a sentence they hear unless they are able to break it up into separate words and explain the function of each of the words, and (2) pupils at early stages should be able to say everything they hear in the lesson, and not hear anything that they are not able to say. This point of view implies that pupils at an elementary level would not understand “Would you mind opening the door?” and therefore they should not hear it since this type of structure occurs later in the textbook under the headings “Conditional” and “Gerund”. Clearly, however, the phrase “Would you mind opening the door?” can be understood in the simplest communicative sense on the basis of the key words “open” and “door”. The pupil may hear the “Would you mind” as a meaningless noise which will only be understood, i.e. broken up into its separate parts, later when the pupil has more experience of the language. If it is accepted that pupils may well understand more than they can say, it means that the teacher’s choice of classroom phrases can exceed the pupils’ productive abilities.
Though we emphasize the importance of making the maximum use of the foreign language in the classroom situation for the benefit of the learners, it is not a dogmatic plea. When outlining new working methods or explaining meanings of words and grammatical features of the language, for example, teachers should feel free to use the mother tongue. Naturally, an attempt can first be made in the foreign language, followed by a native language translation. This method has the advantage of allowing for differentiation;
that is, the better pupils have an opportunity to listen and try to understand while the weaker ones can rely more on the native language translation. The switching from language to language need not be a disturbing factor, especially if the teacher prefaces each change, e.g.” I’d like to say something in English now “ or “Let’s use Russian now”.
Now a few words about the structure of the work. Authentic classroom phrases are grouped under a key sentence, given in bold type. This key sentence acts as a point of reference. The phrases listed under it are usually variations of the sentence or phrases relating to the same context or activity.
e.g. In turns.
One after the other, please.
In turn, starting with Bill.
Take it in turns, starting here.
The phrases are not graded in any way nor marked for their suitability at different levels.
Russian trainee teachers can use this work for reference purposes, for example, in the preparation of lesson plans. Inevitably, teachers will develop preferences for certain phrases, but the principle of variation mentioned above should be remembered.
The majority of the phrases involving instructions are given in the basic imperative form, although teachers are recommended to make use of the wide range of alternatives. The most important of them are:
commands ( imperatives, must ) requests ( polite intonation, please, could/would, mind ) suggestions ( let’s, how about, why not, had better ).
Although in normal social interaction the selection from these alternatives is made quite carefully on the basis of factors related to status, role and situation, the choice in the classroom is often considered to be largely irrelevant. Because of the status traditionally accorded to the teacher and the situational rules that apply in the classroom, all of these different alternatives operate as commands, i.e. the pupil will do what he or she is told. Nevertheless, even within a clear-cut educational context, the choice may reflect the teacher’s underlying attitude to the pupils. The use of commands emphasizes the teacher’s position of authority;
requests imply the notion of equality, and suggestions, at least in theory, allow the pupils some freedom of choice.
Alongside with the vocabulary of language teaching the work offers lists of phrases that pupils are expected to use during an English class. As a rule they are not equipped with the necessary language related to their needs and problems as learners which would allow them to take part in the lesson. By practising the phrases and then insisting on their use, the teacher is increasing the pupils’ opportunities for using the language communicatively. Even at an elementary level pupils can acquire classroom phrases as self-contained unchanging unites, e.g. I’m sorry I’m late;
Could you repeat that;
What’s the answer to number 1? The phrases used to talk about the language itself and learning it Can you say that? ;
What’s the English for this word? Is there a corresponding adjective? ;
etc., are particularly useful.
In addition, the work includes notes, giving information about certain features of the British educational practice from a lexical point of view. Some notes contain comments and remarks related to language use, grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Certain common errors are also listed ( marked • ) with their correct form.
GREETINGS 1. Let me introduce myself.
My name is Mr / Mrs / Miss Smith and I am your new English teacher.
I’ll be teaching you English this year.
I’m a teacher trainee and I’ll be teaching you today, tomorrow and on Wednesday.
I’ve got five lessons with you.
2. Good morning / afternoon!
Good afternoon, everybody / boys and girls / children.
Good morning, Bill.
Hello there, Alison.
Note: In Britain schoolchildren are generally called by their Christian names.
e.g. Sit down, Susan.
John, start reading, please.
However, in some state secondary schools and most boys’ private schools boys are called by their surnames.
e.g. Stop talking, Smith, and get on with your work.
Make plentiful use of the pupils’ first names.
Teach appropriate replies:
Good morning / afternoon, Mr / Mrs / Miss Smith.
Note: The pupils in nearly all schools ( both state and private ) call the men teachers sir and the women teachers Miss / Mrs with the surname.
e.g. I’ve left my book at home, sir.
Mrs Barnett, what room are we in?
It is fairly common for children to call all women teachers simply miss, especially in primary schools.
e.g. Please, miss, can I leave the room?
John is pushing me, miss.
This form of address is accepted in some schools, but on the whole it is not considered very polite and is discouraged, especially by secondary school age.
Madam or ma’am is the usual form of address for all women teachers in some schools, particularly in the London area, but this is not general practice, and sounds strange to people who are not used to it.
3. How are you?
How are you getting on?
How’re things with you, Alison?
How’re you feeling today, Bill?
Are you feeling better today, Bill?
I hope you’ve recovered from cold, Alison.
I hope you are all feeling well.
Note: 1. Address question “How are you?” to one pupil at a time.
2. If the question “How are you?” is directed to several pupils in succession, the tonic syllable changes:
e.g. - How are you, Bill?
- And how are you, Alison?
Teach appropriate replies:
( I’m ) very well, thank you.
( I’m ) fine, thanks.
( I’m ) not too bad, thanks.
Fine, thanks. How about you?
IN THE CORRIDOR 1. Hurry up so that I can start a lesson.
Come on ( now ).
Let’s get started.
Let’s go in.
2. Come in and sit down.
Come in and close the door.
Don’t slam / bang the door like that.
Close it like this instead.
TRANSITION TO WORK 1. It’s time to start now.
Let’s start our ( English ) lesson now, shall we?
Is everybody ready to start?
I hope you are all ready for your English lesson.
I think we can start now.
Now we can get down to ( some ) work.
_ Note: 1. The most frequent form of direct suggestion involves the use of let’s.
e.g. Let’s start now.
Let’s finish this off next time.
“ Let us” is archaic and should not be used.
2.There are two alternative forms of the negative.
e.g. Let’s not waste any more time.
Don’t let’s bother with number 10.
3. This form of suggestion is very often accompanied by the tag ending shall we? Notice that the tag is the same for positive and negative forms.
e.g. Let’s try the next exercise as well, shall we?
Let’s not listen to it again, shall we?
Don’t let’s do all of exercise 5, shall we?
_ 2. I am waiting to start.
I’m waiting for you to be quiet.
We won’t start until everyone is quiet.
Stop talking now so that we can start.
3. Put your things away.
Close your desks.
Close the lid of your desk.
Put that book away.
4. I’ll just mark the register.
Could you pass me the register, please?
I haven’t filled in the register.
Note: In English schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before lessons and often before afternoon lessons too. The register or attendance register, as it is called in full, is a book with a list of the pupils’ full names, addresses and dates of birth. When marked, the register is usually kept in the school office and not taken to lessons.To call the register is used only if the names are called out and the pupils answer.The marking of the register can be called registration in formal style.e.g.
Pupils go to their form-rooms every morning for registration.
ABSENCES 1. Who is absent today?
Who is missing?
Who isn’t here?
What’s the matter with Alison today?
Has anybody seen Bill today?
What’s wrong with Bill today?
Has anybody any idea where Bill is today?
2. Who was absent last time?
Who wasn’t here on Monday?
Who missed last Wednesday’s lesson?
You weren’t at / in the last lesson, Bill. Where were you?
Who was away last Friday?
Note: To mark smb. absent is often used in connection with registration.
In registers, mark books, etc. absent is often abbreviated to abs or a.
The teacher may ask “Who’s absent today?” or “ How many people are absent today?”, but in non-formal style away is often used instead of the official word absent.
e.g. Who’s away today?
I was away last week, so I missed that work.
Similarly here replaces present.
e.g. - Is Margaret away / absent?
- No, she’s here.
When a pupil’s name is called, he usually answers “Here”.
A person who is absent is officially called an absentee.
e.g. There are three absentees today.
The teacher may make a list of absentees, or an absence list.
Similarly, if children are absent from school, they must bring an absence note from one of their parents when they come back to school ( and a medical certificate in cases of illness ).
Unauthorised absence from school is called truancy and we say that a pupil plays truant ( from school ).
e.g. Truancy is a serious problem in some schools.
John’s parents did not know that he was playing truant.
Truancy and to play truant imply absence for a whole day or days. If a pupil simply goes somewhere for one or two lessons one may say, for example:
He stayed away from / didn’t go to the English lesson.
To miss a lesson may mean for any reason, good or bad, for example, illness or truancy.
Teach appropriate replies:
I don’t know / I’ve no idea.
I haven’t seen him today.
He wasn’t here yesterday, either.
He is ill / not well.
He wasn’t feeling very well, so he went home.
He’s at the doctor’s / dentist’s.
He’s gone for an X-ray / a medical examination.
He has probably missed the bus.
He has got the flu / a cold / a temperature.
He is in bed with the flu / a cold / a temperature.
LATENESS 1. Why are you late?
We started 10 minutes ago. What have you been doing?
Did you oversleep / miss your bus?
What do you say when you are late?
Note: If a schoolchild is late for a lesson, he goes up to the teacher and usually says: I’m sorry I’m late, sir / Mrs Smith / Miss Brown. or Please, sir / Mrs Smith / Miss Brown, I’m sorry I’m late ( mainly younger children ).
This is followed by an explanation, for example:
I’m sorry I’m late, but I’ve been helping Mrs Lester to put some books away.
Teach appropriate apologies:
I’m sorry I’m late.
I’ve been to see the doctor.
I’ve been to the dentist’s.
I missed my bus.
I’ve been helping Mr. Green.
2. I see. Well, sit down and let’s get started.
Please hurry up and sit down. We’ve already started.
That’s all right. Sit down and we can start.
That’s no excuse / a poor excuse / not a very good excuse.
Note: A lame excuse is used, but not so often as the above expressions.
3. Try not to be late next time.
Try to be here on time next time.
Don’t let it happen again.
Let this be the last time.
That’s the second time this week.
I’ll have to report you if you’re late again.
Note: On time means “at the appointed time, at a specific hour.” e.g. You must come to school on time.
Be sure to give your homework in on time.
The opposite of on time is late.
e.g. I was late for school / the lesson.
Why did you give your homework in late?
In time means “early enough not to miss anything important, irrespective of the appointed time.” For example, if a lesson should begin at 10 o’clock according to the timetable, a pupil who comes at five past ten is not on time, he is late. However, if the teacher is delayed and comes even later, the pupil is in time, because he has not missed anything.
GENERAL ACTIVITY 1. Come in. - Go out.
Stay outside ( for a moment ).
Go out and we will call you ( back ) in.
2. Stand up. - Sit down.
Stand by your desk(s).
Sit in your seat(s).
Stay in your seat(s) / place(s).
Take your seats.
3. Come out to the front of the class.
Come out ( here ) and face the class.
Face the class / the board / me.
Look at the class.
Back to the class.
Turn your back to the class.
Stand with your back to the class.
4. Go and sit next to Bill.
Go and sit behind Alison.
Come and sit at the front.
You will have to go and sit next to someone else.
5. Now go and sit down again.
Go back to your seat(s), please.
Thank you, you can sit down again.
Back to your place.
6. Hands up!
Put your hand(s) up.
Put your hand(s) up if you know the answer.
Put your left / right hand up.
Up with your hand(s), if you know the answer.
I keep seeing the same hands all the time.
7. Look this way.
Look at me.
Look over here.
Pay attention now.
Could I have your attention, please.
Try to concentrate now.
8. Be quiet!
Stop talking now.
Stop chattering there.
Don’t make such a noise.
Not so much noise, please.
Don’t all shout / talk at once.
Listen to what I’m saying.
Get on with your work quietly.
Not another word, please.
9. Sit still.
Stay where you are.
Don’t keep turning round.
Turn round and face me.
Sit up ( straight ).
Don’t be such a nuisance.
Be a good boy / girl for once.
10. Work in twos.
Work together with you friend.
Work in pairs.
Work in threes / fours / fives.
Work in groups of two / three / four.
I want you to form groups. Three pupils in each group.
I’ll divide the class into groups.
Here are some tasks / exercises for you to work on in groups / pairs / threes.
11. Work on your own.
Everybody work individually.
Work by yourselves.
Try to work independently.
Don’t disturb your neighbour.
There’s no need to discuss it with your neighbour.
12. Stop now.
Everybody stop what you are doing.
That’s enough for now.
That will do, thank you.
OK, that’s enough.
All right, you can stop now.
Your time is up now, I’m afraid.
BLACKBOARD ACTIVITY 1. Come out to the blackboard, please.
Go to the board.
Go up to the blackboard.
Come and stand by the blackboard.
2. Come and write the word on the board.
Come out and write that sentence on the board.
Write that on the blackboard.
Write it here / there.
Write it next to / above / below that word.
Take a piece of chalk and write the sentence out.
Here’s a piece of chalk. Write it up on the board.
Try and keep your writing straight / level.
3. Move out of the way so that everyone can see.
Step aside so that the class can see what you have written.
Move to one side so that we can all see.
4. Go and fetch some chalk from the office.
I’ve run out of chalk.
Go and see if there’s any chalk next door.
Go and ask Mr Smith for some ( pieces of ) chalk.
5. Everyone look at the blackboard, please.
Everybody look at the board.
Let’s look at the sentences on the board.
Look at the pattern on the board.
6. Are the sentences on the board right?
Are there any mistakes in the sentences on the board?
Can you see anything wrong with the sentences?
Anything wrong with sentence 5?
Rub out the wrong word.
Wipe out / off the last letter.
Is there anything to correct in sentence 3?
7. Read out the sentences on the blackboard.
Bill, read the first sentence.
Let’s all read the sentences from the board.
Look at the model / pattern on the board and ask questions.
8. Copy this down from the blackboard.
I’ll write up the correct answers on the board.
I want you to copy the questions down in your notebooks.
Make a note of the last two sentences.
9. Whose turn is it to clean the board?
Who is the monitor?
Clean the board, please, Bill.
We can wipe this last exercise off now.
Use the duster.
Wet the duster under the tap.
You can wipe this line off.
Leave the answers on the board.
There’s no need to rub that exercise off.
TEXTBOOK ACTIVITY 1. Get your books out.
Take out your workbooks.
Books out, please!
Out with your books, please.
2. Open your books at page 27.
Take out your books and open them at page 12 / lesson 5.
You’ll find the exercise on page 25.
Look at page 19.
Look at exercise 5A on page 46.
3. Now turn to page 16.
Turn over the page.
Turn to the next page.
Next page, please.
Let’s move on to the next page.
4. Turn back to page 16.
Turn back to the previous page.
Now look back at the last chapter.
You can refer to the map / vocabulary list on page 213.
Refer back to the grammar notes on page 23.
5. Close your books.
All books closed, please.
Put your books away now.
Shut your books.
6. Hand in your papers as you leave.
Leave your essays / sheets / tests on the desk as you go out.
Have you all handed in your tests?
Is there anyone who hasn’t returned their test?
7. It’s at the bottom of the page.
It’s somewhere near the top / bottom (of the page).
It’s in the very middle of the page.
(The) tenth line from the top / bottom.
(The) tenth line down / up.
8. It’s on the left.
The left-hand side / the right-hand side.
It’s in the top left-hand corner.
It’s in the bottom right-hand corner.
It’s in the left-hand margin.
Look at the right-hand column.
9. Read the passage silently.
Read the text to yourselves.
Study the chapter on your own.
Have a look at the next section.
Check the new vocabulary from the list at the back.
If there are any words you don’t know, please ask.
10. Let’s read.
Let’s read the text aloud.
I’ll read it to you first.
You start ( reading ), Bill.
Alison will begin.
Three lines each ( starting with Bill ).
Five sentences for each of you.
One after the other, please.
That’s enough, thank you.
11. Go on reading, Bill.
Read the next bit / section / paragraph, will you, Bill.
Alison, go on from where Bill left off.
Next one, please.
12. Do you understand everything ?
Is there anything you don’t understand?
Do you know the meaning of all the words?
Can I help you with any words and phrases?
Is everything clear?
Are there any questions on this text?
13. We’ll look at some difficult points in this text.
There are one or two difficult points we should look at.
Let’s look at the passage in more detail.
I’d like to point out some difficult constructions.
14. Copy this down in your notebooks.
Put / take / get / write / copy that down.
Make a note of this somewhere / in your books.
Don’t forget to write that down.
Write it in the margin.
Underline the new words.
15. Write it neatly.
Write it out legibly at home.
Make sure I can read your handwriting.
Rewrite it neatly.
16. Do the exercise in writing.
Do the exercise in pencil.
Rewrite it in ink.
Use a pen / pencil.
Has anybody got an extra pencil?
Have you got a spare pen with / on you?
Could you lend Bill a pen or a pencil?
TAPE ACTIVITY 1. Mind the tape recorder.
Mind the cable when you go out.
Careful where you’re stepping.
2. Could you plug the recorder in, please.
Turn it on / off.
Switch it on / off.
Put this plug in the socket over there.
Unplug the recorder.
Pull the plug out of the wall.
3. The tape recorder seems to be broken.
There’s / there seems to be something wrong ( with it ).
The recorder isn’t working properly.
I have / seem to have brought the wrong tape.
We’ll have to do something else, I’m afraid.
There’s nothing we can do about it.
There’s nothing to be done.
Do any of you know anything about tape recorders?
Does anyone know how this works?
4. Can you all hear?
Is it clear enough?
Is the sound clear enough?
Is the volume all right?
Can you hear at the back?
5. I’ll just find the place.
Wait a moment / second / minute, I’ll just rewind the tape.
Let me just find the beginning again.
Look at the questions while I find the place.
6. Let’s listen to the tape now.
First of all, listen to the conversation.
Now you’ll hear the conversation.
Off we go then.
Here it comes.
7. Listen again.
Let’s listen to it once more / once again.
Now we’ll listen to it again.
We have enough time to listen to it again.
We’ll stop here / there for a moment.
Before we go on, I’ll ask you some questions.
8. Listen and repeat.
All together, after the tape.
Repeat after the tape.
9. Just listen.
Just listen. Don’t say anything.
Listen but don’t write anything.
Listen carefully to the instructions.
10. As you listen, do exercise 5.
As you listen, fill in the missing words.
While you listen / you are listening, answer question 2.
While listening, mark your answer sheet.
Before listening, read through the questions.
LANGUAGE WORK 1. What’s the Russian for “car”?
What’s the Russian word for “car”?
What’s this sentence in Russian?
How would you translate this word / phrase into Russian?
How do you say this / ”on the wall” in Russian.
What do you call this ( thing ) in English?
What is the English equivalent of the Russian word “y÷èòeëü”?
How would you say that in English?
Note: Mistakes are very common with phrases of this type.
• How is the Russian for “car”?
• How is this sentence in Russian?
• How do you call this ( thing ) in Russian?
“How” and “what” are often confused.
“How” 1. precedes a transitive verb with a separate object;
2. precedes an intransitive verb.
e.g. How do you answer the first question?
How should you write it?
How does number 5 go?
How did you get on?
“What” 1. requires a transitive verb where “what” is the object;
2. precedes “to be” as a complement.
e.g. What did you write?
What should you say?
What is your answer?
What was number 6?
2. Please translate.
Translate this / that / last sentence into English.
Could you put that into Russian for us.
Translate from Russian into English.
Don’t translate word for word.
Think about the meaning of the whole sentence.
3. In English, please.
Say it in English, please.
Try it in English.
Now the same thing in English.
This is supposed to be an English lesson, so let’s speak English.
COMPREHENSION 1. Let’s talk about this chapter.
Let’s see if you’ve understood.
Let’s ask some questions about / on this passage.
You had the job of preparing five questions each on this unit.
Let’s look at this chapter in more detail.
Note: You can sometimes hear:
• Let’s discuss about this.
“Discuss” is not followed by a preposition. It is also rather inappropriate in the classroom.
2. We’ll have a look at the new words.
I don’t think you’ve had / met this word before.
Let’s read through the vocabulary first.
I think we had this verb last time.
We looked at / dealt with these forms last week.
You had this in your last lesson.
Note: • I think you haven’t had this word before.
• I think you haven’t got time.
Notice the English preference for saying “ I don’t think”.
e.g. I don’t think there is anything else in this lesson.
I don’t think we have got time.
3. What’s another way of saying “he stuttered”?
How else can you say the same thing?
Can you say the same thing, using different words / in other words?
Give a synonym for “rushed”.
What is a synonym for “huge”?
What’s another word that means the same as “huge”?
What are two words that mean the same as “tripped”?
Can you give me one word that means “to come back”?
What’s one word that means / for “out of work”?
What’s a shorter way of saying “he went by plane”?
Give me a phrase that means approximately / more or less the same thing.
Note: Notice the pattern:
another a better way of saying “-----------“?
What is a shorter a more English 4. Use your own words.
Use your own words to describe what happened.
Use your own words to tell me about John.
Explain the meaning of this sentence, using your own words.
Tell me in your own words what happened.
Can you paraphrase / summarize the last paragraph?
Can you give me the main ideas of the passage in a nutshell?
Give me a brief summary of the contents.
5. What does “blue” mean here?
In what sense is the word “cry” used here?
What does “sang” refer to in this sentence?
What do the words in brackets / italics mean here?
SPELLING 1. How do you spell “buses”?
How do you spell the word “glass”?
How is “giraffe” spelt?
What is the correct spelling of this word?
Spell “ship” for me.
Spell it in English.
Use the English names for the letters.
2. Have you spelt it right?
Let’s see if you’ve spelt it right / correctly.
I wonder if you’ve spelt it right.
Is there anything wrong with the spelling?
Can anybody correct Bill’s spelling?
I’m afraid this is spelt wrong.
I’m sorry, you’ve made a spelling mistake.
There are two words you’ve spelt wrong.
3. What letter is missing?
Is this letter right / correct?
Spell it with an “i” and then an “e”.
There is a “k” missing.
A “k” is missing.
There’s one letter too many / few.
You’ve got one “l” too many / few.
It’s spelt with two “p”s, not one.
You need an extra letter here.
There should be an “o” instead of a “u”.
Write it with a capital “S”.
Spell it with small letters.
The word ends / begins with the letter “p”.
It begins with a “p”.
Why do you need two “o”s?
Write it as one word / two words.
Write it separately / together.
The word is spelt “c-o-n-s-c-i-o-u-s”.
Teach appropriate language questions:
How do you spell “daughter”?
Are there two “l”s or only one?
PUNCTUATION You need a comma here.
There should be a full stop.
Put a comma after this word.
Always check the punctuation.
Can we leave this comma out?
Teach an appropriate language question:
Do I need a hyphen / comma / full stop?
Teach the following vocabulary:
comma, full stop, semi-colon, colon, hyphen ( e.g. passer-by ), dash ( e.g. we - that is I - … ), stroke, question mark, exclamation mark, apostrophe, inverted commas or quotation marks, asterisk, brackets CORRECTNESS 1. Is that right?
What is the answer ?
Was that the correct answer?
Can you say that?
Can you say it like that?
Think about it carefully. There’s a catch ( in it ).
It’s a trick question.
2. You made a mistake.
You made a small / slight mistake.
You made a little slip.
There was a small mistake in what you said.
That wasn’t quite right.
That was almost right – just one little slip.
You missed the verb out.
You forgot the preposition.
You used the wrong tense.
You misunderstood the instructions.
Note: 1. • You did a mistake.
You made a mistake / slip / error.
2. • A wrong tense.
The wrong tense.
There is a tendency to use the definite article with “wrong”.
3. How should you say it?
What should you say?
How should you answer?
What would you say, Bill?
Did anyone notice the mistake?
Can anyone improve on that / what Alison said?
Is there anything to correct / that needs correcting?
Anything wrong in sentence 3?
Note: • How do you say it better?
What’s a better way of saying it?
4. Is there another way of saying it?
Is there a better / shorter way of saying the same thing?
What’s a better way of saying it?
That is all right, but is there another way?
Try to put it in other words.
Could you phrase it slightly differently?
What other word could you use here?
What else could you say?
How else could you say it?
STRUCTURE AND VOCABULARY 1 Can we leave this out?
Is a definite article necessary here?
Which tense do we use after “if”?
Which preposition comes after “to concentrate”?
What preposition does “to be proud” take?
What’s the rule about “some” and “any”?
Does anybody remember the rule for using “since” and “for”?
Does anybody recall what we said about the verb “to dare”?
What’s the past ( tense ) of “to go”?
What are the parts of “to sing”?
Where do we usually put adverbs of frequency?
Is the word order right?
Where does the word “yet” usually come?
Teach appropriate phrases:
Which tense do I need / should I use?
Why do you need the article?
What’s the preposition after “to depend”?
Could you use the future / passive here?
2. Try it again.
Now ask properly.
Again, but this time more politely / clearly / fluently.
Once again, but remember the word order.
This time start with “who”.
Watch out for the conditional tense this time.
Mind the preposition.
Put the adverb at the end.
Try not to mix these two words up.
Don’t get “skirt” and “shirt” mixed up.
3. It sounds better to say “…. ” What you said isn’t wrong, but … Perhaps you had better say… It might be better to say… I think “then he left” sounds better in this sentence.
An Englishman would probably say … 4. What is the noun derived from “electric”?
What is the verb that corresponds to this noun?
What’s the adjective that comes from “nation”?
What’s the opposite of “generous”?
What is the prefix that means “against”?
A word that rhymes with “blue” meaning “a hint” or “tip”.
It’s a synonym of / for “jealous”.
What’s a man who carries bags called?
What do you call a person who moves to another country?
What’s the difference between “stick” and “racket”?
Can anyone tell me the corresponding verb?
Note: Remember the prepositions:
to be derived from to correspond to the opposite of similar to to be based on PRONUNCIATION 1. Listen again and say it after me.
It wasn’t pronounced correctly.
There was a mistake in the pronunciation.
Again, please, but watch your pronunciation.
Be careful with the “sh”- sound.
You said “tree”. Listen to the correct pronunciation.
You are saying “tree”. I’m saying “three”.
Listen and repeat.
Listen to me saying it.
Listen to the way I say it.
Listen to how I say it.
Listen again carefully and then you try.
Note: • Listen me saying it.
Listen to me saying it.
Whenever the verb “listen” is followed by an object, the preposition “to” is required:
Listen to the tape.
Listen to me.
Listen to John saying it.
Listen to how I say it.
“Listen here” usually precedes an angry threat or piece of advice:
e.g. Listen here. I’m fed up with this noise.
Just listen here. If you say that again … 2. Listen to the way my voice goes up.
Watch my lips very carefully.
Watch my mouth closely.
Notice how my tongue touches my teeth.
See how my mouth hardly moves.
The man on the tape raised his voice like this.
You try and do the same.
You must let your voice fall at the end of the sentence.
3. The word is pronounced … The word rhymes with “house”.
The word is accented on the second syllable.
The first sound is , as in “thin”.
Don’t mix up these two words, “glass” and “class”.
Teach appropriate phrases:
How do you pronounce the next word?
I’m not sure how to say the next word.
What’s the next word?
Where’s the accent in this word?
_ INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISES 1. Change / put into / form / rewrite.
Put the sentences into the passive / into direct speech.
Put the verb into the correct tense.
Rewrite the sentences using the passive.
Rewrite the following sentences, leaving out the relative.
Rewrite the sentences in the singular / in indirect speech.
Rewrite the passage, correctly punctuated.
Rewrite in the first person.
Change all nouns into pronouns.
Make these sentences passive.
Form adjectives from these nouns.
Replace “which” with “that”.
Change these sentences in the same way as the example.
Write the verbs in brackets in their correct form.
Rearrange the adjectives in the correct order.
Substitute “too” and “enough” for “so” in these sentences.
2. Fill in / complete / insert / expand / supply Complete the sentences with a suitable infinitive.
Complete the sentence by adding an article.
Fill in “a” or “the” where necessary.
Complete the sentences, using the words provided.
Use one of the following words to complete the sentences.
Construct a suitable completion for the sentences.
Use appropriate forms of “to be” to complete the sentences.
Insert the words given in brackets into the sentences.
Fill in the gaps / blanks, using the words given.
Put “shall” or “will” into the blank spaces.
Supply the correct form of the verb.
Supply the missing word.
Add the correct endings.
Fill in the missing speeches in the following conversation.
Expand the notes below into complete sentences.
3. Choose / cross / underline / ring / find.
Choose the verb that best fits each sentence.
Choose the correct completion for each sentence.
Ring the appropriate answer.
Put a ring round the best alternative.
Underline the accented syllable in these words.
Put a line under the correct preposition.
Cross the appropriate answer.
Put a cross in the right box.
Find words in the text that mean the same as… 4. Construct / write / mark / combine / continue Construct sentences using the words given.
Make sentences to show you understand the meaning of the following words.
Write appropriate answers to the following questions.
Combine each pair of sentences, using “although”.
Finish the dialogue.
Continue the conversation between Fred and Tom.
5. Write / summarize / explain / punctuate.
Write an essay of about 250 words on one of the following subjects.
Write an answer to Bill’s letter.
Begin: “Thanks for…” Summarize the passage in not more than 100 words.
Read the following passage and then answer the questions on it.
State Bill’s reasons for leaving in your own words.
Explain the meaning of the following words, as used in the passage.
Punctuate the following passage.
6. Now talk about yourself in the same way.
Continue in the same way.
Now say what you enjoy doing, using the ideas below.
Now ask for and give opinions on the following topics.
Now offer these people some advice.
Use these ideas to practise similar conversations.
Now you make some suggestions.
Begin “How about…?” Talk about yourself. You may find these ideas useful.
CONVERSATION 1. I see.
Oh, did you / is it / was there / can they?
What you said is very interesting.
I didn’t know that.
Is that so?
That’s a very good point.
I hadn’t thought of that.
Yes, that’s true, as a matter of fact.
Note: These phrases may be used after a pupil has given his opinion or mentioned some facts. They help to make the exchange more natural and provide a link with the next speech or question.
In what way?
Why do you think so?
What reasons do you have for saying that?
Can you support what you say?
Is there any evidence to support what you say?
Note: These questions are to be used as a follow-up to “yes/no” answers or to statements.
Why do you think so?
The word “so” cannot be emphasized in this context. Generally, in such a sentence, “why” would be emphasized, or sometimes “think”.
English requires the use of “this” or “that” to express emphasis.
e.g. I see. But why do you think that ?
Yes, but why did you write this ?
3. Do you really think so?
Is that your honest opinion?
Is that what you honestly think?
You’re convinced of this, are you?
Don’t you think, though, that … I’m not so sure about that.
Well, that all depends, doesn’t it?
You can’t be serious.
4. I’m not sure what you mean.
I’m not sure what you are getting / driving at.
Could you explain what you mean.
Could you give me an example.
What exactly are you trying to say?
Could you go into more detail.
Could you expand on that a little.
Be a little more precise. What exactly do you mean?
Correct me if I’m wrong, but do you mean that… 5. Has anybody else anything to say on this?
Have you got anything to add ( to what Bill said )?
Who agrees / disagrees with Bill / what Bill said?
Does anybody share Bill’s opinion / views?
Bill, what do you think about this?
Could someone sum up what has been said?
Let’s just run through the arguments for and against.
Note: • Has anybody of you anything to say?
“Anybody”, “somebody”, “nobody” and “everybody” cannot be used with “of”: any of you Has anybody anything to add?
some of you Somebody must know the answer.
all of you but Everybody will have to finish this off each of you at home.
none of you Nobody managed to get them all right.
Repetition and Responses 1. Louder, please.
Say it louder.
Say it a bit louder, please.
Once again, but louder.
Say it so that everyone can hear you.
I can’t hear you. Say it again, but this time louder.
2. More clearly.
Speak more clearly.
Not so quickly, I can’t follow you.
3. Not so loud.
There’s no need to shout.
I’m not deaf.
4. Again, please.
Once again, please.
Say it again.
Say it once more.
Once again, but more fluently.
Let’s try it again.
Again, but more quickly this time.
Repeat after me:” It’s a blue car”.
Say after me:” He has gone”.
Say it after me.
5. The whole sentence, please.
Use a complete sentence.
Begin with a question word.
Try it again from the beginning.
6. Don’t help him.
Don’t whisper the answer.
I’m sure she can manage on her own.
Don’t keep prompting.
Let her try it on her own.
GROUPING 1. Everybody, listen and repeat.
All together now, please.
Everyone, say “She has gone”.
All of you.
The whole class, please.
Not just this row.
Let’s read in chorus.
Let’s all say it together.
Say it with me.
2. Boys – Girls.
Now all the boys.
Just the girls.
Let’s begin with the boys.
The boys can begin.
3. This row.
The next group.
These two rows.
The back row on its / their own.
These tables on their own.
Just the front row.
4. In turns.
One after the other, please.
In turn, starting with Bill.
Take it in turns, starting here.
Don’t all answer together.
One at a time, please.
5. Your turn, Bill.
You join in, Alison.
Join in with the rest of us, Bill.
CYCLES, NOT CATCHING 1. I’ll begin.
I’ll ask first.
I’ll read first and then you can read after me.
I’ll start and you continue.
I’ll read the whole thing before you answer.
Note: Mind the sequence of tenses :
e.g. I’ll start and you continue.
You start and I’ll continue.
The you-form is really an imperative 2. Now you ask Bill.
Ask Bill the same question.
Now it’s your turn to ask Bill.
Ask the boy / girl ( sitting ) in front of / behind you.
Then you ask this boy, and he asks Bill and so on round the class.
Now it’s your turn to ask questions.
Now it’s Alison’s turn to give the commands.
3. Sorry? What did you say?
I missed that. What did you say?
Sorry, I can’t hear you.
I didn’t quite hear / catch what you said.
The rest of you, keep / be quiet.
I can’t hear what Bill is saying for the noise.
I beg your pardon. I thought you said … CONFIRMATION 1. That’s the way.
That’s quite right.
Yes, you’ve got the idea.
2. That’s perfectly correct.
There’s nothing wrong with your answer.
What you said was perfectly all right.
You didn’t make a single mistake.
That’s exactly the point.
I couldn’t have given a better answer myself.
3. No, that’s wrong.
I’m afraid that’s not quite right.
You can’t say that, I’m afraid.
You can’t use that word here.
Good try, but not quite right.
ENCOURAGEMENT 1. That’s better.
That’s much better.
That’s a lot better.
You’ve improved a little.
2. Try it again.
Have another try.
Not quite right. Try again.
You’re on the right lines / track.
Take it easy.
There’s no need to rush / hurry.
We have plenty of time.
Go on. Have a try.
Have a go.
Have a guess if you don’t know.
3. Don’t worry.
Not to worry, it’ll improve.
Maybe this will help you.
What if I give you a clue?
I’ll help you if you get stuck.
4. You read quite well.
Your pronunciation is very good.
You sound very English.
You speak / read very fluently.
You have made a lot of progress.
You still have some trouble with your spelling.
You find it difficult to read aloud.
Reading aloud is difficult for you.
You need some more practice with these words.
You’ll have to spend more time practising this.
You’ve improved no end.
GRUMBLING 1. That wasn’t very good.
That was rather disappointing.
I wasn’t very satisfied with that / the way you did that.
That was awful / terrible / rotten.
2. You can do better than that.
A bit more effort.
Put a bit of life into it.
3. I hope you do it better next time.
In future I want you to bring your workbook.
When you try this again, I shall expect you to… The next time we do this, I want you all to… From now on there will be no interrupting.
ABLE TO PARTICIPATE 1. Has everybody got a book?
Is there anyone without a book?
Who hasn’t got a copy of the text?
Where is your workbook, Bill?
Is there anyone who hasn’t got a copy of the article?
Can anybody lend Bill a copy of the book?
Would someone give Alison a sheet of paper?
2. Have you found the page?
Have you all found the place?
Help him find the place.
Show him the place.
Show him where we are.
3. Who needs help?
Who can’t manage ( on his / her own )?
Does anybody need any help?
Is anyone having trouble / difficulty?
Who is having trouble with the exercise?
Who is finding this difficult?
How are you getting on / along?
Let me know if you run into a problem.
4. Have you all prepared this chapter?
Did you all finish off this exercise at home?
Have you all completed the essay, as I told you?
READINESS 1. Where did we stop last time?
How far did we get last time?
Where did we finish / stop reading last time?
What were we talking about last time?
Let me refresh your memory. Last time we talked about… If I remember correctly / rightly, we were on page 21.
If you can recall what I said last time about… Let’s revise some of the things we did last time.
What was I saying before I was interrupted?
2. Are you ready?
Who has finished?
Are you all ready now?
Have you done exercise 7 ( yet )?
Have you finished reading page 10?
Anybody who still hasn’t finished?
Have you done everything?
Which question are you on?
3. Who’s next?
Whose turn is it next?
Who is the next one to try?
Who else is there?
Who hasn’t been out to the board?
CHOICES 1. Who wants to come out?
Who would like to do this?
Who wants / would like to write that on the board?
Who’ll write that up on the blackboard?
Any volunteers to read ( the part of ) Sherlock Holmes?
Who’d like to be the reader?
Anybody willing to clean the board for me?
2. Which topic would you like to take?
Which subject do you want to work on?
Is there a particular topic you are interested in?
TRANSITIONS 1. Now we shall do some groupwork.
Now let’s have a look at exercise 12B.
Now I want you to turn to page 17.
How about listening to the whole thing now?
2. First let’s listen to the dialogue.
Firstly, a few words about your homework.
To begin with, we shall do some drills.
3. Next, I would like you to… For the next thing, could you take out your workbooks.
And now a brief look at some grammar.
After each part, you can check the answers.
4. Now we’ll go on.
Let’s move on to something different.
Let’s stop here for a while.
We can come back to this exercise a bit later.
5. Finally, I want you to… To finish ( off ) with, you can do some reading.
Last but not least, we have a radio programme to listen to.
Finally, a brief word about next Monday.
Firstly… secondly… and lastly, I want you to… EXPLAINING, OUTLINING 1. This is the way we’ll do it.
This is how we shall do it.
I would like you to do it in the following way.
Could you do it this way / like this:
Let me explain what I want you to do.
Before you begin, let me tell you how I want you to do it.
2. The idea of this exercise is to… The idea behind this is for you to ask questions.
Are there any questions?
STOP WORKING 1. It’s ten to ten. We’ll have to stop now.
It’s almost time to stop.
I’m afraid it’s time to finish now.
There’s the buzzer / bell, so we must stop working now.
That’s all for today, thank you.
That will do for today. You can go now.
2. It isn’t time to finish yet.
The buzzer / bell hasn’t gone yet.
We still have a couple of minutes left.
Your watch must be fast.
3. Wait a minute.
Stay where you are for a moment.
Just a moment, please.
One more thing before you go.
Back to your places!
Don’t go rushing off. I have something to tell you.
4. We’ll finish this next time.
I don’t think we’ve got time to finish this now.
We’ll do / look at / read the rest of this chapter on Thursday.
We’ll finish off this exercise in the next lesson.
We’ll continue ( with ) this chapter next Monday.
We’ll continue working on this chapter next time.
SETTING HOMEWORK 1. This is your homework.
This chapter / lesson / page / exercise is your homework.
This is your homework for tonight / today / next time.
Prepare the last two chapters for Monday.
Your homework for tonight is to prepare chapter 17.
I’m not going to set ( you ) any homework this time.
Please re-read this chapter for Friday’s lesson.
Revise what we did today and then try exercise 4.
Go through this section again on your own at home.
This was your homework from last time.
You were supposed to do this exercise for homework.
Prepare down to / as far as / up to page 75.
2 Finish this off at home.
Finish off the exercise at home.
Do the rest of the exercise as your homework for tonight.
You will have to read the last paragraph at home.
Complete this exercise at home.
Finish the question you’re ( working ) on at the moment and do the rest at home.
3. There will be a test on this next Wednesday.
I shall give you a test on these lessons / chapters sometime next week.
Learn the vocabulary because I shall be giving you a test on it in the next lesson.
You can expect a test on this in the near future.
Please revise lessons 6 and 7. There will be a test on them sometime.
4. Don’t forget about your homework!
Remember your homework.
Collect a copy of your homework from my desk.
VALEDICTION 1. Goodbye!
Goodbye, boys and girls / children / everyone.
Bye now, Alison.
2. See you again on Tuesday.
I’ll see you all again next Wednesday.
See you tomorrow afternoon again.
I’ll be seeing some of you again after the break.
3. Have a nice weekend.
Have a good holiday / Christmas / Easter.
Enjoy your holiday.
I hope you all have a nice vacation.
4. Tomorrow we’ll meet in room 14.
I’ll see you in room 7 after the break.
Wait outside the language laboratory for me.
There’s been a change of room for next week.
We’ll be meeting in room 19 instead.
Which period do we have English on Friday?
The 4th period has been cancelled next Tuesday so there won’t be an English lesson.
5. I won’t be here next week.
Miss Jones will take / be taking you instead.
Go and join class 6B for your English lesson.
I’ll leave him / her some work to give you.
This was my last lesson with you.
CLEARING THE CLASS 1. Will you please go out.
All of you, get outside now!
Hurry up and get out!
2. Go out quietly.
Not so much noise, please.
Try not to make any noise as you leave.
No noise as you leave. Other classes are still working.
3. Open the window.
Let’s have some fresh air.
It’s very stuffy in here.
Let in some fresh air for the next class.
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