WWW.DISSERS.RU

БЕСПЛАТНАЯ ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА

   Добро пожаловать!

Pages:     | 1 ||

«Московская финансово-промышленная академия Варенина Л.П. ...»

-- [ Страница 2 ] --

Service is still an important part of marketing, although it is diminishing in importance in some product areas. Self-service sales methods for food and other consumer goods are increasing because of rising labor costs. Those products which are perceived to be of higher importance, however, still require sales and after sales attention and servicing. In product areas such as farm equipment and sophisticated medical equipment, the service factor is all-important for effective functioning of the products and for future sales. Some products offer warranties or money-back guarantees to prove that the manufacturers stand behind their products.

In those rare instances when a single enterprise carries out all of the activities described, it is said to have integrated all the marketing functions.

The problems with total integration are so complex that even the most adventurous of firms usually achieve only partial integration.

A subject only peripherally related to marketing, but of social significance in some areas, is the black market. In times of crisis or as a necessary economic practice, governments set up systems of rationing so that everyone may receive a fair share of scarce goods at a legally stated price.

When those with extra money do not care how much they pay for an item, black markets spring up to serve them. Anyone who sells or distributes goods or currency through illegal channels or in violation of ceiling prices is dealing in the black market. Needless to say, these dealings are secretive, and they frequently attract organized crime.

There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation, intensive analysis, and census data. Through observation, customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket, their stops at counters or shelves, the extent to which they read labels, etc. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual, group, or family about a purchase. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like or dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government’s statistical analyses, where available, frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers, purchasing power, size of market, industrial activity, socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income), and many other details. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region.) Market research is not an element in the marketing mix but a tool used for decision-making about the mix’s elements. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves, they are involved and concerned with it.

They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research and how much to invest in it. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates, since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan’s feasibility. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process it the input is to be useful to them.

Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A, B or C for 1-5 below 1. What does synthetic process involve?

A. Separating elements of some substance;

B. Conditioning the material;

C. Mixing ingredients and combining parts.

2. Why do wholesalers and retailers have more discretion in purchasing than industrial suppliers?

A. Because industrial goods are often ordered according to exact specifications;

B. Because they must stay within basic price and product lines;

C. Because they keep extensive storage facilities.

3. What kind of credit is not risky?

A. Long-term credit;

B. Short-term credit;

C. Neither.

4. When does the black market emerge?

A. When people don’t care how much to pay;

B. When there exists scarcity of goods;

C. When the demand for a certain product is low.

5. What for are the census data used?

А. To determine purchasing power of the target market;

В. To analyze the traffic pattern of customers;

С. To provide marketers with the analyses of in-depth interviews.

Vocabulary Practice Exercise Find English equivalents in the text:

Пройти через десятки рук, собрать урожай, претерпевать изменения, выборочно, отзывать товар с рынка, оставаться начеку, перерабатывающий завод, нехватка товара, затаривание, склад, неосторожное обращение, отсроченный платеж, финансовые трудности, колебания цен, взять деньги в долг, основные средства, стоимость труда, дефицитный товар, организованная преступность, данные переписи населения, покупательная способность, доход на душу населения.

Exercise Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Change the form of the words where necessary.

a)Commercial, b)overstocking, c)under-stocking, d)good service and customer care, e)consumer, f)synthetic, g)analytic, h)streamline, i)conditioning, k) grade.

1. A process called changes the form of the raw materials. 2. The production of bacon from a hog is an example of _ processing. 3.

Poultry inspectors examine chickens in order to their quality. 4.

A closeout or leftover sale may be necessary due to.5. Goodwill is usually a result of _. 6. A department store owner preparing for a holiday season may require _ credit. 7. may result in lost opportunities. 8.When the price for _goods is calculated, per capita income of a target market is usually taken into account. 9. Mixing ingredients or assembling parts is called a type of process. 10. They are constantly their advertising.

Grammar Revision: Complex Object The Objective-with-the infinitive is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. It is used after verbs denoting:

1. sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, etc.

2. mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to expect, to find, etc.

3. declaring: to declare, to report, to pronounce.

4. wish and intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to intend, to mean, etc.

5. feeling and emotion: to like, to dislike, cannot bear, to hate, etc.

6. order and permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc.

7. compulsion: to make, to cause, to get, to have.

For more info see§8 of the Grammar Reference.

Exercise Find the Complex object in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I haven’t heard their company penetrate foreign markets.

2. We didn’t expect them to merge so soon.

3. The firm declared their goods to be environmentally friendly.

4. My boss intended me to go to India to expand our business there.

5. I cannot bear them to take over our company.

6. The CEO ordered the goods to be ready for dispatch first thing in the morning.

7. I cannot get him sign the contract.

Exercise Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Object:

1. We expected that our suppliers would give us a discount.

2. They don’t know that our company gives life long guarantee.

3. We would like to allow your company to pay back by installments.

4. I didn’t think that goodwill belonged to intangible assets.

5. I haven’t heard the news that our competitors streamlined their assembly line.

6. The intention of the top management of our company is to penetrate new markets.

7. I saw that the secretary had brought the morning mail into the office.

Exercise Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson:

1. Ипотека представляет собой особый вид кредита на покупку дома, в котором сам дом и является залогом под данный заем.

2. Хорошая репутация обычно является результатом хорошего обслуживания, заботы о покупателе и конечно высокого качества товара.

3. Затоваривание на складе может привести к распродаже остатков, результатом которой может оказаться потеря прибыли.

4. Кредитный счет позволяет покупателю оплачивать товары после того как они уже получены.

5. Каждое предприятие старается усовершенствовать свою работу.

6. Гарантия – это письменное обещание заменить или починить неисправную деталь бесплатно.

7. Если фирма желает взять деньги в долг на средства производства – мы имеем дело с инвестиционным кредитом.

8. Розничные торговцы часто нуждаются в коммерческом кредите, чтобы сделать запасы в ожидании грядущего сезона.

Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Installments A) accumulated supply of goods, to keep a supply of goods 2. Synthetic B) to improve in appearance or efficiency 3. Lot C) an arrangement of tools, machines, and workers in which a product being put together passes through consecutive operations until completed 4. Goodwill D) artificial, manmade 5. Guarantee E) a small, usually plastic, piece of identification authorizing the holder to buy on credit 6. Inventory F) separation of material into its constituent elements 7. Working capital G) an arrangement in which purchases are billed and paid for after a customer receives them, a form of credit 8. Margin H) a distinct portion of merchandise considered collectively 9.Gross profit I) a detailed list of the stock in possession at a given time 10.Stock J) a written promise that the dealer or manufacturer will repair or replace any defective parts free of charge for a certain period of time 11.Charge account K)Current liquid assets minus current liabilities 12.Analytic L) successive payments over a fixed period of time 13.Assembly line M) a sale of remaining products, frequently held at the end of a fashion season or before spoilage, and often at no profit to the Seller 14.Streamline N) a special type of consumer credit to buy buildings over a period of time It is a pledge of property to a creditor as a security against a debt.

15.Mortgage O) an intangible asset due to the good reputation of a business 16.A credit card P) The difference between the cost and the selling price 17.Leftover sale Q) that is the money that remains after subtracting the cost of the goods sold from net sales Discussion 1. What are the possible stages in the marketing process?

2. Describe the types of manufacturing processes. Give your own examples of each one.

3. How have grading and quality standards practices come about? How are they overseen and enforced?

4. What are the differences in discretionary purchasing power among manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers?

5. What is a purchasing agent? Why is this job necessary in some businesses?

6. Is it necessary for processors and manufacturers to hold reserve stock of their raw materials?

7. Is there any difference between private and public storage?

8. Why might a firm buy from several suppliers rather than one?

9. What are some of the potential problems arising from late shipping and poor delivery?

10. What is credit? Why is its practice so widespread throughout the business world?

11. What types of credit do you know? Give an example of each type.

12. What role does service play in marketing?

13. What does the integration of all marketing functions involve?

14. Have you ever used some form of credit? What type? How does credit affect your business and personal life?

15. How does goodwill accrue to a company?

16. Contrast the synthetic process of manufacturing with the analytic one. What synthetics are used in the clothing industry?

17. What is a mortgage used for?

Vocabulary Tend ухаживать Harvest собирать урожай Grade сортировать Encompass заключать, окружать Cannery консервный комбинат Accrue накопляться, увеличиваться;

доставаться Spot check проверка на месте At random наугад, наобум Latitude широта Discretion осторожность;

широта действий, усмотрение (I leave it to your discretion - на Ваше усмотрение) To run low истощаться;

заканчиваться Staple главный продукт;

основной предмет торговли Idle простаивать;

работать вхолостую Acute острый Perishable скоропортящийся (товар) Borrow брать в долг, занимать Hardships трудности Befall случаться, приключаться Fluctuations колебания Nonetheless тем не менее Premises помещения Capital goods основные средства Diminish уменьшать Perceive постигать, воспринимать, чувствовать Scarce редко встречающийся, дефицитный Currency валюта Violation нарушение Census перепись населения Purchasing power покупательная способность Per capita income доход на душу населения To call in призывать Feasibility выполнимость Estimates смета, оценки Deferred payment отсроченный платеж UNIT EIGHT. RESEARCH Special Terms Survey обозрение, исследование, обзор Questionnaire анкета Focus group группа потребителей, приглашаемая на интервью (фокусная группа) Concept test концептуальный тест Postmortem вскрытие причин Prototype прототип Panel панель (группа людей, отобранная по какому-либо признаку) Sales forecast прогноз продаж Quota квота Saturation point точка насыщения Market testing рыночное испытание Trajectory method метод траектории Payoff результат Working on the text Read and translate the text Research In order to make their frequent decisions, marketers depend on various kinds of information. This data is collected, tabulated, codified, analyzed, and presented by sophisticated techniques designed to reveal what consumers will buy, why they will buy it, and how much they will pay for it.

Product research aims at adapting products to the desires of buyers.

Consumer survey data, gathered by personal interviews, telephone, or mail, are used to reach conclusions about market preferences. Often a questionnaire is used to obtain such feedback.

Researchers may use a focus group or concept test to assess the need the product is supposed to fill. A product may look good on paper and make sense to those who design it, but it may not appeal to the public. In the case of one pharmaceutical firm, a pain-killing pill was developed to be taken without water;

that feature was its main advantage over other analgesics. The idea was sound, but the product did not sell. A postmortem revealed that people want to take tablets with water because they believe, correctly or not that water makes medicine more effective. The next step in product testing may be to design a prototype to determine a panel's reactions to the product as they use it. Food, clothing, cosmetics, and appliances are examples of products which are often use-tested. The purposes of use-testing are to determine the specific qualities that are liked or disliked, the value of the product to consumers, the various uses of the product, and how it compares with existing products. Comparisons in which a specific product is rated against another are known as paired comparison tests. When a product is rated on its own merits, with no comparisons, the test is called monadic.

Market forecasts and commercial tests are frequently developed to precisely measure expected sales and to select the appropriate packaging, brand name, and communication appeal. The sales forecast is usually the key to planning and controlling a company's operations. Short-term forecasts are used to regulate production, inventories, and purchasing. They are aids in setting quotas, directing sales efforts, and budgeting. Long-range sales forecasts are used most often in planning long-term financing and development and in supporting investment credit applications. Some large firms forecast general business conditions in an attempt to predict the economic climate and its influence on their future activities. Many decisions are based on detailed knowledge of sales opportunities and projected sales volume. This research area of market potential is generally divided into two parts: the qualitative area identifies and diagnoses markets;

the quantitative area forecasts future demand and estimates current potential.

Package research seeks to give a product’s package more “shelf appeal” through the use of designs, materials, and colors. Attractive packaging may influence buyers to choose one product over another when both are similar in price or content. Brand names, too, are market tested to see if customers unconsciously or openly identify strengths and qualities with certain names.

Communication research is usually divided into two main areas of inquiry: one measures the effectiveness of the ad itself and another measures the suitability and economy of the media carrying the message. (This type of research is highly specialized and is used by advertisers, advertising agencies, and the media. The advertisers want assurances that their money is making money. The agencies must learn and demonstrate to their clients by solid research what is effective. The media must present themselves as productive vehicles for communication.

Measuring the effectiveness of advertising material before it is published, broadcast, or telecast, is known as pre-testing;

this can prevent costly mistakes.

Post-testing measures advertising that has been read, listened to, or seen. Some of the most common methods for pre- and post-testing are:

Consumer jury tests ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message's effects. These groups may reveal insights into their attitudes and reactions to overall ad effectiveness, but specific copy effectiveness is usually measured by interviewing individuals.

Awareness measurements look for brand or advertising familiarity.

Respondents are asked various types of questions to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness, a question like "What did you see advertised on TV last night?" Recall measurements seek a respondent's ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad. An aided recall test attempts to discover those brand names or logos which are most deeply impressed on consumers minds: ''What brand of beer do you remember seeing or hearing advertised recently" Unaided recall tests are without clues: ''What ads have you seen recently that impressed you most?" Triple associate recall tests seek to learn the extent of consumers' associations with products, brand names, and copy themes. "What beer advertises that it is 'the one to have when you're having more than one'?" Recognition tests judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read. Very often in these tests respondents will go through the magazine page by page with an interviewer and answer general and specific questions such as: “Have you seen this ad before?” “Did you notice this part?” “Did you associate it with this advertiser?” Scores are compiled for ads that are “noticed”, “seen / associated”, or “read” most.

Attitude and attitude change measurements seek first to understand the nature of opinions. A product's image is an important clue to which segment of the market may buy it. Attitude devices also analyze the degree of modification in attitudes as a result of specific advertising.

Psychological measurements hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli. A respondent may claim to like a magazine because it is comprehensive, but may in fact be impressed by the imagined status of its subscribers. Probing the subconscious reasons for buying requires trained interviewers or sophisticated machines like the galvanic skin response recorder. This electronic device allegedly measures the intensity of a person's feelings, using technology like that of the lie detector. Motivational research relies on psychology and sociology to learn why people really behave, react, and buy as they do.

Sales results in themselves measure the effectiveness of ads. One of the aims is to determine the maximum volume of advertising a market can absorb before the saturation point is reached.

Media research, another type of communications research, is conducted to determine the most effective, least expensive way to reach people.

Advertising gets maximum results when it reaches the greatest number of prospective buyers at the lowest cost. The first step in this process is to find out from each medium the number and kind of people it reaches, how often, where, and at what cost. Each medium does its own research for this purpose.

Magazines and newspapers measure their audiences by circulation readership, and to some extent on surveys, while TV and radio must rely only on surveys.

Thanks to computers, techniques for measuring consumer data are very refined. Not a survey is done in which data are not tabulated, analyzed, and manipulated by computer. Such sophisticated measurement can tell advertisers what proportion of consumers reached are professionals, laborers, or students. This is the starting point for defining an audience. It is of prime importance for the advertisers to have data concerning age, sex, location, occupation, and income level so that they can match the message and the medium to the audience.

Since actual sales are the best proof that a product will sell, controlled sales experiments, or market tests, are a favorite of researchers. Products are tested under conditions designed to measure their sales in normal circumstances, against competition, in season, and in a repeat cycle.

All these techniques, approaches, and reasons for research apply to existing, as well as new, products. Even well-tested products of long standing are closely monitored. Sometimes the need for adjustments in the marketing effort becomes evident through sales or market share analyses. Consumer attitude surveys and use tests are designed to keep up with the current state of the market. Recently introduced products are watched carefully to see that they behave as predicted. Since speed in assessing performance is vital, marketers trace their goals by the trajectory method, which utilizes the same principles as those which follow-rocket and missiles.

There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation, intensive analysis, and census data. Through observation, customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket, their stops at counters or shelves, the extent to which they read labels, etc. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual, group, or family about a purchase. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like and dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government's statistical analyses, where available, frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers, purchasing power, size of market, industrial activity, socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income);

and many other details. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region.) Market research is not an element in the marketing mix, but a tool used for decision-making about the mix's elements. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves, they are involved and concerned with it.

They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research, and how much to invest in it. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates, since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan's feasibility. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process if the input is to be useful to them.

Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A, B or C for 1-5 below 1. Why do marketers use questionnaires in their surveys?

A. to gather as complete data as possible;

B. to make a conclusion about market preferences;

C. to understand the best qualities of a rival product.

2. A monadic test is:

A. when a product is rated in monetary value;

B. when a product is estimated on it’s own advantages;

C. when a product is compared with existing products.

3.“Shelf-appeal” deals with:

A. packaging;

B. advertising;

C. content.

4. Vehicles for communication are:

А. the type of research;

В. advertising agencies;

С. mass media.

5. Consumer-attitude surveys and use tests are designed to:

A. learn about market preferences;

B. collect census data;

C. calculate the payoff.

Vocabulary Practice Exercise Find English equivalents in the text:

Получать обратную связь;

собирать информацию, кодировать и сводить в таблицу;

данные обзора потребителей;

иметь смысл;

апробация нового товара;

промышленные испытания;

предсказать экономический климат;

товарный вид;

продуктивный вид рекламы;

бессознательная реакция на рекламный стимул, тираж, отслеживать свою цель, использовать те же принципы, грубая оценка.

Exercise Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Change the form of the words where necessary.

a)Postmortem ;

b)communication technologies;

c) feasible;

d)economic climate;

e) a survey;

f) failure;

g)rejected;

i) needs;

Forces like economic integration and the increased sophistication of _1_ _ are moving markets toward greater unification. For most products, however, standardized plans aren’t2_ as evidenced by_3 which showed that only one in ten consumer products was exported without significant modification._4 to modify products or services to meet local market5_ can have expensive consequences.

During the April-June 1993 the Euro-Disney theme park in France lost a disastrous 87 million while stock values plunged 20 per cent. revealed that the key reason was misjudged_ 7, and misjudged cultural environments. Interestingly, the same values resoundingly_8 in France were resoundingly successful in Disney Japan, where more visitors traipsed through the theme park in 5 years than traipsed through the original Disneyland theme park in 35 years.

Grammar Revision: Conditionals If (unless, provided) introduces a condition. It means that something may happen depending on the circumstances. There are four main types of conditional sentences:

1. Stating a general rule If you rate a product against another it is paired comparison.

2. Speculating about the future (promising or threatening) If we try to forecast general business conditions we’ll be able to predict the influence of the economic climate on our future activities.

3. Imagining If the postmortem revealed the reasons for failure they would never make similar mistakes.

4. Speculating about the past If the new product had been use-tested it would have helped to determine the specific qualities that are disliked by consumers.

There are also mixed types of conditional. For more information see § of the Grammar Reference Exercise Define the type of conditionals in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. If we wanted to measure consumers’ interest in ads located in magazines we would use recognition tests.

2. If the company had taken into account the degree of cultural grounding they would have adapted their product.

3. We won’t strike a deal with you unless you create favorable conditions.

4. If the company had used census data they would have positioned their products more accurately.

5. If you tabulated the collected information if would be easier to analyze it.

6. We might be able to reduce the expenditure on advertising on condition our partners help us.

7. If you do know your customer, and if you do bring real value to that customer, the two of you will be doing business for life.

Exercise Open the brackets using the correct form of the Conditionals:

1. If respondents (to ask) to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness it (to be) awareness measurements.

2. If they (use) trained interviewers while conducting the survey, the advertising campaign (to be) such a failure.

3. Provided they ( not to go) on their offer, we ( to sign) the agreement next week.

4. If we (break into) the Indian market at that time our turnover (to increase) long ago.

5. We (not to use) questionnaires, focus groups or concept tests if we (to know) a better way of assessing the need the product is supposed to fill.

6. Don’t promise anything unless you ( to be sure) completely.

Exercise Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson:

1. Если какой-то товар не продается, необходим анализ, чтобы вскрыть причины неудачи.

2. Чтобы определить специфические характеристики товара, которые нравятся или не нравятся потребителю используются различные виды тестов, анкеты, сравнения с другими товарами.

3. Рыночные прогнозы часто используются с целью получить оценку ожидаемых продаж, а также выбрать соответствующую упаковку, наименование и средство рекламы.

4. Данные переписи населения обеспечивают маркетологов информацией о покупательной способности потенциальных потребителей, размерах рынка, доходах на душу населения.

5. Издательства журналов и газет оценивают аудиторию своих читателей по раскупаемому тиражу.

6. Тесты потребительского жюри направлены на выявление воздействия данной рекламы на возможного покупателя.

7. Тесты на узнаваемость оценивают рекламу, размещенную в журналах.

8. Оценка осведомленности направлена на поиск знакомых брэндов или рекламы.

Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Payoff a) an original form of a product which serves as a model for its future production 2. Survey b) a statistically selected sampling of people representing a specific population 3. Trajectory method c) seek a respondent’s ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad 4. Questionnaire d) in marketing, an examination to determine the reasons for failure in any part of the marketing plan 5. Market testing e) an attempt to predict the future about product sales or market levels 6. Focus group f) hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli 7. Saturation point g) the final choice, solution, or result 8. Concept test h) a way of setting goals according to research results and analyses;

the product’s path is monitored closely on a graph 9. Quota i) the amount beyond which no more can be absorbed 10. Postmortem j) a research technique in which the product is sold at selected locations while its reception by consumers is observed 11. Prototype k) ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message’s effects 12. Panel l) Judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read 13. Sales forecast m) an assigned goal of the total volume of sales to be reached within a specific time period 14. Consumer jury test n) looking for brand or advertising familiarity 15.Psychological o) market research technique used to see how measurement prospective consumers react to a proposed new product 16. Recognition test p) a group of five or six people that meets with an interviewer to discuss products and consumer needs 17. Awareness measure- q) a sampling or partial collection of facts ments figures, or opinions and analysis of the data 18. Recall measurements r) set of questions designed to yield usable information for marketing purposes Discussion 1. What are the main areas of concern for market researchers?

2. What does a concept test show?

3. What are the purposes of use-testing? What types of product is it good for?

4. What is the difference between paired comparison tests and monadic tests?

5. Why are market forecasts and commercial tests developed?

6. Compare short-term forecasts with long-range forecasts. What are the specific goals of which?

7. Why do some firms engage in general business forecasting?

8. How are market potential tests classified? What are the uses of these classifications?

9. What is “shelf-appeal”? What do marketers hope for in the choice of brand names?

10. Which are the main areas of communication research? Identify those concerned with this research. Why is each involved?

11. What are the values of pre-testing? Of post-testing?

12. What does a consumer jury test measure?

13. Describe the three recall types of measurement employed in marketing research. How do their goals differ from each other?

14. How do recall and recognition tests differ?

15. How is product image measured? Why?

16. What is psychological or motivational testing aimed at? Describe some methods used.

17. What are the goals of media research? How does it differ from advertising effectiveness research?

18. What do consumer data tell advertisers about their audiences?

19. What is a product’s performance in a test market supposed to show? How are market tests conducted?

20. Why are trajectory paths chartered specifically for newly introduced products?

21. How does observation help obtain information on consumer behavior?

22. What do researchers hope to learn from intensive analyses of individuals or groups of consumers ? What types of questions are asked?

23. What is the role of marketing manager in marketing research?

Typical Breakdowns for Consumers Data or What Every Marketer Wants to Know Age: Sex:

I) under 18 1) Female 9} 18 to 24 2) Male 3) 25 to 4) 35 to 49 Occupation:

5) 50 to 64 1) Unemployed 6) 65 and over 2) Student 3) Retired Marital Status 4) Not employed outside of 1) Single home 2) Married 5) Employed 3) Widowed a) professional, technical 4} Divorced or separated b) clerical c) managerial proprietor Education: d) military-, official I) none to 8 years of school e) skilled labor 2) 8 to 12 yean of school f) unskilled labor 3) some college or university g) farm 4) college or university 5) some postgraduate work Family annual income:

6) graduate degree I) under $ 2) $5000 to 3) $7500 to 10, Family Size: 4) 810,000 to 15, I) 1 or 2 members 5) S 15,000-to 25, 2) 3 or 4 members 6) $25,000 and over 3} 5 or more members Other:

Residence: Race 1) a) urban Religion b)suburban Length of employment c) rural Ages of children 2) a) own Reading or entertainment b) rent habits Case Study a) Think of a memorable TV or radio commercial you have heard or seen. Choose one which includes a jingle – a repetition verse set to music.

In the questionnaire below you can find a number of ideas about the jingle.

Place a check mark in one space in each row to show the degree to which you think the idea fits the commercial.

b) What conclusions might a researcher draw from the results of this type of questionnaire?

How much those conclusions affect the marketing effort? What other categories and ideas could have been added for testing? Do you buy the product or use the service being advertised in your example?

Sample Consumer Questionnaire (A survey of audience attitudes) Type of commercial: TV Radio Your age Type of product _ Brand name Very Somewhat Neither Somewhat Very Different Ordinary Exciting Dull Up-to-date Behind-the time Interesting Boring Fun Work Energetic Relaxed With it A drag Like me Not like me Professional Amateurish Strong Mild Easily Difficult to understood comprehend Appealing Unappealing Loved the Hated the performance performance Would like to Would not hear it again like to hear it again Vocabulary Appliances бытовая техника Merits достоинства To rate оценивать Unconsciously бессознательно Awareness measurements оценка осведомленности Consumer Jury Tests тесты потребительского жюри Recall measurements оценка запоминаемости Unaided зд. без наводящих вопросов Recognition tests испытание на узнаваемость Attitude change measurements оценка изменения отношения Probing зондирование Subconscious подсознательный Allegedly по утверждению, будто бы, якобы Stimulus (stimuli) стимул Circulation readership тираж Laborer чернорабочий, неквалифицированный рабочий To trace their goals отслеживать свои цели Utilize the same principle использовать те же принципы UNIT NINE. THE FUTURE OF MARKETING Special Terms Bankruptcy банкротство Export экспорт Import импорт Letterhead фирменный бланк к-л организации Patent патент Multinational corporation (MNC) транснациональная корпорация Marketing boards торговые палаты, управления по сбыту Gross national product (GNP) валовой национальный продукт Cartel картель Stockpile запас, резерв Subsidy субсидия, дотация Demographics демографическая статистика Working on the text Read and translate the text In marketing, as in the rest of life, there is much to learn from history.

Postmortems of marketing failures are important factors in making decisions about the future. The spectrum of marketing failures ranges from inadequate return on the original investment to corporate bankruptcy. According to the largest marketing research company in the world, the A.C. Nielsen Company, these are the thirteen most common marketing errors:

1. Failure to keep a product up-to-date. Products must be suited to the market.

2. Failure to estimate the market potential accurately. Enthusiasm should be tempered with realism.

3. Failure to gauge the trend of the market. Adjustments in the marketing program must be made readily.

4. Failure to appreciate regional differences. Advertising and distribution efforts must reflect environmental and cultural limitations.

5. Failure to appreciate seasonal differences in demand. This is important not only among nations and cultures, but within product areas.

6. Failure to develop the advertising budget fully. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently short-sighted.

7. Failure to adhere to long-range goal policies. Significant trends need time to develop.

8. Failure to test-market new ideas. There is a difference between what people say and what they actually do.

9. Failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and long-range strategy. Special promotional activities cannot substitute for advertising.

10. Failure to try new ideas. Changes must be made before competitors force them.

11. Failure to integrate all phases into the overall program.

Coordination is the key.

12. Failure to appraise the competition objectively. The tendency is to underestimate the resources and the ingenuity of the competition while overestimating one’s own position or reputation.

13. Failure to admit defeat. A realistic appraisal of errors is vital.

As production techniques and marketing systems become more sophisticated, cross-cultural trading increases. As people of different cultures become more dependent on each other for their living standards, they appreciate the need for peace and stability. Communication and transportation systems have created a small world, in a marketing sense. Every year more and more firms, even relatively small ones, enter the international market. The problems encountered there are significantly different from those encountered in domestic operations. Marketers are accustomed to risk-taking;

but in interna tional dealings the dimensions of these risks are often misjudged and misunderstood.

One area of special interest is the literal translation of advertising names, slogans, and concepts from one language and culture to another. It must have been embarrassing to General Motors when its "Body by Fisher" became "Corpse by Fisher" in Flemish. Colgate-Palmolive made an expensive mistake when it introduced its Cue toothpaste into French-speaking countries;

the brand name and trademark turned out to be pornographic in French. Advertisements that do not conform to local lifestyles are wasted. One toothpaste manufacturer found that promising white teeth was inappropriate in many regions of Southeast Asia, where chewing betelnut is an elite habit and black teeth are symbols of prestige.

Export marketing companies are another result of international marketing.

These independent businesses act as agents for firms that want to participate in worldwide trade, instead of their own names, they often use special letterheads showing their address as the manufacturer's "export department" or "international division." The services performed by the export company for its client include:

1. Researching the foreign market;

2. Conducting on-site tours to determine the best methods of distribution;

3. Appointing commission representatives, sometimes within an existing sales network, in the foreign country;

4. Exhibiting the products at overseas trade shows;

5. Handling the paperwork of export and import declarations, shipping and customs documentation, insurance, banking, instructions for special handling, and similar details;

6. Preparing and adapting appropriate sales literature;

7. Adapting the goods to local conditions and legal and trade standards;

8. Meeting patent and trademark requirements.

The emergence of the multinational corporation (МNС) is of major significance in the future of marketing. Many firms that entered the export business in a modest way eventually became fully committed to an international perspective. The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources, especially technological and managerial skills, and organization of the economic activities of several nations. Global approaches to economic decisions often differ with the aims of specific countries. There may be resistance to multinational activities for reasons of nationalism, control, and the extraction of profits.

It is enormously expensive, in global terms, for each country to duplicate advanced research, technology, and production. Despite obstacles, multinationals have expanded steadily because they reduce this duplication and contribute to the economy of their host nations. It seems likely that those MNCs that can evolve effective accommodations with nationalism will flourish.

General improvements in marketing can be expected in three major areas. The first is the enterprise of private traders and corporations seeking profits. Competition will always stimulate cheaper and more effective distribution methods, more economical production, and the reduction of profit margins.

The second is joint action by firms or individuals. More and more cooperatives will provide economical marketing facilities and a firm bargaining base for their members. Many marketing boards have developed to require producers and handlers of certain commodities to observe rules and procedures. In some countries, such a board assumes full responsibility for marketing certain products, either with its own staff or with private firms and cooperatives. In the United States, a board of trade, or commodity exchange, is an organized market for agricultural goods, handling commodities in much the same way as stock exchanges do for stocks and bonds. Trading companies in Japan function similarly;

their combined sales figures represent almost 30 percent of Japan's GNP.

They are involved in trading, resource development, manufacturing, mining, urban and regional development, and a number of service industries.

One facet of the trend toward joint action in world marketing is the formation of cartels. These may be made up of individual companies, marketing boards, trading companies, or a combination;

their influence, particularly on raw materials markets, is substantial. Probably the most renowned group of this sort is OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has controlled the marketing of petroleum products in virtually every nation in the world.

The third area in which marketing improvements are expected is governmental assistance. This can take three major forms:

Regulatory aid includes the standardization of weights, measures, and containers, and the establishment of minimum health standards. Quality inspection and grading is vital to everyone, and the regulation of transport and market facilities helps insure fair practices. Some laws are designed to define sales contracts and how they must be fulfilled. Laws prohibiting deceptive advertising, price discrimination, and price-fixing protect consumers. Anti-trust laws prohibiting monopolies and assisting fair competition create a healthy market climate. Other laws deal with bankruptcy, patents and trademarks, and financial statements.

Facilitating aid provides market information and statistics, sets up training and extension services, and finances research into ways of raising efficiency or reducing marketing costs.

Direct intervention is government involvement in the purchase, sale, storage, and movement of goods. In some cases, a government will be its own largest consumer and may be so involved in purchasing goods and services for defense and social welfare that it virtually defines the marketing process from start to finish. Governments may influence prices, supplement existing market channels, and increase competition. They also try to protect producers and consumers against emergency pressures or chronic weaknesses in a marketing system. Some governments practice such support activities as stockpiling, subsidies, and a price equalization aid to farmers known as parity.

The trends noted in this unit will all affect the future of marketing, as will the new attitudes, customs, mores, institutions, and economic systems. The following is an outline of the major forces in society which will affect marketing in the years ahead. The main headings represent the four major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates.

A. Sociocultural 1. Demographics: A slowing population growth with corresponding smaller family size, in industrial nations and regions;

a rising average age in the United States as post-World War II babies move through their life cycle;

increased participation of women in the work force.

2. Knowledge: increasing education and sophistication with less faith and acceptance.

3. Values: More secular, humanistic, and rational;

less traditional, religious, and mystic.

4. Social Structure: More open and fluid societies;

more varied subcultures and life styles;

patterns of a "one-world" mentality.

B. Economic 1. Structure: More concentration, larger companies, and more multinational trade.

2. Competition: More visible;

closer government observation,' 3. Technology: Extremely important;

accelerated.

C. Governmental 1. Increased complexity and size.

2. More interaction with business.

3. More direct intervention in the economic system, 4. More restrictions on marketing with a struggle surrounding the regulatory role.

D. Ecological 1. Much of the world burdened by population growth.

2. Limited resources.

3. Increased interdependence among nations.

4. Need to preserve the environment Marketing is more than business techniques and economic activities;

it is a social process that fulfills a basic social need. It is comprised of and affected by the diverse interrelationships of individuals, organizations, governments, and society. What forms it will take in the future depend on political and economic changes, but one thing is certain;

marketing will always be with us in an important way.

Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A, B or C for 1-5 below 1. The problems that firms encounter on the international market are:

A. approximately the same as on the domestic market;

B. quite different;

C. not mentioned.

2. On-site tours are conducted by export marketing companies:

A. to handle the paperwork;

B. to prepare appropriate sales literature;

C. to understand the best channels of sales.

3. A board of trade is:

A. a commodity exchange;

B. a usual market;

C. a stock exchange.

4. Direct intervention is:

А. MNC entering a local market;

В. government involvement in the movement of goods;

С. emergency pressure.

5. What is not mentioned among the major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates?

A. economic;

B. ecological;

C. psychological.

Vocabulary Practice Exercise Find English equivalents in the text:

Точно оценить потенциал рынка, умерять энтузиазм, корректировка маркетинговой программы, неумение отличить, признать поражение, становиться все более зависимым, буквальный перевод, соответствовать местному образу жизни, выезд на место, соблюдать правила, торговать товаром, элитная привычка, Exercise Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Change the form of the words where necessary.

a) Defining, b) cross-cultural, c) lost sales, d) habits, e) members of society, f) level of involvement, g) resist, h) strategic planning process.

Culture is a complex whole, learned and shared by members of society, encompassing beliefs, values, language, religion, art, morals, law, education, customs,…1…, and capabilities. Culture provides…2… a sense of identity and well-being. Cultures are inherently conservative, in that they …3… change and foster continuity. As the globalization of business grows, so does the need for intra – and …4… competence to deal with culturally diverse publics that influence the health and growth of the enterprise. A firm’s level of cultural competence can be the primary determinant of its …5…in a given market. Cultural incompetence can lead to …6… and calamitous customer relations. In the context of crucial role of culture in the…7…, it’s the job of the global marketing manager to identify significant intra- and cross-cultural variables. This information can then influence every aspect of the strategic marketing planning process from …8…the nature and needs of target markets to building marketing mixes that appeal to these markets.

Grammar Revision: Punctuation 1) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members used without any conjunction:

A country’s culture is learned, shared, transmitted.

2) A comma is used to separate several homogeneous members if the last is joined by the conjunction “and”:

Among significant cultural variables that can help marketing managers define and develop international markets are values, language, and religion.

3) No comma is used if two homogeneous members are joined by the conjunction “and”:

Approaches for identifying and measuring significant cultural variables include observational fieldwork.

4) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members joined by the conjunction “but” and the correlative conjunction not only… but also:

Not only may substantial investments be required to develop and market new products, but contracts or even mergers with other companies may be necessary.

5) Coordinate clauses joined asyndetically or by the conjunctions nether, nor, conjunctive adverbs moreover, besides, then, yet, whereas, still are usually separated by the semicolon, but occasionally a comma is found:

The company did not sell their assets;

nor did they offer to pay their debts.

6) Defining relative clauses that add essential information to the sentence are not separated by a comma:

I am speaking about the company that produces telephone equipment.

7) Non-defining relative clauses that add non-essential information are separated by commas.

The new investment plan, which was announced on Monday, will take five years to complete.

8) Subject, predicative, and object clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause:

What they learned of marketing in that month was much more than that he had learnt in all his life.

Exercise Read the sentences below and explain the punctuation:

1. The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources, especially technological and managerial skills, and organization of the economic activities of several nations.

2. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently short sighted.

3. What people say does not really mean they do it.

4. What they wanted to introduce on the world market was test marketed three times in order to adhere to long-range goal policies.

5. Despite obstacles, multinationals expanded steadily because they contribute to the economy of their host nation.

6. Every year more and more firms, even relatively small ones, enter the international market.

7. It is enormously expensive, in global terms, for each country to duplicate advanced research, technology, and production.

Exercise Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson 1. Чтобы определить лучшие методы сбыта, компании, занимающиеся экспортом, проводят поездки на места.

2. Транснациональные корпорации могут столкнуться с сопротивлением принимающей стороны, причиной которой являются возможные прибыли.

3. Маркетинговые советы проводят исследования, предоставляют информацию, регулируют сбыт и помогают поддерживать репутацию отдельной страны.

4. Валовой национальный продукт представляет собой денежное выражение всех товаров и услуг, произведенных в стране за год.

5. Чтобы избежать ошибок в маркетинге, необходимо придерживаться политики долговременных целей.

6. Он примет на себя всю ответственность за продажу этого товара.

7. Принесите мне, пожалуйста, фирменные бланки Ваше Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Bankruptcy A) Stationery containing the name and address of an organization 2. Import B) The exclusive right to make, use, or sell a specific item, granted by a government to a person or company for a stated time period.

3. Gross national product C) A company that has a manufacturing or (GNP): investment base in at least two countries outside the country of its origin 4. Export D) Organizations which promote and facilitate the worldwide marketing of specific products.

5. Letterhead E) To bring in merchandise from a foreign country, especially for resale 6. Multinational corpora- F) A business association formed to regulate tion (MNC) prices, production, and marketing of the products of its members 7. Marketing boards G) The state in which a person or company is unable to pay creditors 8.Demographics H) A reserve supply stored and maintained for future use 9. Cartel I) To send or sell merchandise to a foreign country 10. Patent J) The total monetary value of all goods and services produced in a country during one year 11. Stockpile K) The vital and social statistics of a population 12. Subsidy L) Government involvement in the movement of goods 13. Direct intervention M) Financial aid of a government to a private industry Discussion 1. What is the value of studying marketing failures?

2. What is the difference between failure to adhere to long-range goal policies and failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and long range strategy?

3. What is the trend in marketing with regard to international trade?

Are domestic marketing problems similar to international ones?

4. Give some examples of translation errors made by marketers advertising abroad.

5. Give an example of an error made because of the failure to reflect local values and life styles.

6. What is an export marketing company?

7. Describe those necessary activities which exporters must practice.

8. What are the two basic roles of MNCs?

9. Why do multinational firms meet resistance from individual nations?

10. Describe the role of marketing boards.

11. What is a board of trade in the United States? A trading company in Japan?

12. Give an example of a cartel and its effect on other nations.

13. What is the difference between regulatory government aid and facilitating government aid?

14. What kinds of direct intervention and support activities do some governments engage in with regard to marketing.

15. List all the kinds of government assistance offered to marketing in your country. Will there be more of this in the future? How do you view governmental involvement in marketing practices?

Write a composition on one of the following topics:

A. Which of the 13 most common failures listed by Nielsen do you consider the most relevant to marketing practices in your country? Give examples to illustrate at least two of these failures. Can you think of any others which should be included in the list?

B. What has the effect of international trade been on your country?

What are your most important exported raw materials and final products? Is the trend in your country toward more or less international marketing?

C. What effect have multinational firms had in your country? Is there any national resistance? What is the relationship of marketing boards to MNCs? Do you see a trend toward more or less cooperation between them?

Vocabulary To adhere твердо держаться, придерживаться To substitute for замещать;

подставлять To appraise оценивать Ingenuity изобретательность, искусство Encounter неожиданная встреча;

столкновение, стычка Dimensions размеры, величина, объем, протяжение Scheme of vast dimensions план огромной важности, огромного размаха Mores нравы Secular вековой, происходящий раз в сто лет;

светский Accommodations приспособления;

удобства;

соглашения Facet грань, сторона /медали/;

аспект Renowned известный, знаменитый, прославленный Price equalization aid помощь в выравнивании цен Asyndetically бессоюзно GRAMMAR REFERENCE Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous To be + Participle I To have + Participle II To have been + Participle I I (you, they, we) work I am working / Am I working? I (you, we, they) have worked I (you, we, they) have been working He (she, it) works He (she, it) is working / Is it working? He ( she, it) has worked He ( she, it) has been working Do you work? I do not ( don’t) We (they, you) are working / Are you Have you worked?- No, I have not Have you been working?

work working? (haven’t) worked Has he been working?

Does he work? He does not They are not working Has he worked? – No, he has not (hasn’t) He has not been working.

(doesn’t) work Употребляется: worked Употребляется:

Употребляется: 1.Действие в процессе в момент Употребляется: 1.Действие, которое началось в 1. Обычное, повторяю- речи: 1.Действие совершилось к наст. прошлом и продолжалось до щеееся действие What are you doing?- I’m trying to моменту и результат важен:It has настоящего момента и либо He plays golf every Sunday. find a file. broken down the barriers of geography закончилось к настоящему 2. Констатация факта, 2.Действие в процессе в and time. моменту либо все еще утверждение настоящее время, но не в момент 2. Новость:Our fax number has changed. продолжается.

истины: речи: 3. Полученный жизненный опыт:He Exports have been growing steadily We sell our products into many They are building a new office. has done many jobs in his time over the markets. 3. Ближайшее, запланированное 4. Завершенное действие в будущем в past six months.

The sun rises in the East. будущее: придаточных условия и времени ( Has he been waiting for me for a 3. Характеристика чело- She is leaving for Paris on Monday. после: when, if, as soon as etc)I can’t long time?

века: 4.Временнoе действие: make a decision if I haven’t received all (since, for, how long) My sister sings very well. They are staying at the Crill Hotel the data 4. Действие по графику, until May. 5. После: This is the first / second time:

расписанию 5.Изменяющаяся ситуация: It’s only the second time I’ve driven a car.

The train for London leaves at The number of people using the Показатели (ever, never, just, already, 9 p.m. Internet is growing. lately, yet, for, since, recently) 6. Повторяющееся действие;

раздражение:

We are always discussing it, but in vain.

Ряд глаголов в Continuous не употребляется V+ed или 2-я ф.неправ.гл. I ( he, she, it )was working I( you, he, she, we, they, it) had worked I ( he, she, it, we,they) had been I (you,/he/she/it/ they) worked They( you, we) were working Had you worked? – No, we had not working Did you work? He did not Were you working? – No, we were not worked Had you been working? – No, we work. working. Употребляется: had not been Употребляется: Употребляется: 1.Действие, которое произошло working.

1.Действие, совершенное в 1. Действие в процессе в раньше другого действия в прошлом, Употребляется:

прошлом и не связанное с определенный момент времени в либо закончилось к какому-то 1.Действие,которое настоящим: прошлом. моменту в прошлом. происходило на протяжении Radio was invented by Popov. I was watching TV when my parents Had the film already started when you какого-то времени, до какого-то They launched this project in arrived. came to the cinema? момента в про- 1980. While their mother was cooking She had finished her work by 4 o’clock. шлом:

2. Перечисление действий в dinner the children 2. После выражений I wish, If only, She had to take a break because she прошлом: She came home, were playing in the garden. I’d rather had been had supper, watched TV and At 5 o’clock I was cooking, I was not выражает действие, которое не working far too hard.

went to bed. watching TV. произошло: We had been waiting for him for 3. Повтор. действие в I wish I had been more interested in half an hour before he прошлом: English at came He used to listen to music for School.

hours. If only I had bought those shares!

She would come and see me I’d rather he had asked me before taking every day. my car.

В отрицательной форме выражает сожаление по поводу содеянного) He wishes he had not left his previous job.

(but he did) Will/shall + infinitive без ” Will/shall be +Participle I Will have + Participle II Will/shall have been + Participle I to” She will be working at 10 o’clock She match will have finished at 10.30 She will have been working at this I ( you, he, she, it, they) will tomorrow. Употребляется: problem for a month bring you the book tomorrow. Will you be seeing her this evening? 1. Действие, которое будет when you visit us a second time.

He will come on time, don’t Употребляется: завершено в какой-то момент в Употребляется:

worry. 1. Действие которое точно будет будущем. Действие, которое начнется в Употребляется: происходить в определенный At 9 o’clock we will have gone to work. будущем и будет про- 1. Обещание момент в будущем. 2. Действие совершиться к к-то должаться до какого-то I’ll pay you back in a week. This time tomorrow I’ll be swimming моменту в будущем. момента в будущем в 2. Внезапное решение что- in the sea. The film will already have started by the течение некоторого времени.

то сделать (в момент речи) 2. Спрашивая о планах, если time we get to the cinema.

I’ll go and shut the window. хотите попросить сделать что- It’s cold here. либо для Вас.

3. После выражений типа: Will you be passing a post-office.

I think;

I believe;

I suppose etc. When you are out?

I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. 3. Ближайшее запланированное В вопросах с I, we – shall будущее (взаимозаменяемо с Shall I go on? Present Continuous) What time will your friends be arriving?

(What time are your friends arriving?) СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ Simple Continuous Perfect I am invited I am being watched I (you, we, they) have been informed P You (we, they) are invited You (we, they) are being watched He (she, it) has been informed R He (she, it) is invited He (she, it) is being watched E Have you (we, they, I) been S Are you invited? Are you (we, they) being watched? informed?

E – No, I’m not invited. No, I am not being watched. No, we have not been informed N Is she invited? Is he (she, it) being watched? Has he (she, it) been informed?

T - No, she is not invited No, he is not being watched No, he hasn’t been informed I(he, she, it) was invited I (he, she, it) was being watched We (I, you, they, she, he, it) P You (we, they) were invited You (we, they) were being watched had been informed A S Were they (you, we) invited? Was she (he, it, I) being watched? Had you been informed?

T No, they were not invited. No, she wasn’t being watched No, I hadn’t been informed Was he (she, it, I) invited? Were they (you, we) being watched?

No, he was not invited. No, they weren’t being watched.

I (we) shall (will) be invited I (we) will (shall) have been informed F You (she, he, it, they) will be invited They (you, she, he, it) will have been U informed T Shall I (we) be invited?

U No, we shall not (shan’t) be invited ---------------------------- Shall I have been informed?

R Will he (you, she, it, they) be invited No, I shan’t have been informed E No, he will not (won’t) be invited Will they have been informed?

No, they won’t have been informed.

Употребление страдательного залога Употребление времен в страдательном залоге полностью совпадает с употреблением времен в действительном залоге.

Так как в страдательном залоге действие производится не подлежащим, а над подлежащим, и в основном, акцент делается на самом действии, а не на деятеле, то деятель чаще всего опускается.

Деятель может вводиться предлогом by (одушевленный предмет) with (неодушевленный предмет).

1) The company was founded in 1970 by my grandfather.

2) The letter is written with a pencil.

Способы перевода страдательного залога на русский язык Существует несколько способов перевода страдательного залога с английского языка на русский язык, например:

1. Самим страдательным залогом:

I was invited to the conference.

Я был приглашен на конференцию.

2. Неопределенно-личным предложением I was invited to the conference.

Меня пригласили на конференцию.

3. Возвратными глаголами с окончанием на –ся A lot of new hotels are built in Russia every year.

Каждый год в России строится много новых гостиниц.

Особенности употребления страдательного залога в английском языке В английском языке также как и в русском, страдательный залог образуется от переходных глаголов. Но в отличие от русского языка, некоторые глаголы допускают образование страдательного залога, как с прямым, так и с косвенным дополнением. К ним относятся: to accord, to advise, to allow, to ask, to award, to deny, to teach, to tell, to promise, to order, to give etc.

I was shown the contract.

The contract was shown to me.

Мне показали контракт.

Модальные глаголы (Modal verbs) Модальные глаголы выражают отношение говорящего к предполагаемому действию. Они имеют одну или две грамматические формы (Present Simple, Past Simple) и сочетаются с инфинитивом без частицы “to”. Исключение составляют модальные глаголы ought (to), to be (to). Недостающие видовременные формы восполняются их эквивалентами.

Present Simple Past Simple эквивалент Can Could Be able (to) May might To be allowed (to) to be permitted (to) Must - To have (to) to be obliged (to) Should - Ought (to) - - Am/ is/ are (to) Was / were (to) - CAN ( could) эквивалент – be able Can выражает способность, возможность, недоверие, сомнение, удивление.

1. Физическая или умственная способность (употребляется только с Indefinite Infinitive) He could understand 3 foreign languages when he was 5 years old.

Мы используем модальный глагол Can только когда речь идет об общих физических способностях: see, hear, smell, taste, feel, understand.

Когда же говорится о какой-то определенной ситуации, то употребляется эквивалент to be able, который по своему значению ближе к глаголу manage.

He didn’t want to come, but we were able to persuade him.

2. Возможность (зависящая от обстоятельств) Can I speak to Mr. Brown?

Sorry, he is not available.

3. Недоверие, сомнение, удивление (употребляется со всеми формами инфинитива в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях) But could he hate his job and still keep going there.

Неужели он мог ненавидеть свою работу и продолжать ходить туда?

Can she be waiting for us? - Может ли она нас ждать?

She cannot be waiting for us. - Не может быть, чтобы она нас ждала.

Could (can) she have said that? - Неужели она это сказала?

4. Could несет в себе понятие сослагательного наклонения:

We could have dinner at a restaurant.

Мы могли бы пообедать в ресторане.

MAY (might) эквиваленты - to be allowed / to be permitted May выражает разрешение, неуверенность, вероятность, упрек.

1. Разрешение. (В этом значении употребляется только Indefinite infinitive).Здесь также возможно употребление модального глагола Can.

You may take these copies - Вам дают разрешение.

You can take these copies - Нет условий, которые помешали бы вам сделать это.

Запрет может быть выражен несколькими способами:

May I read the letter? - No, don’t, please.

- No, you may not - No, you must not (зависимость от обстоятельств) 2. Неуверенность, предположение с оттенком сомнения.

(Используются все формы инфинитива). Might выражает большую степень неуверенности, а также употребляется при согласовании времен.

They may or they may not agree to our terms of payment.

They might still be doing that business.

They said they might be interested in merging.

3. Вероятность, возможность. (Обычно используется Indefinite infinitive). May употребляется только в утвердительных предложениях.

В этом значении возможно употребление can.

In these documents you may (can) find a lot of interesting things.

4. Упрек. В данном значении употребляется только might с Perfect Infinitive.

You might have told me about it You might lend me your car. (Употребление Indefinite Infinitive выражает просьбу с оттенком упрека) MUST эквиваленты - to have (to) / to be obliged (to) Must выражает обязанность, необходимость, запрет (в отрицательной форме), предположение, граничащее с уверенностью.

1. Обязанность, необходимость.

He must work. He must earn money.

Must I go to the meeting? - Yes, you must - - No, you needn’t (отсутствие необходимости) 2. Команда, запрет.

You must leave the room at once.

You must not do it.

2. Вероятность, предположение. Предположение, граничащее с уверенностью, почти убежденность. (Употребляются все формы инфинитива, но только в утвердительных предложениях).

They must have been marketing their products for five years already on the world market. Evidently, she did not know my address. (В отрицательных предложениях употребляется evidently) Предположение, относящееся к будущему, не может быть выражено через модальный глагол must. Вместо него используется модальное слово probably или выражение to be likely.

They are not likely to delay the cargo. They will probably reroute the vessel.

SHOULD, OUGHT (TO) Модальные глаголы should и ought(to) часто взаимозаменяемы.

Они выражают совет. Глагол ought (to) по своему значению ближе к модальному глаголу must, и выражает настоятельную рекомендацию.

You should use new methods in advertising.

You ought to use new methods in advertising.

Употребление этих модальных глаголов с Perfect Infinitive выражает упрек.

You should have informed me beforehand.

TO BE (TO) Модальный глагол to be (to) выражает долженствование по плану, по договоренности и переводится на русский язык – должен.

We were to meet at 5, but he didn’t come.

Who is to go on business to London? – Mr. Smith is.

Инфинитив (the Infinitive) Инфинитив – это неличная (неизменяемая) форма глагола, обладающая временными и залоговыми характеристиками.

Tense Voice Active Passive Indefinite to help To be helped Continuous To be helping - Perfect To have helped To have been helped Perfect To have been helping - Continuous I am glad to help you Я рад помочь Вам I am glad to be helped Я рад, что мне помогут I am glad to be helping Я рад, что помогаю I am glad to have helped Я рад, что помог I am glad to have been helping Я рад, что помогая какое-то время I am glad to have been helped Я рад, что мне помогли **Perfect Infinitive 1. После глаголов to expect, to mean to hope, to intend (в Past Indefinite) выражает действие, которое не совершилось вопреки ожиданию, надежде, намерению:

I meant to have done it - Я предполагал сделать это.

2. Предположение - в сочетании с модальными глаголами must, may.

My watch must have stopped.

3. Сожаление или упрек по поводу невыполненного действия после модальных глаголов could, might, should.

You should have signed the contract.

Функции инфинитива в предложении 1. Подлежащее To keep the unit in operation is not very easy.

Поддерживать устройство в рабочем состоянии нелегко.

2. Часть сказуемого (составного именного и составного глагольного) To see is to believe. (Именное) Увидеть – значит поверить.

We’ll have to launch a new advertising campaign. (Глагольное) Нам придется запустить новую рекламную кампанию.

3. Дополнение He likes to be introduced to famous people.

Ему нравится, когда его представляют знаменитостям.

4. Определение The product to be advertised is of great importance to our company.

Товар, который надо разрекламировать, очень важен для нашей компании.

5. Обстоятельство To do the job well you must work hard.

Чтобы сделать работу хорошо вы должны усердно трудиться.

Герундий (The Gerund) Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе признаки глагола и существительного, следовательно, на русский язык может переводиться как глаголом, так и существительным. В нижеприведенной таблице представлены формы герундия.

Tense Active Voice Passive Voice Indefinite Writing Being written Perfect Having written Having been written 1. The Indefinite Gerund (active or passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием глагола сказуемого.

No one could pass in or out without being seen.

Никто не мог войти и выйти незамеченным.

2. The Perfect Gerund обозначает действие, предшествующее действию выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

She denies having spoken with him.

Она отрицает, что разговаривала с ним.

3. Однако предшествующее действие не всегда выражается при помощи the Perfect Gerund. Иногда, после глаголов to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank, и после предлогов on, upon, after, without можно также употреблять и the Indefinite Gerund.

I don’t remember discussing this problem with Mr. Brown before.

4. После глаголов to want, to need, to deserve, to require, to be worth употребляется герундий в действительном залоге, несмотря на то, что он несет страдательное значение:

They were not worth saving.

Их не стоило спасать.

The advertising campaign wants attending to, no doubt.

Несомненно, рекламной кампанией необходимо заняться.

Функции герундия в предложении 1. Подлежащее Talking mends no holes.

2. Часть сказуемого (именная) The only remedy for my headache is going to bed.

3. Дополнение I love riding.

4. Определение He was born with the gift of winning hearts.

5.Обстоятельство (всегда с предлогом) After verifying all the documents the parties signed the contract.

Употребление герундия 1. После следующих глаголов и идиоматических выражений:

To avoid;

to burst out;

to deny;

to enjoy;

to excuse;

to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise);

to finish;

to forgive;

to give up;

to go on;

to keep on;

to leave off;

to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences only);

to postpone;

to put off;

to suggest;

cannot help and others.

2. После следующих глаголов с предлогами:

To accuse of;

to agree to;

to approve of;

to complain of;

to depend on;

to feel like;

to insist on;

to look like;

to object to;

to persist in;

to prevent from;

to rely on;

to speak of;

to succeed in;

to suspect of;

to thank for;

to think of;

to look forward to.

3. После следующих существительных с предлогом:

Opportunity of;

chance of;

interest in;

way of;

possibility of;

experience in;

hope of;

reason for;

idea of.

4. После следующих выражений с глаголом to be:

To be aware of ;

to be busy in;

to be capable of;

to be fond of;

to be guilty of;

to be indignant at;

to be pleased at;

to be proud of;

to be sure of;

to be surprised at;

to be worth (while).

Сложный герундиальный оборот Сочетание герундия с предшествующим ему притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже называется сложным герундиальным оборотом. Этот оборот как самостоятельная единица может выполнять любые функции в предложении. В зависимости от выполняемой функции сложный герундиальный оборот переводится на русский язык соответствующим придаточным предложением.

Например: Her being sent on business to London is quite unexpected to us. –( подлежащее) То, что ее посылают в командировку в Лондон – для нас полная неожиданность.

I heard of your friend’s having accepted our offer. – (дополнение).

Я слышал, что Ваш друг принял наше предложение.

Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) Complex Subject состоит из существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, стоящего после сказуемого. Как правило, этот оборот переводится на русский язык вводным неопределенно-личным предложением. Например:

The product is known to be selling well.

Известно, что этот товар хорошо продается.

She doesn’t appear to have heard the news.

Похоже, она не слышала новость.

Сложное подлежащее употребляется только после определенных глаголов:

1. To seem, to appear, to prove - в действительном залоге.

2. To think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to know, to mean, to expect, to say, to report, to find - в страдательном залоге.

3. to be sure, to be likely, to be certain.

Причастие ( the Participle) Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола, прилагательного, наречия. В английском языке существуют причастие настоящего времени (Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II).

Participle I Participle Active Passive Indefinite writing being written Perfect having written having been written Indefinite Participle (active and passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым.

Arranging a summit we faced many problems.

Организовывая встречу на высшем уровне, мы столкнулись с множеством проблем. Perfect Participle (active and passive) выражает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом - сказуемым.

Having written a letter she decided not to post it.

Написав письмо, она решила не отправлять его.

Функции причастия в предложении В предложении причастие может выполнять следующие функции:

1. Определение:

а) перед определяемым словом:

The dancing girl was very beautiful.

b) после существительных в причастных оборотах, соответствующих определительным придаточным предложениям:

Who is that man speaking with my partner?

2. Обстоятельство (в функции обстоятельства соответствует русскому деепричастию):

Knowing English well she translated the article without any difficulty.

3. Часть сказуемого:

He is watching TV now.

4. Часть сложного дополнения:

I heard him being invited to participate in the conference.

Participle II 1. От правильных глаголов совпадает с формой Past Simple (V+ed) 2. От неправильных глаголов – 3-я форма (broken, written) Participle II (причастие прошедшего времени) от переходных глаголов соответствует русскому страдательному причастию настоящего или прошедшего времени (shown – показанный) и употребляется в функции определения перед или после существительных, как часть сказуемого (в страдательном залоге), а также в качестве обстоятельства, чаще всего с союзами when if, unless например:

The cup broken by you belonged to my sister.

Чашка разбитая вами принадлежала моей сестре They were asked to wait.

Их попросили подождать.

When received the amount will be credited to your account.

Когда сумма будет получена ее переведут на Ваш счет.

Participle II от непереходных глаголов самостоятельно не употребляется и служит для образования времен группы Perfect.

Независимый причастный оборот (the Absolute Participle Construction) Причастные обороты в функции определения и обстоятельства по своему значению эквивалентны придаточным предложениям. Однако замена придаточных предложений причастными оборотами в русском языке возможна только в том случае, когда подлежащее главного и придаточного предложений совпадают. Сравните:

Когда я слушаю музыку, я Слушая музыку, я работаю в работаю в хорошем хорошем настроении.

настроении.

When I listen to music, I Listening to music I work in high work in high spirits. spirits.

Но в английском языке в отличие от русского возможна замена причастным оборотом и таких придаточных предложений, подлежащее которых не совпадает с подлежащим в главном предложении. Например:

As everything was ready we Everything being ready we launched our advertising launched our advertising campaign. campaign.

Так как все было готово, мы запустили рекламную ------------------- кампанию.

Следовательно, в английском языке есть обороты, имеющие свое собственное независимое подлежащее. В этой конструкции причастие выполняет предикативную функцию и служит как бы сказуемым к своему собственному подлежащему. Такие обороты называются независимыми и переводятся на русский язык придаточными обстоятельственными предложениями.

Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) Cложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном и инфинитива, выполняющего по отношению к ним предикативную функцию. На русский язык переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением. Например:

We did not expect him to come on time.

Мы не ожидали, что он придет вовремя.

После глаголов чувственного восприятия инфинитив употребляется без частицы “to”. Возможно также употребление причастия.

We heard them discussing marketing budget.

Мы слышали, как они обсуждали бюджет маркетинга.

(Неполнота действия, т.е. действие не закончено ) I saw him cross the road.

Я видела как он перешел улицу. (Полнота действия, т.е. действие закончено) Сослагательное наклонение (the Subjunctive Mood) Сослагательное наклонение выражает субъективное отношение говорящего к воображаемому или желаемому действию.

The Present Subjunctive (синтетическая форма) Все глаголы в форме Present Subjunctive имеют форму инфинитива без частицы “to”. Эта форма употребляется для выражения действия в настоящем или будущем (крайне редко в основном в поэзии, в документах, в научном тексте). Она также сохранилась в некоторых устойчивых выражениях:

Be it so! Да будет так!

God forbid! Боже упаси!

The Past Subjunctive Форма Past Subjunctive сохранилась только у глагола - to be – were – для всех лиц. Однако, в современном английском языке, особенно в американском варианте, наблюдается устойчивая тенденция употреблять также и форму was. Остальные глаголы употребляются в Past Simple.

В условном предложении эта форма обозначает нереальное условие, относящиеся к настоящему или будущему. Например:

I wish I were a banker!

Эх, был бы я банкиром!

If I were you I should change the job.

Если бы я был на твоем месте, я бы поменял работу.

Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения состоит из вспомогательных глаголов should, would, may, might, could + инфинитив смыслового глагола.

Whatever you may do I hope it‘ll do good to our business.

Что бы Вы ни сделали, я надеюсь, это будет во благо нашего дела.

Сложные предложения В отличие от русского языка, где мы имеем только одну форму сослагательного наклонения, в английском языке эти формы варьируются в зависимости от того, к какому времени относится нереальное условие и нереальное следствие.

1. Когда условие и результат относятся к настоящему или будущему, то в условном предложении будет Past Simple, а в главном предложении should /would + Simple (Indefinite) Infinitive смыслового глагола.

If he were my husband I shouldn’t allow him to chase other women.

Если бы он был моим мужем, я бы не позволила ему ухлестывать за другими женщинами.

If they had an opportunity to penetrate other markets they would do it immediately.

Если бы у них была возможность проникнуть на другие рынки, они бы сделали это немедленно.

2. Если условие и результат относятся к прошлому, то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect, а в главном – should / would + Perfect Infinitive смыслового глагола.

If I had consulted my own interests I should have never done it.

Если бы я руководствовался только своими интересами, я бы никогда этого не сделал. (Но он сделал) If he had bought those shares in 2000 he would have become a rich man long ago. Если бы он купил те акции в 2000 году, он бы давно стал богатым человеком.

3. Если условие относится к прошлому, а результат к настоящему или будущему, то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect,а в главном - should / would + Simple Infinitive.

If you had taken your medicine yesterday, you would be well now.

4. Если условие относится к настоящему или неопределенному времени, а результат к прошлому, то в условном – Past Simple (Past Subjunctive of “to be”), а в главном предложении should / would + Perfect Infinitive.

If he were not so absent-minded he wouldn’t have mistaken you for your sister.

Если бы он не был таким рассеянным, он не спутал бы Вас с вашей сестрой.

Should употребляется для всех лиц, когда:

1. Подлежащее главного предложения выражено абстрактными существительными wish, suggestion, aim, idea etc.

The company’s aim was that their goods should be sold everywhere.

2. После главного предложения типа: it is necessary, it is important… etc.

It is necessary that he should have a meeting with his partners.

3. После слов: suggest, order, propose, advise, desire, be anxious, to see to it.

The director orders that everything should be ready by Monday.

4. Если придаточное предложение цели вводится союзом lest (чтобы не).

She opened the window lest it should be stuffy in the room.

Would употребляется для всех лиц когда:

Действие относится к настоящему или будущему и подлежащее главного предложения не совпадает с подлежащим придаточного предложения.

I wish we would wait for her.

I wish you would stay with me for a while.

Pages:     | 1 ||



© 2011 www.dissers.ru - «Бесплатная электронная библиотека»

Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.