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coe pacope ocaa: < PKnAm.

Pacop ao cyae eace, pca aopac opoo epoa KnAm p ee eo yy pacopc.

co < PKnAm oo ocy, pa ocaoo ooe oeco pacope o e ca aocco pye ac e o, oope ocao KnAm ocae pacop.

o ee P oe aea pacopoc eeca s (o/). apx epoo, apep, BaSO4 (P = 1,11010), pacopoc s = c(Ba2+) = c(SO42), ooy P = c(Ba2+) c(SO42) = s2, oya s = P = 1,110-10 10-5 o/.

puep 5. poeee pacopoc Ag2SO4 pao 1,6.10 (25 C). Opee pacopoc o co o/ /.

Peeue:

Co ccopye o cxee: Ag2SO4 2Ag+ + SO42.

Ooa coy pacopoc co epe s (o/).

Toa c(Ag+) = 2s, a c(SO42) = s.

P (Ag2SO4 )= c2(Ag+) c(SO42) = (2s)2 s = 4s3.

1,6 10-5 Oca s = 3 P / 4 = = 4 10-6 1,6102 o/.

Ta a opa acca Ag2SO4 paa 312 /o, o pacop oc Ag2SO4 / ye paa 1,6102 312 5 /.

puep 6. Pacopoc PbI2 p 20 C paa 6,5 104 o/.

Pacca P(PbI2) p 20 C.

Peeue:

Ta a pacopoc PbI2 paa 6,5 104 o/, o oepa oo Pb2+ aceo pacope co ye aa e 6,5 104 o/, oepa I ye a paa oe:

PbI2 Pb2+ + 2I, . e.

1 o PbI2 p ccoa opayec 2 o I. Toa P(PbI2) = c( Pb2+) c2(I) = 6,5 104 (2 6,5 104)2 1,1 109.

puep 7. Cea pae oe 0,001 M pacopo CaCl2 Na2SO4. Opayec ocao CaSO4 ? P (CaSO4) = 2,5 105.

Peeue:

eco, o ocao co opayec, ec poeee o epa cooecyx oo co oe cea ye oe poee pacopoc o co. Ta a p cea pax oeo yx coe oepa ao co yea ec oe, o oe cea oepa coe ae cyae yy pa o 0,0005 o/. oepa oo Ca2+ SO42 o e oe yy pa o 0,0005 o/. Ceoaeo:

c(Ca2+) c(SO42) = 0,0005 0,0005 = 2,5107, o aeo ee e P(CaSO4). a, ocao e opayec.

puep 8. Cooca pacopoc AgCl p 25 C oe pacope NaCl c oepae c(NaCl) = 0,1 o/. P(AgCl) = =1,81010.

Peeue:

yc pacopoc AgCl p x ycox oe paa s. To a c(Ag+) = c(Cl) = s (c. pep 1).

P(AgCl) = c(Ag+) c(Cl) = s2;

s = P =1,3410-5 o/.

yc pacopoc AgCl 0,1M pacope NaCl paa s1, oa c(Ag+) = s1, c(Cl) = s1 + 0,1. oca ae paee P(AgCl).

P(AgCl) = s1(s1 + 0,1) = 1,8 1010. Ta a 0,1 >> s1, o s1 + 0,1 0, peyee paee oo ypoc, s1 0,1 = 1,8 1010. O ca s1 = 1,8109.

Cpa pacopoc AgCl oe 0,1 M pacope NaCl.

B 0,1M pacope NaCl pacopoc AgCl ye ee :

s 1,34 10- = = 7,4 103 pa.

s 1,8 10- po coe upou cou npoecc auoecmu cou c oo, npuo u opaoau caouccouupyux acmu (oey uu uo o). po coe aeceo oo paccapa a peya opaooo aoec oo co c x pao oo oo ypoeo peca cey cxea:

Kn+ + HOH KOH(n1)+ + H+, An + HOH HA(n1) + OH-.

po oycoe opaoae aoccopyx ac OH(n1)+ HA(n1).

e oe ap ee payc oo co, e cee x opaooe aoece c oo, caee ccoa opa yxc ac OH(n1)+ HA(n1), oe cee pocxo po.

opyee e a oey o eeo y aoo eox eooeex eao, ooapx aoo, a - 2 pep Cl, Br, NO3, y eoopx yxapx, apep SO. o oy cou, opaoae auoo cuo ucom u amuoo cuoo ocoau, upouy e noepamc.

Boo ceye cya poa coe: po o aoy, o aoy, o aoy aoy oopeeo.

upou no auoy. Ey oepac co, opaoae a muoo cuoo ocoau u auoo cao ucom (K2CO3, Na2S, Na2SO3, K3PO4 p.). p poe coaec eoa cpea (pH > 7).

Hapep:

CH3COONa CH3COO + Na+, Na+ + HOH pea e e, CH3COO + HOH CH3COOH + OH.

Moeypoe ypaee poa CH3COONa + HOH CH3COOH + NaOH.

a poecc opa, paoece poa co ce eo eo, ocoy (H2O) < (CH3COOH).

po ooapoo aoa poeae cyeao p ox ycox a opao e oo o epo cye.

Hanpuep: Na2SO3 2Na+ + SO3-, Na+ + HOH pea e e, 2 SO3- + HOH HSO3 + OH (1cye), HSO3 + HOH H2SO3 + OH (2 cye).

Moeype ypae cooeceo e :

Na2SO3 +HOH NaHSO3 +NaOH, NaHSO3 + HOH H2SO3 + NaOH.

upou no amuoy. Ey oepac cou, opaoae a muoo caoo ocoau u auoo cuo ucom (NH4Br, ZnCl2, Cu(NO3)2 p.). Cpea p poe ca (pH < 7). Hanpuep:

CuCl2 Cu2+ + Cl, Cl + HOH pea e e, Cu2+ + HOH CuOH+ + H+ (1cye).

Moeypoe ypaee epo cye poa CuCl2 + HOH CuOHCl + HCl.

poo o opo cye p ox ycox oo peepe.

upou no amuoy u auoy. o aoy aoy po yc co, opaoae amuoo caoo ocoau u auoo cao ucom. Hapep:

CH3COONH4 CH3COO + NH4+, CH3COO + HOH CH3COOH + OH, NH4+ + HOH NH4OH + H+, CH3COO + NH4+ + HOH CH3COOH + NH4OH.

Moeypoe ypaeue CH3COONH4 + HOH CH3COOH + NH4OH.

po ao cyae poeae ooo eco. Opa yec p poe o H+ OH cac oey H2O, o ycae po o aoy, o aoy. Pea cpe ac o coooe oca ccoa opayxc co ocoa. B ao cyae pH 7, a a K(NH3 H2O) K(CH3COOH).

Ecu ucoma u ocoaue, opayuec npoecce upoua, yxom u o npomeau peauu ( ue ocaa uu aa), mo u pou oem npomeam npamuecu eopamuo. Ta, apep, Al2S3 p oae c oo ooc pepaaec aopacop poc a aoopa cepooopo:

Al2S3 + 6HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S.

o o e pe, cea oe pacop AlCl3 Na2S, e oy Al2S3 :

2AlCl3 + 3Na2S + 6HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S + 6NaCl, 2Al3+ + 3S2 + 6H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S.

-a aoo yce poa o aoy o aoy (co ecoo poa) oo pacope ae eooo ce poa apoa a, xpoa(III), eea(III), cy xpo a(III), eoope pye co. pee ee o pep coec oo poa:

2AlCl3 + 3Na2CO3 + 3HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2+6NaCl, 2Al3+ + 3CO32- + 3HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2.

ouecmee xapamepucmuu upoua. oeceo po co xapaepyec cmene upoua h ocmamo upoua .

c h =, c e c oepa pooao ac co;

c oa oe pa pacopeo co.

poa o aoy oe e A + HOH HA + OH peo cpaeo:

c(HA) c(OH-) = K c(H2O)= K, e ocmama upoua.

c(A-) Kw coy coooee c(OH-) =, oyae:

c(H+ ) Kw Kw K =, K =.

KHA K ec ocaa ccoa o co, oopa opay ec peyae poa.

poa o aoy K+ + HOH KOH + H+ aaoo:

c(KOH)c(H+)= K, K = Kw.

c(K+) K ec ocaa ccoa oo ocoa, oopoe o payec peyae poa.

poa o aoy aoy K+ + A + HOH KOH + HA c(KOH) c(HA) Kw = K, K =.

c(K+ ) c(A-) K K aa cye poa ooapx oo xapaepyec coe . Ta, cyeae oca poa yxapoo ao a ceye:

Kw K w = =, > ,, K K e oca ccoa co o 1 2 cye. coooe ceye: e caee ucoma (ocoaue), opaya (opayee) co, me cuee co upouyemc, u ocmama upoua ee oe. po poecc oepec, ooy npu noeuu menepamyp yeuuaemc.

poa o aoy o aoy acoc ey h c ocaec paee, aao aoy paae Ocaa:

K ch2 h, c . e. paaee pacopa co ycae ee po.

Ec co poyec oopeeo o aoy o ao y, o oepa co pacope paec e e a h:

h B cooec c po e aee, po o aoy ycaec (h yeaec) p oae ocoa pacopy co, a po o aoy ycaec p oae co.

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou Xecoe paoece 1. aoe cocoe peaoo cce aaec xec paoece?

2. a opee oe acye xecoo paoec?

3. Moo ca ococo oepa peaeo ccee oaaeco coc xecoo paoec?

4. o aoe ocaa xecoo paoec? ao ee e c cc?

5. ae aeaece pae oca paoec cce:

a) 4HCl + O 2Cl2 + 2H2O ) 2Fe + 3Cl 2FeCl 6. aoo e eepayp, ae, oepa pcy c aaaopa a ey oca xecoo paoe c?

7. aoo e eepayp, ae, oepa pcy c aaaopa a cocoe xecoo paoec?

8. Copypye p e-aee.

9. B ay copoy cecc paoece 2NO + O 2NO2 ;

H0 = 113 p: a) yee ae;

) ee cc ey copoa;

) oe eepayp?

10. B ao apae pooe ceee paoec Fe3O + 4H 3Fe + 4H2O p: a) ee ccey oopoa;

) ee ccey po aeoo oca a;

) yee ae?

11. ae pea oocc ooxec?

12. pee pep epaeex paeex ex pea.

13. aoo aee ooxecx pea o ppo?

Pacop epoo 14. B e coco cyoc eop epoeco ccoa?

15. O eo ac paca a o poecce pacope eec oe?

16. Paac exa ccoa (p pacope oe) eec c o oae a ce?

17. o aoe epeca ocoa pacope aoo ee e a poecc ccoa?

18. B e aaec aeceoe pae poecco ccoa cx cax epoo?

19. a oo oeceo oxapaepoa ccoa epoo?

20. o xapaepye ocaa ccoa epoa?

21. O ax aopo ac cee ccoa caoo epoa?

22. aoa c ey cee ccoa oepae ca oo epoa?

23. oey xapaepc ccoa cx epoo pe ep ayac cmene uccouauu?

24. o aoe aoc oe aoc?

25. ae opeee co, ocoa coe c o pe eo p epoeco ccoa.

26. Haoe ce ocoa ce co.

27. a ec coo-ocoe coca poco o e poa pya epoeco cce?

28. B ay copoy cecc paoece ccoa ycyco co p oae: a) aeaa ap;

) o;

) xopooo poa;

) poca ap?

29. oaee ax eec oo a) yc ) oca ccoa aaa oo pacope?

30. ae epo ccopy cyeao? oey e oca ao oceye cye ccoa peo yeac?

ccoa o. Boopo oaae 31. aoa aoc ey oepa oo poco poc-oo ox pacopax?

32. o aaec oopo (poc) oaaee?

33. B ax eax ceye paa oepa oo p pac ee pH (pOH)?

34. ae eeca oy cy aopa? ao opac ayca, eoaea eooo opaeoo pacopax co eoe?

35. epece yco, p oopx pea oea pacopax poea paec o oa.

36. Hae oo-oeypo ope ypae pea pac opax ey:

a) xopo a poapoao ap;

) ocao a coo coo;

) e yopoco cepooopoo.

po coe 37. ao exa poa co o aoy o aoy?

38. ae aop a poecc poa co?

39. aoo e ppo co, oepa co pacope, eepayp pH cpe a cee poa?

40. oaee ax eec oo a) oca ) yc poecc poa co? pee pep.

41. ao oe pea cpe oo pacope co, opao ao ca ocoae cao coo?

42. aoa pea cpe oo pacope:

a) cya ao;

) oa a;

) cya a?

43. Hae aeaece pae oca poa a) aeaa ap;

) xopa ao.

44. ae o oepac cyeaoy poy? pee pep.

45. B ax cyax po co, opaoao ca ocoae cao coo, poeae o oa? pee pep, oyc ae pacopoc.

poeee pacopoc 46. o aaec poeee pacopoc (P)?

47. ax eec peo oe P?

48. Hae aeaecoe paee P opa a.

ec ea P(CaF2) p oae ace pacop CaF2 ceyx eec:

a) cyxoo opa a ;

) cyxoo xopa a?

a oaee x eec e a pacopoc CaF2?

49. B ax eax ceye paa oepa oo p pac ee P?

50. ao yco opaoa ocao? Bcea aae ocao p ca pacopo oapeo co paa cepepa?

51. Cpa e P, oee oooc poea pea:

a) AgCl + KI = AgI + KCl;

) AgI + KCl = AgCl + KI;

P(AgCl) = 1,81010, P(AgI) = 1,11016.

52. oey oca coe cax co oo pacopc c x coax?

53. oey cy e(II), oe o cya apaa(II), e pacop coo coe?

aau peeu 178. Hae ypae epoeco ccoa cey x eec: HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4, CH3COOH, Ba(OH)2, Al(OH)3, Al2(SO4)3, KHSO4, Ba(OH)NO3, Fe(OH)(NO3)2.

179. Hae ypae pea ( oeypo oo oeypo opax), poeax ox pacopax ey cey coee:

a) BaCl2 + Al2(SO4) ) Fe(OH)SO4 + BaCl ) CaCO3 + CH3COOH ) Ca(HCO3)2 + HNO ) KHS + H2SO e)AgCl + NaI ) FeCl3 + Na4[Fe(CN)6] ) Fe(NO3)2 + K3[Fe(CN)6] 180. Opeee ope oepa oo ceyx ox pacopax: 0,1M HNO3;

0,1M H2SO4;

0,01M Ba(OH)2;

0,2M AlCl3;

0,2M Al2(SO4)3.

181. Cee epoeco ccoa HNO2 0,01M oo pacope paa 0,2. Paccae oepa ac H+, NO, HNO2 o pacope.

182. ey paa epa ocaa ccoa yoo co, ec cee ccoa ee o epo cye pacope, coep ae 4,3103 o/ co, paa 0,1.

183. p ao opo oepa ycyco co ee 90 % ye axoc pacope epoccopoao e?

(CH3COOH) = 1,8 105.

184. Opeee oepa oo H+ 0,1 M pacopax ceyx co: HCl, H2SO4, HCOOH, CH3COOH. K(HCOOH) = 1,8 104;

K(CH3COOH) = 1,8 105.

185. a ec oepa H+ cee ccoa ycyco co, ec 1 . 0,1 M CH3COOH pacop 2,24 xopoo opoa (yco opae). eee oea pacopa pe epe.

186. Opee oepa oo H+ cee ccoa y cyco co ee 10 % pacope ( = 1 /c3). (CH3COOH) = = 1,810 5.

187. Opeee pH pacopo, oopx oepa H+ ( o/) pa: a) 0,05;

) 4,1 103;

) 8,7 1011.

188. Opeee pH pOH pacopo, oopx oepa OH ( o/) pa: a) 0,004;

) 1,8 105;

) 6,4 1012.

189. Opeee pH ceyx ox pacopo: a) 0,002M H2SO4;

) 0,001M Ba(OH)2.

190. Opeee pH ooo pacopa cepo co, ec w(H2SO4) = 1 %, ooc pacopa = 1,005 /c3.

191. Opeee pH pOH ooo pacopa, coepaeo 0,2 o/ NH3.H2O.

192. Opeee pH pOH ooo pacopa ycyco co, ec w(CH3COOH) = 1 % ooc pacopa paa 1 /c3.

193. Bce ocay ccoa cao ooocoo co , ec pacop, coepa 0,2 o/ co, ee pH = 4,15.

194. Opeee pH pOH pacopa, coepaeo 0,15 o/ a a C (acopoo co). ocaa ccoa acop oo co (caa ooocoa opaeca coa) paa 8.105.

195. Paccae c(H+) eyoo coe po eoea, ec pH eyooo coa po opooo eoea pa cooec eo 1,5 7,4.

196. a ec pH 0,2 M CH3COOH, ec pacop 16,4 aea a ap 1 oo pacopa?

197. Ha ocoa ax ax o ea poee pacopoc AgCl, AgBr, AgI Ag2S paccae pacopo c x coe ( o/ /).

198. Coo oo Ag+ coepc 200 aceoo pacopa Ag2SO4? P(Ag2SO4 ) = 1,6 105.

199. Bo coo pa yec oepa P b2+ aceo pacope P bCl2, ec 200 aoo pacopa ooeo pacop 1 o NaCl?

200. Baae ocao, ec cea 200 pacopa AgNO3 c o epae c(AgNO3) = 2,5 103 o/ 300 pacopa CaCl2 c oepae c(CaCl2 ) = 0,005 o/?

201. Hae ypae poa oeypo oo oeypo opax o ao cye ceyx coe:

AlI3, K3PO4, ZnSO4, Al2(SO4)3, NH4CN, NH4HCO3, Al2Se3.

202. pooe 0,1M pacop ceyx eec: KClO, NH4I, NaCN. Paccae cee poa coe pH pacopo.

203. Cpae poyeoc coe:

a) FeCl2 FeCl3;

)Na2CO3 Na2SiO3;

)NaHCO3 Na2CO3;

) Be(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2;

) Na2CO3 (NH4)2CO3;

e) Na2S Na2Se.

204. aoa cpea (ca, eoa, epaa) ooo pacopa ao ceyx coe: NaHCO3, KHSO3, Cs2SO4, K2HPO4, RbH2PO4, HCOONH4, Ba(OH)Cl? Oe oocoa.

205. pee oeype oo-oeype ypae pe a, poeax ox pacopax ey apoao a p : a) xopo eea (III);

) cyao a;

) pao xpoa (III);

xopo e (II). ae yy opaoa c poy pea, ec apoa ap ae a po apoa ap.

A B A VII CTPOEHE ATOMA EPOEC AOH . . MEHEEEBA 1. ae ocoe xapaepc (accy, ap oocee paep) eeapx ac, xox coca aoa.

2. ae opeeee o: accooe uco, amo oep, uomon, uoap, uomo, yu.

3. o aoe paoaoc? ao ee p? pee p ep ocox o paoax pepae.

4. Oce p opycypo-ooo oceoc pooeo.

5. o aoe epooe oao, ooa y, epoa ooc, aoa opa? B e pae o opuma opuma?

6. ao cc e aoe ca, xapaepye cocoe epoa aoe? ae cee ae o oy p a?

7. ae ooae o: empoa oooa, epemue cu ypoe, empo co, noypoe, amoa opuma.

8. o aoe e ap pa?

9. oce ocoe p pacpeee epoo o op a aoe.

10. ae opypoy paa eocoo. a oo opeee opo aoe aox opae (AO)? ae AO e oaoe aee cy n + l, paoe 3, 4, 5, 6 7?

11. Hae opy epox oypa aoo epx epex epoo, La, Ru, W, Hg, Po, U, Bk, Md, Cd, eeo c ao oepa 112, 120. opae paec cpyypy x yx ocex epeecx ypoe.

12. ae pa ox yu uomon?

13. e oaec paoy o caoo ya oo e e ea?

14. o ec ao xapaepco aoa?

15. ae copeey xapaepcy epoecoo aoa o ce eo ec cc.

16. ao ocoe opae epoeco cce e eo? ae x cxoca pa.

17. ao ec cc oepa epoa, oepa py?

18. o aoe s-, p-, d-, f-ee? aoo x pacooee o e poa pya? ao acae eoc epoo?

19. B e poec cxoco pae eeo ax o ox opy? oce oe eem-aaou.

20. ao aop, opeee xapaep ee xecx coc eeo o epoa pya?

21. a ooae o: emu, oaem, uo, a-ep-Baacocu, emauecu, opuma pauyc. B e x cxoco pae?

22. ae payc oea o ccy o amo pauyc?

oce, a a ey aooo payca ceye aop: e ap pa, oypa eeo e pooo co, co epox coe, xeco c ee paoc.

23. o aoe nomeua uouauu u epu uouauu? O ax aopo ac eo ea?

24. poaapye eee epoo oaooo oeaa y eeo opoo epoa.

25. ae opeeee o cpocmo empoy.

26. ae aop opee ey cpoca epoy? a oo oc pae a o xapaepc pa x eeo?

27. Moy cyecoa cooo coco ao O2, S2, N3? oey?

28. o aoe empoompuameocm? ay cocooc aoa oa xapaepye?

29. ao p ocpoe a epoopaeoce eeo? a eec a xapaepca o epoa pya epoeco cce?

A B A VIII XMECA CB MEMOEPHOE BAMOECTBE 1. o aoe xuueca c? ae yco ee opaoa ocoe apaep.

2. aoa ppoa xeco c?

3. ao ocoe xeco c? ae cxoco pa ey .

4. ae opeeee oaemo cu. aoa cxea ee opaoa (a pepe oey H2, Cl2 HCl)?

5. Haoe pocppye ope pepa ocoe coco opaoa oaeo c.

6. Copypye ocoe ooe eoa aex ce.

7. epece ocoe coca oaeo c.

8. Oce exa opaoa -, - - ce.

9. o aoe pamocm cu? aoo ee e a y po oc c ey aoa?

10. o aoe aemocm? e opeeec oecea xapa epca aeoc?

11. ao yco opaoa opo eopo oaeo c? oce oe emu ap amoa a ope x pepax.

12. o aoe empuecu uno? B ao coooe axoc a o a c yxaoo oeye?

13. o ec epo opoc c?

14. poaapye cpaeo ae opoc oey CO SO2, NH3 NF3, H2O H2S.

15. o aoe cepeox?

16. e opeeec eoep cpyyp oey c oae o ce?

17. ae ocee oe upuuau.

18. oce ocoe yco ycoo pa.

19. ao pa eoepece cpyyp, oope cooecy?

20. o aoe caue u ecaue opumau? aoo x e a eoep oaex cpyyp?

21. a e ppoa aa paoc c a eoep o ox cpyyp?

22. o aoe oopuauooe uco aoa eo oecea eppea?

23. pee pep cpyyp c ooepo c.

24. ey paa aeoc cee oce aoa yepoa oeyax: N2, NH3, N2H4, NH2OH, NF3, CH4, CCl4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO2, CO?

25. poaapye ceye oeype cpyyp (ycao e xapaep pacpeee aex epoo, pa epax aoo, y ce, opoc, aeoc cee oce oex aoo): CO, CO2, N2O, NO2, N2O5, 2 - HNO3, H2SO4, BF, BF3, NH3, NF3, CO3-, ClO3, ClO, HN3, SO2, 2 - + SO3-, NO3, NH, BF.

4 26. ae opeeee uoo cu. aoa ee ppoa exa opaoa?

27. o aoe o uoocmu cu?

28. epece oce ocoe xapaepc oo c.

ae, e ee cxoco pae cpae c oaeo c?

29. e opeeec ea oopaooo ca ox co eex?

30. aa c ao coee HClO, NaHSO4, KOH, H2CO ee aoee o xapaep?

31. ae opeeee emaueco cu. aoa ee ppoa e xa opaoa?

32. B e aac ocoeoc pex o eoeypoo auoecmu.

33. Paccope exa opaoa oopoo cu, ee oe o xeco c c eoeypoo aoec.

34. a e ae oopoo c a ece xe ce coca eec? oce a pepe ee coc eec pax HF HJ;

H2O H2Te;

NH3 SbH3;

CH4 SnH4.

35. oce po oopoo c ooecx oeax a pepe o, eo, oeo, H, PH.

A B A IX OCTEHO-BOCCTAHOBTEHE PEA oucumeo-occmaoume omocmc peauu, npome aue c ueeue cmenee ouceu amoo, xoux cocma peaupyux eecm.

Cmene ouceu yco ap amoa, paccuma uc xo u onyeu, mo eecmo cocmoum u uoo.

ocoy aoe oyee ec yco, oe cmene ouceu oc ae yco xapaep ec eo op ao, e opaae peaoo pacpeee apo ey aoa. Oao o oe poo coyec p cocae ypae OBP.

Cee oce eeo pa ae o 4 o +8 cooec c paa:

1. Cee oce eeo pocx eecax paa 0, apep, O0, 0, S8.

2. Boopo oce cox coee axoc cee oce, pao +1. Oao, coeex co eo e ooee eaa o poe cee oce, pay - 1, apep, NaH-1, BaH.

3. copo oae oce coee axoc cee oce, pao 2, apep, CaO-2, HNO32. B epoc - ax o poe cee oce, pay 1, apep, H2O, - BaO. ooee cee oce copo poe coeex c opo, apep, O+2F2.

4. op coeex cea poe oo oy cee oce, pay 1.

5. ee py I-A (eoe ea) coeex ce a po cee oce, pay +1.

6. ee py II-A (Be, Mg, eooeee ea), a ae Zn Cd coeex po cea cee oce, pay +2.

7. A coeex poe cee oce +3.

Cee oce pyx eeo oy e epeee ae paccac, cxo oo, o cya ceee oc e eeo oeye opyo ee paa 0, a o e eo apy.

puep. Pacca cee oce ocopa opoocae a Ca3(PO4)2.

Peeue:

Ooa coy cee oce ocopa epe x. a co aoo aoo eea opyo ee ae ceee x oce, coca ypaee:

3 (+2) + 2 x + 8 (2) = 0, oya x = +5.

B xoe o OBP oopeeo poea 2 poecca oc ee occaoee. C o pe epoo eop, ouce ue npoecc omau empoo, xoe omopoo cmene ouceu amoa noaemc, a occmaoeue npoecc npucoeueu e mpoo, xoe omopoo cmene ouceu amoa nouaemc.

ac, oope xoe pea omam epo, aa c occmaoumeu. ac, oope xoe pea npucoeu m epo, aac oucumeu.

Ta opao, xoe OBP occmaoume, omaa empo , oucemc, a oucume, npuua empo, occmaaua emc. p o co epoo, oax occaoee, cea pao cy epoo, px ocee.

Oceo-occaoee coca eec oo ope e, cxo ae ceee oce eeo, xox x coca:

1. Ec coca eeca xo ao eea uuao cee oce, o oo oe po oo occmaoume e coca.

2. Ec coca eeca xo ao eea acuao cee oce, o oo oe po oo oucumee coca.

3. Ec coca eeca xo ao eea npoeymo o cee oce, o oo oe po a occmaoume e, a oucumee coca.

Baee occaoe:

a) poce eeca ce ea eoope eea, a pep, H2, C, Si, P4 p;

) oopoe coee eox eooeex e ao, a ae oopoe coee eoopx eeao, a pep: HI, HBr, H2O2, H2S, H2Se, H2Te, NH3, PH3, AsH3, SbH3, SiH4, SnH4;

) oc eeo, ao oopx axoc poeyoo cee oce. o oc pa eeao CO, SO2, NO, P2O3, a ae e oc eoopx p- d-eeo SnO, FeO, CrO, VO cooecye co, apep, SnCl2, FeSO4 p;

) eoope copocoepae co x co, coca oopx xo ao eeo poeyox ceex oce , apep, H2SO3, H3PO2, H3PO3 x co, a ae ocya (Na2S2O3), cy (Na2S2O5), o (Na2S2O4), p;

) eoope opaece eeca, apep, cp, ae , eoope apooe co (HCOOH, HOOCCOOH), y eo (C6H12O6).

Baee oce:

a) poce eeca aoe, oo, copo, cepa;

) oc eoopx p- d-eeo cox ceex oc e, apep, Cl2O7, ClO2, I2O5, SO3, SeO3, SeO2, N2O5, NO2, PbO2, Mn2O7, MnO2, CrO3, V2O5;

) copocoepae co eoopx p- d-eeo cox ceex oce, apep, HClO3, H5IO6, HIO3, HBrO4, HBrO3, H2SO4, H2SeO4, H2SeO3, HNO3, H2CrO4, H2Cr2O7, HMnO4 co x co. oce oocc ae copocoepae co aoeo, oopx o po oee e cee oce, apep, HCl+1O, HCl+3O2, a ae x co;

) epoc oopoa H2O2, epoc eox eooe ex eao (Na2O2, BaO2).

acca oceo-occaoex pea 1. acca o coepa occaoe oce oo ecox cxox eecax:

a) ec occaoe oce coepac oo cxo o eece, o OBP oocc pea ympuoeypoo oce-occaoe, apep:

(N3H4)2Cr2+6O7 N2+0 + Cr+32O3 + H2O.

B ao pea oce (Cr+6 ) occaoe (N3) co epac oo eece;

) ec occaoe oce coepac pax cxo x eecax, o OBP oocc pea eoeypoo oce-occaoe, apep:

N3H3 + KCl+5O3 N20 + KCl + H2O.

B o pea oce (Cl+5) occaoe (N3) axo c pax eecax.

2. acca o xapaepy ee cee oce aoo ooo eea:

a) ec cxoo eece ao eea axoc oo cee oce, a poyax pea yx pyx (oee coo oee o o ooe cxoo cee oce), o cooecye OBP oocc pea ucnponopuoupo au cya, apep:

N+4O2 + H2O HN+5O3 + HN+3O2;

) ec cxox eecax o o e ee axoc yx pax ceex oce, a poye pea oo o o (poeyoo o ooe cxo cee oce), o cooecye OBP oocc pea onponopuoupo au oya, apep:

H2S2 + H2S+6O S+4O2 + H2O Paccaoa oeo ypaex OBP eoo epooo aaca Opae ae a o, o cyae pea eoeypo o oce-occaoe paccaoa oeo pooc cea apao (pep 1), a cyae pea ypoeypoo oce-occaoe cpaa aeo (pep 2).

puep 1. Meoo epooo aaca pacca o e ypae pea, poeae o cxee:

H2O-12 + K2Cr+62O7 + H2SO4 O02 + Cr+32(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + H2O Peeue:

1. aa OBP oocc pea eoeypoo oce -occaoe, ooy paccaoy oeo poo cea apao.

2. Opeee ee, ao oopx xoe pea e cee oce. B ao cyae o copo xpo. co po e cee oce o 1 o 0, a xpo o +6 o +3.

3. acae epoe ypae poecco oce occaoe. B mux ypaeux uco amoo aoo eema pao ux ucy opyax coomemcmyux ucxox eecm. Ha xo aeee oee paoe ca oax ca px epoo cocae cxey epooo aaca:

2O1 2 O20 6 3 O1 occaoe, ocec 2Cr+6 + 6 2Cr+3 2 1 Cr+6 oce, occaaaec 4. Haxo co aoo copoa xpoa, yo aoe ypae a cooecy oe (epoe ypaee a 3, opoe a 1). oyae co aoo copoa, ex ce e oce, oopoe pao 2 3 = 6, a co aoo xpoa pao 2 1=2.

5. Paccaoy oeo poo ceye ope:

a) ypaae ca aoo xpoa, oca epe opya K2Cr2O7 Cr2(SO4)3 oe 1;

) ypaae ca aoo copoa, ex cee oce, oca epe opya O2 H2O2 o e 3.

) ypaae ca aoo a, oca epe opyo K2SO4 oe 1;

2 ) ypaae ca cox ocao SO, oca epe opyo cepo co oe 4;

) ypaae ca aoo oopoa, oca epe opy o o oe 7;

e) poepe, oao ca aoo copoa eo pao acx ypae:

3H2O2 + K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 = 3O2 + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O puep 2. Meoo epooo aaca pacca o e ypae pea:

- + Fe+3(N+5O32 )3 Fe O3 + N+4O2 + O Peeue:

1. aa OBP oocc pea ypoeypoo oc e-occaoe, ooy paccaoy oeo poo cpaa aeo.

2. Opeee ee, ao oopx e cee oc e. B ao cyae o ao copo. Ao e cee oce o +5 o +4, copo o 2 o 0.

3. acae epoe ypae poecco oce occaoe. B mux ypaeux uco amoo aoo eema pao ux ucy opyax npoymo peauu. Haxo aeee oee paoe ca oax px epoo cocae cxey epooo aaca:

2O-2 4 O0 1 N+5 + 1 N+4 4 4. Haxo co aoo aoa copoa, yo aoe epox ypae a cooecy oe: epoe ypaee yoae a 1, opoe a 4. oyae, o co aoo copoa, ex cee oce, pao 2 1 = 2, a cooe cyee co aoo aoa pao 1 4 = 4. Ho ocoy op yo ee Fe(NO3)3 coepc 3 aoa aoa, epe ao opyo pec oca po oe 4/3, o e co ce yoo. ooy ae o pooo oea aee ca aoo aoa copoa yo a 3. oyae c, o cee oce eac y 6 aoo copoa y aoo aoa.

5. Paccaoy oeo poo ceye oceoa eoc:

a) ypaae ca aoo aoa, oca epe opyo Fe(NO3)3 oe 4, a epe opyo NO2 o e 12;

) ypaae ca aoo eea, oca epe opyo Fe2O3 oe 2;

) ypaae co aoo copoa, oca epe opy o O2 oe 3.

6. poepe, oaoo oee co aoo copoa eo pao acx ypae:

- + 4Fe+3(N+5O32 )3 2Fe O3 + 12N+4O2 + 3O0.

2 epoe oceo-occaoee oea x cooae oeceo xapaepco oceo-occao ex coc eec ox pacopax c ae e pox oceo-occaoex oeao cooe cyx oypea. empo nomeua npecmaem co o paocm nomeuao, ouay a paue paea e mpo pacmop empouma. Acoe ae oeao cepeao opee eooo, ooy a pae c oyc x oocee ae, epee o ooe caapoy oopooy epoy, oea oopoo ycoo ppaaec 0. omeua, uepee cmaapmx ycou x (oempauu uoo pa 1 o/, aeue oopoa pao 101,325 a, menepamypa 25 C) aamc cmaapmu e mpou uu cmaapmu oucumeo-occmaoumeu nomeuaau u ooaamc cuoo E. x ae coy c xapaepc pea, poeax caapx yco x. Ec e pea poeae pyx ycox, o ee oca coyc paoece oea E, oope pacca c o ypae Hepca:

2,303 R T c(occ) E = E0 - lg.

n F c(oc) B o ypae:

2,303 oe epexoa o aypax oapo e c;

R yepcaa aoa ocoa;

T acoa eepaypa;

n co epoo, pax yace oypea;

F ocoa apae, paa pepo 96500 /o;

c (occ.) oepa occaoeo op eea, o opo o axoc oee o cee oce;

c (oc.) oepa oceo op eea, oopo o axoc oee coo cee oce.

Ec ypaee Hepca oca coe ae R (8,314), F (96486) p eepaypy pao 298 , o oo p ae :

0,059 c(occ) E = E0 - lg.

n c(oc) ypae Hepca ceye, o ea oeaa ac o oepa occaoeo oceo op eea. Ec pe a pae yace ea, o ea eo epooo oe aa ac o oepa oo oo eaa (eo oce o op) pacope. oepa caoo eaa (occaoeo op), a ea ocoa, ypaee Hepca e ocaec.

poe oo, ec oypea pa yace o H+ OH, x oepa ae a ey oeaa.

coy ae epox oceo occaoex oeao oypea, oo o ce ye oepa:

1. Oe oceo-occaoee coca cooec yx eec.

2. pecaa pay oooc ocyece pe a yaao apae.

3. Opee apaee poea pea.

4. Bpa aoee epoy pea ecox oo x.

5. Pacca aee oca xecoo paoec ao pea.

Copypye cooecye paa paccop x p eee a opex pepax.

oee cuu occmaoumeu cocmau oaaem eecmo, omopoy coomemcmyem noypeau c oee uu aeue nomeuaa. oee cuu oucumeu cocm au oaaem eecmo, omopoy coomemcmyem noypeau c oee cou aeue nomeuaa.

puep 1. Opeee, ao occaoee poe a oee ce occaoee coca p caapx yco x peax:

a) FeSO4 + O2 + H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O;

) HI + O2 I2 + H2O;

) H2SO3 + O2 H2SO4.

Peeue:

1. Opeee, ae eeca ax peax c oc caoe. B pea a occaoee ec FeSO4, o coy y eea cee oce oaec o +2 o +3 coo ec c ypaee oypea:

Fe+2 Fe+ B pea occaoee ec HI, ocoy y oa cee oce oaec cooec c ypaee oype a:

I I B pea occaoee ec H2SO3, ocoy y ce p cee oce yeaec cooec c ypaee o ypea:

H2SO3 + H2O 2 H2SO4 + 4H+ 2. Haxo ae caapx oeao cooecyx oypea:

0 a) EFe Fe2+ = 0,77B ;

) EI0 2I- = 0,54B ;

) ESO H2SO3 = 0,17B.

3+ 0 2 2 3. Haxo aoee c occaoe. ocoy caoe oe aee oeaa y oypea oce cepco co, o o eeco ye c aoee c occao ee.

pomeaue oucumeo-occmaoumeo peauu a o anpaeuu ooo u moa, oa nomeua occma oeu ucnoyeoo oucume oe nomeuaa ouceu ucnoyeoo occmaoume.

puep 2. Opee, oo cooa caapx ycox co eea (III) oce oo F, Br I o pocx eec? Oe oep pacea.

Peeue:

1. Haxo ae E oypea:

EI0 2I- = 0,53 B;

EBr 2Br- = 1,08 B;

0 2 0 EF 2F- = 2,85 B;

EFe Fe2+ = 0,77 B.

0 3+ 2. ocoy aee EFe Fe2+ oe ae EI0 2I-, o o 3+ Fe3+ coco oc o I o pocoo eeca I2. Ceoae o, yaax aoo oo o I yy occ oa eea (III).

a OBP cea npomeaem mo anpaeuu, omopoy coomemcmyem nooumeoe aeue paocmu nomeuao oucume u occmaoume.

Oao eoxoo o, o ao apae pea poeae paec eopao p paoc oeao E, oe o pao 0,4 B. Ec e paoc oeao E oa aec ee 0,4 B, o OBP poeae opao apaee pea opeeec yco ee poee.

puep 3. cao, ao apae ooo caopo ooe poeae pea:

SnCl4 + 2FeCl2 SnCl2 + 2FeCl3.

Peeue:

1. Haxo ae E oypea:

0 ESn Sn = 0,15 B, EFe Fe2+ = 0,77 B.

4+ 2+ 3+ 2. ocoy aee E oypea c yace oo eea oe ae E oypea c yace oo ooa, o o Fe3+ yy oc o Sn2+ c opaoae oo Fe2+ Sn4+. o cooecye poea yaao pea cpaa aeo.

cex oox OBP auoee epomo yem ma pea u, omopo coomemcmyem acuaoe aeue paocmu nomeuao ucnoyex oucume u occmaoume.

puep 4. coy ae E0 oypea, opee ao ee epo poy occaoe oa-oo cepco coo:

a) IO3 + 6H+ + 6 I + 3H2O, E0 = 1,08 B;

) IO3 + 6H+ + 5 1/2I2 + 3H2O, E0 = 1,19 B;

) IO3 + 5H+ + 4 HIO + 2H2O, E0 = 1,14 B;

2 ) SO + 4H+ + 2 H2SO3 + H2O, E0 = 0,17 B.

Peeue:

1. ocoy aee oeaa oypea ee a e oeao oypea a, , o cy-o yy c occaoe o ooe oa-oa.

2. ao oypea a, ae paoc ey ee oeao oeao oypea :

E0(a) E0() = 1,08 B 0,17 B = 0,91 B;

E0() E0() = 1,19 B 0,17 B = 1,02 B;

E0() E0() = 1,14 B 0,17 B = 0,97 B.

3. Bo, o acaoe aee E0 cooecye paoc ey oeaa oypea . Ceoaeo, cepca coa ye occaaa oa-o o coooo oa.

e oe aeue E peauu, me oe aeue o cmam xuuecoo paoecu u me cuee oo ceeo cmopoy opaoau npoymo.

puep 5. Pacca aee oca xecoo paoe c pea oce cyaa eea (II) epaaao a cepoco pacope, oopo oepa cex oeao peex oo pa 1 o/.

Peeue:

1. Coca ypaee ao OBP, pacca oe eoo epooo aaca ae aee n.

2KMnO4 + 10FeSO4 + 8H2SO4 5Fe2(SO4)3 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O Mn+7 + 5 Mn+2 1 Fe+2 Fe+3 5 ypae epooo aaca o, o co epoo, oax occaoee px ocee, . e. co n pao 5.

Hae ae oeao oypea oce oo e ea (a) occaoe epaaa-oo co cpee ():

a) EFe Fe2+ = 0,77B ;

3+ ) EMnO Mn =1,51B.

- 2+ 2. Paccae aee E0 pea:

0 E0 = EMnO Mn - EFe Fe2+ = 1,51 B 0,77 B = 0,74 B.

- 2+ 3+ 3. Bc aee oca paoec:

En 0, 0, K =100,059 =10 51062.

Taoe opooe aee oca paoec ceecye o o, o aa pea poeae cea apao paec eo pao.

Be pax aopo a apaee poea oceo-occaoex pea Oucumeo-occmaoumea peau npomeaem mo a npaeuu, omopo ocyecmemc noypeau c oee cou aeue nomeuaa. ooy aop, e a ey o eaa, oaa e a apaee poea OBP. a aopa oocc:

1) oepa oeaopeex oo;

2) ea pH pacopa;

3) eepaypa pacopa;

4) ea P aopacopoo poya pea;

5) Bea oca ecooc opayeoc oeco o oa.

Paccop xapaep aoo x aopo a a paee poea OBP:

Be oepa oeaopeex oo e ae oepa oo pacope, oo e apaee poea OBP.

puep 6. Opee apaee poea pea Sn0 + Pb2+ Sn2+ + Pb p ceyx aex oepa oo:

a) c(Pb2+) = 1 o/;

c(Sn2+) = 1 o/.;

) c(Pb2+) = 0,15 o/;

c(Sn2+) = 1,5 o/.

Peeue:

1. Paccae ae paoecx epox oeao cya a opee apaee pea:

0,059 1 0,059 o EPb Pb0 = EPb Pb0 - lg = -0,13 - lg = -0,13B 2+ 2+ n c(Pb2+ ) 2 Aaoo cae aee oeaa ooa:

0,059 ESn Sn = -0,14 - lg = -0,14B.

2+ 2 ocoy aee epooo oeaa ca oe, e y ooa, o o ca yy c oce o ooe ooy yaaa pea ye poea cea anpao.

1) Paccae ae paoecx oeao cya opee apaee pea:

0,059 1 0,059 o EPb Pb0 = EPb Pb0 - lg = -0,13 - lg = -0,15B ;

2+ 2+ n c(Pb2+ ) 2 0, 0,059 ESn Sn = -0,14 - lg = -0,13B.

2+ 2 1, B ao cyae epo oea oe y ooa, oo y eo o yy c oce o ooe cy yaaa OBP ax ycox poeae cnpaa aeo.

Be e pH pacopa e aee pH pacopa, oo e apaee poea OBP, ec e pa yace o H+ OH.

puep 7. ec apaee poea pea cc ee K3AsO4 + KI + H2SO4 K3AsO3 + I2 + K2SO4 + H2O p ee pH pacopa o 0 o 8, ec oepa oo AsO3, AsO3-, I oey I2 pacope pa 1 o/?

4 Peeue:

1. aa OBP ocyecec aoap poea yx oy pea:

a) AsO4 3 + 2H+ + 2 AsO33 + H2O;

E0 = 0,57 B;

) I2 + 2 2I;

E0 = 0,54 B.

ocoy oypea a pa yace o oopoa, ee oea ac o e pH pacopa. B oypea o H+ e yacy, ooy ee oea e ac o e pH.

2. Paccae aee oeaa oypea a p pH, pa o 0, opee apaee OBP:

Ec pH pacopa pao 0, o oepa oo oopoa paa 1 o/. Toa:

0,059 EAsO AsO3- = 0,57 - lg = 0,57B.

3 4 2 ocoy p pH, pao 0, oea oypea a oe oeaa oypea , apcea-o yy po oc ee, a o-o occaoee coca, yaaa pe a eo poeae cea anpao.

3. Paccae aee oeaa oypea a p pH, pa o 8 opee apaee OBP:

Ec pH pacopa pae 8, o oepa oo oopoa co cae 1 10-8 o/. Toa:

0,059 EAsO AsO3- = 0,57 - lg = 0,098B.

3 4 2 1 (10-8) ocoy p pH, pao 8, oea oypea a ee oeaa oypea , o apce-ao AsO3- yy po occaoee, a oey I2 ocee coca. o a, o ax ycox yaaa pea poeae cnpaa aeo.

Be eepayp a apaee poea OBP ypae Hepca o, o ea epooo oeaa ac o ae eepayp. ooy, e eepaypy pac opa, oo e apaee poea eoopx OBP.

puep 8. oaa, a e eee eepayp o 25 oC o 90 oC a apaee poea pea:

Na2Cr2O7 + 14HCl 3Cl2 + 2CrCl3 + 2NaCl + 7H2O, ec oepa oo Cr2O7- Cr3+ pa 1 o/, oepa coo co paa 1,32 o/, a apaoe aee xopa 101,325 a.

Peeue:

1. aaa pea coco yx oypea:

a) Cr2O7- + 14H+ + 6 2Cr3+ + 7H2O, E0 = 1,333 B;

) Cl2 + 2 2Cl, E0 = 1,359 B.

2. Paccae ae oeao oypea a p eepaype 25 C opee apaee poea OBP:

2,303RT c2(Cr3+ ) o a) ECr O7- Cr3+ = ECr O7- Cr3+ - lg = 2 2 nF c(Cr2O7-) c14(H+ ) 2,3038,314 298 =1,333- lg =1,350B ;

6 96500 2,303RT c2(Cl-) o ) ECl Cl- = ECl Cl- - lg = 0 2 nF p(Cl20) 2,3038,314 298 1, =1,359 - lg =1,352B.

2 96500 ocoy ao cyae paoc oeao E oaaac ee 0,4B, ccee ycaaaec xecoe paoece. Ho, ya oee cooe aee oeaa oypea , ea e o, o p 25 oC oee c oce coca oaae xop o yaaoe paoece ceeo eo.

3. Paccae ae oypea p 90 oC opee a paee cee paoec:

2,303RT c2(Cr3+ ) o a) ECr O7 Cr3+ = ECr O7 Cr3+ - lg = 2- 2 2 nF c(Cr2O72-) c14(H+ ) 2,3038,314363 =1,333- lg =1,353B.

696500 2,303RT c2(Cl-) o ) ECl Cl- = ECl Cl- - lg = 0 2 nF p(Cl0 ) 2,3038,314363 1, =1,359 - lg =1,350B.

296500 o Ta opao, p eepaype 90 C oee cooe aee oeaa y oypea a. o a, o oee ce oc ee coca po o Cr2O7- paoece pea eo ceeo npao.

Be e P aopacopoo poya a apaee poea OBP Ec peyae OBP opayec aopacop poy, o oepa opayx eo oo pacope peo yeaec.

Bcece oo eec oea cooecye oypea , o oe pec ee apae OBP.

puep 9. Opee apaee poea pea p 25 oC cceax:

a) 2Ag + 2HCl H2 + 2AgCl;

) 2Ag + 2HI H2 + 2AgI, ec oepa xopooopoa oooopoa pacope pa 1 o/, a aee oopoa pao 101,325 a.

Peeue:

1. Paccae oepa oo cepepa pacope a oca o AgCl, oyc, o oepa xop-oo pacope paa oepa HCl cocae 1 o/:

P(AgCl) 1,810- c(Ag+) = = =1,810-10 o/ c(Cl-) 2. Paccae aee paoecoo oeaa cepepa a o pacope:

0,059 o EAg Ag0 = EAg Ag0 - lg = + + n c(Ag+ ) 0,059 = 0,8 - lg = 0,225B.

1 1,810- 3. Opee apaee pea a:

ocoy yaax ycox oea oopoa pae 0, a oea cepepa pae 0,225 B, o o cepepa po oc ee coca o ooe oopoy paoece pea a ceeo eo. ooy eaecoe cepepo e pacopec co o coe.

4. Paccae oepa oo cepepa pacope a oca o AgI, oyc, o oepa o-oo pacope paa oepa HI cocae 1 o/:

P(AgI) 8,310- c(Ag+) = = = 8,310-17 o/.

c(I-) 5. Paccae aee paoecoo oeaa cepepa a o pacope:

0,059 o EAg Ag0 = EAg Ag0 - lg = + + n c(Ag+ ) 0,059 = 0,8 - lg = -0,14B.

1 8,310- 6. Opee apaee pea :

ocoy pacope HI oea cepepa ee oeaa oopoa (paoo 0), o cepepo ye occ oa oopoa paoece pea paec ooc ceeo pao.

Ta opao, eaecoe cepepo ece oopo pacopa oooopoo co.

Be oecoopaoa a apaee poea OBP Ec peyae OBP opayc oece coee, oopx po oecoopaoae pa oeaopee e o, o oepa x oo pacope peo yeaec.

Bcece oo oea cooecyx oypea e c, o oe pec ee apae OBP.

puep 10. Opee apaee poea pea p 25 C cceax:

a) Hg + 4HBr H2 + H2[HgBr4];

) Hg + 4HI H2 + H2[HgI4], ec oepa HBr HI pacopax pa 2 o/, oepa oo [HgBr4]2 [HgI4]2 pa 1 o/, aee oopoa pa o 101,325 a.

Peeue:

1. Paccae oepa oo Hg2+, opayxc pey ae ccoa oo [HgBr4]2. p o oycae, o oe pa oo Br pacope paa oepa HBr cocae 2 o/:

c(Hg2+ ) c4(Br-) [HgBr4]2 = = 2 10-22.

c([HgBr4]2-) Oca:

2 K( ) c([HgBr4] ) 210-22 c(Hg2+ ) = = =1,2510-23 o/.

c4(Br-) 2. Paccae aee paoecoo oeaa EHg Hg0 p 2+ ao oepa oo Hg2+:

0,059 EHg Hg0 = EHg Hg0 - lg = 2+ 2+ 2 c(Hg2+ ) 0,059 = 0,85 - lg = 0,174B.

2 1,2510- 3. Paccae aee oeaa E2H H0, oyc, o o + epa oo H+ paa oepa HI cocae 2 o/:

0,059 1 0,059 E2H H0 = E2H H0 - lg = 0 - lg = 0,018B.

+ + 2 2 c2(H+ ) 2 4. Opee apaee poea pea a. ocoy ao cyae oee co ec aee oeaa py, o o Hg2+ (opaoaec [HgBr4]2) oc oey oopo a pea a poeae cnpaa aeo.

5. Paccae oepa oo Hg2+, opayxc pey ae ccoa oo [HgI4]2-. p o oycae, o oepa oo I- pacope paa oepa HI cocae 2 o/:

c(Hg2+ ) c4(I-) [HgI4]2 = =1,4810-30.

c([HgI4]2-) Oca:

K( ) c([HgI4]2-) 1,4810-30 c(Hg2+ ) = = = 9,2510-32 o/.

c4(I-) 6. Paccae aee paoecoo oeaa EHg Hg0 p 2+ ao oepa oo Hg2+:

0,059 EHg Hg0 = EHg Hg0 - lg = 2+ 2+ 2 c(Hg2+ ) 0,059 = 0,85 - lg = -0,065B.

2 9,2510- 7. Opee apaee poea pea . ocoy ao cyae oee co ec aee oeaa oopoa, o o H+ oc py pea poeae cea anpao.

o o e pe e ece oopo ox paco po ao.

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. o aoe cmene ouceu? ae ae oa oe p a? ey paa cya ceee oce aoo oeye;

oe?

2. ae pea oocc oceo-occaoe?

3. B e aac c o pe epoo eop npoecc ouceu u occmaoeu? a ec ae ceee oce aoo peyae x poecco?

4. a ac oceo-occaoee coca eec o ae ceee oce aoo, xox x coca?

5. pee pep x occaoee.

6. ae eeca c oce?

7. pee pep eec, oope acoc o yco oy po a ocee, a occaoee coca?

8. a accpyc oceo-occaoee pea ? e oac pea eoeypoo oce occaoe o pea ypoeypoo oce occaoe;

pea cpoopopoa o pea opoopopoa?

9. o ec oeceo xapaepco oceo occaoex coc eec? o pecae coo caap epo (oceo-occaoe) o ea?

10. ae oea aac paoec? a o ca co caap epo oeaa? O ax aopo ac ea paoecoo oeaa?

11. a ca oceo-occaoee coca eec co ae epox oeao cooecyx oy pea?

12. a oeaec paa oooc poea OBP yaao apae?

13. a opeeec apaee poea OBP?

14. a oo opee aoee epoy OBP ecox oox pea?

15. aoa acoc oca xecoo paoec OBP o ae epox oeao oypea?

16. ae aop oaa e a apaee poea OBP? Oxapaepye e aoo x.

17. aoa po oceo-occaoex pea poec cax eeeoc?

18. B e aaec paoe oe OBP, poeax x opaax, o OBP, poeax eo ppoe?

aau peeu 206. Meoo epooo aaca pacca oe ypaex OBP, yaa oce occaoe:

a) SnCl2+K2Cr2O7 +H2SO SnCl4+Sn(SO4)2+Cr2(SO4)3+K2SO4+H2O;

) FeSO4+HNO3 Fe2(SO4)3+Fe(NO3)+NO2+H2O;

) P4+Sr(OH)2 PH3+Sr(H2PO2)2+H2O;

) KMnO4+FeSO4+H2O K2SO4+MnO2+Fe(OH)SO4+[(Fe(OH)2]2SO4;

) Al+HClO3 AlCl3+Al(ClO3)3+H2O;

e) FeS2+KOH+Cl2 K2FeO4+K2SO4+KCl+H2O;

) H2O2+Mn3O4+H2SO4 O2+MnSO4+H2O;

) Fe(OH)2 + NO2 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + H2O;

) P2S3+H2SO4(.) H3PO4+SO2+H2O;

) (NH4)2CrO4 N2+NH3+Cr2O3+H2O.

207. ao ypae pea, eoo epooo aaca pacca oe, yaa oce occaoe:

a) I2+Cl2+H2O HCl + ) Ba(OH)2+Br2 Ba(BrO3)2 + ) KMnO4+PH3+H2SO4 H3PO4 + ) H3AsO4+Al+H2SO4 AsH3 + ) Ca(ClO)2+HCl Cl2 + 208. Opee apaee poea caapx ycox ceyx pea:

a) H2O2+HOCl HCl+O2+H2O;

) H3PO4+2HI H3PO3+I2+H2O;

) 2FeCl3+Cu 2FeCl2+CuCl2;

) SnCl4+2KI SnCl2+I2+2KCl;

) H2SO3+Cl2+H2O H2SO4+2HCl.

209. ae yaax pea oy poea caapx yc ox:

- 2 a) MnO +Ag0 MnO +Ag+;

4 ) MnO +3Ag0+2H2O MnO2+3Ag++4OH-;

) MnO +8H++5Ag0 Mn2++5Ag++4H2O?

210. B oo pacope c(Hg2+) = 0,01 o/, c(Fe3+) = 0,01o/, c(Fe2+) = 0,001 o/. aa pea oe poea cao pooo:

a) 2FeCl3+Hg 2FeCl2+HgCl2;

) HgCl2+2FeCl2 Hg+2FeCl3?

211. ao ypae pea cya, pacca o e eoo epooo aaca:

a) K2SO3 K2S + ) HClO3 ClO2 + ) P4O6+H2O PH3 + ) NO2+Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO2)2 + ) Se+KOH K2SeO3 + 212. ao ypae pea oya, pacca o e eoo epooo aaca:

a) SO2+H2S ) Ca(ClO3)2+HCl(.) ) H2S+H2SO4(.) ) KMnO4+MnSO4+H2O 213. Moo xopo eea (III) pacope oc cy a p o cep;

o cya ap;

o cyaa ap? poe e cooecye pace. Cocae ypaee ooo OBP.

214. ye occ ocopca coa p caapx yco x o cey cxea?

a) H3PO3 + I2 + H2O ) H3PO3 + AgNO3 +H2O Ag0 + ) H3PO3 + Cd(NO3)2 + H2O Cd0 + ) H3PO3 + Hg(NO3)2 + H2O Hg0 + aoe ypae oox pea, paccae o e.

215. Moo p caapx ycox poo pacop, co epa oopeeo:

a) MnO4 KI;

) CuSO4 NaBr;

) H2O2 H2S;

) Cu(NO3)2 BaI2;

) Cl2 CrCl2;

e) 2Cr2O7 K2S?

poee cooecye pace. Cocae ypae o ox OBP.

216. Paccae ae oca paoec pea caap x ycox:

a) SnCl4 + 2TiCl3 = SnCl2 + 2TiCl4;

) SnCl4 + 2CrCl2 = SnCl2 + 2CrCl3.

B ao ax pea pocxo oee ooe occao ee oo ooa?

217. ae yaax e eec oy po oo oc ee coca;

oo occaoee;

a oce e, a occaoee coca:

a) KMnO4;

MnO2;

V2O5;

KI;

) PbO2;

NH3;

KNO2;

(NH4)2S;

) K2SO3;

HNO3;

CaCrO4;

P4O6?

218. Oe oooc poea OBP ey eeca:

a) HNO3 P2O5;

) H2S H2SO ;

) K2Cr2O7 HClO4;

) H2S NH3;

) SnO CrO3;

e) CH2O O2.

Haca ypae oox OBP, pacca oe.

219. B ao apae poea yaae pea caap x ycox:

- a) NO3 + Cr3+ + H2O NO + Cr2O7- + H+;

) Fe2+ + MnO + H+ Fe3+ + Mn2+ + H2O;

) Co2+ + MnO + H+ Co3+ + Mn2+ + H2O.

220. Moo cooa oc ca (IV) aece oce ocyece caapx ycox yaax pea:

a) I2 + 6H2O -10 2IO3- + 12H+;

) Mn2+ + 4H2O - 5 MnO4- + 8H+;

) Sn2+ - 2 Sn4+;

) 2Cr3+ + 7H2O - 6 Cr2O72- + 14H+.

221. Opee apaee poea pea ccee 2Co2+ + Pb4+ 2Co3+ + Pb2+, ec oepa oo pa:

c(Co2+) = 1101 o/;

c(Co3+) = 1 105 o/;

c(Pb2+) = 1104 o/;

c(Pb4+) = 1 102 o/.

222. a e oee e pH pacopa a ey oc eo-occaoeoo oeaa oypea:

a) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5 Mn2+ + 4H2O;

) Fe3+ + Fe2+;

2- ) CrO +2H2O + 3 CrO + 4OH.

4 223. aa pea aoee epoa caapx ycox:

a) SnCl4 + Fe SnCl2 + FeCl2;

) SnCl4 + 2Fe Sn + 2FeCl2.

224. Moy caapx ycox poea pea:

a) Ag + H2SO4 (.) Ag2SO4 + H2;

) Fe + FeCl3 FeCl2;

) Cu + Fe2(SO4)3 CuSO4 + FeSO4;

) Hg + H2S H2 + HgS?

225. C oo cooecyx paceo oae, a ec oea oypea Cr2O7- + 14H+ + 6 2Cr3+ +7H2O p yee pH pacopa o 0 o 2, ec oepa oo Cr2O7- Cr3+ pa 1 o/.

226. ao ocee KMnO4., PbO2 K2Cr2O7 p caap x ycox ec aoee e o ooe HCl p oye xopa? poee cooecye pace, cocae ypae pea c yace yaax ocee, paccae oe.

227. epo oea a, oeeoo pacop paa a, pae 0,85 B. Bc aee opo oepa oo a ao pacope.

228. Opeee aoee epoe poy pea caap x ycox:

a) KMnO4 + K2S + H2O ) NaNO2 + NaI + HCl ) H2O2 + HI 229. B ao cpee epaaa po aoee ce oc ee coca? oey? Cocae ypae OBP ao ec epaaaa a c cyo ap pax cpe ax, paccae oe.

230. oe peee e cxe, oopx yaa o oo cxox eec. oepe oe ae cooecye ypae pea oeypo ope:

2 - a) Fe3+ + I ) Cr2O7- + NO + H+ ) NO3 + Zn + H+ 231. Paccae accy epaaaa a, eoxooo po oe pacopa oeo 0,5 3 c opo oepae aea ao co 0,025 o/, ec eco, o po oe pacop ye cooa oce epa o cpee.

232. Bce opy oepa aea xpoaa a pacope c accoo oe eo 10 % ooc pacopa 1070 / 3, ec xpoa-o occaaaec o Cr3+.

233. ao ocee: MnO2;

PbO2;

K2Cr2O7 ec aoee e o ooe HCl p oye xopa?

A B A X OOPHAOHHE COEHEH Haoee op paoopa acc eopaecx e ec peca oece, oopaoe coee (C). B oceee pe ayo epaype apy c epo onece coeueu aco yopeec oece ey ep oopuauoe coeueu. Oao, ep onecoe coeueue ayo xeco epaype pooae poo pec. B acoee pe eo ae pe oa o nec uo. poecc opaoa oecx coee a a poecco onecoopaoau. o epe oo, a oopa o ooc ce oe coee, caooc ce pyee a opeeee. eycoo, eypeoe opeeee oopaooy coee a oe pyo. Te e eee, oo peo ceyee: oopuauou aamc co eueu, yax pucmauecux peemo omopx axomc o nece acmu, cnocoe cyecmoau pacmopax. ac opaoa a ce oopa epooe ao o aoo (aeop epoo) epoepax ac aoo (oop epoo).

Ocoe ooe oopaoo eop.

T oecx coee Cpoee coca oopaox coee occ oopaoo eope, oco oopo aoe 1893 o y A. Bepepo. O pe ae, o coca oecoo coee xo coa aca, cocoa empaoo amoa, ae aaeoo onecoopaoamee (o eaa), opy oopoo pacoaac (ooppyc) epae oe y ao, aaec uaau. co ooppoa x ao ae ceo pao 6, 4 2. oopa (yepa e) ao ooo epaoo aoa ocyecec a ce o paoa xecx ce. c aa oopuauo u cu. oeco oopaox ce, oope opaye o a c oecoopaoaee aaec emamocm aa ( -, p-, epaea ..). Oee co xecx ce, oopoe oecoopaoae opaye c aa, aa ec oopuauo uco oecoopaoae.

Cooyoc oa eaa opyax eo ao a aaa Bepepo ympee cepo oneca. B opyax oop aox coee ee aa apae co. Bce, o axoc a apa coa, cocae e cepy. B acoc o aa apa ypee cep paa auoe oec, apep K2[Zn(CN)4], e ype cepa [Zn(CN)4]2 auo;

amuoe oec [Cu(NH3)4]SO4, e ype cepa [Cu(NH3)4]2+ amuo;

empae oec [P t(NH3)2Cl2]0.

Hepae oece coee e e ee cep. a p ypee cep pae aepaeco cye apa epa oo oa apa ao.

puep 1. Paccop cpoee oecoo coee coca a K4[Fe(CN)6].

Peeue:

o + e cepa ;

[Fe(CN)6]4 ype cepa o ecoo coee, cocoa oecoopaoae (o Fe3+) ao (oo CN). O a CN caec c o ecoopaoaee (Fe3+) oo oo c, ooy eaoc oo aa paa 1. oeco oopaox ce, oop oecoopaoae ca co ce aa, pao 6, ce oaeo, oopaooe co eea ao oeco coee pao 6.

B peeo ae paccopeo cpoee eoopx o ecx coee:

[Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 K[Ag(CN)2] [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] K3[Ag(S2O3)2] Bype cepa [Cr(H2O)6]3+ [Ag(CN)2] [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] [Ag(S2O3)2] Be cepa Cl- K+ K+ epa ao Cr3+ Ag+ Pt2+ Ag+ 2 a H2O CN- NH3;

Cl- S2O eaoc 1 1 1, 1 oopaooe 6 2 4 co p oopa ec coca a ao, a oa eaa-oecoopaoae. aco ooppoae a o eaa eooo oapy pacope oecoo coe e p oo xecx pea, xapaepx x co oo (eooppoao) coco, . . o axoc c ao coco cocae oeco ac.

Hoeaypa oopaox coee opo aa oecx coee aaoe aa ox coe, . e. caaa yaaec ao eeo aee, a ae ao poeo oee. opy oeco ac cpoo cpaa aeo, coa yaa x opo pacooe ao.

Ec coeee eepooo a (ypoecoe coeee), o eo aa oo coo. aoe epa e C e oya aax ceax ooa, aa x aox oeco oecoopaoae aa ac epo c oaee cyca(-am) yaae pc c a cee oce epaoo aoa (ec o oe e epeee cee oce).

Haa empax ao e uemc, a aa au ox ao oaac a o. ooae ca ouao x ao o ypee cepe oeca aece pca epe aae ao coy peece cee: u-;

mpu-;

mempa;

nema;

eca- u m. . pcay oo e yope.

Haae ypee cep aca oo coo.

Boa aa c epa aa aac cooeceo aa- au.

a oaao aax, ec a ca c epa aoo eco cocoa, o pae oeaec c oo coo aoo, epe oope opayec oopaoa c oecoopaoae c ao.

Haa epax ao, poe H2O, NH3, NO, NO2, CO CS, aac pye co epe coo po coe pca.

puep 2. pec pep oopaox coee pax o aa x.

Peeue:

amuoe oec:

[Co(NH3)6]3+Cl3 xop ecaaoaa (III);

[Co(NH3)5H2O]3+Cl3 xop aaeaaoaa (III).

Auoe oec:

(NH4)2[PdCl4]2 epaxopoaaa (II) ao;

K[PtNH3Br5] eapooaaa (IV) a;

K4[Fe(CN)6] ecaaoeppa (II) a.

Hempae oec:

[Fe(H2O)3(ClO4)(SCN)2] oaoepxopaopaaeeo (III);

[Co(N2H4)2(NO2)2] popaoa (II);

[Hg(H2O)2(NCS)2] ooaoaapy (II).

oopaoe coee ox pacopax p pacope pcaecoo oopaooo coee oe eo pcaeca peea papyaec, a oopa oa cepa eecepe o papyc o o eya o. o poecc poeae o exay ccoa cx epoo. Hapep:

K4[Fe(CN)6] 4K+ [Fe(CN)6]4 oec o oo pacope e oaae acoo yc ooc. a eo oopaoo cep oy aeac oeya o, oopa ae ec ao. Too a e p aoec aaoeca c py aa pacope o e pocxo oceeoe aeee oey o oopa oo cep aaoeca a a. Tao poecc x oeco aaec ua oeo.

Paccop aoece aoopaoo aaa c o pacopo co e. B oo pacope ao Ni2+ cyecye e oecoo oa [Ni(H2O)6]2+. Baoece oo aao eca c aao pocxo ec ca, aa oopx pecae coo opay pea xapaepyec coce o ocao paoec. ocmam paoecu ao ca opaoa oeco ac aac ac ocma mau ycmouocmu.

Ha ao ca eco oo oey o o ypee cepe aae oa oeya aaa:

[Ni(H2O)6]2+ + NH [NiNH3(H2O)5]2+( + H2O Oo poco ac opy oey o ypae x oox pea oyca:

Ni2+ + NH [Ni(NH3)]2+ aca ocaa ycooc (ocaa paoec) epo cye opaoa oecoo oa acaec a:

c([Ni(NH3)]2+ ) K1 = . ., a oa i-ca:

c(Ni2+ ) c(NH3) c([Ni(NH3)i ]2+ ) K =, i =K1 K2 ... Ki.

c(Ni2+ ) ci (NH3) Pea, opaa pea oecoopaoa (ccoa oeca) ec peae aoo oea, oopo a oecoo oa aeac oeya pacope:

[Ni(NH3)6]2+ + H2O [Ni(NH3)5(H2O)]2+ + NH, [Ni(NH3)6]2+ [Ni(NH3)5]2+ + NH pea ccoa oecoo oa ocay paoe c aa ocmamo ecmoocmu . o ao ca:

c(Ni(NH3)5]2+ ) c(NH3) K1 =, pe K1 > K2 >... > Ki.

c([Ni(NH3)6]2+ ) poeee acx oca ecooc ae oy o cay ecooc: K = K1 K2 ... Ki. oca ycooc ecooc o ao opae e:

K =.

K oca ycooc ecooc ypee cep cao ac o eepayp.

puep 3. Hae oopaoy opyy, yae oop aooe co ap oecoopaoae, ap ypee cep paee oca ecooc ceyeo oeco o coee: ecapooaa (III) a.

Peeue:

B yco peeo aae aooo oecoo coee . ao ec p-o, a epa oo Co3+.

Bype cepa [Co(NO2)6]3-, ceoaeo, opya oec oo coee ye: Ca3[Co(NO2)6]2.

oopaooe co pao ap oecoopaoae 3+ ap ypee cep 3 paee epo ccoa (a c epo):

Ca3[Co(NO2)6]2 3Ca2+ + 2[Co(NO2)6]3.

Oee ypaee opo ccoa (ca epo):

[Co(NO2)6]3 Co3+ + 6NO.

Bpaee oe oca ecooc (ocaa paoec):

c(Co3+ ) c6(NO-) K =.

c([Co(NO2)6]3-) puep 4. Moo papy oec o [Ag(NH3)2]+ c eo opo oepae pacope 0,1 o/, oaee pa oo oea pacopa KCl c ao e oepae p a oeo pacope a aaa c eo opo oepae 10 o/?

Peeue:

1. Paccae opy oepa oo [Ag(NH3)2]+ pac ope oce oae paoo oea pacopa KCl. ocoy o e cxooo pacopa yec 2 paa, o opa oepa oo [Ag(NH3)2]+ yeac 2 paa cocae 0,05 o/.

2. Paccae opy oepa oo Ag+ oyeo pacope. ocoy oepae aaa, opaoaeoc p ccoa oecoo oa, oo peepe, oycae, o oepa aaa oyeo pacope paa eo oo oepa cocae 10 o/. coy oepa oo Ag+ ooa epe x:

[Ag(NH3)2]+ Ag+ + 2NH 0,05 o/ x o/ 10 o/.

ae oepa oo oca paee oca ecooc oecoo oa:

c(Ag+ ) c2(NH3) x K( ) = =110-8 =.

c([Ag(NH3)2]+ ) 0, Oca x = 51012 o/.

3. Paccae aee oo Ag+ Cl oyeo pacope:

= c(Ag+) c(Cl) =5 1012 101 = 51013.

4. ocoy aee ee ae P(AgCl), paoo 1010, o ocao AgCl e aae oec [Ag(NH3)2]+ x yco x oa Cl e papyaec.

puep 5. ye papyac oec o [Ag(NH3)2]+ ycox pepa 4 p aee KCl a KI?

Peeue:

ae ypaee pea aoec oecoo oa c o-aoa:

[Ag(NH3)2]+ + I AgI + 2NH3.

P(AgI) = 1 1016. Ta a 5 1013 > 1 1016, o ocao AgI aae , ceoaeo, oec o [Ag(NH3)2]+ ex e yco x oa I papyaec.

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. Copypye ocoe ooe oopaoo eop A. Bepepa pocppye x a pepax.

2. aoo cpoee oecx coee?

3. a opee ap oecoo oa ap oecoopa oae?

4. aoa ppoa xeco c oecx coeex?

5. e ocec ocoa cooc d-eeo opaoa oece coee?

6. Ha e ocoa coco acca oecx coee ?

7. pee ypae pea, oop oo oep a 2 xoee oo Cl SO o ypee ee cepax oeco.

8. Haoe oep pee pep oepo o ecx coeex.

9. O eo ac ea oopaooo ca oecoo paoae?

10. e oycoea eaoc ao?

11. Ha ocoa eoa aex ce oce coca cpoe e aaaa a, poa, apoa e.

12. opae cpoee ocaaoo paoo oeco Fe3+ Zn2+.

13. B e aaec pae ey oec coee o co?

14. ae aop a ycooc oecx coee pacopax?

15. o aaec xea eo e o oycoe?

16. a oo oc coy ococ coe ex e ao?

17. ae coca oeco coy p oope eapc ee p opaex? o aoe amuom?

18. oey oo oca c oo oecoo ocecoe ece oo ex eao a opa eoea?

19. o coo pecae e po? oey eoo paoe o aoecye a c copoo, a c yap ao?

aau peeu 234. pacopa co cocaa PtCl4 6NH3 pa cepepa ocaae ec xop e xopa cepepa, a pacopa co PtCl4 3NH3 oo 1/4 ac xoeo ee coca xopa. Ha ca oopaoe opy a aa x coe, opee oopaooe co a ao x.

a yy ccopoa eeca pacope?

235. a oopaox coee oaa c oaoo peco opyo CoBrSO45NH3. Pa ey po c peax x aoec pacopax c BaCl2 AgNO3. Oa co ae ocao oo c xopo ap, a o pa oo c pao cepepa. Hae: oopaoe opy, ae aa oex coe ypae x epo eco ccoa.

236. pacopy, coepaey 0,2335 aya CoCl2 4NH3, oa ocaoo oece pacop AgNO3. Macca ocaa coca a 0,1435 . Opeee oopaoy opyy oeca aoe eo.

237. Hae oeypo oo-oeypo opax ypa e oex pea, pocxox ey: a) K4[Fe(CN)6] CuSO4;

)Na3[Co(CN)6] FeSO4;

) K3[Fe(CN)6] AgNO3, e y, o opayec oopaoe co epacop oe. pee x aa.

238. Hae ypae pea opaoa oecx co ocoa p aoec: PtCl4 HCl;

AgCl HCl;

PbCl2 HCl;

SiF4 HF;

Fe(CN)2 HCN;

BF3 HF;

Cu(OH)2 NH3;

Ni(OH)2 NH3. pee ypae epoeco cco a oyex coee.

239. Hae oopaoe opy ceyx oecx coee: a) ecapooaa (III) a;

) a poepaxopooaa (III) ao;

) popopocoe pa a (III);

) epaoaoaxpoa (III) ao . ae oopaooe co oecoopaoae ap ypee cep aoo oeca.

240. ae aa ceyx coee: [Pd(NH3)3Cl]Cl;

K4[Fe(CN)6];

[Pd(H2O)2NH3Cl]Cl;

[Co(H2O)(NH3)4CN]Br2;

[Co(NH3)5SO4]NO3;

(NH4)2[Rh(NH3)Cl5];

Na2[PdI4];

[Cu(NH3)4](NO3)2;

K2[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4].

Hae pae oca ecooc oeco ya e oopaoe ca oecoopaoaee.

241. a oc, o oec o [Ag(NH3)2]+ papyaec ye p oce pacopa, a aao o [Pt(NH3)4]2+ coxpaec ae p ec oeppoao coo co?

242. oey p oo o e opo e peaea: a) oca o AgCl e pacopec coo coe, o pacopec pacope aaa;

) ocao AgI e pacopec pacope a aa, o pacopec pacope aa ap?

243. e opeeec oooc ae ox ao oop aoo coee a pye? Opeee apaee pea pacopax:

a) [Ag(CN)2] + 2NO2 [Ag(NO2)2] + 2CN ;

) [Ag(NO2)2] + 2CN [Ag(CN)2] + 2NO2.

244. Moo aaoo oeca cepepa ece cooe cyx ao oy [Ag(NO2)2] [Ag(CN)2]? Oe opye.

245. Oce poecc pacope ocao aoepx poc o coax eoax, a pepaee ox oeco pye. oe ypae:

a) [Cr(H2O)6]3+ + OH ocao ) [Cr(H2O)6]3+ + OH ) [Cr(OH)6]3 + 3H3O+ ocao ) [Cr(OH)6]3 + H3O+ 246. oe peee e ypae pea. ae, a oy y oocc aa x e opeeec ee a paeoc?

K2[CuCl4] + NH3 Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] + Na2S Fe3+ + [Fe(CN)6]4- [Ni(NH3)6]SO4 + NaOH Ni(OH)2+ Fe2+ + [Fe(CN)6]3- K4[Fe(CN)6] + Cl [Co(NO2)6]3- + K+ [Co(H2O)6]3+ + Cl- Cl2 + Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO3 [Cu(SO3)4]6-+ CoSO4 + NaNO2 + CH3COOH [Co(NO2)6]3- + N2H4NaNO2 + N2 + Na3[Co(NO2)6] + NO + 247. Hae ypae pea, xapaepye pepae:

Ag+ [Ag(NH3)2]+ AgI [Ag(CN)2] Ag2S.

a oc oooc aoo x?

II. HEOPAHECA XM PMEPHA CXEMA OCAH XMECX EMEHTOB X COEHEH 1. Oe cee o xecx eeax (ooee epo eco ccee, ope, coepae eo ope, ocoe ppoe coee).

2. epoe oypa aoo.

3. Xapaep ee aox xapaepc eeo o pye (aoa acca, oae, eaec o payc, oea oa, cpoco epoy, epoopae oc, cee oce).

4. Ocoe o-xece coca pocx eec (ape aoe cocoe, e, ooc, eepayp ae e, epopoooc).

5. Coco oye (poee aopaope) eec.

6. Xece coca pocx eec:

a) pea c poc eeca (oopo, copo, aoe, cepa, ao, ocop, yepo, ea);

) pea c ae peaea (oa, co, eo, oc, co).

7. oyee, cpoee xece coca ocox o co ee.

A. ape coee:

a) coee c oopoo;

) aoe;

) oc;

) coee c py eeaa;

) coee c eaa.

. Mooooee coee:

a) poc (co, ocoa);

) co;

) oece coee.

8. Baoc ey oco a coee.

9. peee:

a) pocx eec;

) coee.

10. ooeca po eeo x coee opae eo ea ox. peee coee eeo ee.

P-EMEHT VII P 1. poaapoa aooepoc ee payco aoo, oaox oeao, cpoca epoy, epoop aeoc aoo, a ae ep xeco c ep eco ycooc oey py aoeo.

2. ae cee oce po aoe cox coee x? ao ocoeoc aex coco opa?

3. pocppoa pea poee aopaope coco oye aoeo.

4. a cpaey xapaepcy oceo-occao ex coc aoeo a pepax pax pea.

5. Haca ypae pea oye cex aoeooopoo.

ao ocoeoc x poecco?

6. a ec ocoe ece coca pooc o ey py HF HI?

7. poaapye xapaep ee oceo-occao ex cox coc py aoeooopoo.

8. Haca ypae pea aoec aoeo c oo pacopa eoe (xoo op).

9. a e paoee xopoaco co o ece ce a, p apea, pcyc oooaeo eeca?

10. ae pea coyc oo oye xopao epxopao?

11. ece ax aoeo oo e coo po pacopo: a) poa a;

) poaa a? Oocoa a o caapx epox oeaax pocppo a pea.

12. a ec ca co ocee coca pax:

HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 HClO HBrO HIO? oey?

13. o aoe xopa ec, aeea oa? pocppoa pea x coca.

14. Cpa poyeoc coe pax:

1) KClO KClO2 KClO3 KClO4;

2) KClO KBrO KIO?

15. Oocoa eoooc oye oco aoeo x p aoece c copoo.

16. ay eoepecy oypa e o ClO-, ClO2-, ClO3-, ClO4-?

17. ae eopaece coee xopa, opa, poa oa pec ee?

18. Heec aoeooopo poyc pacop eo ac co 100 c accoo oe OH 11,2 %. B opaoaec e pao pacope accoa o co paa 13,89 %. Opee aoeooopo.

19. Pacca oe xopa (.y.) oe pacopa poca a c eo accoo oe 50 % ooc 1,538 /, eoxox oye epoeoo co acco 250 , ec ee accoa o xoa paa 88 %.

20. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) PbBr2 HBr Br2 KBrO3 HBrO3 FeBr3;

) Cl2 HCl KCl Cl2 BaCl2 HCl;

) Cl2 KClO3 KClO4 HClO4 ClO2 HClO3.

21. Haca ypae ceyx pea:

a) K2Cr2O7 + HCl(o.) ) KI + H2SO4 (o.) ) HBrO3 + I ) I2 + HNO3 (o.) ) HClO3 + HCl e) K2Cr2O7 + KI + H2SO4 (pa.) ) I2 + H2S (p-p) ) KI + H2O2 + H2SO ) Cl2 + I2 + Ba(OH) ) Cl2 + KI + KOH ) HClO4 + P2O ) CaOCl2 + HCl ) HCl + PbO o) Br2 + F2 + H2O ) HClO3 + P + H2O P-EMEHT VI P 1. Paccope cpoee aoo aee coco eeo ao opy VI py.

2. a ec payc, oaoe oea, cpoco epoy epoopaeoc py copo oo?

3. a oey eec apeaoe cocoe coca pocx eec py O Po?

4. pocppye cooecy pea xapaep e e oceo-occaoex coc py co po oo.

5. a ec eepayp ae, e epeca ycooc py H2O H2Po?

6. a cpaey xapaepcy ee coo-oco x oceo-occaoex coc oopox co ee eeo VI py.

7. Paccope pacopoc poyeoc cyo pa x eao.

8. Paccope coco oye oco cep. a ec oceo-occaoee coca y x coee?

9. Cepca coa ee co. Cpoee, oceo occaoee coca, peee.

10. a eec ycooc, coe coca oce o-occaoea cocooc py H2SO3 H2TeO3?

11. ay pea cpe e pacop Na2SO3 NaHSO3? B ce cy- pocy-oo, oyc ae e oca ccoa cepco co.

12. Cepa coa. Ee cpoee, oyee, coe oc ee coca. Xapaep aoec c eaa ee aa. pocppoa pea.

13. ao xapaep ee cox ocex coc py cepa eypoa co?

14. o aoe oey? aoa eo xeca ppoa? o aoe o cepe co? Hapcoa cpyypy cepo co.

15. a xapaepcy ooo coa x co.

16. Tocepa coa. Ee cpoee oceo-occaoe e coca ocya-oa.

17. o aoe epococepa coa? Coco ee oye, coca peee.

18. Cec epoeoo co c aaaopo (MnO2) oe acco 125 ape oy cec epx eec, oopo ac coa o aaaopa paa 2,5 %. Bc oe aa (.y.), eeoc p poaa cxoo cec, ec accoa o MnO2 e paa 2 %.

19. Haca ypae ceyx pea:

a) FeS2 + O ) S + NaOH ) H2S + SO ) Na2S + S ) NaBr + H2SO4 (o.) e) H2SO4 (o.;

pa.) + Fe, Al, Cu, Zn ) H2SO4 (o.;

pa.) + C, P, I ) Na2S2O3+ Cl ) Na2S2O3 + I ) H2S + K2Cr2O7 + HCl ) SO2 + KMnO4 + H2O ) Na2SO3 + K2S + H2SO ) H2SeO4 + Au o) SO2 + NO ) As2S3 + HNO3 + H2O p) Se + NaOH c) Al2Te3 + H2O ) H2S + HNO y) SO2 + SeO ) H2Se + S x) Na2SeO3 + HI ) Na2S2O4 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO ) K2S2O8 + FeSO 20. Moo oy H2O2 eocpece aoece oopoa copoa? Oe oocoa.

21. aa coco oye epoca oopoa, pec ypa e pea.

22. Oca cpoee oey H2O2. oey a oeya opa?

23. Haca ypaee pea paoe epoca oopoa. aoy y oceo-occaoex pea oa oo cc?

24. pec pep oceoo occaoeoo ec H2O2. Ha e ocoao peee H2O2 ee.

25. Haca oo-oeypo ope ypaee pea poa Na2O2. Coxpa pacop epoca ap co e e coca e pacope?

26. Haca ypae pea aoec epoca oopoa c epaaao a co cpee;

oo a co cpee;

xpoo a eoo cpee.

27. pec pep aca cpyype opy epococ o.

28. ao ocyee oeppoay cepy coy, epy eo eo xop a oo co oa ocye cepooopoa?

29. ae co cepo co oey pe eco pae?

30. ao ypae ceyx pea:

a) H2O2 + NaI ) Na2O2 + NaBr + H2SO ) H2O2 + KMnO ) H2O2 + K2Cr2O7 + HCl ) H2O2 + As2S3 + NaOH e) Na2SO3 + KMnO4 + H2SO ) TeO2 + KOH ) PoO2 + HNO ) TeO2 + H2O2 + H2O ) O3 + CrCl3 + KOH ) O3 + PbS ) H2O2 + I 31. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) S H2S Na2S Na2Sn SO2 S;

) SO2 NaHSO3 Na2SO3 Na2SO4 NaHSO4 Na2S2O7;

) KMnO4 O2 Na2O2 H2O2 I2;

) NaHSO3 Na2S2O5 NaHSO3 Na2SO3 Na2S2O Na2S4O6.

P-EMEHT V P 1. Paccope ocoeoc cpoe aoa aoa eo aex coco cpae c ao ocopa ocax e eo opy.

2. a ec payc aoa ep eo oa py ao cy? aoa x aoc c ec xe c coca coee x eeo?

3. a eec ycooc coee cee oce + py ocop cy?

4. Cocae ypae pea oye aoa ocopa x coee.

5. ao yco cea aaa pocx eec? Oe o pye.

6. a ec ep opoc c -H py aa cy aoo x e a ece xece co ca x coee?

7. ao ocoeoc poea pea oce aaa copoo oyxa?

8. ae eeca opayc p poyca epe pacop a aa ao: CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, SO3?

9. pee xapaepe aaa pea (pcoee, aee).

10. ae eeca oo cooa ocy aoopaoo aaa: ocop ap, oeppoay cepy coy, aycecy coy, ep OH? Oe opye.

11. Cocae ypae pea epecoo paoe paa, pa, ocaa, xopa xpoaa ao. a oaa, o epecee co c co ao?

12. opae cpyypy oco aoa ae ypae pea x aoec c oo pacopo eo.

13. Oocc pea aoec oca aoa c oo c pacopo eo oceo-occaoe? Oe oepe ypae pea.

14. Cocae ypae pea, oopx aoca coa ec: a) occaoee;

) ocee.

15. opae cpyypy aoo co. Cocae ypaee pe a ee paoe.

16. Beec oopo p aoec paaeo ao o co c a eaa?

17. aoo ece oeppoao aoo co a ea ? o ao cee oce p o occaaaec ao? o aoe acca eaa?

18. Cocae ypae pea epecoo paoe pao a, e(II), ca cepepa.

19. e oycoea paa xeca aoc eoo pacoo ocopa? opae x cpyypy.

20. Cocae ypae pea ope oca aaa.

21. Cocae ypae pea aoec c oo oco a, a a, coyex aece oxa o. c ae pea oceo-occaoe ?

22. Cocae paece opy oco co ocopa. O peee aeoc, oopaooe co cee oce ocopa x oeyax, a ae ocooc ocopx co.

23. Cocae ypae pea oye ocopo co (y cocoa) poeoc, a ae ocopx yo pe (pocoo ooo cyepocaa, peaa ao oca).

24. Hae oo oo-oeypo ope ypae pe a poa ocaa ap. aoa pea cpe ox pacopo ocaa poocaa ap?

25. ae oepe coee ocopa pa ay po eeeoc x opao?

26. Cocae ypae poa xopo ocopa. o aoe a oeap?

27. a ec coo-ocoe coca poco p-eeo V py?

28. B coca ax ooey opaa xo ocop ao?

29. Bce oc aoa ooc peapy c pacaeo e, o pay CuO N2. aoa opya oca aoa, ec acca oy eoo CuO cocaa 0,7105 ao ec oeo 200 c3 (.y.)?

30. aoe ypae pea paccae oe:

a) Li + N ) Mg3N2 + H2O ) HNO2 + H2O ) HNO2 + H2S ) KNO2 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO e) KNO2 + KI + H2SO ) NO2 + H2O ) N2O4 + Ca(OH) ) N2H4 + O ) NH4Cl + CuO ) HNO3(o.) + Cu (Ag, Zn, Fe, Al, Mg) ) HNO3(pa.) + Cu (Ag, Zn, Fe, Al, Mg) ) Sb2O5 + KOH + H2O o) H3PO3 + AgNO3 + H2O ) H3PO4 + CaCl p) As2S5 + HNO3(o.) c) PH3 + KMnO4 + H2SO ) HNO3 + Cu2S y) NaBiO3 + NaI + H2SO ) Sb + HNO3(o.) 31. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) NH3 N2 NO NO2 KNO3 O2;

) Ca3(PO4)2 P4 H3PO4 (ZnOH)3PO4 Zn(H2PO4) Zn3(PO4)2;

) P4 Ca3P2 PH3 P4O10 Ca3(PO4)2 Ca(H2PO4)2;

) HNO3 NH3 (NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 Na3N NH4NO3.

P-EMEHT IV P 1. Paccope cpoee aoo ooe aee coco p-eeo IV py. ae cee oce po ya ae ee coeex?

2. Oxapaepye eee aox payco, ep oa , cpoca epoy epoopaeoc py C Pb.

3. a oey eec ycooc coee yaax eeo x ce cee oce py C Pb?

4. ae poce eeca opay p-ee IV py? ae pcaecx peeo xapaep x? Paccope cpoee aaa, paa, apa, oyyea, yepeo ( ce, pa aox opae, pocpa ceoe pacooee aoo). oey e cyecye pao ooa oa pe?

5. a oey eec ep c py yepo epa? e ocec cocooc aoo yepoa coe c e e?

6. a ec oceo-occaoee coca po cx eec p epexoe o yepoa cy? Oxapaep ye x ooee oe, coa, eoa, co. Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

7. Paccope cpoee oey, ycooc, oceo-oc caoee coca oopox coee. a ee c eepaypa e py CH4 SnH4 (cpa c aao acoc po p-eeo VVII py)?

Booo cyecoae epeex cao p ca apx ycox?

8. poaapye cpoee oey CO. e oo oc coy ep c e? a ep c caaec a ycooc xeco aoc oca yepoa (II)?

9. oey ep c Si O oe ep c C O?

10. oey oc pe (IV), oe o CO2, epoe e eco?

11. Oxapaepye acoc coo-ocox coc oc o poco yaax eeo o cee x oce.

a ec coo-ocoe coca oox oc o poco py yepo ce? pee cooe cye ypae pea.

12. Oce pa cpoe xecx cocax aoe o p-eeo IV py. a acca coee oo cc SiCl4, GeCl4, SnCl4;

SnCl2,PbCl2? Hae ypae pea poa SiCl4 SiF4.

13. aoa cee oce ca ocax PbO, PbO2, Pb3O4?

a coee aoecy c paae oe ppoa pacopa HCl, H2SO4?

14. ae coee p-eeo IV py coyc aopaopo pae aece x ocee? B aece occaoee? pee pep pea c x yace.

15. a oya CO2 aopaop? ae peex eec oo cooa ocy yecoo aa: oeppo ay cepy coy, ep e ap, ocop a p?

16. ae yaax coe poyc cee: Sn(NO3)2 Pb(NO3)2;

Na2CO3 Na2SiO3? oey?

17. oey ox pacopax eooo cepoa apoa eea (III), xpoa(III), a? ae eeca oy o yc p cea pacopo Pb(NO3)2 Na2CO3?

18. Booo ycox, x e, ooee e a ocoe coee yepoa, a a ocoe coee pe?

19. o pecae coo apoa yo? e o coy ec? e ocec eo coa coppya cocooc?

20. Cec pe c oco pe (IV) opaoa o pac opa poca ap, peyae eo ec a oe o 6,72 (.y.). opaoaeoc pacopa ee ea ca ap acco 25 . Bc aee accoo o pe cxoo cec.

21. Cec yepoa co co opaoa p apea o oeppoaoo pacopa aoo co, peyae eo eac cec ao oeo 15,68 (.y.). p poyca o cec epe o ecoo o opaoac ocao acco 10 . Bc aee accoo o yepoa c xoo cec.

22. aoe ypae ceyx pea:

a) NaOH + H2O + Si (C,Sn,Pb) ) NaOH + H2O2 + Ge ) H2SO4 ( ) + Sn (C,Si,Pb) ) HNO + Sn (C,Si,Pb) ) MgSi + H2SO4(.) e) MnSO4 + PbO2 + H2SO ) Sn + KOH + H2O ) SiO2 + HF ) SnCl2 + NaBiO3 + HCl H2[SnCl6] +...

) GeCl2 + O2 + NaOH + H2O ) Pb + KOH + H2O ) PbS + H2O2.

23. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) CO2 COCl2 CO2 C Al4C3 CH4;

) Si Na2SiO3 H4SiO4 SiO2 SiCl4 K2SiO3;

) CO2 NH4HCO3 BaCO3 CO2 CO COBr2;

) Pb Pb(OH)2 PbO2 Pb3O4 PbCl2 H2[PbCl6].

P-EMEHT III P 1. Oxapaepye cpoee aoo p-eeo III py. ao epoe oypa x ex epeecx ypoe ocoo oyeo cocox? ae opa ao ax yaax eeo c ae? oey ee oocc ceecy p-eeo?

2. poaapye xapaep ee aox payco, ep oa, cpoca epoy epoopaeoc ao o py B Al. e oycoea eooooc ee x aox xapaepc oe o pyx py p-e eo?

3. ae cee oce po yaae ee co eex? a oey eec ycooc oox coee x eeo cx ceex oce p epexoe o opa a?

4. a oo oc peoe oe ecx xecx coc pocx eec opa a? Cpae x ooe e oe, pacopa co, eoe coe. Cocae ypa e cooecyx pea.

5. e oo oc, o a ox ycox coep eo e aoecye c co oo, xo eo epo oea aeo ee 0, o ypo ece oopo ox pacopo eoe?

6. a oey ec occaoee coca eao py Al Tl? Cpae xapaep x aoec c oo, pac opa co, eoe coe. e oo oc coco oc a peapoa c oo p oao eepaype?

7. e o xec coca oac oc opa o oca a;

poc opa o poca a? coee aoo eea cee pae coe coca? Ha e ypae cooecyx pea.

8. a oo oc, o p oao eepaype a paec e peapye pacope c CuSO4, o ypo ao ecye c CuCl2?

9. Oxapaepye coo-ocoe coca oco po co Al, Ga, In Tl. Cpae x ooee pacopa co eoe. pcya aoepoc coee a?

10. ae poecc poea p oceeo oae a pacopa eoo apa pacopy paa a? Hae ypae cooecyx pea, aoe poy. B e ax ac a coepc eox, epax cx pacopax?

11. a oey eec cee poa coe py Al(NO3)3 Ga(NO3)3 In(NO3)3 Tl(NO3)3 pacopax c x oa oo oepae? aa coe, TlNO3 Tl(NO3)3, poyec cee? oey?

12. Cya a poo coyec oc o a o oocex cax. Ha e ocoao eo peee ao poecce? Hae ypae cooecyx pea oo oo-oeypx opax.

13. Mec peapa Aae pecae coo ca poay cyce poco a a. Ha e ocoao eo peee p oe? Moo pa a peapa p oaoe (oeo cooc ey ooo coa)?

14. ao xec coca aoaex aco? Ha e oco ao cooae oo eeca ee aece po eocaaaeo cpeca?

15. ae poecc poea p oyca a, oo e, o pacop xopa a? Hae ypa e pea, aoe poy.

16. Moo oy cy a ceae ox pacopo cyaa a cya a? oey? ae co a pao eooo cepoa o x pacopax? Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

17. B e paoe oe oopox coee opa o po pyx p-eeo III py? ao coca cpoe e poceeo pa opa? B e ocoeoc xecx ce e? a oo oc eoooc cyecoa oey BH3?

18. a ce eo oey BF3 pcoe cee pye oey o, apep, H2O, NH3, F-? Booo pcoeee oey CH4? oey? a peyae pcoee e ec pa opae opa eo eoepecoe o pyee?

19. B oo pacope opo co pcycy ao [B(OH)4]-. a o, ae ypaee epoeco ccoa opo co pacope. ey paa ee oco oc?

20. o opayec p aoec opo co c pacopo poca ap? o aoe ypa? ao ee xec co ca? Hae ypae pea poa epaopaa a p;

aoec eo c cepo coo pacope.

21. ae eeca opayc p poe opa xopa o pa? Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

22. Oxapaepye ooecy po opa poeccax e eeoc pace, ox eoea. ae coee opa coyc ee, ceco xoce, y?

23. Coee aoo paccapaex eeo aoee o c? e o axo peee? ae ep peocopo oc eoxoo coa p paoe c ?

24. Cec a c cyo a pae a 2 pae ac. p ece oo x oy ec a oeo 0,672 (.y.). p ece pyo ac cec pacop xopo oopoa, e, eac cec ao oeo 1,344 (.y.). Pacca accy cxoo cec accoe o eec e.

25. oop oax pace coyec pacop, 1 oopoo coepc op acco 510-4 . Paccae accy yp, eoxoo pooe aoo pacopa oeo 10 .

26. aoe ypae pea, paccae oe:

a) B + HNO ) B2H6 + NaH ) Na[BH4] + H2O ) H3BO3 + NaOH ) Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + H2O e) Al + KOH + H2O ) Al+ NaOH( ) ) Al + HNO3(..) ) Al + NaNO3 + NaOH + H2O ) Al2O3 + K2CO3 t ) Al2O3 + KOH + H2O ) Na3[Al(OH)6] + CO ) Na[Al(OH)4(H2O)2] t o) K3AlO3 + H2O ) AlN + HCl( ) p) Al(OH)3 + NaF( ) c) Al2(SO4)3 + Na2CO3 + H2O ) Al(NO3)3 t y) Al(OH)3 + Al2(SO4) ) Al2S3 + KOH( ) + H2O x) Al4C3 + H2O 27. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec ceye pepae:

a) Al Na3AlO3 Al2O3 [Al(OH)2]2SO4 AlCl3;

) Na3[Al(OH)6] Al2(SO4)3 Al2O3 Al(OH)3 Al2O3;

) Al(NO3)3 AlCl3 Na3[Al(OH)6] Al(OH)3 Al2S3;

) Al AlN Al(NO3)3 Al KAlO2 Al2O3.

S-EMEHT I II P 1. C yeo epoo cpyyp aoo oxapaepye o oe aee coco s-eeo I II py. B e co co ocoeoc aex coco s-eeo o cpae c p-eea?

2. a pyax s-eeo ec payc aoo, ep oa, cpoco epoy, epoopaeoc? a aoe xapaepc ec p epexoe o I o II pye peeax ooo epoa?

3. pec pep coee eox eao c pa a xeco c.

4. Oxapaepye cocooc s-eeo opaoa oop aoe coee.

5. Oce aoe pacooee eox eao e poxeco py ape eao.

6. cxo ooe Be Mg epoxeco py ap e eao oxapaepye x cocooc aoec c oo.

7. Oocye oooc oye eox eao xe c ye. Hae cooecye ypae pea.

8. a ec ocoe coca oco poco s-e eo o epe yee opooo oepa eea? Ha e pea, xapaepye aoepe coca oca poca ep.

9. Paccope xece coca po s-eeo. ae ocoeoc cpoe pa ep? Hae ypae pea aoec LiH BaH2 c oo paaeo HCl.

10. ae poecc poea p epoe pacaa NaCl;

p epoe pacopa NaCl?

11. ae coee opayc p aoec s-eeo c copoo? ae o axoc yax pcaecx pe eo Li2O, Na2O2, KO2, KO3, BaO, BaO2? Opeee cee oce eeo x coeex. Oxapaepye oc eo-occaoee coca coee s-eeo c copoo.

12. Ca ap c eec eo eao oe acco 6,2 pacop oe acco 200 . B peyae pea e c a oeo 2,24 (.y.) opaoac pacop, oopo accoa o NaOH paa 1,94 %. Opee eec ea.

13. Cea 1 o oca a, 2 o apa a 3 o oca a. ao oe o popeapye c 16 ao cec? ey paa acca opaoaeoc ocoa?

14. aoe ypae ceyx poecco:

a) Na2O + H2SO ) Na2O2 + H2SO4 ( ) ) BaO2 + KMnO4 + H2SO ) NH4Cl + Mg(OH) ) BeCl2 + KOH e) Ca(HCO3)2 t ) Be + KOH + H2O.

15. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec ceye pepae:

a) Na NaH NaOH NaHCO3 Na2CO3 NaOH;

) K KO2 K2O2 K2O KHSO4 KCl.

OA XAPATEPCTA D-EMEHTOB 1. Coocae eee aox payco, ep oa epoopaeoc eeo ax oox o pyax.

2. e ocec oc aox payco d-eeo V ep oa d-eeo VI epoa oo py?

3. Paccope ocoeoc ee ocox xapaepc aoa d-eeo III py.

4. oey oe d-eeo po epeey cee oce? ae d-eeo po ocoy cee oce?

5. a ec ycooc ocee coca coe e d-eeo cx ceex oce opyax?

6. Paccope ocoeoc x d-eeo cpae c x e s- p-eeo.

7. a ec coo-ocoe coca poco ooo oo e d-eea acoc o cee oce?

8. a ec coe coca co d-eeo VVIII py cx ceex oce?

9. e oycoea oa cooc oecoopaoa y d-eeo? ax d-eeo oa poec a oe (aee) cee?

10. Paccope oopao, oao, pa, c pac- oec (epa) oep oecx coee.

11. ae (aoe aoe) op oee xapaep d eeo:

a) x ceex oce;

) cx ceex oce ?

D-EMEHT VIII P 1. ae cee oce xapaep eea, oaa e? pee o a pepa coee x eeo xa paepx ceex oce aoe x.

2. a aoecy eeo, oa e c aoo, cepo coo coa? a ea aoecy c oo, c o pacopa coe?

3. Paccope poecc oppo ooaoo yeoo ee a. Be a oppo pcyce O2 CO2 opyae cpee?

4. Oce aeoe yeee caapoo epooo oeaa cce Co3+ + e = Co2+ eox cpeax paco pax, coepax CN-.

5. coy ae oca ecooc oo [Co(NH3)6]3+ [Co(CN)6]3+, opeee oooc poea poecca:

[Co(NH3)6]3+ + 6CN- [Co(CN)6]3- + 6NH 6. Paccope cocoe oo Fe3+ ox pacopax p pa x pH.

7. poaapye poyeoc FeS FeSO4. FeSO4 a e ypae epo cye poa.

8. o oe poyec:

a) FeCl3 FeCl2;

) FeCl3 K3[Fe(CN)6];

) FeCl3 K3[Fe(OH)6];

) FeCl3 K2FeO4.

9. poaapye c o pe epoa aoepe c coco oye eea. e axo peee o co co? Moo cooa a occaoe eea?

10. a eec ycooc oce py Fe(II) Co(II) Ni(II)? a eec ocea cocooc py Fe(III) Co(III) Ni(III)? Oxapaepye yco oye poc o Me(OH)2 Me(OH)3.

11. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) Fe FeCl2 Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3 Na2FeO4 ;

) Na2FeO4 Fe(OH)3 NaFeO2 Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 FeO;

) Fe3O4 Fe FeCl3 FeS Fe(NO3)3.

12. aoe ypae pea:

a) Fe + O2 + H2O ) Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O ) FeSO4 + O2 + H2O ) FeSO4 + KBrO3 + H2SO ) Fe(OH)3 + HCl e) Co(OH)3 + HCl ) Ni(OH)3 + HCl ) FeCl3 + KI ) Fe(OH)3 + Cl2 + KOH ) FeS2 + HNO3 (o.) ) K4[Fe(CN)6] + KMnO4 + H2O ) K2FeO4 + H2O ) K2FeO4 + HCl (o.) o) K2FeO4 + HNO 13. pee xapaepe pea a o Fe2+ Fe3+.

14. ae pea ea ocoe eocpaooo oa ope py, ceee?

15. Paccope cpyypy eooa. ao p ec e ooa o opae?

D-EMEHT VII P 1. ae cee oce xapaep d-eeo VII py ? pee o a pepa coee x eeo xa paepx ceex oce aoe x.

2. pee pep aoo aoo op coee apaa (III) apaa (IV).

3. ae pa cpoe aoo eeo opy ap aa aoeo. B ao cee oce apae xop po aoee cxoco cocax? pee cooe cye pep.

4. Hae ypae pea, oopx coee apaa po a) ocee, ) occaoee coca, ) oce e occaoee oopeeo. ae coee ap aa oy po oceo-occaoey oc eoc?

5. Oxapaepye ooee Mn, Tc, Re py ape x ooee oe, coa, eoa.

6. poaapye coo-ocoe coca poco (o co) apaa (II, IV, VII).

7. Paccope ocee coca KMnO4 pax cpeax.

o peca coo poy occaoe KMnO4 c x, epax eox cpeax? a eec opaca pacopo poecce occaoe KMnO4?

8. Oxapaepye aoece coo co c oca apaa MnO, MnO2, Mn2O7.

9. o oe poyec:

a) MnCl2 MnCl4;

) K2MnO4 KMnO4.

10. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) KMnO4 MnO2 MnCl2 HMnO4 KMnO4;

) KMnO4 MnSO4 MnCO3 MnO Na2MnO4;

) Na2MnO4 NaMnO4 Na2MnO4 MnO2 Na2MnO4.

11. aoe ypae pea, yae oce, occao e oceo-occaoeo pea:

a) MnCl2 + Br2 + KOH ) MnSO4 + NaBiO3 + H2SO ) MnO2 + PbO2 + HNO ) MnO2 + KI + H2SO ) KMnO4 + SO2 + H2SO e) KMnO4 + K2S + KOH ) KMnO4 + FeSO4 + H2O ) KMnO4 + C3H5(OH)3 + H2SO ) KMnO4 + H2O2 + H2SO ) KMnO4 + MnCl2 + H2O ) KMnO4 t ) K2MnO4 + H2O 12. Paccope ooecy po apaecoepax coee . ae ooece e oo Mn2+.

D-EMEHT VI P 1. ae cee oce xapaep d-eeo VI py?

pee o a pepa coee x eeo xapa epx ceex oce aoe x.

2. Cpae epoy cpyypy aoo xpoa cep. ae cee oce peayc x eeo? B ao ce e oce ee po cxoco cocax?

3. ae oc opayc p poaa xpoa, oea opaa a oyxe?

4. Oxapaepye ooee xpoa, oea opaa o e, coa eoa. oey xpo e pacopec oe, xo EoCr3+/Cr = -0.74 B?

5. a ec coo-ocoe coca oco py CrO CrO3? pee pea, oaae aoepoc poca xpoa(III). a aoecy oc xpoa (II, III, VI) c coo cepo coa?

6. a ec coe coca py H2CrO4 H2WO4?

7. Hae oopaoe opy coee:

CrCl32KCNNH3;

Cr(NO3)32NaINaBr;

K2SO3Cr2(SO3)34H2O.

Haoe oece coee. Hae ypae epo opo epoeco ccoa x co ee. Hae paee oca ecooc oa [Cr(NO3)3BrI2]3-.

8. B ax opax axoc Cr3+ ox pacopax p pa x pH? pee aoe ooe oece coee Cr3+, oope oy p o opaoac.

9. Hae ypae poa Cr2(SO4)3 o epo opo cy e. ae yco eoxoo coa p pooe pacopo coe Cr3+, o ye poyeoc ao a? Moo oy ox pacopax Cr2S3?

10. oey oe pacop xpoaa eooo eaa e cy cpey? a ec opaca aoo pacopa p oa e eo? pocppye cooecy ypae pea cocoe paoec:

Cr2O72- + H2O 2CrO42- +2H+?

11. oey p aoec coe ap c pacopa xpoaa xpoaa a aa oca oaooo cocaa? Pac cope ocee coca K2Cr2O7 p pax pH pac opo.

12. poee epoaec aa pea:

(NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + Cr2O3 + H2O.

poaapye yco poee o pea.

13. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec pepae:

a) Cr(NO3)3 Cr(OH)3 K3[Cr(OH)6] K3CrO3 Cr(H2PO4) CrPO4;

) Cr2O3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 Cr2(SO4)3 K3[Cr(OH)6];

) Cr SO4 Cr2(SO4)3 K2CrO4 CrO3 Cr2O3.

14. o oe oepaec poy: CrCl2 CrCl3;

CrCl3 Na3[Cr(OH)6];

CrCl3 Cr(CH3COO)3;

CrCl3 MoCl3;

K2CrO K2WO4.

15. aoe ypae cooecyx pea:

a) K2Cr2O7 + HCl ) CrCl3 + Na2S + H2O ) Mo + HNO ) Cr + KClO3 + KOH ) Cr2(SO4)3 + Cl2 + KOH e) NaCrO2 + PbO2 + NaOH ) Cr2O3 + NaNO3 + NaOH ) K2Cr2O7 + H2S + H2SO ) Na2CrO4 + NaBr + HCl ) MoS2 + HNO3(o.) ) CrO3 + HCl(o.) ) K2Cr2O7 + H2O2 + HCl 16. ay po oe oe cocae oecoepax epeo?

D-EMEHT II P 1. Oxapaepye cpoee aoo d-eeo II py. ao x epoe oypa ocoo oyeo co cox? a epo ceeca oo oec a e ee oey?

2. poaapye xapaep ee aox payco, ep oa, cpoca epoy, epoopaeoc aoo py Zn Hg. e oycoea eooooc ee ya ax aox xapaepc? oey payc aoa a (Z = 30) ee aooo payca a (Z = 20)?

3. ae opa aoax paccapaex eeo oy p a yace opaoa xecx ce? ae ce xapaep Zn, Cd Hg x coeex?

4. ae ae aeoc ae cee oce xapaep yaax eeo? a oo oc, oey o e po ceee oce oe + 2? ey pa a eoc cee oce py oax (Hg2)2+ (Hg3)2+?

5. a ec occaoee (eaece) coca pocx eec py Zn Hg? ao oe xece coca x eao e x pae? Oxapaepye o oee eao oe, pacopa co, eoe coe, a e ypae cooecyx pea.

6. oey a co oac ae caapx epo x oeao e a, xo ae epoeco cce ee Cu Zn pacooe po?

7. a ec coo-ocoe oceo-occa oee coca oco poco py Zn Hg?

Hae ypae pea, xapaepyx aoepe coca oca poca a.

8. a eec epeca ycooc oco, poco coe copocoepax co py Zn Hg? Hae ypae pea, poeax p oae a pac opa NaOH pacopy Hg(NO3)2;

pacopy Hg2(NO3)2.

9. Hae ypae pea epecoo paoe Hg(NO3)2;

Hg2(NO3)2;

HgSO4.

10. a eec oecoopaya aoc aoo p y Zn2+ Hg2+? Hae ypae pea aoec xopo a, a py (I II) c oeppoa pacopo aaa. B ax ycox opayc aae oec py?

11. Hae ypaee pea aoec oca py (II) c oo a oo pacope. Haoe oyeoe coee e.

12. B e aaec ocoeoc epoeco ccoa aoeo a, a py (II)? oey epopoo oc pacopa HgCl2 ec oe o ae paaex pacopax?

13. a oey eec cee poa pao a, a py (II) pacopax c x oao oepa?

oey p pooe pacopa Hg(NO3)2 peoeyec oc co apaee ocey oy? Hae ypae cooecyx pea poa.

14. Oxapaepye ooecy po coee a, a py. ae ep peocopooc eoxoo coa p paoe co py ee coee? ae coco ea a py B aee? ae pea ea x ocoe?

15. e coyc coee a, a py? ae x axo peee ee? o aoe cyeaQ, aQoe, Qoap? aoe x eec peao oo, a aoe coepeo eoo? e o oo oc?

16. Cec oca cya a oe acco 33,15 oec pacop acco 200 , coepa o HCl. oce ooa pea opaoac pacop, oopo accoa o co a paa 21,35 %. Bc ae accox oe coe e a cxoo cec.

17. Cec a a pae a 2 pae ac. epy x opaoa o pacopa HCl, peyae eo e c a oeo 6,72 (.y.). Bopy ac cec oec op pacop, coepa o OH. p o ec a oeo 4,48 (.y.). Pacca oe oyxa (.y.), eoxo oo ooo copa cxoo cec eao.

18. ao ypae pea, pacca oe:

a) Zn + KOH + H2O ) Zn + NaOH ) ZnO + K2CO3 t ) ZnO + H2O + Ba(OH) ) K2[Zn(OH)4] + CO e) Na2ZnO2 + H2SO4 ( ) ) Zn + HNO3 (..) ) Zn(OH)2 + NH3( ) ) Zn(OH)2 + Zn(NO3) ) ZnSO4 + NH3 + H2O ) Na2[Zn(OH)4] + ZnSO ) ZnSO4 + K2CO3 + H2O ) Cd(NO3)2 t o) Cd + H2SO t ) CdCl2 + NH4I p) Hg + HNO + HCl c) HgCl2 + NH ) Hg2Cl2 + NH y) Hg(NO3)2 t ) Hg(NO3)2 + KOH x) Hg2(NO3)2 + NaOH ) HgO + KI + H2O 19. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocy ec ceye pepae:

a) Zn(OH)2 Zn Zn(OH)NO3 K2ZnO2 Zn(OH)2;

) Na2[Zn(OH)4] ZnO [Zn(OH)]2SO4 Zn Na2ZnO2;

) CdSO4 Cd [Cd(NH3)6]SO4 CdS Cd(OH)2;

) HgO Hg2Cl2 Hg(NO3)2 HgCl2 K2[HgI4] HgS.

D-EMEHT I P 1. Oxapaepye cpoee aoo d-eeo I py. aoa epoa oypa x peex ex epe ecx ypoe ocoo coco? ae opa aoax e, cepepa ooa c ae?

2. Paccope eee aox payco, ep oa, cpoca epoy epoopaeoc py Cu Au.

oey payc aoa e (Z=29) ee payca aoa a (Z=19)? oey payc aoo cepepa (Z=47) ooa (Z=79) paec oao?

3. ae cee oce ec aoo paccapaex eeo? ae x aoee xapaep e;

ce pepa;

ooa?

4. Oee occaoee coca pocx eec. a o ec py Cu Au?

5. ae coca ooa oo ooc eo aopo e aa? Paccope ooee yaax eao copo y, aoea, cepe.

6. Oce, oey e e peapye c co oo, o ec e oopo ooo pacopa aa a? oey cepepo ooo pacopc ox pacopax ao p cyc ocee, apep, copoa? aoe paecoe peee axo o coco ooa?

7. Oxapaepye ooee e, cepepa ooa paae oeppoa pacopa co, pacopa eo e coe. Hae ypae cooecyx pea, yae yco x ocyece.

8. ae pea poea p pacope ooa apco oe, oeppoao coo coe, aceo xo po, ceeoo coe?

9. e ocec opaoae eeoo aea a ex ex oepee cepepx peeo p eo pea x a oyxe? Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

10. B e ax ac oy axoc ox pacopax e, cepepo ooo? Xapaepo ooa (III) opaoae papoax aoo?

11. Cpae ocee coca aoo Cu2+ Ag+ ox pacopax. ao x occaaaec a aoe p e poe epy oepe?

12. aoo e cee oce eaa a coo-ocoe coca oco poco e ooa? ae x o aa aoep coca? aoo poca Cu(OH) Au(OH)3 cee pae coe coca? aoe co eee ooa aaec ooa coa? Hae ypae pea, poeax p pacope yaax poc o e pacopa HCl;

e pacopa OH.

13. oey a oc cepepa (I) opaae eoae poo e?

14. aoa cpea ox pacopo AgNO3, Cu(NO3)2 K[Au(OH)4]?

Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

15. Cpae oca ecooc oecx oo [Ag(NH3)2]+ [Cu(NH3)4]2+ oee oecoopayy cocooc a oo Ag+ Cu2+. Oocye Ba o.

16. Paccope epecy ycooc oco, poco copocoepax coe e, cepepa ooa. Hae ypae pea epecoo paoe Ag2O, AgNO3, Ag2SO4, CuO, CuSO4, Cu(NO3)2, Au(OH)3, AuCl3.

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