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-- [ 2 ] --

3.2. Kd ij d, 30 40 50 70 0,88 0,85 0,81 0,76 0, 0,77 0,73 0,70 0,67 0, 3.3. KF , Ra, 500 700 900 0,4...0,1 1,0 1,0 1,0 1, 3,2...0,8 1,05 1,10 1,15 1, 3.4. ij , d, 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 K r6 2,25 2,50 2,75 3,00 3,25 3,50 3,75 4, d 30... k6 1,89 1,88 2,06 2,25 2,44 2,63 2,82 3, h6 1,46 1,63 1,79 1,95 2,11 2,28 2,44 2, s6 2,75 3,05 3,36 3,66 3,96 4,29 4,60 5, k6 2,06 2,28 2,52 2,75 2,97 3,20 3,45 3, d 50... h6 1,80 1,98 2,18 2,38 2,57 2,78 3,00 3, K r6 1,75 1,90 2,05 2,20 2,35 2,50 2,65 2, d 30... k6 1,41 1,53 1,64 1,75 1,86 1,98 2,09 2, h6 1,28 1,38 1,47 1,57 1,77 1,77 1,86 2, s6 2,05 2,23 2,52 2,60 2,78 3,07 3,26 3, k6 1,64 1,78 2,03 2,15 2,28 2,42 2,57 2, d 50... h6 1,48 1,60 1,71 1,83 1,95 2,07 2,20 2, H HH H HH 4.1. ϳ . . ϳ , , , , , , . , , , .

, .

ϳ : ;

, , ;

, ;

;

, , , , , , .

4.2. , . , .

䳺 , . , . (Fa / Fr < 0,35) , , < 9o > 9o - - .

, .

, . ³ , L (2,0...2,5)l l (. 4.1).

' - =12...17.

L l . 4. 4.3. () .

, 0,1 /. , :

1. R R , Fr :

2 Fr = R + R.

c - (. . 4.1).

, .

2. , , . - < 18 0 ;

- 18 0 [3, . 28] [6];

, , Y.

3. S Fr. - ;

S = eFr S = 0,83eFr. Fa.

, - , (. 4.2). . 27 [1].

4. - < 18 Fa / C0 e . 28 [1].

Fr Fr II I SI SII II SII I SI Fa Fa FrII FrI Fa1 Fr Fa2 FrI Fr FrII Fa Fa Fa Fa . 4. Fa /(VFr) e X Y: Fa / (VFr) , - , , X =1, Y = 0;

Fa /(VFr) > e, - X Y . 28 [1], X = 0,4 Y . 28 [1].

5. - :

Fe = FrVKKt Fa /(VFr )< e;

, Fe = (XVFr +YFA)KKt Fa /(VFr ) e V ( V = 1,0;

V = 1,2);

K [1, . 29];

FA [1, . 27];

Kt . :

t, 125 150 175 Kt 1,05 1,10 1,15 1, 6. 573Lh, C = Fe ( = 3, = 3,33);

Lh .

C [C] , . , . [6, 10].

4.4. ' . , , , - .

. , , = 0,2...0,4 . . , , . , .

, , . . , ( ) . . .

, ' . - , 8 [8]. , , . . 0,05...0,20 , .

, , . ( ) - , . . - , . . .

- . (). ֳ 㳿 .

, 䳺 Fa. 䳿 .

HH H H (. . 1.16) = = 1300 ͷ. , ' , z = 6. ij , , D0 = 200 .

f = 0,2. K = 2, 10. . . , , : = 200 ;

1 = 30 , 2 = 30 .

' , .

1. .

, , 16...30 , .

[p ] = (0,25...0,4) = (0,25...0,4)200 = 50... [p] = 70 .

2. , F = KF1 /(if ) F1 = 2T / D0z ;

= 1 ;

2KT 2 2 1300 F = = = 21667 .

D0 fiz 200 0,2 3. :

1,3F, = [] d1 / , 1,3 4F 1,3 4 d1 = = 22, .

[]= 3,14 ³ 915084 302 : d1 = 27,8 , d = 30 , d2 = 28,7 , p = 2 .

, .

1. :

[ ] = 0,25 [ ] = 0,25 200 = ;

.

2. () , :

2KT 2 2 1300 F1 = = = 4333 H.

D0z 200 3. :

F 4F1 4 = [ ], d0 = = =10,5 .

d0 / 4 [ ] 3,14 d0 = 11 ;

d = 10 ;

d2 = 9,35 ;

d1 = 8,918 ;

= 1,0 915084.

4. :

F = [];

[]=110 ;

1d = =13,2 ;

[].

< , . , (. . 2.18).

: F = 4 , V = 1,1 /, D = 310 , Lh = 6000 .

' 1. :

, = 1224 = 0,97 0,97 0,982 0,92 = 0, 1 = 0,97 ;

2 = 0,97 ,;

3 = 0,98 ,;

4 = 0,92 .

2. :

FV 4000 1, .

P = = = 5, 1000 1000 0, 3. 41328:

= 5,5 , = 720 1.

4. :

60V 60 1, 1.

n = = = 69, D 3,14 0, 5. :

n u = u1u2 = = =10,3.

n 69, 6. ' :

u = u1u2 = 3,43 3 =10,3, 1 = 3,43 ;

2 = 3 .

7. :

P. = 12 = 5,3 0,970,97 = 4,88 .

8. :

. 4, T3 = 9550 = 9550 = 666,25 ͷ.

n 69, 9. :

45;

;

= = 269...302, = 750 ;

45;

;

= 235...262, = 640 .

10. :

H [H ]= KHL, SH H ;

;

H = 2HB + 70 = 2 248,5 + 70 = 02 ;

= 0,5(235 + 269)= 248, SH SH ();

= 1, [1, . 10];

KHL ;

NH 16 KHL = = = 0,6;

KHL 1.

2 NH 25,2 KHL = 1,0;

NH =16 106 [1, . 29], KHL 2 02 ;

NH ;

;

NH = 60n3cLh = 6069,9 6000 = 2,52 .

[H ]= 1,0 = 1, 11. [F ]:

F [F ]= KFL KFC ;

2 2 SF F =1,8HB =1,8248,5 = 443,3 , 02 SF = 1,55 () [1, . 10];

= 1,0 [1, . 29];

KFL KFC = 1,0 ;

443, [F ]= 1,0 1,0 = 288,5 .

1, 1. :

KHT a = Ka(u2 1)3.

2 2 bau2 [F ] ba = 0,4 [1, . 57].

a.

bd = 0,5ba(u2 1)= 0,5 0,4(3 +1)= 0, KH =1,06 [1, . 11] Ka = 4950 [1, . 34].

1,06 666, a = 4950(3 1) = 0,176 .

2 0,4 32(515 106) a = 176 .

2. .

m = (0,01...0,02)a = (0,01...0,02)176 =1,76...3, m = 2 .

3. .

z = 2a / m = 2 176/2 = 4. .

z1 = z /(u2 +1)=176 /(3 +1)= 5. z2 = z1u2 = 44 3 =132.

6. :

d1 = mz1 = 2 44 = 88 ;

d2 = mz2 = 2 132 = = 264 ;

da = d1 + 2m = 88 + 2 2 = 92 da = ;

1 = d2 + 2m = 264 + 2 2 = 268 ;

d = d1 - 2,5m = 88 - 2,5 2 = 83 ;

f d = d2 - 2,5m = 264 - 2,5 2 = 259 ;

f ;

b2 = baa = 0,4 176 = 70, ;

b2 = b1 = b2 + 5 = 71 + 5 = 76 .

7. , :

Ft = 2T / d2 = 2 666,25 / 0,264 = 5040 H;

Fr = Fttg = 5040tg20 = ;

= 20.

8. , F =YF KFFt /(b2m) 2 = 3,62 [1, . 14];

= 1,07 [1, YF KF . 13];

.

F = 3,62 1,075040/(712)= 9. d2n2 3,14 264 67, Vr = = = 0,9 /.

601000 10. KH Ft(u2 +1) 1,02 5040(3 +1) H = 376 103 = 376 103 = d1b2u2 0,880,704 = 478106 = 478 , KH = 1,02 [1, . 14].

' , . , (. . 2.25).

: F = 3,3 , V = 0,8 /, Lh = 8000 .

' 1. .

FV 3300 0, .

P = = = 2, 1000 k, = = 0,98 ;

= 0,82 ;

= 0,99 ;

= 0,95 ;

k = 2 ;

.

= 0,980,82 0,992 0,95 = 0, 2, P = = 3,6 .

0, . 2.3 , P . 4100S2, = = 4 , = 2880 1.

F = kF, k [1, . 4], k = 5,5;

.

F = 33005,5 = F , [F] .

ʖ 619 ( 307780): d = 5,6 [1, . 4];

[F ] = 18300 [1, . 4].

ij , D d(e -1)= 5,6(25 -1)=134, e , e = 25 [1, . 5].

D , , D = 150 .

:

60V 60 0, n = = =101,9 1.

D 3,14 0, :

n u = = = 28,26.

n 101, . 1 = 2,0. ' u 28, u2 = = =14,13.

u1 2, :

1 = = 2880 1;

n1 n2 = = = 1;

u1 2, n ( ) n3 = = n =101, 1.

u :

P 1 = = 3,60,99 = 3,56 ;

2 = 1 = 3,560,98 = 3,47 ;

3 = 1 = 3,470,82 = 2,85 ;

= 3 = 2,850,990,95 = 2,68 .

:

P1 3, 1 = 9550 = 9550 =11,8 ͷ;

n1 P2 3, T2 = 9550 = 9550 = ͷ;

n2 P3 2, T3 = 9550 = 9550 = 267,1 ͷ;

n3 101, 2, T = 9550 = 9550 = 251, ͷ.

n 101, 2. ' .

2 = 14,13;

T3 = 267,1 ͷ.

' 45 = 269...302, = 540 . .

' ' 4n2 3 4 /.

Vs = T3 103 = 267,1103 = 3, 105 ' 94 (Vs < < 5 /), = 400 ;

= 200 .

[1, .43].

[ ]= (250...300)- 25Vs = (250...300)- 25 3,7 =157,5...207,5 ;

[H] = 200 .

[F ]= (0,08 - 0,25 )= 0,08 400 + 0,25 200 = 82 .

̳ T3 267, a = 61003 = 6100 = 0,113 .

[H ] (200106) = 113 .

:

' z1 = 2 [1, . 44];

z2 = z12 = 214,13 = 28,26, z2 = = 28;

m = (1,5...1,7)a / z2 = (1,5...1,7)113 / 28 = = 6,05...6,86 ;

= 6,3 , ;

qmin = 0,212z2 = 0,212 28 = 5, 2a 2 .

q = - z2 = - 28 = 7, m 6, q = 8.

' :

' d1 = mq = 6,3 8 = 50,4 ;

' ;

da = d1 + 2m = 50,4 + 2 6,3 = ' d = d1 - 2,4m = 50,4 - 2,4 6,3 = 35,28 .

f ' z1 = b1 = (11+ 0,06z2 )m = (11+ 0,06 28) 6,3 .

' 3 ( ):

b1 = b1 + 3m = 80 + 3 6,3 = 98,9 .

.

b1 = ' ;

.

tg = z1 / q = 2 /8 = 0,25 =14o ij ' .

d2 = mz2 = 6,3 28 =176, ' .

da2 = d2 + 2m =176,4 + 2 6,3 = ij ' d = d2 - 2,4m =176,4 - 2,4 6,3 =161, .

f ' ' ' :

2 100o daM = da +1,5m =189 +1,5 6,3 =198, ;

2 b2 = 0,67da = 0,67 63 = 42, .

b2 = 42 .

Vr 3, Vs = = = 3,91 /.

cos cos14o ' d1n1 3,14 50,4 Vr = = = 3,8 /.

601000 䳿 tg tg142 0, = = = = 0,87, tg( + ) tg(142 + 2) 0, [1, . 78];

= 2.

' [1, . 45, . 7]:

' Ft = Fa = 23 / d2 = 2 267,1103 /176,4 = 3028,3 H;

' Fr = Fr = Ft tg = 3028,3tg20 =1102 H;

= 20;

' Ft z1 3028,3 Ft = Fa = = = 870 .

q 8 0, :

d2n3 3,14 176,4 101, /.

V2 = = = 0, 601000 60 .

4,8105 KHT, H = [H ] d2 d KH ;

KH = 1,1 [1, . 46];

4,8 105 1,1267, H = =156 < 200 .

176,4 50, .

zV = z2 / cos2 = 28/cos2142 =.

0,7YF KF, F = [F ] b2m YF = 1,481 [1, . 16];

KF = 1,1 , [1, . 46];

0,7 1,4811,13028, F = =15,86 82 .

42 6, , . , (. . 2.26).

: F = 7 , V = 0,8 /, D = 340 , Lh = 8000 .

' ʳ 1. :

= 1224 = 0,96 0,96 0,982 0,92 = 0,82, 1 = 0,96 ;

2 = 0,96 ;

3 = 0,98 ;

4 = = 0,92 .

2. :

FV 7000 0, .

P = = = 6, 1000 1000 0, 3. 4132S = 7,5 , = 720 1.

4. :

60V 60 0, n = = = 45 1.

D 3,14 0, 5. :

n u = u1u2 = = =.

n 6. ' :

, u = u1u2 = 4 4 = 1 = 4 ;

2 = 4 .

7. :

P. = = 123 = 6,830,960,960,98 = 6,17 .

8. :

. 6, 3 = 9550 = 9550 = ͷ.

n 9. :

45;

= 269...302;

;

= 750 ;

45;

= 235...262, ;

= 640 .

10. H [H ]= KHL, SH H ;

;

H = 2HB2 + 70 = 2 248,5 + 70 = HB2 = 0,5(235 + 269)= 248, ;

SH = 1,1 () [1, . 10];

, KHL NH 20 KHL = = = 0,71;

KHL ;

2 NH 21,6 ;

NH NH ;

NH = 60ncLh = 6045 18000 = 2,.

KHL = 1,0;

NH = 20106 [1, . 29].

2 [H ]= 1,0 = .

1, 11. [F ] F [F ]= KFL KFC ;

2 2 SF ;

F =1,8HB2 =1,8248,5 = 443, SF = 1,55 () [1, . 10];

KFL = 1,0 [1, . 29];

KFC = 2 = 1,0 [1, . 29];

443, [F ]= 1,0 1,0 = 288,5 .

1, KH u2T de =1,65 104, [H ] ;

= = 0,85 [1, . 38];

= 1,45 KH .

1,45 4 , [1, . 11];

de =1,65 104 = 0, 2 0,85(515 106) de = 528 .

.

d = 0,166 u2 +1 = 0,166 42 +1 = 0, ;

b = 0,875d de / u2 = 0,875 0,684 528/4 = .

mte = de / z2 = 528/ 72 = 7,3 .

z2 = K5 u2 6 de =185 42 6 528 = 72.

z1 = z2 / u2 = 72 / 4 =18.

z1 = 18;

z2 = 72.

:

2 = arctgu2 = arctg4 = 75 ;

1 = 90 - 2 = 90 - 7558 =14 ;

;

de = mtez1 = 7,3 18 =131, ;

de = mtez2 = 7,3 72 = 525, dae = de + 2mte cos1 =131,4 + 2 7,3cos142 =145 ;

1 ;

dae = de + 2mte cos2 = 525,6 + 2 7,3cos7558 = 2 dm = 0,857de = 0,875 525,6 = 450 ;

2 dm = 0,857de = 0,875 131,4 =112, ;

1 1 Re = 0,5de 1+ = 0,5 525,6 1+ = ;

2 u2 V2 = 2d2 /2 = 4,71 0,526 /2 =1,24 /;

n2 3,14 2 = = = 4,71c-1.

30 , :

Ft = 2T3 / d2 = 2 1298103 /525,6 = 4939 ;

Fr = Fa = Fttg cos1 = 4939tg20cos142 =1798 ;

1 .

Fr = Fat = Fttg sin1 = 4939tg26sin142 = :

KH T3u 1,45 1298103 .

H = 2,12 106 = 2,12 106 = de 525,62 0, :

F = KFKFVYF /(bmte) [0];

2 F =1,05 13,61 4939 /(79 7,3 0,85)= 38 ;

F = F YF /YF = 383,7/3,61= 40 ;

1 2 1 ;

zV = z1 / cos1 =18/ cos142 = zV = z2 / cos2 = 72 / cos7558 =.

( 1017782).

30 3 = 1,5878 h = 0,8677 d = D d2 = D2 d1 D1 d = D d2 = D2 d1 D p = 2 p = 10 8,5 6,528 7 20 18,5 16,528 12 10,5 8,528 9 22 20,5 18,528 14 12,5 10,528 11 24 22,5 20,528 16 14,5 12,528 13 26 24,5 22,528 18 16,5 14,528 h d d d ( D ) D . . d = D d2 = D2 d1 D1 d = D d2 = D2 d1 D p = 3 p = 30 27,75 24,794 25,5 28 22,0 14,116 32 29,75 26,794 27,5 44 38,0 30,116 34 31,75 28,794 29,5 46 40,0 32,116 36 33,75 30,794 31,5 50 44,0 36,116 38 35,75 32,794 33,5 52 46,0 38,116 40 37,75 34,794 35,5 55 49,0 41,116 42 39,75 36,794 37,5 60 54,0 46,116 46 43,75 40,794 41,5 p = 50 47,75 44,794 45,5 36 28,5 18,644 55 52,75 49,794 50,5 38 30,5 20,644 60 57,75 54,794 55,5 42 34,5 24,644 p = 4 65 57,5 47,644 65 62,0 58,058 59 70 62,5 52,644 70 67,0 63,058 64 75 67,5 57,644 75 72,0 68,058 69 80 72,5 62,544 80 77,0 73,058 74 p = p = 5 50 41,0 29,174 85 81,25 76,322 77,5 55 46,0 34,174 90 86,25 81,322 82,5 60 51,0 39,174 p = 6 85 76,0 64,174 30 25,5 19,586 21 90 81,0 69,174 32 27,5 21,586 23 p = 34 29,5 23,586 25 75 63,00 47,232 36 31,5 25,586 27 80 68,00 52,232 40 35,5 29,586 31 95 91,25 86,322 42 37,5 31,586 33 100 96,25 91,322 . S, , : S8010. LH, : S80x10LH.

( 948481, 2473881) 15 30 p = 1,5878p h = 0,8677p d = D d1 d2 = D2 D4 D1 d = D d1 d2 = D2 D4 D p = 1,5 p = 8 6,2 7,25 8,3 6,5 22 19,5 21 22,5 p = 2 24 21,5 23 24,5 8 5,5 7 8,5 6 26 23,5 25 26,5 10 7,5 9 10,5 8 28 25,5 27 28,5 12 9,5 11 12,5 10 p = 14 11,5 13 14,5 12 30 26,5 28,5 30,5 16 13,5 15 16,5 14 34 30,5 32,5 34,5 18 15,5 17 18,5 16 36 32,5 34,5 36,5 a h a D d d ( D ) D D . . d = D d1 d2 = D2 D4 D1 d = D d1 d2 = D2 D4 D p = 3 p = 38 34,5 36,5 38,5 35 28 19,0 24 29 42 38,5 40,5 42,5 39 44 35,0 40 45 44 40,5 42,5 44,5 41 46 37,0 42 47 46 42,5 44,5 46,5 43 48 39,0 44 49 50 46,5 48,5 50,5 47 52 41,0 46 51 55 51,5 53,5 55,5 59 55 46,0 51 56 60 56,5 58,5 60,5 57 60 51,0 56 61 p = 4 p = 65 48,0 39,0 44,0 49 36 25,0 31 37 70 65,5 68,0 70,5 66 38 27,0 33 39 75 70,5 73,0 75,5 71 42 31,0 37 43 80 75,5 78,0 80,5 76 65 54,0 60 66 p = 6 70 59,0 65 71 30 23,0 27,0 31,0 24 75 64,0 70 76 32 25,0 29,0 33,0 26 80 69,0 75 84 34 27,0 31,0 35,0 28 p = 36 29,0 33,0 37,0 30 50 37,0 44 51 38 31,0 35,0 39,0 32 55 42,0 49 56 40 33,0 37,0 41,0 34 60 47,0 54 61 42 35,0 39,0 43,0 36 85 72,0 79 86 85 79,5 82,5 85,5 80 90 77,0 84 91 90 84,5 87,5 90,5 85 p = 95 89,5 92,5 95,5 90 70 52,0 62 72 100 94,5 97,5 100,5 95 75 57,0 67 77 80 62,0 72 82 . r, , : r406. LH, : 406LH.

( 915081).

H = 0,86603 H1 = 0,54125 ij ij - d2 = D2 d1 = D1 d2 = D2 d1 = D h h p h p h 8 7,350 6,918 48 47,350 46, 10 9,350 8,918 56 55,350 54, 12 11,350 10,918 1,0 64 63,350 62,918 0, 16 15,350 14,918 72 71,350 70, 1,0 20 19,350 18,918 0,541 80 79,350 78, 24 23,350 22,918 10 9,188 8, 1,25 0, 30 29,350 28,918 12 11,188 10, 36 35,350 34,918 12 11,026 10, 1,5 0, 42 41,350 40,918 16 15,026 14, h H d ( D ) d ( D ) d ( D ) . . ij ij - d2 = D2 d1 = D1 d2 = D2 d1 = D h h p h p h 20 19,026 18,376 72 70,701 69, 24 23,026 22,376 80 78,701 77, 2,0 1, 27 26,026 25,376 90 88,701 87, 30 29,026 28,376 100 98,701 97, 36 35,026 34,376 30 28,051 26, 1,5 42 41,026 40,376 0,812 36 34,051 32, 48 47,026 46,376 42 40,051 38, 56 55,026 54,376 48 46,051 44, 3,0 1, 64 63,026 62,376 56 54,051 52, 72 71,026 70,376 72 70,051 68, 80 79,026 78,376 80 78,051 74, 20 18,701 17,835 90 88,051 84, 24 22,701 21,835 64 61,402 59, 30 28,701 27,835 72 69,402 68, 36 34,701 33,835 80 77,402 75, 2,0 1, 42 40,701 39,835 4,0 90 87,402 85,670 2, 48 46,701 45,835 100 97,402 95, 56 54,701 53, 110 107,402 105, 64 62,701 61, . г , : 24, 64;

, , : 242, 642.

3, 300,048 0,142 1, 3, 3, 2,545 4 3, 3, H 1. .., .., .. : . . : , 1990. 84 .

2. .. -. .:

, 1980. . . 574 .

3. .., .., .. . .: , 1975. 574 .

4. .., .. . .: , 1968. 378 .

5. .. : . . . . 4- ., . .: . ., 1984. 336 .

6. .., .., .. : . : , 1984. 33 .

7. .. : .-. : 3 .

.: , 1988. 623 .

8. .. ϳ : , , , . .: " ", 2001. 136 .

9. .. -. .: , 1985. 568 .

10. .., .. : . . : ʲ, 1994. 50 .

........................................................................................ 1. '. '................................... 1.1. '..................... 1.2. ............................................................... 1.3. () ................................... 1.4. '..................................... 1.5. ................................................ 1.6. ................................................ 1.7. ............................. 1.8. ........................................ 1.9. ................... 1.10. 1................................................... 1.11. 2................................................... 2. , ................................................... 2.1. . ........................ 2.2. ...................... 2.3. 䳿 .................................................................. 2.4. .......................................................................... 2.5. ................................................................... 2.6. ........................................... 2.7. ...................................................... 2.8. ......................................................................... 2.9. 2.10. ........................................... 2.11. ................................................................................. 2.12. = 90....................... 2.13. , ................................................................................... 2.14. ..................... 2.15. ...................................................... 2.16. ......................................... 2.17. ' ........................................................ 2.18. ʳ 䳿 ' .............................................................................. 2.19. ' ....................... 2.20. ' ..................................................................... 2.21. .......................................... 2.22. ' ......... 2.23. ' ................. 2.24. 3................................................... 3. ...................................... 3.1. ............................................................... 3.2. ........................................ 3.3. , ................................. 3.4. ................................... 3.5. ............. 4. ......... 4.1. ............................................... 4.2. ............... 4.3. () ................................................... 4.4. ' ........................................................ ' ................................ ....................................................................................... .............................................. l H B HK l K H B HH H lB H B H l Hl lB , 54002, . , . , ' , 1150 12.12.2002 .

.. .. .. ϳ 28.01.04. 6084/16. .

. . . 8,0. .-. . 8,6. 500 .

. 13. . 386. ֳ .

!

, - .

, -, IBM P, .

, , :

;

, ;

;

.

"Duplo" 3, 130 .

볺 .

, , , , , , , -, , , .

, 54002,.,., 5, 8(0512) 47-83-86;

39-81-42, 39-73-39, fax 8(0512) 42-46-52;

-mail: publishing@usmtu.edu.ua

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