WWW.DISSERS.RU


...
    !

Pages:     || 2 | 3 |
-- [ 1 ] --

.., .., .., .., .. , .

, [ ]: / .., .., .., .., ... . . . (1,2 ). .: - Ӕ, 2003. : http://anubis.bsu.by/publications/elresources/Chemistry/bogatikov.pdf. . . , 2002. PDF , 1.4. .

: Adobe Acrobat 5.0 .

ӻ 2003 .., .., .., .., .., 2003.

- ӻ, 2003 www.elbook.bsu.by elbook@bsu.by 546(076.1)+541(076.1) 24.173 73 Aop:

A. H. oao, B. A. pac, . H. ao, A. A. Paoa, . E. ao Pee e:

aepa x eopyccoo ocyapceoo eaoecoo yepcea . M. Taa (a. aepo oe axu);

aa xecx ay, oe aep oe x eopyccoo ocyapceoo ecoo yepcea C B Tae oao A. H.

73 Cop aa, opoco ypae o oe eopa eco x: e. ocoe / A. H. oao, B. A. pac, . H. ao p. M.: , 2002. 149 c.

ISBN 985-445-803-2.

eoe ocoe cocaeo cooec c popao ypca oe eopaeco x cyeo ayea yaeao e paoo e ooecoo ayea. ocoe ae opoc caocoeo pao cyeo, ypae aa o aa oo ee 546(076.1)+541(076.1) 24.1 oe aopo, ISBN 985-445-803-2 , I. OA XM A B A I ATOMHO-MOEPHOE EHE.

OCHOBHE OHT AOH XM ae o x oocc xec ee, ao, oeya, o, eeco, xecoe oeco eeca, o.

Xuuecu eem onpeee u amoo, xapamepu yuc ouao apo amox ep. Hapep, ce cyec ye o Bceeo ao c apo pa +1 opay xec ee oopo (H), ce ao c apo pa +92 ee ypa (U). B acoee pe eco 118 xecx eeo Amo empoempaa xuuecu eeua acmua, co cmoa u nooumeo apeoo pa u ompuameo ap ex empoo. Ao coec py c pyo xeco c, opay oey pca eec. Paep acc aoo peao a. Hapep, acc aoo yepoa copoa pa cooeceo 1,9951026 2,6581026 . B x apy c aco ae acc aoo poo coyc ae oocex aox acc. O ooaac Ar (r epa ya coa relative, o a ooce).

Omocumea amoa acca Ar uueca euua, pa a omoeu cpee acc amoo aoo eema 1/12 ac mu acc yua 12C.

Ec acca aoa 12C paa 1,9951026 , o ma (12C) 1,995 10-26 = =1,66310-27 .

12 y ey aa aoo ee acc ooaa coo u (o acoo unit, o a ea). Ta opao 1u = 1,6631027 .

Hapep, oocea aoa acca copoa paa ma (O) 2,658 10-26 Ar(O) = = =16.

1u 1,66310-27 Moeya eaa, cnocoa caocmomeoy cye cmoau acmua, coxpaa ce xuuecue cocma aoo eecma. Moey oy coco a aoo ooo eea, a aoo pax eeo. Moey c oce cocaa xecx coc opaoax eec. Paep acc oey ae peao a. Hapep, acca oo o ey o paa 2,991026 . p poee paceo x ae coyc oocee oeype acc, ooa aec coo Mr.

Omocumea oeypa acca Mr uueca euua, paa omoeu cpee acc oey eecma 1/12 acmu acc yua 12C.

Hapep, oocea oeypa acca o paa m H2O 2,9910-26 Mr(H2O) = = =18.

1u 1,66310-27 aee Mr eeca cea pao cye ae Ar opay x eo eeo c yeo ca x aoo oeye.

o oo-, ooaoa aca, oaaa epe c apo.

Ooaoe o: Ca2+, Cl, Na+, S2;

ooaoe o: NH4+, SO42, CH3COO.

o coec cooec c x apa, opay oe y pca.

Beeco ycoa ccea ac (aoo, oo oe y), oaaa opeee ec xec co ca.

B acoee pe eco ooo 23 oo eec. Bce o ec a 2 py eeca oeypoo eoeypo o cpoe.

eeca oeypoo cpoe oocc eeca, co coe oey. a pao, eeca oaa eepaypa ae (a, oc eoae epe eeca). Xece opy ax eec aac oey pu.

eeca eoeypoo cpoe oocc eeca, yax pcaecx peeo oopx axoc ao o.

eeca, a pao, oaa co eepaypa a e p oao eepaype cea axoc epo ape ao coco. a eeca coepeo epeo o e oeya. Beco eo coyec oe opya ea eeca. Xece opy eec eoeypoo cpoe c poce, nupuecuu, opya.

opya euua (E) cooo eecma eoeypoo cmpoeu ycoa (e cnocoa caocmomeoy cyecmoa u) pynna amoo uu uoo, cocma omopo coomemcmyem nupueco opye aoo eecma.

Ec eeco eoeypoo cpoe coco aoo e cox eeo, apep SiO2, eo opyo ee ec ycoa aca, cocoa 1-o aoa Si 2-x aoo O. Oa ec ycoo ooy, o pcae oca pe (IV) e oex oey SiO2, o coco oeca aoo pe copoa. Ho ec pca oo ycoo pae a py aoo, ao oopx ye o ao Si a aoa O. Ta opao, opya ea oca pe (IV) ycoa, pea o e cyecya aca SiO2.

Ec eeco eoeypoo cpoe opaye oy p caecy peey, apep NaCl, eo opyo ee y e ycoa aca, cocoa ooo oa Na+ ooo oa Cl. Oa ec ycoo ooy, o pcae xopa ap e oey NaCl, . . o coco oo. Ho ec o pca oo ycoo pae a py oo, ao oopx y e 1 o Na+ 1 o Cl. Ceoaeo, opyo ee xo pa ap ec ycoa aca, cocoa 2-x oo.

co eeca eoeypoo cpoe e pe oe oocea oeypa acca. ocoy cpy yp ea ax eec c e oey, a ycoe opye e, pe ep oocea op ya acca. Oa ooaaec Mf,r(X).

Omocumea opya acca Mf,r(X) euua, paa omoeu acc oo opyo euu eecma X 1/ acmu acc yua 12C.

aee Mf,r pao cye ae Ar eeo c yeo ca x aoo opyo ee.

Bae oece xapaepca oo ee ca c eo xecoe oeco, acca oe.

Xecoe oeco eeca eca ea, po opoaa cy cpyypx e (aoo, oey E), coepaxc ao op eeca. Xecoe oeco eeca ooaaec coo n. Ee xecoo oe ca eeca ec o.

Mo maoe xuuecoe ouecmo eecma, omopo co epumc 6,021023 eo cmpymypx euu, m. e. cmoo, coo coepumc amoo yepoe 12C acco 0,012 .

co 6,021023 aaec nocmoo Aoapo ooaaec coo N :

N = 6,021023 o1.

Macca eecma, moo ouecme 1 o, aaemc o po acco aoo eecma. Oa ooaaec coo M paaec /o /o.

Macca eeca ceo paa poee eo xecoo oeca opo acc:

m(X) = n(X) M(X) Oe aoopaoo eecma, moo ouecme 1 o, a aemc op oeo eecma. O ooaaec coo V paaec 3/o 3/o.

Oe aa p ao ae eepaype ceo pae poee eo xecoo oeca opoo oea, epeoo p ex e ycox:

V(X) = n(X) V (X) Ta opao, xecoe oeco eeca, co eo cpyypx e, acca oe ( ao) ca ey coo coooee:

m(X ) V (X ) N(X ) n(X ) = = =.

M (X ) Vm(X ) NA ae aoa x oocc ao coxpae acc eeca, ao ococa cocaa eeca, ao xecx aeo ao aooo coco.

ao coxpae acc eeca Macca eecm, cmynuux xuuecy peau, uceo paa acce eecm, opaoauxc peymame peauu.

C o pe aoo-oeypoo ye xoe pea pocxo epepacpeeee aoo, o e eec x o ee oeco. ooy oa acca cex aoo ae e e ec. o ao e ocoe paceo o ypae pea.

ao ococa cocaa eeca oe cooe eecmo oeypoo cmpoeu eaucuo om cnocoo eo noyeu ueem nocmo aecme u ou ecme cocma.

C o pe aoo-oeypoo ye poecce opao a oey oo yacye eooe co aoo, oope coec cea cpoo opeeeo oeceo coooe . ooy oece coca opayxc oey, a ceo aeo, coca opayxc eec oeypoo cpoe oaaec oco. B poeccax e opaoa pcao e oeypoo (aooo ooo) cpoe yacye oe o oe co ac, oope coec e cea cpoo opeee o oeceo coooe. ooy oece coca opayxc aox ox pcao oe epee acoc o cocoo x oye. oece coca cox eec yoo paa epe accoe o eeo.

Maccoa o eema eecme uco, noaaee, a y acm om oe acc eecma cocmaem acca amoo a oo eema. Maccoa o ooaaec coo w paa ec o ox e, o poeax (apep 0,35, 35 %). Maccoe o eeo A B coo eece A B pac cac o opya:

x Ar (A) y Ar (B) w(A) = ;

w(B) =.

Mr (AxBy ) Mr (AxBy ) p o cya ae accox oe eeo, xox coca eeca, cea paa 1, 100 %.

puep 1. Bc ae accox oe eeo ao co coe.

Peeue:

1) Paccae aee Mr co:

Mr(HNO2) = Ar(H) + Ar(N) + 2Ar(O) = 1 + 14 + 32 = 47.

2) Paccae ae accox oe eeo:

1 Ar (H) w(H) = = = 0,021 = 2,1 %;

Mr (HNO2) 1 Ar (N) w(N) = = = 0,298 = 29,8 % ;

Mr (HNO2) w(O) = 100 % - 2,1 % - 29,8 % = 68,1 %.

puep 2. Opee pocey opyy ooo oco aoa, oopo accoa o copoa paa 63,15 %.

Peeue:

1) yc acca oca NxOy paa 100 . Paccae acc aoo aoa copoa oce:

a) m(O) = m(NxOy) w(O) = 100 0,6315 = 63,15 ;

) m(N) = m(NxOy) m(O) = 100 63,15 = 36,85 .

2) Hae xece oeca aoo aoa copoa:

m(N) 36,85 a) n(N) = = = 2,632 o;

M (N) 14 /o m(O) 63,15 ) n(O) = = = 3,947 o.

M (O) 16 /o 3) Hae opoe coooee aoa copoa oce:

n(N) : n(O) = 2,632 o : 3,947 o = 2 o : 3 o.

Ceoaeo, coa opya oca N2O3.

puep 3. Heecoe eeco acco 6 co e copoa oy yec a acco 8,8 oy acco 3,6 . Opee oeypy opyy copeeo eeca, ec oocea ooc eo apo o oyxy paa 3,103.

Peeue:

ocoy peyae copa eeca opaoac ye c a oa, eae o, o eo coca xo yepo, o opo , ooo, copo.

1) Paccae accy yepoa opaoaec CO2:

M(CO2) = 12 /o + 216 /o = 44 /o;

44 (CO2) coepa 12 (C) 8,8 (CO2) -"- x (C);

x = 2,4 (C).

2) Paccae accy oopoa opaoaec oe:

M(H2O) = 12 /o + 16 /o = 18 /o;

18 (H2O) coepa 2 (H) 3,6 (H2O) -"- y (C);

y = 0,4 (H).

3) Hae cyy acc yepoa oopoa, xox coca cxooo eeca:

m(C) + m(H) = 2,8 4) ocoy cya acc C H (2,8 ) ee acc copeeo eeca (6 ), eae o, o eo coca xo ae co po, acca oopoo paa m(O) = 6 2,8 = 3,2 .

5) Opee poceee opoe coooee C, H O c xoo eece, . e. eo pocey opyy:

m(C) m(H) m(O) n(C) : n(H) : n(O) = : : = M (C) M (H) M (O) 2,4 0,4 3,2 = : :

= 1: 2 :1.

12 /o 1 /o 16 /o Ta opao, pocea (nupueca) opya eeca CH2O.

Ceye oe, o pocea opya eeca oopaae poceee (aeee) cooe coooee aoo e eo e. Moeypa e opya eeca opaae peaoe co aoo aoo eea oeye oyaec yoee eco pocee opye a opeeeoe co pa.

6) Paccae aee opo acc cxooo eeca o eo ooceo ooc:

M1(CxHyOz) = 29 D = 29 3,103 = 90 /o 7) Paccae aee opo acc cxooo eeca o eo pocee opye:

M2(CH2O) = 12 + 2 + 16 = 30 /o.

8) ocoy aee M1 oe ae M2 3 paa, o axoe oeypo opy eeca ce ec eo po cee opye yo ye 3 paa. Ta opao, coa opya C3H6O3.

ao aeo Beecma cmynam peauu u opaymc peymame pea u uaemx ouecmax.

Baae paccop opeee o: xuuecu ua em, uco uaemocmu, amop uaemocmu, opa acca uaema, op oe uaema u ouecmo ee cma uaema.

Xuuecu uaem peaa uu ycoa acmua ee cma, omopa ucomo-ocoo peauu uaema (m. e. xu uecu paoea) ooy uoy H+, a oucumeo-occmaou meo peauu ooy empoy.

Peaa aca oeya, ao o, ycoa aca opeeea ac (ooa, pe . .) oey, aoa oa.

B oe cyae ae oo eeca X ooaaec ce y opao: (X ), e z* co aeoc.

z uco uaemocmu z* uco uoo H+ ucomo-oco o peauu uu uco empoo oucumeo-occmaoumeo peauu, omopoe uaemo (xuuecu paoeo) oo acmu e eecma X.

amop uaemocmu uco, omopoe noaaem, z aa o (acm) peao acmu X uaema ooy uoy H+ ucomo-ocoo peauu uu ooy empoy oucumeo occmaoumeo peauu.

Mopa acca aea eeca X M (X ) acca z ooo o aea oo eeca. Ea epe /o /o. Mopa acca aea eeca X caa c o po acco eeca X coooee:

1 M (X ) M (X ) =.

z z C pyo copo, opa acca aea eeca X c eo paa ooe acc eeca X cooecyey x ecoy oecy aea eeca X:

1 m(X ) M (X ) =.

z n (X ) z Xuuecoe ouecmo uaema eecma X n (X ) z euua, uceo paa omoeu acc eecma X opo acce eo uaema. Ea epe o.

Mop oe uaema aa X Vm (X ) oe o z oo o uaema aoopaoo eecma X. Ea epe /o 3/o.

Mop oe aea aa X ca c op oeo aa X coooee:

1 Vm (X ) Vm (X ) =.

z z B o e pe op oe aea aa X ceo pa e ooe oea aa X cooecyey xecoy o ecy eeca:

1 V (X ) V (X ) =.

z n (X ) z puep 1. Opee co aeoc, aop a eoc, ae opy accy aea ocopo co pea:

Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 CaHPO4 + 2H2O.

Peeue:

1) Haxo co aeoc z*.B ao pea o oo oey H3PO4 oec 2 oa H+ , py coa, oo oeye co ae (xec cooecy) 2 oa H+. ooy co aeoc z* ao pea pao 2.

2) Haxo aop aeoc opeee ae 1 co. o opeee: f = =.

z* o a, o ooy oy H+ ao pea cooecye 1/2 ac (ooa) oey co, oopa ec ao pea ee xec aeo.

3) Haxo opy accy aea co:

1 M (H3PO4) M (H3PO4) = = = 49 /o.

z 2 puep 2. Opee ae pacca opy accy aea poca xpoa (III) pea:

2Cr(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O.

Peeue:

1) Haxo co aeoc Cr(OH)3:

2 aca Cr(OH)3 cooecy 6 oo H+, 1 ace - " - x oo, oya x = 3. a, co aeoc poca xpoa z* ao pea pao 3.

2) Haxo aop aeoc Cr(OH)3 opeee eo xec ae:

3 oa H+ aea 1 aca Cr(OH)3, 1 oy H+ - " - y ac, oya y = 1/3.

o a, o ao pea aeo poca xpoa (III) ec ycoa aca 1/3 ac eo opyo e.

3) Paccae aee opo acc aea Cr(OH)3:

1 M (Cr(OH)3) M (Cr(OH)3) = = 34,33 /o.

puep 3. Opee ae pacca opy accy aea poca apaa (II) pea:

2Mn(OH)2 + 12KOH + 5Cl2 2KMnO4 + 10KCl + 8H2O.

Peeue:

1) Haxo co aeoc Mn(OH)2:

ocoy opyo ee oo poca coepc ao apaa cee oce +2, a opyo ee MnO4 cee oce +7, eae o, o 1 ace Mn(OH)2 cooecy 5 epoo. a, co aeoc poca pao 5.

2) Haxo aop aeoc poca opeee 1 eo xec ae: f = =.

z * o a, o ao pea aeo poca ap aa (II) ec ycoa aca 1/5 ac eo opyo e .

3) Paccae aee opo acc aea poca:

1 M (Mn(OH)2) 89 /o M (Mn(OH)2) = = = 17,8 /o.

5 puep 4. Opee ae pacca aee op o acc aea cyaa a pea:

Al2(SO4)3 + 3Pb(NO3)2 = 2Al(NO3)3 + 3PbSO4.

Peeue:

1) Haxo co aeoc Al2(SO4)3.

B ao pea oea e pa yac o H+. B o cyae pac o ae pye o c oco apo, pa +1 1. B ae pepe o o NO3. ypae pe a o, o oo ace Al2(SO4)3 ae 6 oo NO3, . e. co aeoc z* cyaa a pao ec.

2) Haxo aop aeoc opeee ae:

6 oa NO3 cooecye 1 aca Al2(SO4)3, 1 oy - " - x ac, oya x = 1/6.

o a, o ao pea oea xec ae o cyaa a ec ycoa aca 1/6 ac eo opyo e.

3) Paccae aee opo acc aea:

1 M (Al2(SO4)3) M (Al2(SO4)3) = = 57 /o.

puep 5. Opee ae pacca aee op oo oea aea cepooopoa pea:

H2S2 + 8HNO3 H2S+6O4 + 8NO2 + 4H2O.

Peeue:

1) Haxo co aeoc H2S. ocoy oeye cepooopoa cee oce cep paa 2, a oeye cepo co oa paa +6, eae o, o 1 oeye H2S cooec y 8 epoo. o a, o co aeoc (z*) cepo oopoa ao pea pao 8.

2) Haxo aop aeoc cepooopoa opeee eo ae:

8 epoa cooecye 1 oeya H2S, 1 epoy - " - x oey, oya x = 1/8.

o a, o xec aeo cepooopoa a o pea ec ycoa aca oca ac eo oey.

3) Haxo aee opoo oea aea cepooopoa:

1 Vm 22,4 /o Vm (H2S) = = = 2,8 /o.

8 puep 6. Heec ea acco 10,0 co copoe oy oc eaa acco 18,89 . Opee ea.

Peeue:

+ x - ae oy cxey pea: Me0 + O0 Me O.

2 2 x B cooec c aoo aeo xecoe oeco aea eaa pao xecoy oecy aea copoa:

1 1 m(Me) m(O2) n (Me) = n (O2) => =.

1 z* z* M (Me) M (O2) z* z* ec: m(Me) acca eaa, cyeo pea;

m(O2) acca copoa, cyeo pea;

M (Me) opa acca aea eaa;

z* M (O2) opa acca aea copoa.

z* 1) Hae accy copoa, cyeo pea:

m(O2) = m(oca) m(eaa) = 18,89 10,0 = 8,89 .

2) Hae opy accy aea oeypoo copo a. p opaoa oca aa oeya copoa pcoee 4 epoa pepaaec 2 oc-oa: O0 + 4 2O2.

Toa: 4 epoa cooecye 1 oeya O2, 1 epoy - " - x oey, oya x = 1/4.

o a, o xec aeo copoa ao pea ec ycoa aca eepa ac oey. Ha e aee opo acc aea copoa:

1 M (O2) M (O2) = = = 8 /o.

4 3) oca coe ae e paee aoa aeo:

m(Me) M (O2) 1 z* M (Me) = = = 9 /o.

z* m(O2) 8, 4) eaa co aeoc z* pao cee eo oc e coee. ocoy M(Me) = M (Me) z*, o p z* z* = 1 M(Me) = 9 /o;

z* = 2 M (Me) = 18 /o;

z* = 3 M (Me) = 27 /o.

Ooaeoo eaa c opo acco 9 /o yxa eoo eaa c opo acco 18 /o e cyecye. Tpex ae ea c opo acco 27 a (Al).

puep 7. p pacope coe eaa acco 9,58 ec oopo oeo 6,72 (. y.). Opee ea.

Peeue:

n ae oy cxey pea: Me0 + nH+ Men+ + H0.

B cooec c aoo aeo, oeco eeca aea eaa pao oecy eeca aea oopoa.

Ceoaeo, m(Me) V (H2) =.

1 M (Me) Vm (H2) z* z* ec: m(Me) acca eaa;

V(H2) oe oopoa;

M (Me) opa acca aea eaa;

z* Vm (H2) op oe aea oopoa.

z* 1) Paccae aee opoo oea aea oopoa.

ocoy oeya oopoa opayec o cxee: 2H+ + 2 H0, o paccyae a:

2 epoa cooecye 1 oeya H2, 1 epoy cooecye x oey, oya x =.

Ta opao, aeo oopoa ao pea e c ycoa aca ooa eo oey. ooy op oe aea oopoa ye pae:

1 Vm 22, Vm (H2) = = =11,2 /o.

2 2) oca ae e paee aoa aeo, ae opy accy aea eaa opee ea.

m(Me) Vm (H2) 1 9,5811, z* M (Me) = = = 15,97 /o.

z* V (H2) 6, 1 M (Me) ocoy M (Me) =, o opa acca eaa y z* z* e paac: M(Me) = M (Me) z*, z* e z* = 1, 2 3 (C. pep 6).

p z* = 1 M(Me) = 15,97 /o, p z* = 2 M(Me) = 31,94 /o, p z* = 3 M(Me) = 47,9 /o.

Oo- yxaeoo eao c ae ae o px acc e cyecye, pexae ea c opo acco 47,9 /o a (Ti).

puep 8. xopa eecoo eaa acco 18,34 oy e pa oo e eaa acco 23,64 . Opee ea.

Peeue:

1) ocoy xecoe oeco aea xopa e aa pao xecoy oecy aea eo paa, o:

m(Me+ xCl-) m(Me+ x (NO3)x ) x =.

1 M (MeClx ) M (Me(NO3)x ) z* z* p pee oox aa eoxoo o, o opa acca aea cooo eeca paa cye opx acc aeo eo cocax ace. oyc, o opa acca aea eecoo eaa paa x /o. a, o op a acca aea xop-aoa Cl = 35,5 /o, a opa acca aea pa-aoa NO3 paa 62 /o oca ae e paee aoa aeo, oy:

18,34 23, =, oca x = 56,2 /o.

x + 35,5 x + 2) Opee ea.

ocoy M(Me) = M (Me) z*, z* e z* cee oce eaa coee, o p z* = 1 M(Me) = 56,2 /o 1 = 56,2 /o ea e cyecye;

p z* = 2 M(Me) = 56,2 /o 2 = 112,4 /o ea a (Cd).

ao Aoapo B pax oeax paux ao npu ouaox eux yco ux (aeuu u menepamype) coepumc ouaooe uco oey.

p pee aa coyc 3 cec oo aoa.

1) p opax ycox ae 101,325 a eepa ype 0 C 273 1 o oo aa aae oe, pepo pa 22,4 . O aaec op oeo aa npu opa o x ycoux ooaaec V. E epe /o m 3/o.

Mop oe aa ceo pae ooe oea aa cooecyey xecoy oecy oo eeca:

V (X ) Vm =.

n(X ) 2) Oocea ooc aa X o ay Y Dy(X) epa epa ea, paa ooe opx acc ax ao:

M (X ) DY (X ) =.

M (Y ) Oa oaae, o coo pa a X ee eee aa Y, ec x oe oao. Hapep, oocea ooc aa a o oopoy:

M (NH3) 17 /o DH (NH3) = = = 8,5.

M (H2) 2 /o Ec peyec a aee ooceo ooc aa (X) o oyxy, o opy accy aa X e a cpe opy accy oyxa M (cp.), pay 29 /o. Hapep, oocea ooc xopooopoa o oyxy M (HCl) 36,5 /o D (HCl) = = = 1,259.

M (cp.) 29 /o Cpee opo acco aoo cec (M ) aa accy ce c, oe oopo p . y. pae 22,4 . Oa caa c op acca ao coooee:

M (cec) = (X) M(X) + (Y) M(Y).

ec (X) (Y) oee o ao cec, M(X) M(Y) o pe acc ao. Oea o aa () cec ea, pa a ooe oea aa X oey cec. a accoa o, oa oe paac ox e poeax.

3) ooc aa () ea, ceo paa ooe eo opo acc opoy oey:

M (X ) (X) =.

Vm Hapep, ooc oyxa p . y. paa:

M.(cp.) 29 /o (o.) = = = 1,295 /.

Vm 22,4 /o ao o Mapoa pu nocmoo menepamype oe ao nopuu aa opam o nponopuoae eo aeu.

o a, o p yee ae aa opeeeoe co pa eo oe yeaec o coo e pa. ooy po eee ae aa a eo oe p ocoo eepaype ec eo ocoo:

p1V1 = p2V2 = const.

puep 9. p ae 98,5 a oe aa pae 10,4 . B c aee oea ao op aa p ae 162,6 a.

Peeue:

ypae o-Mapoa pa V2 ae eo aee:

p1V1 98,510, V2 = = = 6,3 .

p2 162, ao e-ccaa pu nocmoo aeuu oe ao nopuu aa npo nponopuoae eo acomo menepamype.

o a, o p yee acoo eepayp aa opeeeoe co pa eo oe yeaec o coo e pa.

ooy ooee oea aa eo acoo eepaype p ocoo ae ec ocoo eo:

V1 V = = const.

T1 T puep 10. p eepaype 18 C oe aa pae 6,72 . B c aee oea aoo aa p eepaype 118 C.

Peeue:

1) Paccae acoe ae eepayp:

a) T1 = t1 + 273 = 18 + 273 = 291 K;

) T2 = t2 + 273 = 118 + 273 = 391 K.

2) ypae e-ccaa pa V2 paccae eo a ee:

V1T2 6, V2 = = = 9,03 .

T1 Oee ao ao poueeue euu aeu ao nopuu aa a euuy eo oea, omeceoe aeu acomo menepamyp, ecm euua nocmoa p0V0 p1V = = const.

T0 T o ypaee aaec ypaeue anepoa. Eo aco c oy pacea oea aa p opax ycox, ec eco eo aee p pyx ycox.

puep 11. p eepaype 45 C ae 68,8 a oe a a pae 120,4 . Bc aee oea aa p opax yc ox.

Peeue:

ypae oeeoo aooo aoa pa V0 pac cae eo aee:

T0 p1V1 273 68,8120, V0 = = = 70,2 .

p0T1 101, Ec xecoe oeco aa pao 1 o, o aee po pV ec ocoo eo aaec yepcao T aoo ocoo (R). B cyae, oa aee aa paaec a, a oe pax, o R pae aee, paoe 8,314 /o K. C yeo oo 1 o aa oo aca:

pV = R pV = RT.

T Ec e xecoe oeco aoopaoo eeca pao n o, o pV = nRT.

o ypaee aaec ypaeue anepoa Meeeea.

m a, o n =, aoe ypaee oo aca e M m pV = RT.

M Oo cae aeaec aee aa, eo oe, accy eepaypy. aoe ypaee ooe c y xo x eo e, ec ec ocae e.

puep 12. Bc aee opo acc eeca, ec eo ap acco 2,6 p eepaype 87 oC ae 83,2 a a a oe, pa 1200 .

Peeue:

ypae aepoa-Meeeea pa M paccae ee aee:

mRT 2,6 8, M = = = 78 /o.

pV 83,21, ao apax ae ao Oee aeue cecu ao, e cmynaux xuuecoe au oecmue, pao cye napuax aeu aoo u ux:

P = p(1) + p(2) + + p(n).

apuaoe aeue aa (p) aeue, omopoe npouou mom a, ecu o ou npu mex e ycoux aua ec oe aoo cecu.

apaoe aee aa cec poopoao eo oe o oe:

p(1) = P (1).

puep 12. Oee aee cec, cocoe aoa acco 14 copoa acco 8 , pao 155 a. Bc ae ap ax ae ao cec.

Peeue:

ocoy cec oee o ao ceo pa x o o, o ao cyae apae ae ao y y poopoa x o o.

1) Paccae xecoe oeco aoo ao:

14 n(N2) = = 0,5 o;

28 /o 8 n(O2) = = 0,25 o.

32 /o 2) Paccae ae opx oe ao cec:

n(N2) 0,5 o (N2) = = = 0,666.

n(cec) 0,75 o Ceoaeo, opa o copoa (O2) paa:

(O2) = 1 0,666 = 0,334.

3) Paccae ae apax ae ao:

p(N2) = (N2) P = 0,666 155 a = 103,23 a;

p(O2) = (O2) P = 0,334 155 a = 51,77 a.

puep 13. B cocye oeo 6 cea copo oeo 3,5 , axoc o aee 125 a, ao oeo 5,5 , a xoc o o aee 105 a. Bc apae ae ao oee aee oyeo cec.

Peeue:

1) o ypae o-Mapoa paccae oe ae a o oce x cea (.e. apae ae):

p1(O2) V1(O2) 1253, p2(O2) = = = 72,92 a ;

V2 p1(N2) V1(N2) 1055, p2(N2) = = = 96,25 a.

V2 2) Hae oee aee cec:

P = p(1) + p(2) = 72,92 a + 96,25 a = 169,17 a.

puep 14. B aoe oeo 44,5 p eepaype 19 oC co epac copo acco 27,2 , yec a acco 55,0 ao eeco acc. Bc aee acc aoa cec, ec ee aee pao 139,05 a.

Peeue:

1) ypae aepoa Meeeea pa aee paccae eo ae copoa yecoo aa:

mRT p = ;

VM 27,28,314 (273+19) p(O2) = = 46,35 a.

44, 558,314 (273+19) p(CO2) = = 68,16 a.

44,5 2) Paccae apaoe aee aoa cec:

p(N2) = P(cec) p(CO2) p(O2) = 139,05 68,16 46,35 = 24,5 a.

3) Paccae aee acc aoa cec:

pVM 24,5 44,5 m(N2) = = =12,58 .

RT 8,31 (273 +19) puep 15. B aoepe a oo p eepaype 25 C coep c copo oeo 5,2 o aee 102,455 a. Pacca aee oea cyxoo copoa aoepe p . y., ec ae e aceoo ooo apa p 25 oC pao 3,164 a.

Peeue:

1) Paccae aee apaoo ae coo copo a cec:

p(O2) = P(cec) p(H2O) = 102,455 3,164 = 99,291 a.

2) ypae oeeoo aooo aoa pa V paccae eo aee:

T0 p1V1 27399,2915, V0 = = = 4,67 .

p0T1 101,3 (273 + 25) Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. Copypye opeee o: xec ee, ao, oeya, o, eeco.

2. Coo xecx eeo eco acoee pe?

B e aac pa ey xec eeo poc eeco? ae xapaepc pcy eey, a ae pocoy eecy?

3. o xapaepy oocea aoa oocea oe ypa acc? o ec aoo ee acc? aoe aee oa pae a ooaaec?

4. oey co pocx eec (~ 550) opao oe ca ecx xecx eeo? e oycoeo ee ao po?

5. e oac eeca oeypoo cpoe o eec eoeypoo cpoe? ae ece coca pcy e py eeca? ae ac c x cpyyp ea?

6. e opeeec xecoe oeco eeca? Copy pye opeeee o o. ao ec cc oco o Aoapo ey pao ee aee?

7. o pecae coo opa acca eeca? a oa ca a c acco eeca eo xec oeco? ae a e pae opa acca ax eax oa paa ec?

8. o aoe op oe aa? a o ca c oeo aa eo xec oeco? oey y pax ao p oa ox ycox aee opoo oea pepo oaoo?

9. Copypye ao coxpae acc eeca. a oo eppepoa o ao c o pe aoo-oeypoo ye?

10. Copypye ao ococa cocaa eeca. a co ee o pe oey? ae eeca oocc eeca ocooo, a ae eeca epeeoo co caa? pee pep.

11. e oac pece (pocee) opy eec o oeypx (cx) opy?

12. Copypye ao aeo. ae opeee o ae, co aeoc, aop aeoc, o pa acca aea, op oe aea.

13. ae ac aac pea, a ae yco?

pee pep.

14. oey aea ooo oo e eeca oy pa e ac? oce a opex pepax.

15. oey opa acca aea ooo oo e eeca oe e pae ae?

16. Copypye ao Aoapo. eeca ao apeao coco o pe oey?

17. Copypye aee cec aoa Aoapo. ae yco cac opa ey pae op oe aa p x ycox? B ax eax o paaec?

18. o xapaepye oocea ooc ooo aa o pyo y ay? a paccaec ooc aa ao ee ec cc?

19. o xapaepye cpe opa acca cec ao? a oa paccaec? ey paa cpe opa acca oyxa?

20. Copypye ao o Mapoa e-ccaa, a e x aeaece pae.

21. Copypye oee ao ao ae eo a eaecoe paee. B ax paceax o coyec?

22. ae ypaee aepoa Meeeea. ao ec cc yepcao aoo ocoo? ae ae oa oe pa o eo ac ee ea?

23. aoe aee aaec apa aee aa? a oo cao c o aee aoo cec? Copypye ao apax ae ao.

aau peeu 1. a oeo 9,52 p opax ycox ee accy 18,7 .

Bc aee acc oo oey aoo aa.

2. Moeya eeca ee accy, pay 1,628 1025 . Opee aee acc oo eeca, ec eo xecoe oe co pao 0,35 o.

3. ey pao xecoe oeco eeca, ec eo acca paa 19,6 , a acca oo oey oo eeca paa 1,6281025 ?

4. Coo oey coepc eoe acco 0,78 ;

oce ce p (IV) acco 0,64 ;

aae oeo 3,36 p . y.?

5. Coo aoo coepc poae oeo 4,48 (. y.);

o ce ocopa (V) acco 28,4 ;

oe acco 3,6 ;

ooe oeo 13,44 (. y.);

eo yopoce, ec eo xecoe oeco pao 0,55 o?

6. Coo oo coepc cyae ao acco 26,4 ;

poapoae a acco 16,2 ;

pae pocoap acco 21,6 ;

aeae a, ec eo xecoe oeco pao 0,835 o?

7. a, oocea ooc oopoo o oyxy paa 0,6, co epc cocye oeo 20 p eepaype 20 C ae 1,038105 a. Bc aee acc aa.

8. Opee accy apo oyoa oee oeo 30,0 p eepaype 25 C, ec x aee pao 2972 a.

9. Bc accy eca, p poaa oopoo e c yec a, aa oe, pa 25,0 p e epaype 15 C ae 104000 a.

10. opaa execoo xopaa a acco 5,0 oye copo, oe oopoo p eepaype 20 C ae 111,9 a pae 0,7 . Bc aee accoo o pe c cxoo opae xopaa a.

11. oce pa cec oopoa c copoo o oeo 0,02 (. y.) ocac copo oeo 0,0032 (. y.). Bc a e oex oe ao cxoo cec.

12. cox aoo coco oey py, ec aee oo ceo ooc ee apo o oyxy pao 6,92?

13. p eoopo eepaype ooc apo cep o aoy paa 9,14. cox aoo coco oeya cep p yaao eepaype?

14. B aoe ecoc 12,0 axoc copo o ae e 1,52107 a p eepaype 19 C. ao oe ae copo p . y.? ey paa acca aa aoe?

15. Cao ao aoe aoo o aee 1,2107 a p eepaype 17 C. peeo oycoe aee, oopoe epae ao, pao 2,0107 a. aoa acaa ee paypa, o oopo oo ape ao?

16. B cocy oeo 3,0 , oopoo peapeo aa oyx, p eepaype 27 C e oopo oeo 0,25 ao oeo 1,2 , axoec p . y. Bc aee yp cocya.

17. aoopa yeoopo acco 26,2 cea c ee, oe a o oopoo oyeo cec paa 10 %. p eepa ype 27 C ae 1,21105 a aa cec aae oe, pa 20 . Opee opyy yeoopoa, coepaeoc cec.

18. B oyxe apae ae ao pa: aoa 79034 a;

copoa 21279 a;

apoa 983 a;

yecoo aa 30 a.

Bc ae oex oe x ao oyxe.

19. Heec a cocaa H3 acco 0,855 p eepaype 26 C ae 98,45 a aae oe, pa 0,277 . B c aee accoo o eea ae.

20. Oocea ooc aoopaoo eeca o copoy paa 0,875. Bc accy aoo eeca, ec:

a) eo oe p eepaype 22 C ae 105,5 a coca e 18,2 ;

) eo xecoe oeco pao 0,6 o;

) co eo oey pao 1,551022.

21. Bc aee oea (. y.) opo cec oopoa c copoo, oopo acca oopoa paa 10 .

22. Bc aee acc aoa eea X, ec aoopaoe pocoe eeco X2 acco 14,2 p eepaype 35 C ae 102,38 a aae oe, pa 5,0 .

23. ao oe p eepaype 27 C ae 1105 a aae a acco 1,0 , ec aee eo ooceo ooc o oopoy pao 32?

24. Oea o cepooopoa cec c eec aoeooopo o paa 0,2, a accoa o oopoa (eea) cec paa 1,676 %. Bc aee ooc ao cec p . y.

25. Cec eaa, yapoo aa aa o oeo 100 (. y.) co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac ye c a oeo 160 (. y.) oa acco 0,161 . Bc aee ooceo ooc cxoo cec o oyxy.

26. Cec poaa, eaa oca yepoa (II) o oeo 0,5 (. y.) co e copoa, peyae eo opao ac yec a oeo 0,65 (. y.). Bc aee oeo o poaa cxoo cec.

27. Pacca aee oea oyxa (. y.), eoxooo ooo copa cec oopoa c aeeo o oeo 120 (. y.), ec oocea ooc ao cec o oo poy paa 2,09.

28. Cec eaa, ea aeea co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac yec a oeo 8,96 (. y.) oa acco 9,0 . Bc aee acc cxoo cec.

29. Macca o eoc 222 , aoeo eec ao p epaype 17 C ae 100,22 a, paa 47,876 . Macca o e o, aoeo oyxo p ex e ycox, paa 47,608 . Bc aee opo acc eecoo aa.

30. Macca o, aoeo eec ao p eepaype 19 C ae 102,135 a, paa 52,48 . Macca o e o, aoeo p ex e ycox oyxo, paa 52,91 . Macca o, aoeo oo, paa 346 . Bc aee o po acc eecoo aa.

31. B cec ao x oee o pa: yecoo aa 20 %;

yapoo aa 15 %;

oopoa 30 %;

ooo apa 35 %. B c aee acc ao cec, ec ee oe p ee paype 25 C ae 100,1 a pae 1 .

32. B cocye oeo 6,0 cea oopo oeo 2,0 , axo c o aee 125 a, c eao oeo 8,0 , axo c o aee 135 a. Bc aee ae oy eo cec. ey paa ee oocea ooc o e?

33. B cec yecoo yapoo ao x apae ae pa, cooeceo 185,5 a 15,5 a. Bc aee oea, oop ye aa yaaa cec acco 25,0 p eepaype 100 C ae 105,5 a.

34. B apo cocye oeo 0,5 3 p eepaype 20 C axo c cec, cocoa yecoo aa acco 0,2 , co poa acco 0,4 eaa acco 0,15 . Bc ae apax ae ao cec.

35. B aoepe a oo p eepaype 20 C ae 98500 a axoc copo oeo 8,0 . ao oe oopoa (. y.) popeapye c copoo aoepa, ec aee ace oo ooo apa p 20 C pao 2335 a?

36. B cocye oeo 8,0 a pooea cec aoa oeo 5 , axoeoc o aee 150 a, copoa oeo 10 . o a aee axoc copo o pooe cec, ec ee oee aee pao 125 a?

37. Heec ea pacop e coo co, pe yae eo opaoaac co acco 2,72 ec a, oe oopoo p eepaype 19 C ae 104 a coca 4,667 . Opee ea c aee eo acc.

38. Mea acco 4,8 ec pacopa cepo co oo po oeo 4,104 , copa a oo p eepaype 27 C ae 104,3 a. Bc aee acc opaoaec p o co, ec aee aceoo ooo apa p yaao eepaype pao 2,3 a.

39. Mea acco 0,604 ec pacopa co oopo oe o 581 , copa a oo p eepaype 18 C ae 105,6 a. Opee cxo ea, ec aee a ceoo ooo apa p yaao eepaype pao 2,1 a.

40. Pacca aee opo acc aea eaa opee ea, ec eo accoa o oce paa 60 %.

41. Heec ea acco 11,20 opaye xop acco 24,75 . Bc accy aoo eaa, eoxooo o ye oopoa oeo 25,00 p eepaype 22 C ae 98,8 a.

42. Ha occaoee oca eoopoo eaa acco 3,6 apa e oopo, oe oopoo p eepaype 25 C ae 98,55 a pae 1982 . Bc aee opo acc aea eaa opee ea.

43. Oc eecoo eaa acco 0,80 pepa cya oo e eaa acco 2,68 . Pacca accy xopa ea a, oop oo oy cxooo oca acco 10 .

44. Opee ae, pacca ae opo acc opoo oea aea (. y.) cepooopoa ao pea:

a) 2H2S + (CuOH)2SO4 = 2CuS + H2SO4 + 2H2O;

) 2H2S + O2 = 2H2O + 2S;

) 2H2S + 3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO2;

) H2S + 3H2SO4 = 4H2O + 4SO 45. Opee ae pacca aee opo acc aea cyaa a ao pea:

a) Al2(SO4)3 + 12KOH = 2K3[Al(OH)6] + 3K2SO4;

) Al2(SO4)3 + Al(OH)3 = 3Al(OH)SO4;

) Al2(SO4)3 + 2KOH = 2Al(OH)SO4 + K2SO4.

46. Pacca aee xecoo oeca aea oc opo co ao pea, ec ee acca ao cy ae paa 19,6 :

a) 4H3PO4 + Ca3(PO4)2 = 3Ca(H2PO4)2;

) 2H3PO4 + (CaOH)3PO4 = 3CaHPO4 + 3H2O.

47. ocae ceo xopa, coepaeoc xope eaa acco 0,666 , pacxooa pa cepepa acco 1,088 . B c aee opo acc aea eaa opee a ea.

48. Heec ea acco 4,086 ece pacopa co oopo oeo 1,400 (. y.). o e ea ao e ac c ooc peapye c co ca acco 20,707 . Opee eec ea c aee opo acc aea co ca.

49. p poyca cepooopoa epe pacop, coepa xo p eecoo eaa acco 13,45 , opaoac ocao cya oo e eaa acco 9,55 . Opee eec ea c aee oea (. y.) popeapoae o cepooopoa.

50. Pacca aee acc a, eoxooo ooo ece py pacopa, oopo xecoe oeco aea paa py (I) pao 0,25 o.

51. p copa eaa acco 10,0 opaoac oc oo e aa acco 18,88 . Opee cee oce eaa oyeo oce.

52. Heec ea acco 12,0 coeec c copoo ac co 4,8 . To e ea acco 5 coeec c o aoe o acco 20 . Opee xece opy opayxc p o oca aoea.

53. B peyae aoec oca eaa c cepo coo opaoac cpe co acco 3,92 oa acco 0,54 . O pee accy paa eaa, oop oo oy c xooo oca acco 5,00 .

54. Mea, opa acca aea oopoo paa 27,9 /o, ec pacopa cepo co oopo oeo 700 (. y.). Bc accy eaa, cyeo pea, accy opaoaec co.

55. Mopa acca aea eoopoo eea paa 24,99 /o.

Bce:

a) aee accoo o copoa oce oo eea;

) aee oea oopoa (. y.), eoxooo occao e yaaoo oca acco 4,95 .

56. Maccoe o aoea aoee eaa copoa o ce oo e eaa pa cooeceo 64,5 % 15,4 %. O pee xecy opyy aoea eaa.

57. Heec ea A acco 13 ec pacopa co e a acco 23,74 , oop, co oepe, ec pac opa co oopo oeo 5,03 p eepaype 28 C ae 99,5 a. Opee ea A .

58. Opee pocey opyy eeca, coca oopoo xo ap (29,11 %), cepa (40,51 %) copo.

59. Opee pocey opyy eeca, p oo paoe oopoo opaoac aa acco 3,4 , oa acco 3,6 yec a oeo 4,48 (.y).

60. Heecoe opaecoe eeco acco 12 co copoe oy yec a oeo 13,44 (. y.) oy acco 14,4 . Opee oeypy opyy cxooo eeca, ec oocea ooc eo apo o oopoy paa 30.

61. p oo copa eecoo eeca acco 7,3 copoe oye yec a acco 17,6 , oa acco 9,9 ao oeo 1.12 (. y.). Opee oeypy opyy eeca, ec oocea ooc eo apo o oyxy paa 2,517.

62. Oo oopox coee aoa co copoe o y oy, acca oopo 1,286 paa oe acc opaoa eoc p o aoa. Opee pocey opyy cxo oo eeca.

63. p epeco paoe ooo oco apaa oye oc apaa Mn3O4 acco 22,9 copo oe o 2,24 (. y.). Opee pocey opyy cxooo oca.

64. ooc aoopaoo opooopoa ceo paa ooc aoa (epe p oaox ycox). Opee eo x ecy opyy, ec accoa o opa e paa 78,2 %.

65. B opaeco eece accoe o eeo coca:

yepoa 37,21 %;

oopoa 7,75 %;

xopa 55,04 %. ap aoo eeca acco 1,29 p eepaype 28 C ae 100,05 a aa oe, pa 0,5 . Opee xe cy opyy eeca.

66. Opee pocey opyy eeca, oopo accoe o eeo pa: a 26,53 %;

xpo 35,37 %;

co po 38,10 %.

67. B eeco eece accoa o opa paa 40,3 %, oopo a 7,5 % aoa 52,2 %. ap oo eeca acco 6,78 p eepaype 60 C ae 101,3 a aae oe, pa 2,3 . Opeee oeypy opyy coee.

68. Heecoe coeee oopoa c aoo acco 0,24 co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac oa acco 0,27 ao oeo 168 (. y.). Opee oeypy opyy cxooo eeca, ec ooc eo apo p . y.

paa 1,424 /.

69. Heecoe opaecoe eeco acco 0,145 co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac yec a acco 0,330 oa acco 0,135 . Opee oeypy opyy cxooo eeca, ec oocea ooc eo o oopoy paa 29.

70. Heecoe pocoepaee eeco acco 0,752 co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac yec a acco 0,352 oa acco 0,144 . po, coepac c xoo eece acco 1,255 , ooc epeee po cepepa, acca oopoo oaaac pao 2,510 . Opee oeypy opyy eeca, ec oocea ooc eo apo o copoy paa 5,875.

71. p epeco paoe oca apaa (IV) acco 0,435 ec copo opaoac pyo oc apaa acco 0,382 . aoa opya oyeoo oca?

72. Heecoe cepocoepaee eeco acco 0,222 co e copoa, peyae eo opaoac yec a acco 0,396 oa acco 0,162 . Bc cepa, coepaac c xoo eece acco 0,074 , a epeeea ooc cya ap, acca oopoo oaaac pao 0,1165 . Opee oeypy opyy cxooo eeca, ec ooc ea ooc eo apo o oyxy paa 5,1.

73. ao oe oopoaoo copoa, oopo oea o ooa paa 10 %, eoxo ooo ca poaa o eo 42 (. y.)?

74. Ca e c cepepo acco 8,56 pacop e pac opa aoo co. oyeoo pacopa a eea cec paa cepepa c ppao paa e (II) oe ac co 27,6. Bc ae accox oe eao cxo o cec.

75. Maccoe o a a x cae pa cooeceo 10 90 %. aa acca oo caa oa pacopea co o coe c e oye oopoa oeo 100 p eepaype 19 oC ae 98,455 a?

A B A II OCHOBHE ACC HEOPAHECX COEHEH Bce eeca ec a poce coe. pocmu aa c eeca, cocoe aoo ooo eea, a cou cocoe aoo yx oee eeo.

Haa pocx eec, a pao, coaa c aa cooecyx xecx eeo, apep , op, cepa.

cee coca: yepo, aa pocx eec oopo o aa, pa, ap, yepe, a ae aopoa oa copoa oo.

Coe eopaece eeca o cocay opaec a yxeee (ape) ooeee coee.

Coaco py cceaeco oeayp, xeca opya cooo eeca paeec a ycoo epooo ey ycoo epoopaey cocae. epa co caa cac opye cea, a opa cpaa.

Haae cooo eeca aec cpaa aeo, . e. aa e aaec eo epoopaea cocaa ee o aee, a ae epoooea poeo aee.

ape coee Haa apx coee opayc acoo op aa oee epoopaeoo eea c cyco -u- pyccoo aa eee epoopaeoo eea po eo aee. Ec eee epoopae ee oe axoc pax ceex oce, o cee oce yaaec coax pc pa.

aoeu: NaCl xop ap, HI o oopoa, OF2 op copoa (II), FeBr2 po eea (II).

Ocu: Al2O3 oc a, P4O10 oc ocopa (V), CO oc yepoa (II), Fe2O3 oc eea (III). Oc, coep 2 ae pyy aoo O (OO) aac nepocuau: H2O2 epoc oopoa, BaO2 epoc ap.

Xaoeu: (cyu, ceeu, meypu): CuS cy e (II), Cu2Se cee e (I), Na2Te eyp ap.

Aaoo aac pye ape coee, ap ep: ocu, a Ca3P2;

apu CaC2;

upu MgH2 pye.

cee yaax pa c oopoe coe e eeao, poe coca co. x aa opa yc o paa, p co (c. e).

Tpaoo ap coee ooc eeca, e e coe cocae, poe aoo aoo o eea, oe po oe oopox coee aoa: NH4+ ao, NH4Cl xop ao;

NH a, KNH2 a a;

NH2 , Na2NH ap.

ceoap coee ooc ee p eec, co epax ycoe pypo aoo pax eeo, ap ep a-o CN, cy BiO+, c SbO+.

o yoa paa oco yaax ap x coee c co coeoo coee, poe ocx oopox coee.

Oc opaec a ecoeopayue (epaue) coeopayue. Hecoeopaye oc e aoecy c coa, c ocoa (CO, NO, N2O). Coeopaye oc ec a ocoe, ucome aomepe.

Mooeee coee oy y eopaecx eec oocc oco coee, oope e coe cocae epoopaee epoooee cocae, coepae oee ooo e ea.

Ocoau. Ocoa aac coe eeca, co coe aoo eaa oo ecox pocopy.

O c ep pcaec eeca. Oco oe xecoe coco ocoa cocooc aoecoa c coa co oca c opaoae coe. Ocoa eox (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) eooeex eao (Ca, Sr, Ba) pacop oe aac eoau. Cceaece aa oo a coee coco coa poc aa eea poeo aee c yaae eo cee oce , ec o eoxoo:

LiOH poc ;

Ba(OH)2 poc ap;

Fe(OH)3 upocu eea (III);

Re(OH)4 upocu peu (IV).

ucom. o coe eeca, cocoe cox oca o ooo ecox aoo oopoa, cocox aeac a ao eao.

co eca paoopa a o apeaoy coco (a oopae, e, epe), a o o-xec coc a. oco co xopoo pacopo oe. x aeee xecoe coco cocooc opaoa co p ao ec c ocoa oco oca.

co aoo oopoa oeye co, cocox ae ac a ea, aaec ocoocm ucom. HNO3 oooc oa, H2SO4 yxocoa, H3PO4 pexocoa, H4P2O7 e pexocoa, CH3COOH ooocoa co.

Heopaece co ec a coepae copo (oco ucom) a HnOm eccopoe a HnXm, e coo opay ee;

X ao aoeo, xaoeo eoopx pyx eeo;

n m oeco cooecyx aoo.

poy aee oeyax ococo aoo copoa a pyy OO aac nepocoucomau (H2SO5), a poy aee copoa a ao cep muoucomau (H3PS4).

Tpaooe aae ococo coco yx co p aaeoo o op aa cooopayeo eea pyooo coa coa, apep cepa coa, opa co a. Ec ee opaye ecoo co, o pae ey peypyec c oo cyco, pcoeex op pyc coo aa eea:

--, -- -e- p ce ece o cee oce -o-, -c-, -oa-, -oac- p poe yox x ceex oce.

Cou peca coo poy aee aoo oopoa coe a ea py OH ocoa a co ocao.

B acoc o cee aee oa oopoa coax OH py ocoax opayec co accpyc a uce cou (poco) a NaHSO3, Mg(HCO3)2, cpeue (ooe aeee H OH) a Fe2(SO4)3, Na2CO3, oce (pococo ) a Fe(OH)Cl, (CuOH)2CO3.

Paa ae oe cou, opaoae y eaa o co ocao (KAl(SO4)2, KCr(SO4)2), ceae, opa oae o eao y co ocaa (CaClOCl CaOCl2, Sr(HS)Cl) oece co ([Ag(NH3)2]ClO4, K3[Fe(CN)6]).

oco eopaecx coe peca coo coe e c oo pcaeco cpyypo ooceo co eepaypa ae e. Moe co xopoo paco p oe.

Tpaoe aa coe cocac aa aoo eeo aee aa aoo poeo aee.

Haae aoa ae ope pyccoo acoo aa cooopayeo eea c oaee cyca, cooec yeo o o cee oce eea.

Ec cooopay ee ee oo oy cee oce, o oaec cyc -a-:

Na2CO3 apoam ap;

K2SiO3 cam a.

Ec cooopay ee ee e cee oce, o p ce cee oce oaec cyc -a-, a p e --:

CaSO4 cyam a;

MgSO3 cyum a.

p a aoo, cooecyx epe cee oc e cooopayeo eea, x aa opayc a opao: ooae ce cee oce coyc pcaa ep- cyc -a:

KBr+7O4 neppoam a;

ae ( ope yee ceee oce) e pca cy c -a:

KBr+5O3 poam a;

cyc -: KBr+3O2 poum a;

aee ooeo cee oce pcaa o- cyc -:

KBr+1O unopoum a.

p ocpoe paox aa ucx coe aa aoa cpee co oaec pcaa po- coa pca a, ec oeco aoo oopoa aoe oe e:

HCO3 upoapoa a;

Fe(H2PO4)2 uupooca eea (II).

upococou paoo aa oaee aa aoa pca poco-:

(CuOH)2CO3 apoa pocoe(II);

Al(OH)2NO3 pa upocoa ..

Haa ox u ceax coe cpoc o opa o. Ecea ocoeoc p ceo ac o oca oa eca paee oo ac aoa aoa:

oe cou: KCr(SO4)2 cya xpoa (III)au;

ceae cou: Ca(ClO)Cl xopu-unoxopum a;

AlNO3SO4 cyam-umpam a Tpaoe aa cpex coe aoee yopee x ococo pee e:

opa H3BO3 opa oa H2CO3 apoa Meapeea H2SiO3 Meaca Opopeea H4SiO4 Opoca Moa H3AsO4 Apcea Moca H3AsO3 Apce ocopa H3PO4 oca ocopa H4P2O7 oca ocopca H3PO3 oc ocopoaca H3PO2 ooc Aoa HNO3 Hpa Aoca HNO2 Hp Xpooa H2CrO4 Xpoa xpooa H2Cr2O7 xpoa Cepa H2SO4 Cya Cepca H2SO3 Cy Mapaoa HMnO4 epaaa Mapaoca H2MnO4 Maaa Xopoaca HClO oxop Xopca HClO2 Xop Xopoaa HClO3 Xopa Xopa HClO4 epxopa aau peeu 76. Haca opy oco, cooecyx yaa poca: H4SiO4, Cu(OH)2, H3AsO3, H6TeO6, Fe(OH)3.

77. Cocae ypae pea, c oo oopx oo ocye c pepae:

a) Ba BaO BaCl2 Ba(NO3)2 BaSO4;

) Mg MgSO4 Mg(OH)2 MgO MgCl2.

78. ae yaax ao cya xecoe aoece c pacopo eo: HCl, H2S, NO2, N2, Cl2, CH4, SO2, NH3? Ha ca ypae cooecyx pea.

79. ae co oo oy, e coe pacope CuSO4, AgNO3, K3PO4, BaCl2? Haca ypae pea aa o yee co.

80. C a epecex e eec ye peapoa co a coa: B2O3, Zn(OH)2, CaO, AgNO3, SiO2, H3PO4? Coca ypae cooecyx pea.

81. ae yaax eec peapy c poco ap:

HNO3, CaO, CO2, CuSO4, Cd(OH)2, P4O10? Coca ypae pe a.

82. Hae ypae pea, ceecyx o ocox cocax FeO, Cs2O, HgO, Bi2O3.

83. Hae ypae pea, oaae co xapaep SeO2, SO3, Mn2O7, P4O6, CrO3.

84. Haoe co: SbCl2NO3, (Fe(OH)2)2CrO4, (AlOH)SO4, Cd(HS)2, Ca(H2PO4)2.

85. Haca ypae pea opaoa Mg2P2O7, Ca3(PO4)2, Mg(ClO4)2, Ba(NO3)2 peyae aoec:

a) ocooo cooo oco;

) ocoa cooo oca;

) ocooo oca co;

) ocoa co.

86. Haa co: Zn(CH3COO)2, NaH2SbO4, K2H2P2O7, Al(OH)2NO3, Na2Cr2O7, Ba(HSO3)2, CrOHSO4, NaHS.

87. pee pep oco, oope p aoec c o o opay e co. a aoecy c pacopo poca a N2O3;

N2O5;

NO2?

88. Ocyece pepae epe poeyo poy:

FeCl3 Fe2O3;

Al(CH3COO)3 Al2O3;

CuSO4 CuO;

MnBr2 MnO.

a oo ooo oo e eea ooo oca oy pyo, apep: CuO Cu2O;

FeO Fe2O3;

P4O10 P4O6;

MnO Mn2O7;

NO2 NO?

89. Ha ao pa cocax oe ocoao paeee ceyx oco: BaO MgO;

PbO ZnO;

SiO2 Na2O;

MnO ZnO;

FeO SiO2?

90. e opeeec ocooc co? pee pep co pao ocooc ae x paece opy. a ce ye paccapa cpoee oey ocopco co, c xo x oo, o oa ee ce oo a yxocoa?

91. Ha pepe ea-, opo-, oocopx co oae, e oac opy py o pya p ax ycox po cxo x aopepae?

92. ae coee opayc p epeco paoe ce yx co ec a x oooax cpec:

HNO2;

HClO;

H3PO3;

H2WO4;

H3AsO4;

HBO2;

H2B4O7;

HAsO3;

H2S3O10?

93. C a epecex eec aoecye coa coa: CaO;

N2O3;

AgNO3;

SO3;

Pb(NO3)2;

CuSO4;

FeS;

FeO;

Cu;

Zn?

94. Ocoe coca aoo poca pae cee oe y: As(OH)3 Bi(OH)3;

Sn(OH)2 Sn(OH)4;

Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3;

Ba(OH)2 Be(OH)2?

95. Opeee accy poca ap, oop oe oy e opco co acco 1 p yco, o accoa o xopa ap e cocae 95 %.

96. Hae accoy o poca ap, pepaeoc apoa a ce ooe CO2 oyxa, ec acca poca opoca c 200 o 232,5 . ey pae oe (. y.) ooeoo p o CO2?

97. B ao oeo ooe o cea pacop H3PO4 NaOH oaoo opo oepa oye po- poocaa ap?

98. Hae ypae pea, oope oceoaeo poe a p oceeo oae:

a) NaOH pacopy pocyaa a;

) cepo co ceeocaeoy pocy a.

99. Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx epece e e co oy epeee cpee: (CuOH)2SO4, Ca(HCO3)2, [Al(OH)2]2SO4, [Cr(OH)2]2SO4, FeOHSO4, (BiOH)SO4.

100. ae coe BaClNO3, KNa2PO4, Pb(CH3COO)2, (BiO)2SO4, Fe(OH)2NO3 aoecy c: a) H2SO4, ) NaOH? Haoe cxoe co poy oox pea, ae x paece opy.

101. a cocoa oo oy oo co pyy:

a) Pb(NO3)2 PbSO4, ) CuCl2 CuSO4, ) Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3, ) K2CrO4 BaCrO4, ) NaAlO2 Al2(SO4)3, e) BaCO3 BaCl2?

102. Hae ypae pea, oope poea oo pac ope ey FeS HCl, (CuOH)2CO3 H2SO4, Ca(HCO3)2 NaOH, NaHSO4 NH3, Al(H2PO4)3 Ca(OH)2.

103. Tepec paoee ax coe oo oy p o ca pax apeax cocox?

104. Hae ypae pea, oope poea oo pac ope ey cey eeca: Ca(OH)2 NO2;

NH3 SO2;

CaCl2 Na2HPO4;

H2SO4 FeOHSO4;

CaHAsO3 Ba(OH)2;

Mg(HCO3)2 Ca(OH)2;

KAl(SO4)2 KOH;

NH4Cr(SO4)2 BaCl2.

105. p oo ax pea oo ocyec ceye e pexo o ooo eeca pyoy:

a) KAl(SO4)2 AlCl3 Al2O3;

) Fe2(SO4)3 FeNO3SO4 FeCl3 Fe2O3;

) Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2O3 FeO (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 FeCl3;

) Fe FeCl2 FeCl3 FeOHSO4 FeClSO4 Fe2O3 Fe;

) Zn ZnS ZnO (ZnOH)2SO4 ZnCl2 Zn.

A B A III HEPETA XMECX PEA Tepouaua yae aooepoc oea epe ey cceo ee cpeo, oooc, apaee pee ca opoooo poea xecx poecco.

Cucmea cooynocm eecm uu acmu, omeex om ee cpe. Paa ooee eepoee cce. o oee cce coco oo a, emepoee cce yx oee a. aa mo acm cucme, oopoa o cex ee moax no xuuecoy cocmay u cocma u omeea om pyux a cucme noepxocm paea.

Xeca ccea xapaepyec opeee napaem pau. apaepa cce oocc eepaypa T, aee p, oe V, acca m oepa c.

Tepoaecoe cocoe cce ocaec yuu cocmou, oope ooao opeec epe apaep co co p, V T. eee xo ooo x ee a coo eee cex y coco cce. ocee e ac o y pee poecca, pox ccey aoe cocoe. y coco (aaex ae mepouauecuu no meuaau) oocc:

U ype ep;

H a;

S po;

G ep ca (cooa ep).

Bympe epu cucme U o ee oa ep, co coa eeco oeao ep cex ac cc e (oey, aoo, ep, epoo). ocoy o ye cex cocax eooe, ooy p epoaeco ye cce ocaoo a ueeue ee ypee ep p epexoe ooo coco (U1) pyoe (U2):

U = U2 U1.

oco xecx pea e p ocoo ae (uoape npoecc) ccea oe oeac epe (eo o Q) c opyae cpeo coepa paoy A po c ee o ae , aoopo, a cceo oe coepea paoa:

U = Q + A.

B oe e paoa A = p(V2 V1) = pV.

Ec a cceo coepaec paoa, o oa caec noo umeo, a ec ccea caa coepae paoy, o aa paoa caec ompuameo:

A = pV.

ooy ae cyae (p = const):

U = Qp pV U2 U1= Q p(V2 V1), oya Qp = (U2+ pV2) (U1+ pV1).

y U + pV, ooaea epe H, aaec manue.

a ec y coco ee paepoc ep ().

Qp = H2 H1 = H.

Teoo e pea p ocoo ae eepa ype cooecye ee a cce xoe pea. O ac o ppo peaeo poyo, x ecoo coco, yco (T, p) poee pea, a ae o oeca eec, yacyx pea.

Oo epoaece e opee p cma apmx ycoux: p = 101,32 a T = 298 (25 C).

Caapa a pea opaoa 1 o aoo ee ca pocx eec, axoxc caapx cocox, a aec caapo ae opaoa oo eeca, apep f H0 (CO2) = 393,5 /o, f H0 (HgO) = 90,9 /o. 298 manu opaoau npocmx eecm cmaapmo cocmouu npu uaemc pao 0.

Xece ypae, oopx yaa ee a (eoe e pea), aac mepoxuuecuu ypae uu:

C + O CO ;

H0 = 393,5 , C + O CO + 393,5 .

Ec peyae pea eoa eec (Q > 0), o a cce oaec (H < 0). Taa pea aaec omepuec o. Pea, poeaa c ooee eo (Q < 0), . e. c o ee a cce (H > 0), aaec omepueco.

Oco aoo epox ec ao ecca: meno o em peauu onpeeemc moo aa u oe co cmoue cucme u e aucum om nymu nepexoa cucme u oo o cocmou pyoe.

Cece aoa ecca: cmaapm menoo em pe auu pae cye cmaapmx menom opaoau npoymo pe auu a emo cy cmaapmx menom opaoau ucxo x eecm c yemo cmexuoempuecux ouuemo:

H0 (p-) = f H0 (po.) f H0 (cx.) 298 298 puep 1. oyc a o caapx ax opa oa eec pea 2Mg + CO = 2MgO + C c H pea.

Peeue:

cxo ax ax o a opaoa CO2 MgO ya, o caape a opaoa eec pa y, axo ey caapo a pea:

H0 =2f H0 (MgO) f H0 (CO2) = 298 298 = 601,8.2 + 393,5 = 810,1 /o.

puep 2. cxo eo opaoa aoopaoo o ca yepoa (CO2) = 393,5 /o) epoxecoo ypae C + 2N2O = CO + 2N ;

H0 = 557,5. Bc eoy opaoa N2O.

Peee:

H0 (p-) = (f H0 (CO2) + 0) (2f H0 (N2O) + 0), 298 298 oya 2fH0 (N2O) = f H0 (CO2) H0 (p-) = 298 298 393,5 (557,5) = 164 .

Ceoaeo, f H0 (N2O) = 164 / 2 = 82 /o.

Hapaee, oopo caopooo poeae xeca pea, opeeec coec ece yx aopo: 1) me eue nepexoy cucme cocmoue c auee ympee epue ( cyae uoapx npoecco c auee manue);

2) meeue ocmueu auoee epomoo cocmou, m. e.

cocmou, omopoe oem m peauoao auou uco paoepomx cnocoo (upococmou).

Mepo epo x ee oapx poecco cy eee a xeco pea: opae a H yaae a yeee, a ooe a opacae a cce.

Mepo epooc (eyopoeoc, ecopa) coco cce epoae po ca mponu S ey poopoay oapy ca paoepox pococo , epe oope oe peaoao aoe apococoe:

S = k. ln W.

Ea epe po /oK.

po opacae p epexoe eeca pcaecoo coco oe oo aoopaoe, p pacope pcao, p pacpe ao, p xecx aoecx, pox yee ca ac, pee ceo ac a oopao coco. Hapo, ce poecc, peyae oopx yopoeoc cce opacae (oeca, oepa, cae, yeee ca ac), copooac yeee po.

puep 3. He poo ce, opee a ee po ceyx peax:

NH4NO = N2O + 2H2O ;

(1) 2H + O = 2H2O ;

(2) 2H + O = 2H2O. (3) Peeue:

B pea (1) 1 o eeca pcaeco coco o paye 3 o ao, ceoaeo, S1 > 0. B peax (2) (3) yeaec a oee co oe, a co oe aoopax eec, a o S2 < 0 S3 < 0. p o S3 ee oee opa eoe aee, e S2, a a S(H2O ) < S(H2O ).

po cpaeo yepee, aaooe pacco peoy e H: ueeue mponuu cucme peymame xuueco peauu (S) pao cye mponu npoymo peauu a emo cy mponu ucxox eecm. a p ce a, cypoae poo c yeo cexoepecx o eo.

Cmaapma mponu npocmx eecm, omuue om ma nuu opaoau npocmx eecm, e paa y.

ye coco, oopeeo opaae e oex yoyx e ee a apaee poea xecx poecco, cy epu uca (cooa epu), caa c ae poe coooee G = H TS, e T acoa eepaypa.

a o, ep ca ee y e paepoc, o a, ooy oo paaec .

uoapo-uomepuecux npoecco (. e. poecco, poe ax p ocox eepaype ae) eee ep ca pao:

G =H TS.

a cyae H S, ueeue epuu uca G pey mame xuueco peauu (ep ca pea) pao cye epu uca opaoau npoymo peauu a emo cy epu uca opaoau ucxox eecm;

cypoae po o c yeo ca oe yacyx pea eec.

ep ca opaoa eeca ooc 1 o oo eeca oo paa /o;

p o G0 opaoau auoee ycmouo ouuauu npocmoo eecma npuuam pao y.

pu nocmocme menepamyp u aeu xuuecue peauu o ym caonpouoo npomeam moo mao anpaeuu, npu omo po epu uca cucme yeaemc (G < 0). mo ecm ycoue npuunuao ooocmu ocyecmeu aoo npoecca.

B peeo ae oaaa oooc yco poe a pea p pax coeax ao H S.

S G + Booa p o eepaype + + pao eooa Booa p x eepaypax + + Booa p cox eepaypax puep 4. oyc cpao a ycao, o oo p eepaypax 298 2500 occaoee oca a a (IV) o coooo eaa o cxee:

TiO + 2C = Ti + 2CO ?

acoc H S o eepayp peepe.

Peeue:

ae G0 ( /o) p 298 TiO2 (888,6) CO (137,1). Toa paccapaeo pea: G0 = 137,12 (888,6) = = 614,4 . ocoy G0 > 0, occaoee TiO2 p 298 e ooo.

pacea G0 ocoyec ypaee G = Ho TSo.

p o, cooec c yaae yco aa, coye ae H So p 298 . pacea Ho So pea eoxo o a ae ae H0 TiO2 (943,9) CO (110,5), a ae ae So TiO2 (50,3), C (5,7), Ti (30,6) CO (197,5).

Toa paccapaeo pea:

Ho = 110,5 2 (943,9) = 722,9 ;

So = 30,6 + 197,5 2 50,3 5,7 2 = 363,9 /.

Teep axo G0 pea, paa So /:

G0 = H0 TS = 722,9 2500 363,9/1000 = 2500 2500 = 722,9 909,8 = 186,9 .

Ta opao, G0 < 0, a o occaoee TiO2 pa o p 2500 ooo.

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. ae opeeee o: cucmea, aa, cpea, apo- u upococmoue.

2. ae cce aac ooe, a ae eepoe?

3. ae a aopa opee caopoooe poeae x ecx pea ao apae?

4. Haoe ocoe epoaece e, xapaep ye cocoe cce. oey o oc aae yu cocmou?

5. Paccope cc o ympe epu cucme manu. pee pep pea, y oopx > U U >.

6. ae aop opee ey ee a pea ? a ac a ea o ep aa, y yco poea poecca, pcyc aaaopo?

7. Moy oep poecc ccoa oey a ao, o;

oep poecc opaoa oe y aoo, paao, pyx oey?

8. Oce cc o manu opaoau eecma.

Copypye yco caapa o xapaepc.

e oac caape yco o opax?

9. Copypye ao ecca. aa c ey eo e o (ae) pea a opaoa cxox eec poyo pea?

10. e ocec caopoooe poeae eoopx pea c ooee ea ( >0)?

11. ae ocee o mponu.

12. He poo pacea, opeee a ee po xoe ceyx poecco:

a) 2H2 + O = 2H2O ;

) 2H2S + 3O = 2 H2O + 2 SO ;

) MgO + CO = MgCO ;

) e oa ap;

) CH3COOH ( - ) = CH3COO + H+.

13. ae opeeee o epu uca.

14. aoo coooee ey eo ee ep ca ea ee a po cce?

15. oey G oe paccapac a pep caopoo oc poea xeco pea? Boo cya, o a pea c G < 0 paec e y? ae ocee.

16. a po aoo pooo aopo ee payp opeee e G, ee epe ox a pea, paaxc oooc eepayp yco poea.

aau peeu 106. o aa eo ea pea? B ax cyax ypae xecx pea aa epoxec?

107. ae yco coco cce pa epoae aece caapx? a coa x ooaa?

108. o aa ypee epe cce? oey epo aecx paceax coy e acoe ae y pee ep U, a ee eee U p epexoe cce ooo coco pyoe?

109. a ypaee opeeec a ee eee? a o ao ec oco aoo epox? ae eo opypoy.

110. ao ye coco xapaepyec ee cce oce a aaeoo aoee epooo coco, o opoy cooecye acaa ecopooc pacpee e ac?

111. a eec po cce c oee eepayp peax cea paoe eec?

112. a eec po cce p cape, oeca, yee ae, aox epexoax?

113. a oopeeo ecy aopa opeeec apaeoc xecoo poecca?

114. p coee 2,1 eea c cepo eoc 3,77 . Pac ca eoy opaoa cya eea.

115. Opee caapy a (H0 ) opaoa PH3, cxo ypae:

2PH + 4O = P2O + 3H2O ;

H = 2437,6 .

116. cxo eooo ea pea 3CaO + P2O = Ca3(PO4) ;

H = 3766,3 opee H0 opaoa opmoocaa a.

117. Cpa H0 pea occaoe oca eea (III) pa occaoe p 298 :

a) Fe2O + 3H2 = 2 Fe + 3H2O ;

) Fe2O + 3C = 2 Fe + 3CO ;

) Fe2O + 3CO = 2 Fe + 3CO.

118. Bc aee H poeax opae pea pepae o:

a) C6H12O = 2C2H5OH + 2CO ;

) C6H12O + 6O = 6CO + 6H2O.

aa x pea ocae opay oe ep?

119. He poo ce, ycao a S ceyx poecco:

a) 2NH = N + 3H ;

) CO = CO ;

) 2NO + O = 2NO ;

) 2H2S + 3O = 2H2O + 2SO ;

) 2CH3OH + 3O = 4H2O + 2CO.

120. He poo ce, yaa, ax epecex poecco eee po ooeo:

a) MgO + H = Mg + H2O ;

) C + CO = 2CO ;

) CH3COOH = CH3COO- + H+ ;

) 4HCl + O = 2Cl + 2H2O ;

) NH4NO = N2O ) + 2H2O.

121. cao, poeae ax eceyx pea o oo caapx ycox:

a) N + O = N2O ;

) 4HCl +O = 2Cl + 2H2O ;

) Fe2O + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO.

122. aa, ae pea opaoa oco aoa p ax eepaypax (cox x) oy poea caopo oo:

a) 2N + O = 2N2O ;

H 298 > ) N + O = 2NO ;

H 298 > ) 2NO + O = 2NO ;

H 298 < ) NO + NO = N2O ;

H 298 < 123. Opeee ae G 298, 298 S 298 epeex pea ycaoe eepaype yco x ocyece po apae:

a) NiO +Pb =Ni + PbO ;

) 2NH = 3H + N ;

) CaCO = CaO + CO.

124. o ee caapo a pa pea c eee ep ca:

H + F = 2HF 125. Oe epoaecy oooc poea ca apx ycox pea: N + 2H2O = NH4NO.

126. coy cpaoe ae, opee, aa pea epoaec ooa caapx ycox:

a) CaCO3( ) = CaO( ) + CO2( );

) CO2( ) + CaO( ) = CaCO3( );

) Ca(OH)2( ) + CO2( ) = CaCO3( ) + H2O( ).

127. Oe pay oooc ocyece pea ey ooea aocep: a) p caapx ycox;

) p oeo eepaype:

1) N + O NO ;

NO ;

2) N2( ) +H2O( ) NH4NO2( );

3) N2( ) + H2O( ) + O2( ) NH4NO3( );

4) N2( ) + H2O( ) + O2( ) HNO3( ).

A B A IV OCHOB XMECO HET.

XMECOE PABHOBECE aop, e a copoc xeco pea Copocm ooeo peauu mo euua, uceo paa ueeu oempauu (oo opo) oo yacmua pea uu euuy peeu.

Cpe copoc pea v epae pee o t1 o t2 o c2 - c1 c peeec coooee: v = =.

t2 - t1 t Ocoe amop, uue a copocm ooeo xuue co peauu:

ppoa peapyx eec;

oepa;

aee (ec pea yacy a);

eepaypa;

aaaop.

Bce xece pea o caoc opaec a e eape coe. oco xecx pea peca coo coe poecc, poeae ecoo ca, . e.

cocoe ecox eeapx poecco.

eeapx pea cpae ao ecmyux acc: copocm eemapo xuueco peauu npu ao me nepamype npo nponopuoaa npoueeu oempau peau pyux eecm cmenex, pax cmexuoempuecu ouu ema.

pea oe e aA + bB... ee copoc, coaco a oy ecyx acc, paaec coooee:

v = kca (A)cb (B), e c(A) u c(B) ope oepa peapyx eec A B;

k ocmama copocmu ao pea. uuecu cc o cmam copocmu oa ceo paa copoc xeco pea p oepax peapyx eec c(A) c(B) = 1 o/.

ocaa copoc ooeo pea ac o ppo pea pyx eec, eepayp aaaopa.

oco xecx pea c co, poe a epe oeco poeyox ca. B ao cyae a o ecyx acc pe oo ao oeo ca.

eepoex pea ypaee aoa ecyx acc xo oepa e cex peaeo, a oo aoopax pacopex. Ta, pea ope y C + O CO ypaee copoc ee v = k c(O2).

puep 1. pea 2NO + O 2NO, poeae aoo ae, ocaa copoc paa 0,8. Paccae: a) aa y copoc pea, ec cxoe oepa eec pa:

c(NO) = 0,4 o/, c(O2) = 0,3 o/;

) copoc o pea o e, oa popeapye 25 % NO.

Peeue:

a) B cooec c aoo ecyx acc, copoc ao pea ocaec ypaee: v = k c (NO) c(O2). Ceoae o, copoc pea aa oe pee ye paa:

v = 0,8 0,4 0,3 = 0,0384 o/ c.

o ) Copoc o pea oe, oa popeapye 25 % NO ocaec ypaee: v1 = k c1 (NO) c1(O2), e c1(NO) c1(O2) oe oepa NO O2 (oce oo, a popeapoao 25 % NO).

cxo ypae pea, paccae e c1(NO) c1(O2).

25 % NO cocae c(NO) = 0,4 0,25 = 0,1 o/, oa c1(NO) = c0(NO) c(NO) = 0,4 0,1 = 0,3 o/. B cooec co cexoepec oea ypae pea, yee e oepa O2 pao c(O2) = c(NO) : 2 = 0,1 : 2 = 0,05 o/.

Ta opao, c1(O2) = c0(O2) c(O2) =0,3 0,05 = 0,25 o/. Ce oaeo, v1= 0,8 0,32 0,25 = 0,018 o/ c.

puep 2. a ec copoc pea 2NO + Cl 2NOCl, ec: a) ye aee peaoo cocye a paa;

) ye oe cocya 4 paa?

Peeue:

a) B cooec c aoo ecyx acc, copoc ao pea ocaec ypaee: v = k c (NO) c(Cl2). ocoy yeee ae po poopoaoy yee oepa aoopax eec, oepa peaeo o x ycox yy pa: c1(NO) = 2c0(NO), c1(Cl2) = 2c0(Cl2). o caa copoc pea p yee ae e eec, copoc pea ox ycox ye paa:

v1 = k c1 (NO) c1(Cl2)= k (2c0(NO))2 (2c0(Cl2))= = 8 k c0 (NO) c0(Cl2).

v1 8 k c02(NO) c0(Cl2) Oca ceye, o = = 8.

v k c02(NO)c0(Cl2) Copoc pea yec 8 pa.

) eee oea cocya 4 paa po cooec yey yee oepa peaeo. Ta opao, c2(NO) = 4 c0(NO), a c2(Cl2) = 4 c0(Cl2). Pea aay o aao c v pey yo, oy = 64, . e. yeee oea co v cya 4 paa pee yee copoc 64 paa.

Be eepayp a copoc xeco pea acoc copoc pea o eepayp peo o peeec pec npauo Bam-oa: npu noeuu menepamyp a ae 10 payco copocm xuueco peauu yeuuaemc 2-4 paa ( pa):

-T vT T =, vT e vT vT copoc pea cooeceo p eepaypax T2 2 T1;

eepayp oe copoc pea, oop cec a ocoe cepeax ax pae ae oca pea o 2 o 4. ao pea e a paec ocoa p T 100.

C oo paa Ba-oa ooo pepo oe e eepayp a copoc pea. oee ooe oca e acoc copoc pea o eepayp ocyeco paax eop ax cooe Appeyca.

B eop aa e menepamyp u amauamopa a copoc xeco pea ocaec cey ypaee oca copoc xeco pea:

Ea RT k = Ae, e A oco oe, e ac o eepayp, ope ec ppoo peapyx eec;

R yepcaa a oa ocoa;

E ep aa;

e ocoae aypaoo oapa. a ceye ypae Appeyca, ocaa copoc pea e oe, e ee ep aa.

puep 3. Teepayp oe copoc xeco pea pae 2,1. Bo coo pa opace copoc pea p yee eepayp peaoo cocye c 15 o 38 C?

Peeue:

B cooec c pao Ba-oa:

-T1 38- vT T210 v o = ;

= 2,1 = 2,12,3 = 5,5.

vT v o pueaue. Ec y Baeo ayopa ocycye oa oee cee, o ae apeece pae oo c epe ca oappoa oceyeo oe poa:

v38 v o o lg = lg2,12,3 = 2,3 lg2,1 = 0,74, a = 100,74 5,5.

v15 v o o Xecoe paoece Xece pea, peyae oopx cxoe eeca ooc pepaac poy pea, aac eopa muu. Pea, ye oopeeo yx poooox apaex (po opao), aac opamuu.

B opax peax cocoe cce, p oopo copoc po opao pea pa (v = v ), aaec cocmoue xuuecoo paoecu. Xecoe paoece ec ae c, . e. eo ycaoee e oaae pepaee pea. B o e cyae o opao pea aA + bB dD + eE, ea co o ee exaa, oec coooee:

cd (D)ce(E) K =.

ca (A)cb (B) p ycaoec paoec poeee oepa po yo pea, oeceoe poee oepa cxox eec, ao pea p ao eepaype pecae co o ocoy ey, aaey ocmamo paoecu ().

puep 4. Hae ocay paoec pea 2A + B 2D, poeae aoo ae apo cocye, ec cxoe o epa A B pa cooeceo 0,6 o/ 0,4 o/, a oey acye paoec popeapoao 25 % eeca B.

Paccae eee ae ccee o cpae c epoa a.

Peeue:

ae paee oca paoec o pea:

c2 (D) K =.

c2 (A) c(B) Opee paoece oepa eec.

oey acye paoec popeapoao 25 % ee ca B, ceoaeo, c(B) = 0,25 c0(B) = 0,25 0,4 = 0,1 o/. Pa oeca oepa eeca B paa: c(B) = c0(B) c(B) = 0,4 0,1 = 0,3 o/.

B cooec c ypaee pea, c(A) = 2c(B) = 20,1 = = 0,2 o/. Ceoaeo, paoeca oepa eeca A paa: c(A) = c0(A) c(A) = 0,6 0,2 = 0,4 o/.

B cooec c ypaee pea, oeco opaoae oc eeca D ceo pao oecy popeapoaeo e eca A, ooy c(D) = 0,2 o/. Ta a epoaa o e eeco D ocycoao, o paoeca oepa D paa c(D) = 0 + c(D) = 0 + 0,2 = 0,2 (o/).

oca aee paoece oepa eec A, B D paee oca paoec, oy 0, K = = 0,83.

0,42 0, eee ae ccee poopoao ee cyapo oepa aoopax eec. Ta opao, p c(A) + c(B) + c(C) 0,4 + 0,3 + 0, = = = 0,9.

po co (A) + co (B) 0,6 + 0, aee ccee oe paoec ye coca 90 % o cxooo.

puep 5. B ccee A + B 2D paoece oepa pa: c(A) = 0,4 o/;

c(B) = 0,9 o/;

c(D) = 0,6 o/. Hae ocay paoec pea cxoe oepa A B (e eco D cxoo cec ocycye).

Peeue:

ocaa paoec ao pea paa:

c2 (D) 0, K = = =1.

c(A) c(B) 0,4 0, B cooec c ypaee pea, a opaoae 2 o C e oxoo o 1 o eec A B. T. . peyae pea opaoa oc 0,6 o/ eeca D, ceoaeo a eo opaoae pacxoo aoc o 0,3 o/ eeca A eeca B. Ta opao cxoa oepa eeca A paa: c (A)=0,4 + 0,3 = 0,7 o/, a cxoa oepa eeca B paa: c.(B) = 0,9 + 0,3 = 1,2 o/.

Be ee ex yco a ooee xecoo paoec.

p e-aee eee yco (eepaypa, aee, oepa), p oopx ccea axoc coco xecoo paoec (v = v ), ae apyee paoec. B peyae eoao oo ee copoce po opao pea (v v ) c eee pee ccee ycaaaec ooe xecoe pa oece (v = v ), cooecyee o yco. epexo ooo paoecoo coco pyoe aaec co, ceee, ooe paoec.

Hapaee cee xecoo paoec peyae ee ex yco opeeec po e-aee: Ecu a cucmey, axoyc cocmouu xuuecoo paoecu, oa am eee oecmue, mo oo yem aonpumcmoam npo meau moo u yx npomuonoox npoecco, omop oca em mo oecmue.

puep 6. B ay copoy cecc xecoe paoece ccee CaCO CaO + CO ;

H = 178,4 /o;

a) p ee ccey yecoo aa;

) p ee ccey oca a;

) p yee ae;

) p yee eepayp ?

Peeue:

B cooec c po e-aee, paoece ccee caec a opao, o ye eee oece.

a) Beee yecoo aa po oe oepa CO2. ocae oo oec paoece ccee oo cecc eo.

) Beee epoo oca a e ee oepa CaO ae CaO(), xecoe paoece e ceaec.

) eee ae po yee oepa CO2() paec a e e a oepa epx o oeo. Paoece caec eo.

) eee eepayp oe coecpoao o epec poecco. ocoy eo pa pea poeae c ooee ea, paoece ccee ceaec pao.

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. o aaec copoc xeco pea?

2. ae aop a copoc xeco pea?

3. a copoc xeco pea ac o oepa pea eo? Copypye ocoo ao xeco e ao ecyx acc yae yco eo pee.

4. Hae aeaece pae aoa ecyx acc ceyx pea:

a) 2NOCl = 2NO + Cl ;

) Fe2O + 3H = 2Fe + 3H2O.

5. O ax aopo ac ocaa copoc pea? ao ee ec cc?

6. aoo e ae a copoc xeco pea?

7. a e oee (oee) eepayp a copoc x eco pea?

8. o aoe eepayp oe copoc xeco pe a?

9. oey copoc xeco pea c oee eepayp opacae aoo cee, e co cooe oey?

10. ae oey aac a?

11. o aoe ep aa apoa oec?

12. aoo coooee e ep xecx ce pea pyx oeyax ep aa pea?

13. pee epeecy apay coooe ep a a eooo ea pea. a oc, o eoo e pea e ac o ee ep aa?

14. a e ea ep aa a copoc xeco pea?

15. Boo pea c epe aa, pao y?

16. aoa aoc ey ocao copoc pea ee epe aa?

17. aoo e e ep aa a eepayp oe copoc pea?

18. ae eeca aac aaaopa?

19. B e aaec ycopee ece aaaopa?

20. aoo e aaaopa a ey ep aa x eco pea? oce c cooae epeeco apa.

21. Ha paeco pepe oce cyoc eop poey ox poyo.

22. B e coco ocoeoc epeax pea?

aau peeu 128. Hae aeaece pae aoa ecyx acc pea, yx o cxea:

a) A + 2B AB ;

) 2A + B A2B ;

) A + B AB ;

) A + B D + E.

129. Paccae, a ec copoc pea 2A + B 2C, ec:

a) ye oepa eeca A 2 paa;

) ye oepa eeca B 2 paa;

) ye aee ccee a paa;

) ye oe cce a paa?

130. Haae oepa peaeo pa: c0(A) = 0,06 o/ c0(B) = 0,10 o/. Paccae, a ec copoc pea 2A + B 2D o cpae c epoaao o oe, oa popeapye 10 % eeca B.

131. B cocy oeo 2 e 0,032 O2 0,030 NO. Paccae, a ec copoc pea 2NO + O 2NO o cpae c epoaao o oe, oa popeapye 20 % NO.

132. Teepayp oe copoc pea pae 2,1. Pac cae, a ec copoc pea, ec: a) ye eepaypy ccee c 18 C o 43 C;

) ye eepay py ccee c 55 C o 8 C?

133. p oe eepayp a 40 C copoc pea opac ae 16,8 paa. Opeee eepayp oe copo c pea.

134. p yee eepayp c 95 C o 40 C copoc pea yeac 97 pa. Opeee eepayp oe copoc pea.

135. Ha coo payco eoxoo e eepaypy cce e, o copoc pea yeac 120 pa, ec eepa yp oe pae 3,2?

136. B ay copoy cecc paoece cceax:

a) H +I 2HI ;

Ho = 26 ) N + O 2NO ;

Ho = 181 ) 2CO + O 2CO ;

Ho = 569 ) 2H + O 2H2O ;

Ho = 484 p yee ae;

p yee oea cce;

p oxae cce.

137. Hae aeaecoe paee oca paoec ccee:

a) N + O 2NO ;

) CH3COOH( ) H+( ) + CH3COO-( );

) CuO + H Cu + H2O ;

) 2NO + O 2NO ;

) [Ag(CN)2] Ag+ + 2CN.

138. Caapa a opaoa PCl paa 464 /o.

ae yco eoxoo coaa yee pae coo xoa PCl5 p eo cee pocx eec?

139. Xecoe paoece 2NO + O 2NO ycaooc p oepax oca aoa (II), copoa oca aoa (IV), pax cooeceo 0,08;

0,03 0,02 o/. Bce o cay paoec cxoe oepa oca aoa (II) copoa, ec cxoo ccee oc aoa (IV) ocycoa.

140. Bce ocay paoec pea N2O 2NO, ec aaa oepa N2O4 a 0,06 o/, a oey a cye paoec poccopoao 50 % N2O4.

141. a ec aee ccee N + 3H 2NH, ec aae oepa aoa oopoa ccee coo eceo pa 0,2 0,6 o/, a oey acye pa oec popeapoao 20 % aoa? Opeee ocay pa oec ao ccee p x ycox.

142. ocaa paoec ooeo cce N + 3H 2NH p eepaype 400 C paa 0,1. Paoece oepa o opoa aaa cooeceo pa 0,2 0,08 o/. Bc e paoecy aay oepa aoa, ec cxo o ccee aa ocycoa.

143. p 1000 C ocaa paoec cce FeO + CO Fe + + CO paa 0,5. Bce paoece oepa CO CO2, ec x aae oepa pa cooeceo 0, 0,01 o/.

144. ocaa paoec CO + H CO + H2O paa e e. Opee, coo poeo CO2 oepec pepae CO, ec cea 1 o CO2 5 o H2.

145. ocaa paoec CO + H CO + H2O paa e e. Opee, ax oex ooex cea CO2 H2, ec oey acye paoec pea cyo 80 % epoaaoo oeca oopoa?

146. pea H + Br 2HBr p eoopo eepaype ocaa paoec paa 1,0. Opee oe coca paoeco cce, ec cxoa cec cocoa 0,3 o oopoa 0,2 o poa.

147. B ayo cocye poeae pea AB A + B. o caa paoec paa 0,04, a paoeca oepa ee ca A paa 0,02 o/. Hae aay oepa e eca AB, a ae cee paoe oo eeca.

148. Opeee ocay paoec pea 2NO N2O p 25 C, cxo ee oapo-oepecoo oea a cce peyae pea. Go298(N2O4) = 93,8 /o;

G0 (NO2) = 51,8 /o.

A B A V OECTBEHH COCTAB PACTBOPOB Pacmopo aam ooey cucmey nepeeoo cocma a, cocmoy u yx uu oee eecm. Beeca, cocae pacop, aa ooea pacopa. Pacop a aoo pae, e epe.

oo e ao epec peca e oe pacop. o pacop coco pacopex eec pacope, xo o eco cee yco. Oo pacopee ca o ooe, oop pacope axoc o e e, o o pacope. Hapep, oo pacope o (epoe eeco) pacopee ec oa, a cec cpa ( oc) o (oc) oo aa acoc o oeca ooea pacopo cpa oe o cpe.

B pacopax epoo e acoc o coooe o oeo x apeaoo coco epo cea paccap ac a pacopee eeca.

Coca pacopa opeec aece oece cocao pacopa. Ha pae oece coca paco po paa p oo ceyx e: a) epaepx accoa, oea u opa ou;

) paepx accoa o empau eecma, opa oempau eecma, opa oempau uaema eecma u oocm.

Maccoa o pacmopeoo eecma (w-y-) paae c ox e, poeax (%), poe (ca ac) ox ox (1). Maccoa o ceo paa ooe acc pacopeoo eeca m1 oe acce pacopa:

m1(X ) w(X ) = 100%.

m(p - pa) Oea o pacmopeoo eecma ( u) paaec ox e poeax (%) ceo paa ooe o ea oo aoopaoo eeca V1 oey oey paco pa cec V:

V1(X ) (X ) = 100 %.

V pacopo cpa po 1 oe poe ooaa a 1.

Hanpuep, ec accoa o HCl pacope 30 %, o o a , o 100 pacopa coepc 30 HCl 70 pacope. Ec oea o O2 oyxe cocae 21 % o a, o 100 oyxa coepc 21 copoa, . .

Mopa o pacmopeoo eecma ( xu) paaec ox e poeax (%) ceo paa ooe x ecoo oeca pacopeoo eeca n1 cyapoy cy o cex ooeo pacopa ni:

n1(X ) (X ) = 100% ni Maccoa oempau eecma T(X), uu mump, paaec /3, /c3, /, /, /. ceo paa ooe acc pacopeoo eeca (X) oey pacopa V:

m(X ) T (X ) =.

V (p - pa) B eco pae epeo paa accoy oe pa oo paax a 100 pacopa ( %).

Mopa oempau eecma c(X) paaec o/, o/3, o/c3, o/. ceo paa ooe xecoo oeca pacopeoo eeca (X) oey pacopa V:

n(X ) c(X ) =.

V (p - pa) Mopa oempau uaema eecma (uaem a oempau) c (X ) paaec o/, o/3, z* o/c3, o/. ceo paa ooe xecoo oe ca aea pacopeoo eeca (X ) oey pacopa:

z* n (X ) z*.

c (X ) = z* V (p - pa) Moocm pacmopa b(X) (o/) ceo paa ooe xecoo oeca pacopeoo eeca (X) acce pac ope m ():

n(X ) b(X ) =.

m(p - ) ouuem pacmopuocmu eecma s acuaa acca eecma, cnocoa pacmopumc 100 o npu ao menepamype c opaoaue aceoo pacmopa. Pacmopuo cm mae aam opy oempau eecma eo a ceo pacmope.

puep 1. ae oe o pacopa BaCl2 c accoo oe co 10 % ooc 1,09 /, opeyc pooe ooo pacopa oeo 1 c accoo oe co, pao 2 % ooc 1,012 /?

Peeue:

a) Bc accy oyeoo pacopa oeo 1 : m(p-pa)= = 10001,012 = 1012 ;

) Bc accy BaCl2 oyeo pacope m(BaCl2):

100 pacopa coepc 2 eeca (BaCl2), 1012 - x (BaCl2), 100 = x = 20,2 .

1012 x Bc accy cxooo pacopa, coepaeo 20,2 xop a ap: 100 pacopa coepc 10 BaCl2, y - 20,2 BaCl2, y = 202 .

Bc oe cxooo pacopa acco 202 :

m(p - pa) V(p-pa) = = = 185 .

(p - pa) 1, Macca oaeo o cocaa: m(H2O) = m(p-pa) - m(p-pa BaCl2) = 1012 -202 = 810 , . . ooc o p oao e m(H2O) epaype a ee, o V (H2O) = = = 810 .

(H2O) puep 2. Hae accy o eoo yopoca (CuSO 5H2O), eoxoe pooe pacopa oeo 1 c ac coo oe CuSO4, pao 8 % ooc aoo pacopa 1,084 /c3.

Peeue:

Macca oyeoo pacopa ye coca:

m(p-pa) = V(p-pa) (p-pa) = 1000 1,084 = 1084 .

Bc accy CuSO4 o pacope:

m(CuSO4) = w(CuSO4) m(p-pa) = 0,08 1084 = 86,7 .

Bc accy eoo yopoca, coepaeo 86,7 CuSO4:

M(CuSO4 5H2O) = 160 + 90 = 250 /o 250 yopoca coepc 160 CuSO4, x 86,7 CuSO4, x =135,5 .

Macca o coca: m(H2O) = 1084 - 135,5 = 948,5 .

puep 3. ae oe pacopa cepo co c accoo oe 96 %, ooc 1,84 / o eoxoo p ooe pacopa H2SO4 oeo 100 c accoo oe 15 % ooc 1,10 /c3.

Peeue:

Hae accy 100 15 % pacopa:

m(p - pa) = V (p - pa) (p - pa) = 100 1,10 = 110 .

Macca H2SO4 o pacope m(H2SO4) = =16,5 .

Hae accy 96 % pacopa H2SO4, coepaeo 16,5 H2SO4:

100 16, m1(p-pa) = = 17,19 .

a accy pacopa ooc, ae oe pacopa:

m(p - pa) 17, V1(p - pa) = = = 9,34 .

(p - pa) 1, Bc accy o, eoxoy pooe pacopa:

m(H2O) = m(p-pa) m1(p-pa) = 110 17,19 = 92,81 .

Ta a ooc o p oao eepaype a ee, o oe oaeo o cec:

m(H2O) 92, V(H2O) = = = 92,81 .

(H2O) puep 4. ao oe pacopa c accoo oe cepo co 80 % ooc 1,732 / opeyec pooe 250 pacopa opo oepa aea H2SO4 0,5 o/?

Peeue:

Mopa acca aea cepo co:

1 M = (H2SO4) = = 49 /o.

z * oeco aea H2SO4 pacope, oop eoxoo poo:

0,5 o aeo H2SO4 coepc 1000 pacopa, x o aeo H2SO4 coepc 250 pacopa, x = 0,125 o Macca H2SO4 pacope, oop eoxoo poo:

m(H2SO4) = 0,125 49 = 6,125 .

Macca cxooo pacopa, coepaeo 6,125 H2SO4:

100 pacopa coepc 80 H2SO4, y 6,125 H2SO4, y = 7,66 .

Bc oe cxooo pacopa cepo co:

m(p - pa) 7, V = = = 4,4 .

(p - pa) 1, puep 5. oe pacopoc paa a p 60 C 20 C cooeceo pa 110,1 31,6 100 o. aoa acca paa a, eeoc ocao p oxae o o 20 C aceoo p 60 C pacopa o co acco 40 ?

Peeue:

Macca aceoo pacopa p 60 C paa:

m(p-pa) = 100 + 110,1 = 210,1 .

Macca paa a o pacope:

pacope acco 210,1 coepc KNO3 acco 110,1 , -- 40 -- x , 110,1 x = m(KNO3) = = 20,96 .

210, Macca o 40 pacopa ye paa:

m(H2O) = 40 20,96 = 19,4 .

Bc accy KNO3 aceo pacope p 20 C 19,04 H2O:

100 H2O pacopec 31,6 KNO3, 19,4 -- y KNO3, y = m(KNO3) = 6,02 .

p oxae ec pa a acco:

m(KNO3) = 20,96 6,02 = 14,96 .

Bonpoc caocmomeo noomou 1. ae opeeee o pacmop.

2. Oce c o pe oeypo-eecx pecae poecc pacope epx, x aoopax e ec oe.

3. e oaec pacop o exaeco cec? O xecx coee?

4. Moo ca, o oe pacopa pae cye oeo pac ope pacopeoo eeca?

5. ae aop opee eoo e pacope?

6. a e ppoa pacopeoo eeca pacope a pacopoc? ae ee aop a pacopoc e ec?

7. pee pep ao, ex eaey oe oy pacopoc oe. e o ocec?

8. a eepaypa aee a pacopoc ao oe?

9. Moe ace pacop paae, a oep poa pacop - eace?

10. a oo oy coxpa epece pacop?

11. o pooe c ace, epece eace pacopa cyaa e p ece a x e cox pcao eoo yopoca?

12. o aoe pcaopa? pee pep.

13. o pecae coo oe pacopoc eeca ax eax eo paa?

14. a eec pacopoc eec c eee eepayp?

15. ao ocoe coco pae cocaa pacopo?

16. o aoe accoa o eeca pacope?

17. aa oepa aaec opo;

aeo?

18. a a ae co, ocoa, co?

19. a epeca opy oepa a accoy o e eca pacope? Hae accoy o H3PO4 2,8-opo pacope, ec eo ooc paa 1140 /3.

20. a epeca accoy o eeca pacope a eo aey oepa? Hae aey oepa pacopa HCl c accoo oe 36 %, ec eo ooc paa 1,18 /.

21. a oocc aee oepa peapyx paco po x oea?

aau peeu 149. ao oe pacopa cepo co c opo oepae 0,5 o/ oo poo 15 2,5 opoo pacopa?

150. ooc pacopa c accoo oe H2SO4 15 % paa 1,105 /c3.

Bc: a) opy oepa;

) aey oe pa;

) ooc pacopa.

151. Bc accy caxapo, eoxoy pooe pacopa acco 200 , ooc oopoo 0,05 o/.

152. Bce xecoe oeco ecapaa xopa a , oopoe eoxoo pooe pacopa xo pa a oeo 200 c accoo oe co 5,55 % ooc 1 /c3.

153. B ao oee pacopa cyaa e ( = 1,05 /c3) c acco o oe co 10 % ceye pacop 25 eoo yopoca, o oy 20 % pacop cyaa e?

154. 100 pacopa ( = 1,00 /c3) cyaa ap c ae o oepae 0,3 o/ oa 200 pacopa ( = 1,05/c3) o co c opo oepae 0,54 o/.

Bc opy aey oepa co o yeo pacope.

155. o aoo oea eoxoo paa 100 pacopa coo co c accoo oe 36 % ( = 1,18 /c3), o oy 20 % pacop ( = 1,1 /c3) aoa ye eo opa oe pa?

156. ao oe aaa (.y.) eoxoo pacop 200 o oye pacopa c accoo oe aaa 10 %.

157. Bce c(HNO3), ec a epaa oo pacopa o eo 200 pacxoyec cec apoao, cocoa K2CO acco 4,14 Na2CO3 acco 2,12 .

158. ao oe oceoo pacopa epaaaa a c aeo oepae 0,01 o/ opeyec oec eoo opeee eea aece pcaopaa (NH4)2SO4 FeSO4 6H2O acco 0,96?

159. ao oe pacopa aoo co ( = 1,25 /) c ee acco o oe 40 % eoxoo oa 500 pacopa ( = 1, /c3) c opo oe co 0,028, o oy pacop c accoo oe HNO3 20 %?

160. Cea 100 pacopa cepo co ( = 1,0/c3) c a eo oepae 0,2 o/ 200 ee pacopa c op o oe 0,29 ( = 1,605 /c3). Bc accoy o H2SO4 oyeo pacope.

161. ae oe pacopa paa a c opo oepae 2 o/ pacopa paa xpoa c opo oepae 1 o/ eoxoo pooe cec oco a xpoa acco 51,2 c opo oe Cr2O3, pao 0,1?

162. Cec e oca e(II) c accoo oe eaeco e 30 % opaoa pacopo aoo co c accoo oe 0,2 ooc pacopa 1,1 /. p o ec oc aoa(II) oeo 2,24 (. y.). Bce accy cec oe pacxooaoo pacopa co.

163. Bce oe (. y.) oca cep (IV), oopoo oo o y 400 pacopa cepo co c accoo oe 20 % ( = 1,15 /c3).

164. epepcaa pa a pacope oe ac co 200 p 80 C o oye aceoo pacopa, oop ae oxa o 0 C. Bce accy pcaoaec co. ao eee oep paa a ooceo c xooo opaa, ec oe pacopoc paa a p 80 C pae 170 , a p 0 C 17 100 o?

165. oe pacopoc Pb(NO3)2 p 60 10 C cooe ceo pa 90 46 100 o. ay accy coo paa ca oo oy p oxae eo aceoo pacopa o 60 o 10 C, ec a pooee aceoo pac opa o apaeo 200 o? aoa ye accoa o co aoo pacope?

166. B aceo pacope p 90 C accoa o K2Cr2O7 coca e 45,2 %. ao oe pacopoc xpoaa a p o eepaype?

167. Hae accy KClO3, eeoc pacopa acco 200 c accoo oe co 32 % p oxae eo o 0 C. aoa ye accoa o co aoo pacope, ec o e pacopoc co p 0 C pae 3,3 ?

168. Paccae opy oepa xopa ap ooeco pacope ( = 1 /c3).

169. Oa acca aoa cyoo oe ope paa 7,25 . Bpa e oeco aoa cyoo oe ox.

170. eec pacop, coepa oopeeo cepy aoy co. Opeee accoy o ao co paco pe, ec p epaa 10 oo pacopa pacxoyec 12,5 ( = 1,18 /c3) pacopa poca ap c accoo oe 19 %, a p pae 10 aoo e pacopa a xopa ap opayec ocao acco 2,33 .

171. ao acc ecapa xopa a eoxoo oa pacopy apoaa ap oeo 47 ( = 1,08 /) c ac coo oe co 25 %, o oy pacop, oopo ac coa o apoaa ap paa 10 %?

172. Ca pax o acce e, eea a oe acco 6 oec pacop acco 150 c accoo oe coo co 15 %. Paccae accoe o cex eec oy ec pacope.

173. Cea pacop oeo 40 ( = 1,15 /c3) poocaa a c opo oepae co 0,25 o/ pacop ac co 40 poca ap c accoo oe eo 1,5 %. Pac cae accoe o eec oyeo pacope.

174. pacopy acco 200 c accoo oe xopa a 5 % oa apoa ap acco 12,7 . epe opaoayc cec poyc yec a oeo 1,12 , epe p opax ycox. Opeee accy oyeoo ocaa accoe o eec opaoaec pacope.

175. pacopy oeo 40,3 ( = 1,14 /c3) c accoo oe aoo co 37,8 % pa pacop poca a c accoo oe OH 33,6 % o oo epaa. aoa acca co, ae ocao p oxae pacopa o 0 C, ec aceo pacope p o eepaype accoa o co cocae 11,6 %?

176. oye cea cec oaa eca poa c peeeo, a ec a oo pacopo po ca ap oeo 125 ooc 1,1 /c3. p o a ocao acco 4,925 , pe a co eo peapoa coooex 1:1. Opeee accoy o eo oe ooeoc aa.

177. Ha pacopee cec e oca e(II) acco 18 pac xooao 50 pacopa c w(H2SO4) = 90 %. Bce accy e cxoo cec.

A B A VI PABHOBEC B PACTBOPAX ETPOTOB empoum, uccouupyue pacmopax e noocm, a amc cau empoumau. B x pacopax ycaaaec paoece ey epoccopoa oeya cxooo eeca oa, opaoac peyae ccoa. Ha pep, oo pacope ycyco co ycaaaec pao ece:

CH3COOH H+ + CH3COO, ocaa oopoo (ocmama uccouauu) caa c oepa cooecyx ac coooee:

c(H+ ) c(CH3COO-) K =.

c (CH3COOH) Cmene uccouauu epoa aaec o eo o ey, oepxc ccoa, . e. ooee ca oey, pacaxc a o N, oey cy oey, eex pac op, N.:

N =.

N Hepyo oaa, o ooee ca oey oo ae ooee opo oepa poccopoax o ey (c ) oe opo oepa caoo epoa c:

c (CH3COOH) =, c(CH3COOH) a a a c (CH3COOH) = c(H+) = c(CH3COO), o c(H+ ) c(CH3COO-) = =.

c(CH3COOH) c(CH3COOH) B ex ypoe a opy ooa oy oepa ycyco co yo c, . e. c(CH3COOH) = c.

Toa ceye, o c(H+) = c(CH3COO) = c, a c (CH3COOH) = c c = (1 )c.

oce ocao c c oyae ypaee, oopoe a a aoo paaeu Ocmaa:

c22 c K = =.

(1- )c 1- Ec cee ccoa aeo ee e, o p pex cex oo p, o 1 1. Toa paee aoa paae ypoaec:

K = 2c, oya =.

c oceee coooee oaae, o p paae pac opa (. e. p yee oepa epoa c) cee ccoa epoa opacae.

Ec pacope epoa AX cee eo ccoa paa, o oepa oo A+ X pacope oao coca:

c(A+) = c(X) = c.

oca ca aee peyeo coooe, axo:

K c(A+) = c(X) = c = Kc.

c puep 1. Opeee oepa oo epoccopo ax oey oo pacope HF c c(HF) = 0,01 o/. Cee ccoa HF x ycox paa 25 %.

Peeue:

ae ypaee epoeco ccoa HF:

HF H+ + F.

o yco aa, cee ccoa HF paa 25 %, oo y oepa aoo oo H+ F pa 0,25 0,01 = = 0,0025 o/ = 2,5.103 o/. oepa epoccopoa x oey HF cocae: c(HF) = 0,01 0,0025 = 0,0075 (o/) = = 7,5 103 (o/).

puep 2. ey paa cee epoeco ccoa ycyco co ee 0,2 M oo pacope? aoa oepa oo H+ o pacope? (CH3COOH) = 1,80 105.

Peeue:

ae aeaecoe paee aoa paae Oc c aa: K =.

1- Ta a ax ycox << 1, o oo ocooac y poeo opo: = 2c, oya K 1,8 10- = = = 9,5 10-3, 0,95 %.

C 0, oepa oo H+ ye paa:

c(H+) = c = 9,5 10-3 0,2 = 1,9 10-3 o/.

ooe poeee o.

Boopo oaae Boa, yy oe ca epoo, eaeo ce e ccopye, opay o oopoa poc-o:

H2O H+ + OH.

oy poeccy cooecye ocaa ccoa:

c(H+ ) c(OH-) K = = 1,8 1016 (p 25 C).

c(H2O) ocoy cee ccoa o oe aa, o paoeca oepa eccopoax oey o c(H2O) c ocao o ooc paa oe oepa o: 55,55 o/. Toa paee oca ccoa o oo peopaoa cey opao:

c(H+) c(OH) = c(H2O) = 1014 = W.

ocaa W aaec o poeee o.

o paaex ox pacopo p eeo eepaype W ea ocoa. p 25 C W =1014.

ocoy ccoa o oepec poecc, o c poco eepayp ccoa ycaec, aee W opac ae.

B co oe oepa oo oopoa poc-oo oao p 25 C coca 107 o/.

Pacop, oopx oepa oo oopoa poc oo oao, aac epa pacopa. B e pax pacopax c(H+) = c(OH) = 107 o/.

B cx pacopax c(H+) > 107 o/ c(H+) > c(OH), a e ox pacopax c(H+) < 107 o/ c(H+) < c(OH).

Beco oepa oo H+ OH yoee ooac x ec oapa, c opa ao;

e ooaac coa pH pOH aac cooeceo oopo poc oaae:

pH = lg c(H+);

pOH = lg c(OH).

B acoc, o p 25 C:

pH = lg107 = 7, pOH = lg107 = 7.

Ceoaeo, epax pacopax:

pH = pOH = 7, a cya pH + pOH = 14.

B cx pacopax pH < 7, a eox pacopax pH > 7.

puep 3. Opeee pH ooo pacopa H2SO4 c c(H2SO4) = = 0,02 o/.

Peeue:

Ta a cepa coa paaeo pacope ccopye ooc: H2SO4 2H+ + SO42, o oepa oo H+ ye pa a c(H+) = c 2 = 1 0,02 2 = 0,04 o/. Oca pH = lg c(H+) = = lg 0,04 = lg 4 102 = lg 4 lg102 = 0,6 +2 = 1,4.

cxo paeca pH + pOH = 14, ceye, o pOH = 14 1,4 = = 12,6.

puep 4. Paccae opy oepa HCl, ec oo po oaae ooo pacopa xopooopoa pae 1,85.

Peee:

Ta a pH = 1,85, ceoaeo lg c(H+) = 1,85;

lg c(H+) = 1,85 = = 2,15. (. e. 2 + 0,15 = 1,85). Oca c(H+) = 1,4 102. Ta a co a coa ec co ooocoo coo, o c(HCl) = 1,4 102 o/.

poeee pacopoc Paccop eepoey ccey ace pacop aopac opoo epoa, axoc paoec co co ocao:

KnAm() nKm+(p) + mAn(p).

epo a (ocaa) c(nAm) = const, aeaecoe paee oca aoo paoec ee :

s = cn(m+) cm(An) Taa ocaa paoec aaec npoueeue pacmo puocmu (P), ocmamo pacmopuocmu (s):

s = P = c n(m+) c m(An) Ta opao, aceo pacmope aopacmopuoo empouma npoueeue oempau eo uoo cmenex, pa x cmexuoempuecu ouuema, npu ao menepamype euua nocmoa.

poeee pacopoc xapaepye cpaey pac opoc oox eec: e oe P aoo eeca, e oe eo pacopoc.

co opaoa ocaa:

= c(m+)n c(An)m > PKnAm, e poeee oepa oo, axoxc ao pacope.

Pacop, oopo coaec o ycoe, nepece o oceo aoo epoa, eo ye aa ocao.

aoe ycoe oe ocac, apep, eee oo eoo oa ace pacop KnAm.

Pages:     || 2 | 3 |



2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .