Bopoe 1999 2 a e e o ec e yaa (ac 2) pe a ae c ye o 3-5 ypco c op ecoo ay e a, o o xc cae ae a ypo First Certificate in English. Coepa oopy ec o paea Paper 4 Listening.

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3 TEST 1 You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer A, B or C.

1 You hear a critic on the radio Who is being interviewed?

talking about a book. What is his A a customer at a shop main criticism of the book? B the manager of a shop A The style is poor. C someone who lives near a shop B The plot is too complicated. 6 You hear someone talking on a C The characters are not public telephone. What does she want believable. the other person to do?

2 You hear someone talking about a A explain something he said time when she was a student abroad. B apologize to someone What did she particularly like? C give an honest opinion A the school she studied at 7 You hear someone talking at the B the town she stayed in Information Desk in an airport. What C the family she stayed with is his situation?

3 You hear a radio interviewer A He has missed his flight.

introducing a guest. Who is the guest? B He has come to meet someone.

A a scientist C He thinks there is a message for B a businessman him.

C an inventor 8 You hear the presenter talking at 4 You hear a caller on a radio phone- the beginning of a radio programme.

in programme. What feeling does the What is the programme going to be caller express? about?

A sympathy A how to eat healthily B self-pity B new food products C envy C eating habits 5 You hear part of a radio interview.

You will hear a talk given to a class by a young woman, in which she talks about her career so far as an actress and director. For questions 9-18, fill in the missing information.

THE ACTRESS-DIRECTOR university course: most of her acting course was: first job: did 11 work then wrote many letters to: next job: did not improve her first play as director: received next play as director: won award for then tried to get a job in: would now like to be employed by: had not expected: 18 for so long You will hear five different people talking about a concert on a radio phone-in programme. For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F what each speaker is doing.

Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

A asking for opinions Speaker 1 B disagreeing with an opinion Speaker 2 C correcting some details Speaker 3 D asking for advice Speaker 4 E making a complaint Speaker 5 F making a recommendation You will hear an interview with two young people who spent some time travelling abroad. For questions 24-30, write D next to what Dan says, A next to what Anna says and N next to what neither of them says.

I particularly enjoyed the first part of my trip. I sometimes lost my temper. I was disappointed by some of the places I went to I stayed in some unpleasant places. I learnt from the experiences of others. I lost interest in my trip. Travelling alone is the best way to travel. TEST You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer, A, B or C.

1 You hear two people talking in a 4 You hear someone talking about a hotel. What is the relationship job interview. How does she feel?

between them? A She is looking forward to the A They are both staying at the hotel. interview.

B They are both attending the same B She is confident of being offered the conference. job.

C They are both in the same party of C She is not very interested in the job.

tourists. 5 You hear someone talking on the 2 You hear someone talking on the telephone. Why won't he go to the telephone. What is she doing? party?

A demanding an apology A He feels ill.

B insisting on an action B He has to do something else.

C asking for a favour C He doesn't want to go.

3 You hear an advertisement for a 6 You hear two people talking in a magazine. What does this month's cafe. What is their opinion of their issue have that's unusual? trip?

A an extra part A It cost too much.

B a special interview B It is badly organized.

C a competition C The places they visit are boring.

7 You receive a telephone call. Who's 8 You hear someone talking at a phoning? party. What is he talking about?

A a representative of a telephone A a new TV channel company B a new TV programme B a local journalist C a new TV star C a telephone repair engineer You will hear part of a radio programme in which postcards are discussed. For questions 9-18, complete the sentences.

POSTCARDS The exhibition has been organized by the 9.

The first postcards in Britain were 10.

The words and pictures on the first picture postcards were 11.

In 1902 postcards were allowed to have a 12.

In those days a lot of postcards were kept in 13.

At that time the postal service was 14.

One reason why people stopped using postcards so much was that 15 went up.

The only postcards collected in the 1950s were funny or showed 16.

Postcards showing street scenes have 17.

In the early 20th century postcards were a kind of 18.

You will hear five different people talking about a famous sportsman who has retired.

For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F who each speaker is. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

A a sports official Speaker 1 B a teacher Speaker 2 C a player Speaker 3 D a fan Speaker 4 E a childhood friend Speaker 5 F a journalist You will hear part of a radio programme about people's jobs. For questions 24-30, choose the best answer A, B or C.

24 Nick decided to work in his present C know a lot about other countries.

job 26 We are told that, when leading a A when he started his tourism course. tour, Tour Leaders have to be able to B because he didn't enjoy being an A deal with demanding people.

accountant. B react to problems calmly.

C while he was still doing a course. C forget their own wishes.

25 To get a job as a Tour Leader with 27 Adventure holiday tour leaders are High Adventure Holidays, you have to different from other tour leaders A have experience of travel. because B be good at dealing with people. A they don't have any time on their own.

B they have to travel longer distances. B Leaders' salaries tend to be low at C they have to follow strict instructions. first.

28 According to Nick, a big C Most tour leaders eventually do disadvantage of the job is that he office-based jobs.

A can't talk about his own problems. 30 What does Nick particularly like B often has to change arrangements. about the job?

C may not like members of the group. A remembering the places he has been 29 What does Nick say about tour to leaders' careers? B being appreciated by others A Leaders go to more interesting places C making friends that he keeps after a while.

TEST You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer A, B or C.

1 You are at a party when you hear radio programme. What is the main two people talk. What is the topic of this programme?

relationship between the two A The weather.

speakers? B What to do at the weekend.

A They know each other well. C Art galleries.

B They are acquaintances but not 6 Listen to this conversation between friends. a tourist and a woman at a train C They have just met for the first time. station. What platform is the tourist 2 Listen to this conversation between going to go to?

two speakers who are disturbed by a A Platform 5.

noise. What is making this noise? B Platform 8.

A A police siren. C Platform 10.

B A car alarm. 7 Listen to this woman telling a friend C A burglar alarm. about a cookbook that she bought.

3 Listen to this man talking on the What does she like about the book?

phone about a lunchtime party he did A She likes the variety of recipes.

not go to. Why did the man not go? B It will help her lose weight.

A He didnt want to miss lunch. C The photographs are excellent.

B He forgot about the party. 8 Listen to this man talking about C He didnt feel like going. riding bicycles. What is the main 4 Listen to these two people discussing point he is making?

the arrangements for a meeting. A It is the best way to get around town.

Where will the meeting be held? B Drivers should take more account of A In the new offices. cyclists.

B In the mans office. C Cyclists should learn to cycle C In the womans office. carefully.

5 Listen to this reporter talking on a You will hear a woman being interviewed about her film-watching habits. For questions 9-18, complete the questionnaire which the interviewer fills in. You will need to write a word or a short phrase in each box.

Member of Film Club? Not since What would make you join or re-join the club? Preferred place to see films? Date of last visit to the club? Film seen on last visit? Frequency of visits? Type of film you would like to see more? Which type of advert have you noticed most? Location of adverts noticed? and You will hear five different men talk about why they are learning a new language. For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F which reason each person mentions. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

A He is learning the language for the fun of it. Speaker 1 B He is going to visit a foreign country.

Speaker 2 C He is learning the language of the country where he lives.

Speaker 3 D His company is sending him abroad to work.

Speaker 4 E He wants to read literature in the foreign language.

Speaker 5 F He wants a better chance of finding a job.

You will hear a talk about a new bridge that is going to be built. For questions 24-30, decide whether the statement in the question is True or False. If it is True, write T on your answer sheet. If it is False, write F on your answer sheet.

The speaker says that the campaign was unpleasant and unfair. In the short term, building the bridge will make no change to the town centre. Most of the new traffic will probably be commercial. The committee saw the financial advantages of developing a new route. Traffic on the north-south route after the bridge is built will be ten times the present volume. In the long term the town centre will develop into a major attraction in the area. The speaker thinks the bridge should be built for economic reasons. KEY TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 1 B 1 B 1 C 2 B 2 B 2 C 3 B 3 A 3 B 4 C 4 A 4 B 5 B 5 B 5 C 6 B 6 B 6 B 7 B 7 A 7 A 8 C 8 A 8 B 9 Theatre Studies 9 Postcard Traders 9 five years ago 10 practical Association 10 (greater) reductions 11 Drama in Education 10 blank (on tickets) 12 Artistic Managers 11 on the same side 11 a regular commercial 13 financial situation 12 divided back cinema 14 good reviews 13 albums 12 three months ago 15 best comedy 14 quick and reliable 13 The Third Man production 15 postage rates 14 once a month 16 (a) TV commercial/ 16 countryside views 15 foreign language advert/advertisement 17 historical value films 17 (a) major/large/big/ 18 news reporting 16 leaflets (an) important company 19 D 17 (the) club 18 to be unemployed 20 C 18 (the) University 19 E 21 A 19 C 20 F 22 F 20 A 21 D 23 B 21 E 22 B 24 C 22 F 23 A 25 B 23 B 24 N 26 C 24 T 25 A 27 A 25 F 26 D 28 A 26 T 27 A 29 A 27 T 28 D 30 B 28 F 29 D 29 F 30 A 30 F TAPESCRIPTS TEST Part You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer A, B or C.

Well, this was one I couldnt really get into at all. Of course, everyone talks about his highly individual style and I wouldnt dispute that. Hes certainly a very imaginative writer and some of the characters in this one get up to some pretty astonishing things, but I felt that it was all a bit too clever for its own good. There are all sorts of characters who come in and then disappear - in the end I just couldnt follow what was going on, so I gave up.

Yeah, I really enjoyed it, I couldnt have gone to a better place. The family did their best... to be honest I wasnt all that keen on them, though - they were talking to me all the time, they just wouldnt leave me alone. The teachers were nice enough... mind you, I dont think I learnt anything I couldnt have got out of reading a book at home.

Still, none of that bothered me because there was just so much to do there. I was out every night, at all sorts of different places, and I met some great people!

My next guest is a man who started with nothing and now has the world at his feet.

From humble origins in a poor family, he is now responsible for equipment found in homes throughout the country. He spotted the possibilities of the new computer technology twenty years ago and he made it affordable to people in general. While others were afraid to take the risk, he jumped in and set up the operation that now has the largest slice of the personal computer market. Ladies and gentlemen, Derek Woodrow.

I think the previous caller ought to thank her lucky stars! I mean, shes got a choice of three jobs and she doesnt know which one to take! If only I was in her position... Ive been applying for months and nobodys offered me anything, but you wont find me complaining. I mean, she might think shes got a problem, but I wouldnt mind having a problem like that.

Interviewer: So how do you feel about criticisms of the new store?

Man: Well, I can understand them, especially from people who live nearby and are worried about all the traffic thatll come here. But ifs going to be so convenient. People from all over the area will be able to shop at leisure and park easily and I can guarantee that the service will be excellent. It only opened two days ago and already shoppers are flocking here. After all, value for money is what they all want.

Why dont you just accept that you were in the wrong, tell her you accept that, and thatll be the end of it. I mean, youre just so stubborn, arent you, you just cant see that youre not always right. Come on, why not change the habits of a lifetime for once and tell her that you shouldnt have said what you said? Its not that difficult you know, and itll really do some good.

Man: Has the flight from Zurich arrived yet?

Assistant: Yes, about half an hour ago.

Man: The one that stops here and then goes on to Hong Kong?

Assistant: Yes.

Man: Oh dear, Ive been waiting in the wrong place. Have all the passengers been through yet?

Assistant: I should think so.

Man: Oh no, theyve probably given up and gone. Is there any way you could put out a message in case theyre still here?

Welcome to the programme. In this series weve looked at the latest goods on the market in the world of food, and weve looked in depth at what to eat if you want to stay fit and well. Today we look at how much the advertising of new products influences what we eat, and how much attention people pay to advice about healthy eating. I can promise you there are some surprising statistics coming up...

Part You will hear a talk given to a class by a young woman, in which she talks about her career so far as an actress and director. For questions 9-18, fill in the missing information.

What made me want to be a performer? Perhaps its in the blood - Im the great grand daughter of an opera singer. I set my sights on the stage at an early age. Ballet was my first love but I grew too tall and so my ambition switched to acting. I took part in as many school productions as I could and I ended up studying Theatre Studies at university. Four years ago, I left university, having secured a place on an acting course at a drama school in London.

The course was just for one year, a year which I had to finance myself. I hadnt lived in London before - I come from a small seaside town - so it was quite a culture shock.

Having to find the money was a strain - it was quite an expensive course - and I also had great difficulty finding somewhere to live that I could afford in London. Eventually, I managed to rent a flat with a couple of other students on the course. I found the first few weeks of the course really stressful and tiring but a few weeks on, I really got into it. It boosted my confidence and it was much more on the practical side - we only had to do one theory thing.

When the course ended I was one of 565 students to graduate from a recognized drama course that summer. I was fortunate enough to get a job straight away with a theatre company outside London, working in Drama in Education. We went to lots of schools and I really enjoyed it. After that I went back to London and it was really hard, because it was the first time in my life I had nothing to do. Id always written essays or learnt lines and performed and now I was unemployed. I wrote lots of letters looking for work - Wednesdays and Thursdays were my main letter-writing days. I went to see plays as much as I could, so that I could then write to the Artistic Managers and say I saw your production, would it be possible to come and meet you - then I met him or her and I was at least on file - that way they might remember me if a part came up that was suitable for me. Its estimated that actors spend as much as eighty per cent of their time looking for work. Someone told me that for every twenty letters you write you may get an audition and for every twenty auditions you may get a job.

Then my long-awaited break came. I got a job in a production called A Christmas Carol in a small theatre. It was a profit-sharing arrangement - this means you only get paid if the play makes a profit. Not many people came - we thought wed done well if we got twenty people in the audience, and one night there were only six. So it didnt do anything to make my financial situation any better. But its amazing how much better you feel when you actually get a part - it made a huge difference to how I felt about myself.

I then began to turn my attention from acting to directing, in an attempt to take more control of my situation. I directed The Illusion at the Dukes Head Theatre and it got good reviews, but it was another profit-share arrangement and I still had money problems. I kept thinking that I would be successful and something was going to change. Youve got to make your own luck, so each day I did something towards the plan of success. I made a couple of important phone calls each day, asking large theatre companies to come and see the play I was directing.

I then set up my own company, the Kings Players, and directed a production of A Family Affair, which won the London Small Theatre award for Best Comedy Production. We had a couple of lovely photos in national newspapers and some great reviews and that was great because I could now be taken seriously as a director. Then I decided to try to appear in a TV commercial for coffee - I read that they were looking for somebody, so I wrote off, I thought you never know and I got a phone call from the company saying that I had been shortlisted right down from five thousand to the last eleven. But I didnt get it, which was a shame because I was fed up with working for no money. The one good thing that came out of it, though, was that I got an agent, one of the two main agents that cast all the adverts, so Im waiting to hear about others.

I now want to get a position as an assistant director with a major company, I think thats the next step, not just for the money. I think Im at my best when directing, I mean its horrible on the first night when its beyond your control, you cant do anything if something goes wrong, and it is quite lonely. But I am very happy and I have greater satisfaction when things work than with acting, so I think this is the way Im going to go.

Four years ago when I started I thought Id be further on than I am now - I didnt envisage being unemployed for such long periods. I feel that Ive developed and matured - before, I presumed that I would be successful. Now, I still know that I will be successful ultimately, but it may not be simple - it may take longer and be much harder than I anticipated. Thats what Ive learnt. Nothing depresses me more than the idea of getting old and thinking that I never really tried and I never made it because I gave up.

Part You will hear five different people talking about a concert on a radio phone-in programme. For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F what each speaker is doing.

Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

Speaker 1 Yeah, well Barry, I went along the other night and what I want to know is, why did they only play for 40 minutes? I mean, we paid enough for it, and the programme said theyd be on for an hour and a half. I wouldnt have bothered going if Id known that was all we were going to get - I mean, its not exactly fair to the fans is it?

Speaker 2 Yes, hello Barry. I heard some of your earlier callers saying how they couldnt see anything, you know, they were too far away and all they could see was the video screens, they couldnt see the band on stage. Well, all I can say is they must have got there too late. We queued up for ages before the doors opened and we got right to the front, really close to the stage. Really, thats what you have to do if you want a good view, even if it does mean a long wait.

Speaker 3 Its all right for all these other callers, talking about the concert, but what I want to know is, how do you get in? I mean, I tried everything to get a ticket - I phoned, I wrote, I went to agencies but everywhere I tried, theyd sold out. I must have been going to the wrong places. So, has anyone out there got any ideas where I might have more luck next time?

Speaker 4 Barry, you read all that stuff in the press about how theyre not as good as they used to be, but you could have fooled me. I just wanted to phone up and say I havent seen anything like it, and Ive been to plenty of their concerts. I read somewhere that they didnt put as much energy into their performance as they used to but all I can say is, whoever wrote that cant have been at the same concert I was at.

Speaker 5 Am I the only one who noticed? Surely not. None of your callers so far has said anything about their new look. Personally, I thought it was a bit of a mistake, but what do the other fans make of it? Id like to know what the general view is. I mean, the new hairstyles and clothes are quite a radical change - do people out there think its a good move?

Part You will hear an interview with two young people who spent some time travelling abroad. For questions 24-30, write D next to what Dan says, A next to what Anna says and N next to what neither of them says.

Presenter: These days a lot of young people go backpacking - travelling around with all their possessions in the bag they carry on their back. I have with me today Dan Roberts and Anna Renton, who are going to share some of their experiences of doing just that. Dan, if I can turn to you first, you went round Europe, didnt you?

Dan: Yes, for three weeks in August. I left home at three oclock on the morning of the first day of the holiday and travelled for 27 hours before arriving at Marseille, the first stop on our itinerary. It was exhausting. After this experience I quickly got used to sleeping in very uncomfortable places - this is the only way to survive such intensive travelling.

Presenter: Now Anna, you spent seven and a half months travelling by yourself in India, Indonesia, Australia and North and South America. That must have been quite an adventure.

Anna: Yes, apart from the occasional family holiday Id never travelled before I set out on this trip and I was very apprehensive about going on such an ambitious journey.

What worried me most was the prospect of being lonely, and the dangers of travelling as a single woman. But in fact I was lonely only occasionally - it was worst at the beginning. After that I was never alone for long stretches because I made a real effort to meet people - if I wanted company I travelled with them.

Presenter: Did you go on your own, Dan?

Dan: No, I travelled with four other people, which was almost too many, but we avoided a lot of potential arguments by carefully planning our route before we left.

Presenter: Did you have any problems with other people, Anna?

Anna: Well, the constant stream of slightly rude comments in some countries made me angry and I felt myself becoming more aggressive in response. Ultimately, these irritations were just something I had to put up with.

Presenter: What about the places you visited?

Dan: Sometimes we had to be flexible about our plans. We found that places described as unspoilt and tourist-free in the guide book can turn out to be obscure villages with nothing to see or do and nowhere for visitors to stay.

Anna: I went with an open mind, really. Some of the places I found myself in were pretty horrible, but thats all part of the experience isnt it?

Presenter: What about places to stay?

Dan: We usually slept in campsites or arranged our journeys so that we could spend the night on the train - that was cheap and relatively comfortable. Youth hostels were all packed in August and much more expensive, so we kept away from them.

Anna: I ended up in some pretty rough places, the sort of places I wouldnt even consider staying in at home, but I didnt mind that because it was all part of the adventure.

Presenter: Did you feel you had to be careful?

Dan: Yes, Id spoken to people who had lost everything - students on trains seem to be easy targets. So, wherever we were, I always slept with my money and passport at the bottom of my sleeping bag.

Anna: Well, being a woman alone was something I was conscious of throughout the trip. I never felt physically threatened, though I made sure I didnt get into obviously dangerous situations.

Presenter: Did your trip live up to your expectations?

Dan: Well, our tickets were valid for a month but we ran out of money and energy before they expired and came back. Wed seen a huge amount by then but we couldnt keep up our enthusiasm any longer.

Anna: Travelling on such a large scale is very time-consuming and seven and a half months wasnt long enough. If I were to do it again, I dont think Id try to take on so much.

Presenter: Would you go on similar trips again?

Dan: Yes, I think so - I certainly enjoyed the independence of it all, even though I sometimes had to do things because one of the others wanted to.

Anna: Actually I have travelled by myself again since this trip and will do again.

Theres an element of selfishness in wanting to travel alone, but you are so much freer when you are able to make your own decisions.

Presenter: Well, thanks to both of you...

TEST Part You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer A, B or C.

Woman: So what do you think of this place then?

Man: Well, its better than the one Im in. Im in some dreadful place round the corner.

Woman: Are you? I thought we were all supposed to be here.

Man: We were, but there was a last-minute change of plan. The meetings are all going to be here though.

Woman: Were in the same group tomorrow, arent we?

Man: Yes, its Travel in the Future or something, isnt it?

Look, Im afraid that simply wont do. You were supposed to be here at three to do these repairs and its half past four now. Im not interested in your excuses... no, youre not sorry at all... no Im not being unreasonable... is it asking too much for you to keep an appointment?... look, I need it doing now, it wont wait... no, tomorrow afternoon wont do...

Get this months issue of Sports World. Its better than ever! There are all the usual features, our ever-popular Competition of the Month - this time the prize is two tickets to a major sports event of your choice. Our Star Interview this month is with Gary White. And since the new year is coming up, this months issue includes a pull-out section containing all the years major sporting fixtures - a fantastic reference, which you can keep and consult all year. So buy Sports World, available at all newsagents, today!

Yes, its tomorrow at 11. I havent given much thought to it, to tell you the truth. Im normally pretty nervous before them, but this time Im not, for some reason. I havent got a clue what my chances are but that doesnt bother me. Itll just be good to have the opportunity to show what I know - I shouldnt think therell be all that many questions I cant answer. Ill just go in there and give it my best - Ive got nothing to lose.

Hello, Suzie, its Alan... look, I feel awful about this but I cant come to your party tonight... somethings come up... no, I cant get out of it, its a problem Ive got to sort out straight away... I wont go into it now... yes I know I did this the last time you invited me but dont take it personally... no, thats not true, I do like your friends...

honestly, theres nothing I can do about it...

Man: What do you make of it so far then?

Woman: Well, Im very disappointed. Nobody seems to know whats going on.

Man: I quite agree. It all looked fine in the brochure but they seem to be making it up as they go along.

Woman: Yes, I mean, the excursions! I always wanted to go to those places and they havent let me down, but all that waiting around!

Man: Still, I guess you cant really expect much better for the money, can you?

Hello, I wonder if I could just take up a few moments of your time? Were conducting a survey into what people think of the telephone service in this area and Id just like to ask you a few questions about what youre satisfied and dissatisfied with - especially with regard to the prompt repair of faults. Well be publishing the results and well be acting on them so that you get a better service...

Yes, it was the first time Id seen it, and I couldnt believe it. I mean, its all so amateur!

The presenters keep looking at the wrong cameras, and theres one who has an interview programme and he just hasnt got a clue what hes doing - I gather theyve decided to get rid of him. Where do they get them from? All those adverts about it being A New Kind of Television- well, I suppose it is - its worse than all the rest.

Part You will hear part of a radio programme in which postcards are discussed. For questions 9-18, complete the sentences.

Presenter: Well, postcards are so much a part of everyday life that its hard to imagine a time when they didnt exist. Well, from tomorrow until the end of the month theres an exhibition celebrating the history of the British picture postcard at the Royal Exhibition Centre, and our reporter, Sally Wells, is there.

Sally: Yes, thanks David. This exhibition has been organized by the Postcard Traders Association and 100 dealers from all over the world have gathered to display about million cards. I have with me Neil Parkhouse, chairman of the Association. Neil, when did postcards start?

Neil: Well, the first postcards in Britain went on sale in 1870, but they were blank. The Post Office first allowed the use of picture postcards in 1894. They had room for only the briefest of messages - words had to be written on the same side as the picture, leaving the back for the address and stamp. The golden age of the postcard didnt begin until this restriction was lifted in 1902, when the divided back was allowed - this meant that the picture was on the front and the back was split in half - half for the words and half for the address and stamp, as today. This meant that publishers were free to explore a vast range of subject material and as a result, one of the first collecting crazes of the Twentieth Century - known as deltiology - started.

Sally: So they caught on straight away?

Neil: Yes, in the next six years, one hundred million postcards were sold in Britain.

Many were never used but were put straight into albums by people who were collecting them. Millions more were used to send simple messages. In fact, postal deliveries were so quick and reliable that one businessman who made the daily trip to London from his home fifty kilometres away would send a postcard to his wife, telling her what time he would be home.

Sally: Has collecting postcards always been a popular hobby?

Neil: Well, in the middle part of the century the postcard declined quite considerably, because of increases in postage rates, greater use of the telephone, and changing social habits, and this was reflected in a fall in postcard collecting. In the 1950s, comic postcards and those with countryside views were the only ones people collected. But in the 1960s, there was a huge revival of interest in collecting, and this continues today.

Sally: So whats the appeal of collecting postcards today?

Neil: There are a variety of reasons. In the first place, many postcards are miniature works of art, giving visual pleasure. But theres also the historical value. Local historians are very interested in topographical views - street scenes - which show them how towns and villages used to be, and enable them to compare them with how they are now. These postcards show how society was in the past. At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, postcards were commonly used as an early form of news reporting - the postcard at that time was actually a photographic record - remember, there werent photos in newspapers and magazines then.

Sally: And are some of these postcards worth a lot of money?

Neil: They can be. There are albums of pictures which people have long forgotten about, which hold absolute treasures, all over the country. Some rare postcards can be worth hundreds, even thousands, of pounds.

Sally: So, David, perhaps youd better check whether youve got a valuable postcard or two lying around in your house!

Presenter: I will. Thanks, Sally. That was Sally Wells, reporting from the postcard exhibition at...

Part You will hear five different people talking about a famous sportsman who has retired.

For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F who each speaker is. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

Speaker 1 Hes one of the all-time greats. I knew the first time I saw him that he was going to be something special. Ive followed his career from the start and its been great watching him. Of course, a lots been written about him, and not all of it good, and hes certainly had his share of arguments with the people who run the game. But for those of us who love the team, hes given us a tremendous amount of joy. Going to matches wont be quite the same without him playing.

Speaker 2 Every country needs its heroes and hes certainly been one of ours. I cant pretend he was always that easy to get on with during games - he was quite an opponent, I can tell you, but once the game was over, he was always the first one to come over for a laugh and a chat. Hell certainly be missed - crowds loved him.

Speaker 3 I suppose we didnt always see eye to eye on matters of discipline, but theres no doubt hes been good for the sport. He seemed to think that we treated him like a naughty schoolboy - all those fines we gave him and all that - but I suppose from our point of view he was a bit of a trouble-maker. But he was great to watch and he certainly brought the crowds in.

Speaker 4 A lot of my colleagues found it hard to get on with him but I always found him very approachable. I suppose he got fed up with some of the things that were said about him, and that made him suspicious of talking to people like me. But as the years went by, I built up a good relationship with him and I think he came to realize that I wasnt going to make up things he was supposed to have said, like some of the others do.

Speaker 5 From an early age it was clear to me that he was going to succeed - in sport, that is. Nothing else mattered to him, and that could be annoying for me at times, I must admit. I could never get him to do anything I wanted him to do and he never seemed to be listening. But in games he could concentrate and he was certainly a winner. He couldnt wait to leave, I guess - he obviously thought it was all a waste of time and he just wanted to get on with playing.

Part You will hear part of a radio programme about peoples jobs. For questions 24-30, choose the best answer A, B or C.

Announcer: In todays programme about people and their jobs, we hear from Nick Butler, who is a Tour Leader for High Adventure Holidays, and Alison Gray, the Managing Director of the company he works for.

Nick: When I first left school, I was all set for a conventional career - I was pushed into studying accountancy because thats where my basic skills were at the time. After starting to travel I realized, I think, that my future would lie in tourism and so I changed to a tourism course. I thought it would be a good move. During the third year of the course, we had to work in the tourism industry and to do that I decided to apply to various adventure tour operators. One of them contacted me and said I was suited to work as a Tour Leader in Egypt and that was it!

Alison: The sort of person who wants to be a Tour Leader on adventure holidays is one of probably two particular personalities - either the sort of person who wants to travel and is outgoing and therefore sees this as a vehicle to allow them to travel - or, theyre going to be the sort of person that just likes working with people. The kind of qualifications that are needed are a bit difficult to define. There are no set requirements- knowing foreign languages is preferable, getting on with people is essential, travel experience is beneficial. Clearly if Ive got two candidates to choose from and one has done a lot of travelling, the person whos travelled the more will be more likely to get the job - but even that is not essential. You shouldnt put somebody off if they havent travelled at all, because in essence if their personality is right, theyre suitable.

Nick: We have to do a lot of research prior to departure to the destination, uh, that usually involves two or three weeks, perhaps even four weeks, a lot of which is spent in libraries, buying guide books, reading about the history of the country, local cultures, food, and so on, so you really need to know everything about the country and be able to answer any questions the groups might have.

Alison: You need somebody who is not at all self-centred. Its got to be understood if you go in for this sort of work that youre going into a service industry. The fact is, if you go on holiday with 16 people, the 16 people are important because they need you to look after them. Your interests come second.

Nick: You need to have good organizational skills obviously, to deal with so many different possible logistics, such as meeting times, train departure times, you might have to pick up a taxi when a train arrives or a bus, everythings got to be spot-on and working smoothly, because one minor hiccup might cost you a day of the itinerary.

Organisation has got to be really spot-on all the time.

Alison: The sort of tour leaders that we look for are very different I think from the package tour courier, shall we say. The sort of tours that we run, because they go off the beaten track, because theyre being operated in remote areas, many of the logistical arrangements are in the hands of the tour leader and he or she is inevitably with the group all the time - its a twenty-four hours a day job. That means you need a different type of person, theyve got to be more at ease with the idea of having people with them all the time.

Nick: Sometimes you can get a bit tired of the travelling, travelling out of a suitcase or backpack - moving from one place to another every one night or two nights can become a bit tedious - but you eventually get into a set routine, where you can pack your bag in two or three minutes and move on. And you can just blot it out, and every room you get in different hotels, every different tent, is like home to you for that period of time.

Loneliness also can be a distinct downside, because quite often you have to keep a distance from the group, the group members, theres often things youd like to be talking to people about, but because youre in the position you are, you cant suddenly go and talk to a group member about your problems, you have to bottle them up and absorb them all yourself.

Within the tour leader field you can expand obviously in experience - the higher you get in your field, the better destinations you get to lead tours in, and the higher salary you get, of course. After tour leading, you can move into the office, into office-based work, either into operations or marketing.

What I think really pleases me about the job, one of the things I get out of it, is at the end of the tour when the group turns around to you and says Weve had a great holiday, Nick, a great tour, thanks very much and give you a pat on the back - and some groups give you a present. These are memories that you can keep forever, that are really nice and really mean a lot to you. Youve got to basically ensure that everyone has a satisfactory holiday and has a great time and wants to book again with the company.

TEST Part Youll hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer. A, B or C.

Extract A: So how long have you been living here?

B: Mmm... well, I came last September.

A: And where are you living at the moment?

B: Im staying in a University Hall near Gordon Square - its only for students coming from the Commonwealth. Its the best location in town, and its amazingly cheap. You get a very good social life and meet a lot of people.

A: And what exactly are you doing? You said earlier you were a lawyer?

B: Well, not exactly. Im training actually...

Extract A: Its making a terrible noise. I hate those alarms that go off like that. I wonder how long its going to take them to get here.

B: Well, the guard has to drive to the administration building, get a key, drive back here - it can take up to ten or fifteen minutes.

A: Thats not good enough, is it? By that time someone could have stolen half the equipment. I wonder what happened to set it off. Cant you turn it off?

B: No. You need to be able to get into this control board which tells you which room its been set off in, and they come here and check that everythings alright.

A: Well, we dont even know which room its in, do we?

Extract Hello, this is John here. I got your message about missing me at lunchtime today and I realised that it was Mikes farewell party. I simply went to lunch and the party totally slipped out of my mind. Its just that I got the note so long ago. I do hope he wont think that I didnt feel like going. Can you tell him that I was really looking forward to seeing him and I wish him all the best in the future? Thanks. Bye.

Extract A: Hello. Mary Carter speaking.

B: Hello, Mary, John here. About the meeting tomorrow...

A: Yes, about the new offices?

B: Yes. Is it alright if we have the meeting at your office instead of mine? Its simply that Im going to be near your office for another meeting and it would be easier for me if we did it that way.

A: Oh, well, the problem is that Ive asked Martin to come along and he will be coming straight to your office after inspecting the new building.

B: Cant you let him know about the change?

A: No - hes away and theres no way I can get in touch with him before tomorrow.

B: Ah, well, so well have to leave it as it is.

Extract If the unpredictable British weather prevents you from getting to the seaside this summer, the themes of sun, sea and sand are being celebrated indoors in a number of galleries around the country. Beside the seaside in York has gathered the work of UK artists whose work focuses on images of that strange world where land and sea meet.

All exhibits shown can be bought by visitors, including ceramic life-size ducks. In Scarborough you can see the award-winning exhibition Holiday in a lunch hour, where lunchtime visitors to the gallery are guaranteed sunshine by being taken to holiday locations of their choice through computer technology. And no money is wasted on sun-cream.

Extract A: Excuse me, Im not sure that Ive got this right. Is the next train into town leaving at 10:45 from Platform 5?

B: Yes, thats correct. But theres one slightly later which is a fast train and will get you there earlier. It leaves from Platform 8.

A: Yes, but Im not sure that my ticket is valid for that. I havent paid - what do you call it? the supplement for the fast train.

B: Oh, you dont need to pay a supplement for a fast train. Any ticket for your destination is valid.

A: Ah, good, so I can take that one?

B: Yes, and it leaves from Platform 8.

A: Thanks.

Extract You know that cookbook for dieting that you mentioned - Diet with Taste? Well, it really looks great... Yes, well, Im not sure about the photographs, theyre a bit too...

Yes, well, Im not convinced that it really does help people lose weight. It claims you can eat as much as you like as long as you stick to the foods they recommend and Ive had bad experiences with that sort of thing. Oh, but she has recipes from all over the world, so you never get bored. Anyway I thought Id get it even if it wont necessarily help me to lose weight.

Extract Well, I use my bike to get to work. It still is the best way of getting about, but I find it quite hazardous - you really have to be extremely careful. Theres the pollution problem, for one, because youre breathing in all the fumes from the cars, but in addition there are all sorts of other dangers. Basically, cars and lorries dont recognise our presence and they tend to squeeze us off the road. They drive extremely close to you, they take a turn right in front of you and they dont even use their indicator! And there are drivers who chuck burning cigarettes out of their windows, and you have holes in the streets, and then theres all the broken glass on the roads which causes so many punctures...

Part Youll hear a woman being interviewed about her film-watching habits. For questions 9-18, complete the questionnaire which the interviewer fills in. You will need to write a word or a short phrase in each box.

A: Good evening. Im from the staff here at the Progress Film Club. Were having a survey of our clients, and I wondered if you would be willing to help by answering a few questions while youre waiting to go in to see the film?

B: Yes, of course.

A: Well, the first question is: are you or have you ever been a member of the Progress Film Club?

B: Well, yes, I used to be a member for a number of years, but then there was a period when I left town - that was five years ago. When I came back, I never bothered to join again, so I havent been a member for the past five years.

A: What things would make you want to become a member?

B: Well, as far as I know members dont really have a say in choosing the films that are brought here, thats one thing to consider, but I think maybe the main thing is that there are very few advantages in actually being a member. For example, you dont really get such a large reduction on the cost of a ticket if youre a member.

A: So - greater reductions?

B: Yes.

A: OK... next question: where do you prefer to see films?

B: Welt, this is a slightly embarrassing question to answer here at the club. I mean, I do like seeing films here, and I also like seeing films on TV or video, but really, where Id rather see films is in a regular commercial cinema.

A: Thats alright - no need to be embarrassed. When did you last see a film at the Progress Film Club?

B: Oh, I cant remember. I think the last film I saw here was The Third Man. When was that?... About six weeks ago, I think.

A: Well, The Third Man was actually shown three months ago.

B: Oh, really? Well, must have been then.

A: Right. Youve actually answered my next question which is: what was the last film you saw here?... so... The Third Man. You dont go to see films at the Progress Film Club very often then, do you?

B: It depends, really. There are times when I go once a week, if there are a lot of films that interest me. Other times, as youve heard, I dont go for months on end.

A: Well, Ive got to put only one figure in here, so what would you say, on average?

B: Erm... once a month.

A: OK. OK. Which type of film do you think we should show more of at the club?

B: Foreign language films. I think that there is a real lack of films from other countries and in other languages here.

A: OK. Now, we have had a very strong publicity drive in the past few months, and Im sure youve noticed that.

B: Yes, I have.

A: Which type of advert have you seen most?

B: Well, mostly the leaflets.

A: And where did you see them?

B: Well, in two places. Firstly, here, at the club, and secondly at the University. There are lots of them around there.

A: Right, OK. Thats it. Thanks a lot.

B: Oh, thats alright. I enjoyed this - gave me something to do while queuing.

Part Youll hear five different men talk about why they are learning a new language. For questions 19-23, choose from the list A-F which reason each person mentions. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

Speaker Well, you see I came here last year to teach English, and it was the first time Id ever gone to work in a country whose language I didnt know. After a while I realised that in order to get along I would need to know the language because although some people speak English, this doesnt get you very far. Even at work not everybody understands instructions that I give in English - when I want photocopying done and so on - and it just helps contact with people generally.

Speaker Well, at school I did Latin and Greek, and later you had the option of doing a modern language. I did French, which really set the scene. Then at university I read Modern Languages and now I have a degree in French and German. And for my birthday my wife gave me a book called Italian is easy if you know Latin and I thought to myself, Hmm, lets see how fast I can learn Italian. In fact, it took me only a few weeks till I was able not only to read but also to speak and listen to the radio, and even write fairly well.

Speaker Well, my wife is a lecturer in the German Department and at home she is always going on about how the greatest writers of the twentieth century are German, so I read the translations. But then she started saying how these translations do not really capture the spirit of the original and how I should really learn German in order to be able to appreciate these novels. And, frankly, she does have a point there and so in the end I decided that I would learn German.

Speaker I dont really like learning foreign languages. I find them incredibly difficult. But I suppose one has to learn them, simply because everywhere you look now you find advertisements looking for secretaries with at least one foreign language. And obviously you stand a better chance anywhere if you have an additional language. So I decided to take up French again. I did it at school, but was never really any good at it. But I thought maybe this time it would be easier - which unfortunately it isnt.

Speaker Well, my girlfriend is living in South America and she of course is a Spanish speaker. I am going out there to visit her, so I thought that I should really have a few words of the language to be able to get along. I mean, I suppose I could get by with English, but I would like to be on the safe side, and, although Ill be back within a couple of weeks, it will still be fun to have tried to learn a bit of the language and to have tried to use it. I mean, we always assume that other people will know English. Its a mark of respect if we try to learn their language, too.

Part Youll hear a talk about a new bridge that is going to be built. For questions 24-30, decide whether the statement in the question is True or False. If it is True, write T on your answer sheet. If it is False, write F on your answer sheet.

A = announcer HE = Helen Edridge A: Next week one of the most important local issues will be put to the vote in the local council: whether to build a new bridge over the river or not. The question will be settled once and for all. With us today is Dr Helen Edridge to talk about her view of the matter.

HE: Well, theres been quite a controversy raging about building an additional bridge over the river and this controversy has been going on for many years now, but I must say that this has become a full-scale war ever since concrete suggestions were made to build the bridge. Its been a very long campaign, with a lot of accusations flying about - accusations of being narrow-minded, short-sighted, even accusations of corruption, which were later proven to be invented - in short, not a pretty campaign. I think that for me the main question is whether this bridge will, indeed, free the town centre from traffic, and I think I can safely say that almost everyone agrees that for some time it will do that. The logic is really quite simple. Instead of crossing the river on one of the two existing bridges, both of which are in the centre of town, drivers will cross the river before they even come into town. The centre will be quieter, more people will come into the centre and we will all finally be able to enjoy the town again. But - and this is a big but - this will happen for only a very short period. The long-term effect may, in fact, be utterly and totally different. The sad truth is that roads attract traffic, and because there will now be an easy way to cross the river, more people will do so. The committee reporting on building the bridge recognised this when saying that the increasing number of vehicles would come because - and I quote - the new bridge would provide a shortcut between the industrial north and the ports in the south, and will make this route particularly attractive to traffic connecting the two areas. This will result in great economic benefits to the area. The result will be that the new bridge will be packed. More cars, especially more lorries, will be passing through the area. Pollution will undoubtedly rise. In fact, the prediction is that twice as many cars will take the north-south route than are currently taking the present one, which, compared to the situation five years ago, is an increase of at least ten times. And then, because roads attract traffic, as I said earlier, the route will become so packed that drivers will once more go back to driving through the town centre and crossing the river there. So, after being attractive for a short period, the centre will once again be full of cars and empty of people, which may badly affect the economic development of the area. So, really, I think that what will happen...

Coc a e: o a a a a o a Pea op: y a T..

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