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COBPEMEHHA MAHCTECA TEPATPA oea cxoaaeco epayp o oe peae M. M. Peeoa A. . ea Cepe Pae TAHATOO HAA O CMEPT Bocoo-Epoec ...

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B acoee pe oc eccep y o eco aepao poooo apae. Oo x epecaa oooo oa. B acoee pe ec eycoo oaa, o eo ooo o ec ocee yaoc eoea, eo e, ocp pa, a, ocoa ce a oc.

e 1963 oy oo poeocppoa yee o o epecae oa a ooy y. oyac oe cpaa yea ya c oaa a. Beco oo, o pa oy, ooo py pecae coeo a, oa, a caa acoa aa, paac ca ee opy, o apc ee.

C oea x oo poo o 30 e. a o yceo ocyece ec oepa o epecae cepa, ee, oe y eoea, aa peac poe aeo ecoecoc epecaex opao. Ta opao, aya oy ooa epecae oooo oa. Xo pao o apae eyc ooo eco, pyo caa, oa oo yacc oo aye cepe pay. Bo co cyae, o pe e a opa oe ooo, o ye ae ooee cae ceee yceo epeca oa eoea.

ooy eopeec ye ceac oo peca e, e o, a a oc, yy oo pa epexo ooo ea pyoe. Opaca oo a py eye, cocapec ea, eoe ye yocc ea e, cee cee. oo oc, ee a ec ce ee ox eoeeco cop. Oao oae aooep opoc a ea copaec opaca, a eye opaoae, a oc? o ye opee pao a eccepe oo oc a ce opao pyx e? B ee cee opoc ye ca epe paa ye p epecae oopcx oe cepa. C opao oe ocpoo o cay p oe oca oopcx e epeca oa. Hao epo yco, o ecop a o, o o eoea, ep eo a, cpoee ea yy ooc cooecoa ey oopa, eo oc caocoae yy opeec ceo epecae oo.

a poea a peocxea ee M. A. yaoa oec Coae cepe. op ec ap o e epecaeo oo ee oooo oa oeo aa aooa pepaaec ooe ooe oceeo. Ceac o opoc papaaaec aepac eaopao.

ee, e o eopao papoa aacpoe, epecaa o pyo e, e eo oo. e e ec ooe cyeco, c oo epo e oo opo? a oo oo oocc co , yy, e?

o ecepae aepa paaypecx o.

Booo, yye yee coy cocpypoa cycceoe eo oooo oa, xpae oc. o ye op-poo c oo eoea. Ta opao, ooo ocee eccep a ce oep coeo ea. ooo cxooec eoeeco oo oa? A oo o? a ococa poea e pa oaac oocex aacecx poaax, aa co aeo oo poeccopa oy (1925) coecoo cae aaca A. P. eea (18941941).

Bopo y oce paecoo eccep o ea eep.

aa ea oo cyeca xpa coe pe c eeecy opa, eoxoy opaoa ooo opaa. Hecoo e aa yee Ocopcoo yepcea Beopa poe epec cepe e e y a paea oa ya, oa o epo. ooy eopeec aee pe cae oo accooe ocpooco acoo ex eo, o ce eoea. o a, o oa eoey coc 80 90 e oo ye y eo pa eo oo opaa , pac x eax, ex pa, oy oy ooecy o aoo eoea. To ec oo ye ooc oop caoo ce, o c aece oopoeoo opeeeo cce oece coe eccepe, ocoy y oepa oo o oop eopaeoe co pa.

oee oo, yye eopeec ooo o cooa e oo o eeec aepa eo, o aoceppoa, cae, ax y. oo ye ocpoec oy ooecy o ao y c oea poe. Ho a a ya yocaac ocoo pa, o oae opoc a ao ocpoo x coa?

Co yo, o ce ooece o, oop eax eax o opex e, ce-a yy aee coce coae. o ye cxooec coepeo pyo , eo a, eo paoc ea, o eac, yy ae o pooa. Eo eeya o ye caac o e pyoo oca, opaoa, , aoe, poco eoeecoo opye ooo ooe e. ae ec a yacc occoa ooo Tyaxooa, o coey cxooecoy cay o ye e pe e, a a copee. Ceoaeo, y e ocae ooo eccep. Ec p epecae oa coxpae oc, o epe eo o, o p eo eep coxpae ooe ooe aoo eoea, o epe eo oc, a, o, a oe , aa.

paa, ec coec ye. . Aox y oey, coaco oopo pao ooa acecea epeaa opa, oyeo eoeo eee . B o cyae eoe-o ye oc cee a oo ce, o pooo c opao, ye xpa o cee a ocoa coe coceo . Te ca oaec oo oc oo eoc yaoce. e yaoo coa, epexo ea eo, e ye pepac. a o pox, ye cocapxc e cyecyx eecx oooe ye a e ecpepa, a a ocoa o e, poo epa, ec aa poo oy.

Cey, pe eca eca epce apaee oco eccep aaec aya pooo, yaa eeeoc opaa p oe x eepaypax.

Teopeo ocooooo poeea (. e. aopaa) caec aepac poeccop aea Poep ep, yc 60-e o y Ope eccep, cpay e cay ecceepo aoeay co ooo eoa poeea. oa oo-o o opee, o copeea ea e coco oo, eoe ee a poeo, e P. ep. Be o a, o oe oe, eoa caec cepe, ceo eac. Coxpa eo xooe, ocaoo oac, oa oe a exoo ooy a epyc... acoey pee ec yeee cepeae oepe poea. ocac ye yaoc o pc, oxaex o 6 payco. Xpyp apapcoo yepcea (CA) o xoo oce oo, a o axoc aopoeo coco oee aco.

cepeaop eoopao o oe, axoxc epeoxaeo coco, oa oe ye e a, cepe e oc.

Moeco yex ao opae aopoex e aoa copeea ea. O ax cyae ca c oc oepo Macapy Ca, paoa a pepepaope aoae, epeoe oxaee poy. B o e o pexa Too Cyyo a oyee pya opoeoo. Tea oea apa yoa oe, o pe ypc o ap ooxy o oye pya yoe coe xooo a. poo pe.

o-o ae coy e oe aoay. oa op ee, o oapy e oepa, o ye aopoeoo. Tepoep yp oaa 10 Ce y.

Teo oe o cpoo ocaeo ay oy. Hecoo aco pyc pa a aopoe eoeo o eo1 o e pae, Cao aae opac ao, oop ec p a cyxoo a, a ae aopoc. oepy caco o, o aocepe apoo ypoa o oeoe coepae yecoo aa, eeoc p cape cyxoo a oeoe coepae copoa (eo aac pacxooac ce pe, oa oep a).

cepe oac pooo oo, aoe, pec a aopaae eoea. B 1973 oy c poy peccy ooo cecaooe cooee: poeccop . op oc-Aeeca, a, o ypae o paa ex, coacc a o, o eo aopo o aoe p eepaype, o payca e y, opa , oa ea ae eoe cpeco op c eo oe.

A epe ecoo e CA ooc ye co oepecoe pepe, xoea oopoo peaa ce ea y e poeypy: aopaa xpa eoea o eo ea ec co e. Moe oe aepa oea oepyc poeype aopaa a opao opac yeece yyee.

Oao oe 70-x oo papac py caa: oe oo epo aopaa oapye ea oyopa eco eoe ca yooo paoe, o e, ao oaa, yoopa e o p ae opao a eccepe. Ececeo, oepe cao ee o opoo oopao.

o, o ce epyoc a py co.

B acoee pe Coeex aax yopy epe epa poeea (a aop, o ooy Mae ope), oopx xpac oe cooc 26 aopoex aepae. Cyecy ooo ep ae o pa o.

Hao ae, o poeea eo eca opoocoee, ooy epe 40 payo, pex popec ac a eccepe, oep. B CA eae o aa 125 c oapo a aopaae ea 50 c a aopaae oo oo.

Heoope pae aepa peoa opo apa co eee, ee pacoppoa cyae epeex ocoec. A ec oo coy paopo ooy, o o aepa cye oopa coxpaeoc oa (a a, oc) cooecyee eo.

pae aepa opa ae ee a o epec a.

Oaaec, oo, o epe 300 e pocyc oepo, ocaoo ceo oo a 1000 oapo. Tp poea oox epe co e pepa y cyy 19 000, epe ec 370 000, a oey peoaaeoo poye a ao oae xooo aep, coaco paccea, ye pacoaa ye 7 000 000 oapo.

yeece eccepe aaec cea, o pae epe oao, c eco cep. oaa oa Tpac a y e epec a ea. B epy oepe ao oece cyccey py po: poecc oce e oe pepac. oo oc ceae apaooece pacop.

oce eo opaec o. ae po ae coe pacopo, oop oaec oc c eeco, peopaa poecc pcaa opae. Oxaeoe eo aee aopaa ceaoe ooo oyca e, e eepaypa eo caec o yc 43 payco. eo o oe oo pcy oee oo, ec aoa a o ea. Oo e eo eo oea eo aooe caoo ooo oyca oeep, aoe aoo.

Oao ao ae, o Aepacoe oeco po (x eepayp) apapye opoy oo ya, a o opao ax opeeex apa. p paopaa oy oy ae cepee poe, oope e coco oa ee pe copeea ea. Bc aea a oce e yyeo.

oa epe cop aopo 73-eeo eca eopa, poeccopa cxoo oc-Aeeca, eoope ypac ocp: Hy yc e eop, oa ocaec ooo! Haea a o, o oo-o oo epy oce aopo, paoca cpee oy opoy aypepa, popye o oy ooy Apyp Poy H-opcoo yepcea oae: p aopoe eopa yep aocc ea.

oo e pepaec oop A e Apaxa, pee aepacoo oeca po, aac ay cceoa oac cooa x eepayp ee. Cep, cae o, acyae oceeo. Xo cepe ocaaaec, e, a ypee opa pooa . pyoy yeoy poooy. Cay ye yaaoc peapoa xoo oce yxacoo aopo. eo ae oyc cepe c eooo coao. e epyac opaa eepaypa oce poeyp, oop oepac p poea ea e. ca, oa yex, a ae e x cee aa a aopaae pa eccep.

Ac aao Xaep ee XVIII ee ca:

Ec eoe xoe oa ec ocex e coe epeoa ca aoc, o eo oa poea o 1000 e;

p paopaa ae 100 e a o o o o c pa yaa, o pooo a pe, oa o aaoe.

Ta o, oe oe , o ecoo eco ax copeeo, aex popae acy, oope oeae ao, oxae o 200 C, y o oa pee yyee, acpey eccep.

Cyecy eoope pye apae oco eccep. B 1976 oy poeccop P . ep oca o c aao ecaco, oopo yaoc ye oo pee eoc ec pa. epoooo, aaxc poeo cape, o o ocac eaee. B 1983 oy oac ca ococoo yeoo B. . yooa cope pyo Mococoo oeca caee ppo o oax a pcax, oop yaoc ocao pae ae ey I II ca aepecoo epoa yepa opa ey eee 40 e.

B peyae aaa x yx oo cocex cepeo ey oppecoey Mococoo oeca caee ppo Hoa caey yaoc coa cocey eop yee oo pooeoc .

Cy eop ceye: o po oy opay ec pa oee, ocaoo o ece popa ooeea (. e. eeec opeeeo cxe pa aoo opaa) poecce ee peaa cea oepa aae. M capee ooy, o opae oepaec opeee ypoe ex eaoo (poyo eeeoc opaa) c aoc, e oycae aa poecce peaa popa ooeea. a oo ypoe ex eaoo oaec (apep, oe c aao ya poy, paaaee eeo cceo), a opa e aee epexo a pey, oee ooo, a coe . C oo peyeo aa coa aaec ocpoee poyo cpyyp eepaoo aa . Coa yaee poyo... a a poe 90 e. B peyae aae ye oy pooeoc c 10 o 100 e, o ec ec pa. o o oo o pooa o ecoeoc, a a cape a aooo e, ooy o opa axoc ycox, oa ocycye aepaa ocoa cape ee eao e oepac y a aao ppoo ypoe.

Ha ceo e H. H. cae paec papaoa ooe pae apa aa eoopx pace apoe, ea, ooe ocy ooo eccep. B epcee paoa a ocee ooo eccep eoea. Cy ee ocaoe cape y eoea o opace: apep, ey 40 41 oa. C oo oea a opa ye poxo co yoo oo opeo coe yp yaaoo epaa.

Ta opao, coa eopeece peoc oce ooo eccep eoea. pyoe eo, o y o yax oo a pacex o paecoo ooe ao eop a eoee oe oe oe o.

poe eccep eoea ec a ocox acea: ayo ooec ococo-pace. B ooeco cce, a oo o e, oe ooo pao oo c popecco ay oc ax-o paecx peyao o oce oo eccep. pyoe eo, a yo a pa c ay oea pee x aa?

Ha ep opoc o oe oaac apaoca, xo eo apaocaoo e e. aae, ayaec, a ooo eoeeco oce eccep?

oaec paccope o opoc c pax copo, pee ceo c eopaeco. o pacea paycx eopao, 1987 oy poc 80 ap c aaa poa eoeecoo e ae ae (oeo, a pa eca ycoa). ye pee pocy eoeeca a ao ypoe ycaoc eo aa pecoe ece ea?

epe , oopx, epoo, o ceo ecoo eco c, ya o ee ocax , yy ac o ce pee oa, o aecx ee. epe exece oe, ocoee o oe a coo yeee acee, oopoe 200 000 e aa poc pe 500 eoe.

40 000 oy o . . ce oe, a Aepy Acpa, acee, oeco e a eo ape oco oo eoe.

aay IV cee o . . ce aceee e ccoc pepo oo eoe. B xoe ea epa (V . o . .) eoeeco epeayo epe co oo. oxe apa Beoo oeco acee pe poco o 200 oo, a oxy Bopoe o 500 oo eoe.

B XVIII ee aceee e oco ooo apa. B 1900 oy oo cocao 1,5 apa. 1950 2,5 apa eoe. B aae 1976 oa aceee eoo apa oco 4 apo, a 1987 oy eoeeco epeayo a ap. aoa e ye cya eoeeca ae yye?

eopa ac a poo. Oa poo p cea Oeo apooacee p OOH. o aoee oceca oea, a a oa peoaae, o ce cpa copo py ypo oooc, oeceaey ooee ooe e poca ceoc 2,1 peea a ey. Ec oo peoo, o paaec cpa, e poaeoc oceeo caec, eceo py oy ypo yye ee, o poeo pax cpaax eo oco o pyoy. Poaeoc x ye yaa e oo opoa ee ee aa ae. Ocaec aec, o yeee acee ae o-acoey oyac x cpaax oce 2000 oa, cep OOH ca, o oa, paacx oye, oe cypyece ap pea e oe ee, oecooee paeca py cooecye ep, cypye poaeoc. Ec ea oy eo a, o pooe apooaceee capyec 2100 oy ye coca ooo apo eoe.

Cyeceoe yeee pooeoc , o oopo oop peye ae, oe co e o ceap OOH. B peyae oo aceee poeo pax cpa aao yeac oo 2050 oy, a pea cypyecx ap a aee poaeoc poac oe. Epoecoe aceee p x ycox capyec 3125 oy a ypoe 1939 oa, a pe ye aac aea cpoop ey aceee A, Ap, aco Aep Epo.

Ec poaeoc pax cpaax ye pooa cac, oca ocy copeeoo ypo P, ec oa paaxc cpaax, oopx pepac eopaec p, ec pooeoc opac 75 oa, eoeeco 2400 oy cee. cceoa o apa pa eoeeca payc eopa ypya-o cae, o pooe apooaceee oce coeo a 9,4 apa eoe 2070 oy, a oo oceeo cee.

Oao ooe pyo xo ee co: yeee acee pax cpa oe po acee cpa ooo eopaecoo pa.

Hapo, axoec eaopx ycox, o a oee poca acee, oy pco cee, opo co, e pecypc apoo oax, o axoxc a cae. ocee yy oceeo ceac c pea, oa e oep co yaoc. O cey, a ce ye oe apo, oa ooy cya.

aoe e e a eee eopaeco ap oe oaa ocee ayo eccep? Caoe epecayeoe. a, o opoc o eccep a oeco acee oa ee cepeo e cac a oecy , ax-o ayx paceo pooo oca e yaoc.

Ho, a e, ocee oo eccep oe ooo ye epe coe yyeo cee. o, oa ee, e yae, a oe ec cyecey oppe ocyaec a poo eopao. epy oepe o oae e e a oy ceoc acee (xo, co peee, a ee oe), a a coooee acee pax paaxc cpa.

Be e cepe, o oce ay epy oepe ocoyec aceee pax aacecx cpa. Moo o opaccya o oox yx ee eopaeco cya ycox oce ooo eccep eoea, o o o , a a ee e pe opoc a yo oe eccepe co eo oac.

Bepoee ceo, eccepe e eepoo yeo ayo caec a oeca. popecc coco cee ooe, aoe ooee poc oeco o-o ooe. ooa c caaa ceyx cxa Poepa Poececoo:

Ec oo eo, o o eceoeo a ya, eo co?

a o, o aoe pc?

Bope pocc?

Ta e yoe.

Ha ocep o?

Ta e cop! oe pacaxa?

oo yce...

opox ya?

A eo?

Hacaac eo cec e eccep coeo.

Heo o e cep, Hoa e e ...

Moe ca a cy B opo ce, o cep .

O cop oaae, o popecc ay cea oo paceoe pae eoeeca. He cee ec opoc o eccep. Boe ooo ( ae oe epoo), o c ooeco o pe aay eccep yacc paaa ye ye ae coe. Ho aoo e ye paceoe o ooe, oopoy pec oap eccepe? Heye cey ac, y, op? Bepoee ceo e, ya ae o coao yoe. Ta eye oco eccep o, o o cee oooo? e aaypo y oa cao oe oeoe aee? Ho cpaee ceo o apoa oy-o pao pea, oco a eoe eo e. o eyeo pee oyopee, pyo, acco, ap, aoa, paco oxoa, a oca o a o o o paooc aa.

a, opoc eccep o po ae, oop oe oaac e o cy copeeoy eoeecy.

Ho opoye epeec opoc o eccep ecoo y ococ.

peoo, ce ooaeo yec, o oe eccepe ceo eoeeca ec opoo eo popeccy, a ayoy, coaoy, a eeapoy ooecoy. Ho e ec e oee oc, eycoo acyae eccep aec yee, xyo, opeae, o, ce, oco. A ocoy aya ye coco apoa eccepe, a aae e peoca eo oo oe oc, cpoo opaeoy cy axc e.

e xoy aa oy-o coeo e. yc a opoye ca opee aoee epo py x e, cxo peoe xo ocex -ce ece. oya? B xoe , o e oo oyax, o ee cex x oc? Ha e o acyax oo oo ee oy ec acoc o oeco ocao. Ao apoa ey eccepe, oe oy e poco oeoo aopa, a (o opao cpaee ae pyo oopa) aopa eccepoo.

o e oop oco o po oc cop, o oxa caa oac eo co cep Caa. o o eae, coo ee a poc oa oex peoco ee xoa cop p eo o oape Cae.

ooy e aec, o e co ce pea eeeo poey oo eccep. M, ae, a ec, ee e oo eo. M oo ee ooaeo e cope , yaec, e cyee ee oe ocoao pacopc eoc.

TEPATPA a eccep? HTTM ee, 1990, 1.

a . M peeo a. M., Haya, 1987.

Peep .. M ee peeo ype. M., 1965.

yue . H. Hao c. oc, 1990, 2. Hac o 80 apo. A coo ye? Haya , 1989, 4.

opocu A. A., Ceeo . C. ape cpa cop. M., Mc, 1988.

pooe B. 26 aopoex aepae. Tpy, 1991, 14 op.

Meee B. A. yeca. oypa oe. Aa-Aa, . pe. a.co.

oe, 1991, . 2, a 3.

ABA XXII epeceee y e a pax aax pa eoeecoo oeca, oopeeo c ooee cax epx opeax pyao, o oopx paccaa ae X, aa oa pecae o cyecoa y oce cep.

pecae oaay peao cye. Ocooo pa y, apooo pa, a pao, e cyecoao. peoaao, o, pecaee, o y yepx a e-o eca opee eca, e poeaa x ea . ooy y ox ee o cx op coxpac oa oa o, xy, ey, e poa yep, ca, o ya eo pooae oa o e. Cae epe x epox pecae epexo oa oey a: oa o, oceae ppaa, ocaec a papyee, yy peocae ppaoy y. Ceeco oy oo a oocex caax, eeax, peax apoo Epo.

epoe e pecae o o, o yx yepx epac e-o ooc o cox opeex e, po epe cee cax paoopax pe epoa, o cx op coo epc ae ocoa. eo poe yx yepx ea aa oo eco, e oeee o yaca copee eoe, y o yee aec xpca, epo epy, o ya oce cep opaec apco eecoe, a e yae cox pex ocao.

oceeo pecae o ocepo cyecoa caoc oee oope cceapoa. Bepoae yyy pacaaec a a ax apae, oa oopx paea cao oaeo peoc e yoe op cax x cox eoeeco yyp. Oa x ye, eco cae ey coo ae epexoe py pya, oaoo pacpocpae o cey py ae epe copeeoe a oeco. Oo ax apae o yee o epecee y, a pyoe yee o caocoeo cyecoa o y oce cep ea.

co e peapa, . e. ep o, o ya ooa o ooaec ooe, pacee ooe eoeecoe eo ceye ca ye y epox ee. Haoee pacpocpae oc oepe o o, o ya yepeo eoea oe coo peea. Ceepoaepace e xopo yepx ee oe opo, o x y o epe poxox o aepe a opao poc o. B Ceepo-aao Aepe y ee ay eap epeoc yy o yepeo, oo py a eo py, a ae pocpa x a ooo pocea y epe x. ep peeo, poac y oo peea oeee y oya oeceoe ooee ooa. Ha ocpoe Bayep 1860 oy o oa ooac o oeo y ee, ooy o e a epe a, oo pay o oecpeo pa. Oca a, o ao-o o, yep epe ooe oy aa oy ay pay, epyc cpey cox.

epoe eea oo ca, o ya yepeo pea oe peea o o pa eo cxoca c oo aep. eea opya (Hep), pecy oopoeoe coa T epyc, y ae-y pe, o ya, ya oopoo peo epyac eo opae.

Bepoae opoee ooee y pyo eoeeco opae oyao aao-apacx epo, axoxc pace a o po, caoycy aee ocpecy o a poe.

Oo op oo ye ec eop eoox ee o oe a ee ex. yy opae x e a o cepxecece oyeco, eea pe, o y x ooo epyc a e o cpao ope. Acpac yee, oee e Meype, pa ocee y yeee, o o epec a e e eoeo ye e oeco ececox oe.

ep ex, px a oeo ooa, , e cc, oo e po cpe aopeo Acpa. ocee a e aoe-o cxoco c o eao yepx coeeo pe, o o o ec;

a ae a e pacpocpaac a pyx ex.

Ta a epoe eea e poo opeeeo ep ey ya e ox, o e apye oycac epexo eoeecx y ea x ox. ec ac opa XIX ea yap epe Taop (18321917) oca ceeco, o ece eea Ceepo-aao Aep ep, o y yepx epexo eee. yeece ca, a oo e yoo oa capo ceo ee co copeo opo, ooy o eo ocee ocpey y ao-o paay, ee cxoco c o. coco opa e oy, oopa aac ceo a e xoea opoyc o opooo ca, ooy o oy yep ee, o ya ee oooo ya epeceac opa.

B Mece acaa oaa, o oce cep y aopox yy eoex ex ax, oa a y eee epey aco, yo oy ooe cyeca. B Ape e apa epo, o y x pepaac aao, a y opx e.

B ax pax apoo pa pepaee ae caoc ee aaae, a a o cyae ya ocaaac a acea. B oope ooa eaopoa e ee paoo o o pox ooe y. Cep oaaec ec peooeo c oo oeoo cpeca o o.

Ha oee cox cyex yyp yee o opo ooe y cyao ye coe oo oocopoe pa. e epecee y (eecxo) oa, a eco, eoope coe peoo-ococe cce, ocoeo , e oa cocaa o ocox oao paxaa ya ea ocoy yccoo ye. Ta e e a ycoea ao pe aopea, oe axe. Oa coxpaac eoopx ycyacx ceax, ocoeo y cao.

Coaco oco yco, oceoaee poe o ec a cee e peyao poee cy oooo oceye.

pee y poxo epe pae ea, p, oopo o ecy acyey apy a co pex o pe pex cyecoa, pecae coo ooccaoe ce, caa e o oe, a o py y pa a opo. y, oaae op aeca, popea oecey ppoy, oa a y, oope ypac oo co cpac, pa o eoeec opa, , aoe, y, opyee o pa a, oac o cee ox. P epecee y e cxoe ope o oo cx, epe p cx aceo, paxao, , ape cpo aepa, a, a, oea, coa, oa, apapa, ep, e, ep, aceo eoyee peea.

Xo ooee ey pecyee oo aaae pyo o oe ac eo, oece cyeoo cpacoa y oo, oao, ycope cpeee cooec ey pexo oee, a ae aepee aaa pea eo e coce pexo. Ta, eoe, opoa y, ye cpaa o ecape eya, ee ye e oe xae, oopa ye xpoa. ecoe ceac pooa o, opye xe co pepac pc opyo.

Boee VI-V eax o . . yee ya, oeeec o peecoo paxaa, e cao opoepa yee o epecee y.

Oao y ec yee paxaa cyecee ee. Ec paxa yepa, o ye pax opo, ep aa oo oc xopox epepoe, o y o ce epeooe ee ecace o. ooy ce e oo ooe pepaee epepoe ocee pa (e).

y ocp y paxaa ao oe (apy), o a ey ooe coepae. apa ya o cya cex ocyo oco cyeca o cex eo peyx epepoex. Xo ce ao eoea opeeeo eo apo, o ee ecy cooy opa cox ocyax, ocax, coax, ecx. eoe ca coae co cyy, opy aoo coeo ooo epepoe.. eo oce e epax, opax apeax, ey yeoc ocooe ae paxae, a oee caoo eoea. eo eo ocy c ao opee eo aey apy, opy eo ooo epeooe.

Ca ya poe epe 550 poe, peepea cpaa yy eee eccex eo, o popec a opao oooc ocoo ycye cyeca o cpaa, pcyx cey oy. epe paa o c e Maa-pa, 20 pa e yxa Cep oo pa poxo epe cocoe oea, ap, oaa, paa, opea. poa, eap ex yyco, oe, coa, a, e, eaca, p, y peecoo yxa. oceeo coeo poe o pa apcy ce ao poe oaa ee ae, x Ceepo . ooy yy aa oa ayao ay oe poa ae.

B epeooee y epy oceoae ao eco y ac pe aa. a pe a e, a y, oa peeo coo paxaa VI ee o . . Oeo oa ao c x 24 popoa.

Ocoaee aa caec x XXIV popo Bapxaa Maxap,, oy , o epeoe c cacpa - oaae oee. O oo e oo aae-pe a.

Pe aa ec oee pee, e' y, a ca ya ayaa, ocoae ya, ec a copeeo Maxap, ocoaee aa. Hecop a o, oe o ya, caeo poo pee, a pacpocpae , e acaec acoee pe 2, oa oceoaee o pe.

Coaco aoy py aa e ox ec opa cyecoa y, ooepeo epeceec oo o oo pyy.

aa e aa coco oce pa (e), o oopo eoxoo po y ox ex epepoe epeooe, oe oa ce ee caoc pex. Co ep e epecee y, a coe ocoo aoe ca e ya eo oo, y o eoe, ooe, aceooe po e o x coa aea oa a e ya, ceya epe e epeooe. ooy a oa e e ca, p, a oo py oo. Caoe pyoe cooe aca o ocoa oacoc o oe o eee cec o-o aoe, e coepc oe (ya, ep, aceooe). oyc ay oooc, pex, o epe ce o, o pope paee a oo epco y cace. poo o oe epa, paeoc o oa, ac, coaco co peo pecae, coepae caoe acoee yco e yyx epepoex o ep epeeo o ca eoeo ( oo cox pox poe).

Ha yax oe e cpeac , aepye o cao e ey a. o acce oax eaap ( epeoe c cacpa oee ee oe). x eo o o ecpo co oe o eoy ay, apaey oc po, o cyao e ao oy e oy oe. pee, e cec a e, ao oax aeo oea ce opy eeoo ae epe, a eapoo e paa cx yae. ay yay o oa oec e, o oa e oa o eo e, o ao ao yae oe pea a ya. Tae a oa e e cpx ooe pyo, o e poo coepaxc x x ex x opao, a aeo poapa ce oo a oe.

oo oaxo-eaapo (oex ee oe) y ao cyecy oax-aap ( epeoe c cacpa oee oyxo, . e.

oe). O aoee oo paa ocoy oaecy e aa ooe ocooee o cx pcx oee, o ce ax, a cpeee o pe oc oey. Oex oyxo ocaoc coce eoo, o ec a oeec cpe a yax cx opoo acoo ooo eoea e yaec, o, epoee ceo, acc oax-aap.

ee o epeooe y o aoo a ocoa. aoy eco ecoe yee o ooe y opax, cooecyx aeca, popee acoe , o yax, epecexc ox oaxc o o eoeecoo ococa, cop o , oopy o e, o ax, oopx y eocee y, o ycpax, ecyx a aaae a yooe eeeco. ee o epecee y opoo aaec aoax aoa epa ocyapco. B x axo yepee aoa, o epeceee y pocxo o pa cy e.

Haoee oceoaeo ocoo aoc eop epecee y aa aop, oee ec a o coe aeo eoepeco eopee.

A cop opp (o. 232-o. 301 . . .) coe opa aopa ceecye, o o, o pxo ey, aop aoa o poo x , oopy ea x ya, pee e oec x eo. peepeec oco oe apc (IIIII . . .), ccac a epaa ocoo, paccaae, o ca aop poe epe oe py epepoe y. aop yepa, o eoa o ao oac co oa epeca. epec peo ey a op o ap, poe eccep, aop opoc oca ey a o o, o o pox poex. B ceye poe o Eopo, oopoo y Meea p ocae Tpo. oce cep Eopa ya eo epea epoa, oop, ea oaa pay o coe peye poe, c xpa Aooa yaa , oce oy Meeae, oa o oa Tpo. oce cep epoa o ca ppo, eocc pao, o-peey ce o, a o cepa ao, oo Eopo, oo epoo, oo ppo. A oce cep ppa o ca aopo oe coxpa a o cox pox poex.

Moe aop, paccaa o eop eecxoa (epecee y) aopa, oo po pep pepae oa Eopa ocoa aopa, ae eepy Acac, oy epa, oce oo ocoa-a paea, ae ap, oo eo, oce oo capaa, o, ay, yy , aoe, eyxa. Ho p o o aa, o cee oepy aoa peepeecoo capa yaa (o. 120180 . . .) Coee, eyx. B eyxe ocpoyo pe oepaec ceca oco aopa. a eca capa pecae coo ao ey eo Mo eo eyxo, oopoo cec yx aopa. eo eyx paccaae oo ce yoyo e yeco epee pepae aopa o, ay, yy . . Ho e o a e opaae cx o aopa, a pecae acey apo a eo yee, oeoe a o oey apcoy. coae, y, a cpa aopcoo eecxoa, oye a ac o eyxe, e ea eo oeo co a aopa. Ccac a yaa, aop aa, o o e oye copa, a apo capa. He ea o o ae ao aope cceoae cop peox pecae, a yap epe Taop.

A ao yaa pecae coo eceo ycey capy a eop epecee y. Ta, apep, M cpaae coeo yecoo eyxa, eo eoa aopo, a ee pae poc oo: Pacca e cepa oo, o pocxoo oe. Ta ce o o, a oecye oep? Ha o eyx oeae: Oya e o o a, M, oa o pe x co o epo ap? C ooee xpcaca ecoo oee caa, epa epeceee y a poo aa ocaac ecax paooo pacpocpae ya ya o-Bocoo A. Oao oooc oo epoye ee e pa aa o cee a. Ta, oee epeco oco yee o epecee y p aac oepa eo ocpeco ocooo ooa . O ca, o ya Aaa epea aa epee ecc;

ya aa epea oopa, a ya Ae Moce, ooy-o oop oae co o e Moce.

B xpcace aoee aeae pecae ye o epecee y c axe. Cea axee yepaa, o y peo epexo x epe, e oee opaex, e peee y. y oy ae epe pace, oope e o e oo , o cc.

ee o epecee y o pacpocpaeo y cpeeeox ecopae, y pyo, a ae ycyaco cee cao.

B XVIII ee ac cae ep (17071754) coe yeec apo p o opaaec eop epecee y. Cc apooo yeec o y coco o, o yx, eocoe aeca, yy opae a e, a oo cy pepee pee. Peo oy o yaec cpay e yeecy o oy pa. B ao aece peco opo poc pe epeea y oeca opy. Ho a o pa cpeaec e c ococo oee eecxoa, a y aopa, e c capo a ee, a y yaa, a co coeopa epayp peo. Ta, apep, c pe ac yeec apo p ocea ooce eaopoa pcoo epaopa aa Ocya (331363 . . .).

ope epaop a ax aax 19 pa epeooaec pae opa:

o aa pao oe IV ea, a o yee ae cepee XIV ea. a oceoaeo pepaaec epaopa paa, ae cyoo a, eepaa, acea, oa, eo, oaxa, cpaa, peypoo ya, opo, ya, eo, cpa, coaa, opoo, oa, oa, pap, ye ae.

Bcoy pepae ocea oea aa, aa x ec epece cxooec o. Bpaa aopo ea epecee y ooe cooo epeaa oo copeco ox pyy, pxoo acoa ace, cace, ace payce cpa o oo xpo.

To, o eoe epeae ecceoe oeco poe cepe acoee pe paec oa oco ee o-Bocoo A. Ho oy eoey peapa (oopoo poe) ocee o ce oee ae yeec cceoax epoecx aepacx yex.

payca cceoaea A. -Ho, oopa oce ooa Copo oee 12 e poea Tee o o poe e-ao, coe e Cpe co ao Tea paccaae o o, a Tee oce cep acoe oacp a ce oax opac a oc eo ooo ooe. Tae oc oa c o 20-30 e. Bce ea oacp ae epo eae ypa. oa axoc a, peey a po ooeoo a, ey ycpaa coeopa ae: yco oae ey a eo c ea, 20% oopx paea yepey ae. Ma oe x ya o ao o-y paccaa.

A. -Ho ocae cya, oopoy oa caa a ceee.

Oa eoo apaa, cocae oopoo oa yeecoaa o ypee Moo, ocaoc a oe coe ooo oea. p apaae axoc ypa oacp, oop ye oee 20- e ocaac e a.

oa ce o xy oea, ypa, ycec a oy, oca opoy aaepy ca axa oc xae aa. B o oe ey ooe 10-e c oea cpoo cpoc: Oya y e o aaepa? pa, oeo co a o, pyxy epe a oe... o o eooopooe pae aa ooee capoo a.

B aee, oa apaa c ao opeceo ea pao ypae oacp, peeo py a, o ao exa apao. Oaaoc, o pae a eceo poe, o o aoe e 15 aa. , aoe, oa a ye ce a poe a ey oa pyaoe e, o oaac ay, a, o oa ey e pae, yaa, e oa axoc eo aa, a oa .

Ho ee oee yeeo ya pep, e oopa a Cecoa. . Ceco oyoa pexoy oopa, ocey poea peapa. Eo eo ye peapaoo-eppepyex cyae oc oyea xapaep, a opoc ceee, yee apxx aepao, ae aa oo, oox cae . . B oopa coepc 1300 cyae peapa pax acx pa. pao yac ayo occe.

Cya, ocye cepeo ayo poepe, ca c poae pox ooe e opace o yx o epex e. acoey pee cceoao oee 1000 oox cyae copao yeoe oeco ceec. B aece pepa copeeoo cceoa oo pec cya Capa Mepa.

Capaa poac 2 apa 1948 oa cee ceopa paoo o xaapype, a Max pae . a-o opace pex c ooo e oa poeaa c oo opo a ceaa p o p cpaex aea o oe, oopo oa o a. B eceoc e ce Mep oa e a e e ca x o oo eca. oe Capaa paccaaa py pocea ea coe peye ;

oa yepaa, o a ee a axa. poe oo, ee a ec exapaep aoo paoa, a caa oa oyc e oa.

B opace ec e Capaa aa, o oa aoa x ce, ea poeccopa oea, a peye ee opyo. Hecoo ece cyc o o cyae ya p X. H. aep c aep apacxoo yepcea aype. O cpec c cee Mep, a ae, pyoocyc yaa Capa, paca o axao. O oapy, o pacca eo eca aoa cop , oopa a oep axao eo p a aa. yepa 1939 oy.

eo 1959 . ce axao poce o yy oce ce Mep xaapype. Capaa e oo yaa x, o yaaa, o ec o. Oa oaaac pa yx ocopox e, oopx cepeax ex ac a a ee poceo. oe eoy pe a. Ta oa yaa ox e eca, oea epee, pocee co pee cep .

eo 1961 . cxap, cceoae cxecx eoeo Bpcoo yepcea, Ceco oce oe ce oac poep ocoepoc oo cya. Ceco c, o 49 ae Capa oo 2 e cooecoa eceoc. Oa eao ocaa o , cocee ocpo o e, a o o 1939 ., ocaa oopa, eeo , a ae opooc ee oe cep. Oa a cocoa po ae cya , oope ec aeo e ce pocea. Oa eooo axoa cpe pcycoax cox ax x pye, poceo cy, ecop a o c ee c oy. epeco, o ooex c pa, oope cape ee a 40 e, oa ea ce a capa cecpa.

Capaa paccaaa o pyo, poeyoo ooe, oopo oa a peeo o e ae, e Cee (ea) yepe opace e e. Moe ee paccao epo oca ece eopaece ocoeoc ea-;

coc ae, o ee ec a c eac, xo oa c poea cpe e, oopx oo a x.

B 1961 oy p ape yc y Cpae , e copa oocee pep eox e oaxc oce e. B o e pooc p oyeao oepex cya peapa, oox ocaoy e ae. O x oca poyc oy , e eoy o e a , oopa yepaa, o oa poo poe a co co ye eapao opoe Myp yepa o pe poo 1925 oy. aoc paca oo eapaa c eo oo poep yepe a . Hecop a cae pcpace opoc oocex cceoaee, a pay e oac x opoocx ce, ye Mype eaoo ae ee poe. ee, pe yace cepee aceecoae yeoe, ocopo oax. O coacc, o peeo, poc 1926 oy e, a-o opao o co ce coc ce opooc Mype. ee e a ooo oaaeca oaa, o o ae e a oce yeoy.

B 1958 oy aea Bao oc ae pyx cpa aeaa ep c aa . a oa xo eaeo, paoa ocyapceo ypee H-e. pee ea epy pooe oae yopo ypee opo, oa ye eo e pepaa, o o x.

Cooe o peapa pooa epoec oc a cpaax ae. Bo oa eax ceca.

eaaea Eea Mapap aaoo epa, p ce oce eo pa, aoopa a eypeo aco e, oopoo pae e aa. p o eoa yepaa, o oy ee Poea ace, a oa a, poac 1887 oy, a yepa 1917. oa eoy oe o yaaoy e apecy, ep opa o ao yepe Poe. Eea, ya ee, caaa: Bo o o paca.

Heoope cceoae co ooc paeo eaeo cee a o pox poex e, c oop caac y e a ac. Ta, o oa aac yeo ao ao-o epeyo yo opoe aa-o cya aoaa ao epeoe. eco, apep, o ooo e Toco oa a oxoe, oac a ae, ya c o. oa o oc, ey oaaoc, o oa-o, a o oop, oe ao, o a e exa epxo, oac a ae, epeee epe o... Opoc, poeee a pyeo, oaa, o p eep e ca o yco yaa. A eoce ec, ocy... Mya, epepa epe yy, oae o aa, yo a e oe ae. pyo ee cpay py py ecyecye yc, xo oa yco e oc...

B 1895 oy payc pa-oep A. e Po cea epecoe ope, o oe yoo oe yo oy o poc ocoa o peecye epeooe y. aopoa py aae oop e co ooco, o e aoo-o pyoo a, oopoe oecye ocoe ao yace .

B pyax ocex yeece pooe o oo eo ooe.

Oo ae oooc oc oo, o opye a a ao opaac co oc, eco o o oea poe, a ae, oe , ee oee oaeoe pooe.

o yaoc, apep, cyae c oo aepae ope o.

oep op c e oo 15-eeo aepaa cocoe yooo oecoo ca. c oao epy aa oey eo poe, a ae oee e a co e pooe. Bcope a aoop:

oaa ay... poco pec Ceepo apo... a o... eoaey o opoa eepco... Poc 1832 oy... Bo pe paaco o 1863 oy e y ee coa. O cpe e... Bo...

Hacoo oo copece oye, oope yaoc pao cy, o poep opooc, paccaae o oo ope o acaec oaaa aya. p o coc, o opye cooa o ax ocoeocx o ecoc opoa, oope e o pya, a oo o oo ya.

ae op c c ao oexa eepco. oa o poe ceac oa pcyc copa, ceao yaeo o pa, coc opaeoe: oop o e peca aya, op cye aa o ea cex ecx oo opoa pooo ea. O ae oca x oa eax opoocx.

Oao oyeao cyecoae oaaa aya oaa e yaoc, ocoy o oac aa pecppoa poxc yepx c oa.

c oyoa pacca o o eae, xo e coce oayeo oeco opae pooe. Cyc eoo pee op oy co. ea c ee ae ay caa ey, o oa ec yao ee oaaa aya. Oa paccaaa ey o opoocx oaaa aya, oope ec o yc paccaa x cee. Hapy co ce oca oa caa: oaa ay pxoc e opo eo. Eo y . e cya oca e a ype Ho e ypae acea.

O pa ae pe o pee pe o aece eoa ee. B 1955 oy o aa cep oecx ceaco coe 37-ee ee.

e, o oa eo oaec oy, o ac epy ee pooe. B xoe ooo ceaco ea py aoopa yc ooco, c po pae caac aeo. Oa yepaa, o oa ya, oopoo oy ece o. ae oa ooe caa oea a opoc a yo e, a o pa, ao-o caaco.

Ha cey ceac pae ecoo caacx ceaco, o ce ec ye Hc Ca, peop Aepao-ecoo copecoo ye ae. O ycao, o, xo opa ecea o, ea oopa a ycapee eco e, o oaa opoc, aae e a copeeo eco.

Heo cya pooe a ceace coecoo apca-oepa Baep Aeea. Bya pe, oea yacoa cepee, pepecc pee, oa a x oe aa poo , apc caa: A ceac 5222 o o oo p. o pocxo c a? ye epeoeoo aa o cyex, co ya e copoa, cpoo epo oce, p acye, eoao ca a eepe, apoy ooy epx ... a o o. a a poo ececeo, o y ox, aax y cey, ypa oea o oe.

.. pa, ceac o oy peep oooc eoeeco cx, oc cya, poce a ceace Baep Aeea, cae, o ao cyae poc, xo yceeo e, e peapa (epecee y).

oe peapa, pa eoop copee ye cxapa, ooe yceo cpac c eoop cxec oe epoa, o. Ta, 45-e eep ca eoc cpax o ce, ec a a-p eoea. Bo pe pepecc (opae a o pox x) o ye, o oa-o y cpeo cy. B o ece, ya oa y, yeo a poa... oce paceo ece cpax poe.

Teope peapa eoope cceoae ac oc opaee apae eoopx aex oce. Ta, Haoeoa epa o o cex pyx cox pae 129 e, a aepacx peeo Apaaa oa oa ee 100 e. ep, a eco, ca peeo I860 oy, opo I960 oy. o pyo pa opecc a 47-oy . epe cyee ooc peea o ee ea aa pecaee. B cox peax o oxoo poa ecpa . Oa cya a paopae epo. Oa ooac peco aao: o o paccac, a ee o oe o oooe. a e o p peea, oopx o yep epo peeca oa. Oa y cpeo ooy, o pyo y.

Teap, oopo y o, aac eapo opa. Maa, oopo exa ee, a ap op-o. Cepeap oa oc a ee e coeoa peey eap. Cepeap ee oc (oee, oca) a o, oa yoapaa ee e exa aac. peeo oce oa ca p oco (o poe 1808), peeo oce ee ca o oco (o poe 1908).

ae, ececeo, oe oy aooep opoc, a a ceye oocc o ce pee aa, poe ooc oepa peapa? Ta o e, eceo cyecye epeooee y? He ye ooaeo yepa, o a oo ec. o oo oce peao cox e coce ee ox poe eocoaaeo cep ce epo eeoc. Haya ee e coco a cepax oeo a ce apoye o ae opoc. aae ye paccop pye a ocepoe cyecoae y.

TEPATPA pyeuu E. eo e o co o o... Cpoea aea, 1989, ayca. copaa (ap), 1990, 20 ap.

oxaec ymap. a ea yo? (Mxe) . o Mapca paa, 1991, 12 apa.

uoe apmcu. O , yex peex aex ocoo. M., Mc, 1986.

Toape C. A. Pae op pe. M., oa, 1990.

ya. paa poa. M., paa, 1991.

Bacue . . Tacee e eoeeco cx. M., 1963.

ap p. Cpae . ., coecoe coeco-coe pepe Cap, Hoaee, 1991. Cpoea aea, 1989, 2 ayca.

ooao B. . eaeoe eceoe? a opoca, 1991, 6.

Mapmo A. coe y. M., poee M . ea, 1989.

Taop . . epoa yypa. M., oa, 1989.

Epeua B. . Pya oop. ., Haya, 1991.

uu epu, pae coe. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1988.

ABA XXIII Ecece o pace ca ea B o ae oaec paccope opoe, oee pacpocpaeoe pecaee, acaeec cy y ooo, oopoe coco epe oco p y (o ce), ya o opac oce eeco cep eoea. a epa ec ea e y cex apoo eoo apa, xo c o pa.

a ye oopoc XII ae ao , aepace cac oca, o ec aceee ce ae poopoao peca e epe c aceee 1000 eoe, o e cooeceo yy poa xpca (183 aoa, 84 poecaa, 33 paocax), 175 ycya, yco, 55 yco, 47 aco (a peoe epoa epox apoo, cax, o aa e ee co yx) 210 aeco.

Ta o, ec c aco, pecae o ocepo cyecoa y eca paoopa eocaoo oope, o oaec, o epeceee y ep 183 eoea c, poax o oao epee (128 yco 55 yco), a oope pecae o cyecoa apooo pa oaa 475 eoe (300 xpca 175 ycya), . e. o ooa acee ae ae.

Oe pyo cceapoa paoopae pecae, eec o oy peey epoax pax apoo, e oee, o e aoo oeo oo apoa o apoo pe y oo ae o coc.

aoee ocax apoo e o ecopea pa y o paoc cy: p y axoc e-o aeo, p o oa yaaec opeeeoe apaee: a ceepe, a aae, a ocoe. Ec ocoa ya, o o apaee yaaec e cyao: oo, o, cooecye oy apae, oya poo o epeceee ee o aoe-o yypoe e.

popcx apoo ocpo, ocoeo Oea, poo pacpocpaeo pecaee o apoo pe, axoec e-o a ope, a ocpoe. op x pecae o: c oo copo, ec, ecoeo, caac cye ocoa opcx epecee, oope oca coa e a o cpae peo, eae a ope. C pyo copo, ec, ooo, opaoc e pa ooo opee, ocoeo ee oee coo ope opaee pya oe opoe ope: eo a oca aopc p y. B o e Oea eco oe peyey oepe o pe y o oo. Bepoee ceo, o aoe pecaee ae po opoeo pao ooo opee.

Oe poo pacpocpaeo y apoo cex cpa pecaee o oeo pe y. Boe paoooo peooee eoopx aopo, o a o pecaee o oa apa ooo e, o xopo x eepax. Bepe a e a caaa ee epoo. Ho pye op aoo oep;

acoc, yaa a c eo c yao: e ec ecye ya, a epeo eec epoae, o y yepx epe paep yaa cycac oe p. Ta oco eo, apep, o Meae. Bey, a ea ae o peea xpcaca cac eca ca ae oepc o poac, oopy epac y peo.

Haoe, pee oe peea pxoo ooy pa eo, coe, yy e eco pea ooex y.

Cpe opao, oopx eoeeco pcye cee yyy , ceye paa a aex pecae. Oo x opaae yyy a opaee acoe: oo pe eoe yepae ey opy yco peeo cyecoa, e ey e py, aee coe eo coceoc aaec o e ea. o pyoy pecae yya ec oapaee a acoy, ye eoea a ec cece eo eo , apao aaae a ee. . . Taop, o axc copo yyp pe, epy x e aa eope pooe cyecoa, a opy, poooca ee epo, eope oe.

ye o pooe cyecoa oocc peyeceo opee ape a cpay yxo a a ppay oac, e ya yepeo apea c oo y eo oopa cepa cpo cee o cpeae pc. Te aocoo oxoa oxoc a ya opa oc, co o ye cea a ye .

aya yy aaa e cax a coaax. yyc o co opoy aoe coy paa.

apoo, pocaxc coe oceoc, epa oooc oac oce cep oee cacoe eco cy a peo opaee oceee oco : oooe eco yooao xpap oa, o o. Taoe oepe ocoeo o pacpocpaeo y ee Ceepo Aep, oo eco y apoo pyx ace cea. Haoee ec pep pee caa c x epo cey Baay, oe y ax oo. Oya o aoe ypo oeo ope ea a pay Oa c py c pyo, oa pe e ae ep, a ex cpaex. oa acyae oeeoe pe, oee oeee cac a oe opaac oo ec eoo aaa e o.

Oe coepae ey coo eop pooe peeo cyecoa oe cpeac oyeo coee acceco pe Pe. oee cap epoa cooecye apco Aa ( pco oo Opyc Op). a paa oac eceecx apoopax yxo ec oae epao ycpeeo o. Oopeeo c ax pecaex ye yppye cye Moca, Paaaa aa, aeco Ececx oe cpaex opx ( pco oo y) oe Tapap, aoe coa peo, opaae oee oe ye o paceo oa.

aae ocaoc ecoo opoee a pecaex aoo pa o ocepo cyecoa y. pee pe peca cee apco Aa, apco y yepx, pa cpa, a apoy ecace.

Heapo e Axa, aa Occee oeoo pa, oop, o ye oce apao a ee, e ape apce Aa.

B eaoe apco Aa oa e poa y coa, oo oo paa yaco. eoe poac ey ya c oepxoc e. epe pay pacey y cee ooa, ooo A, po apco ee ae epo Tece epo c aepee ox cypyy Aa epceoy. epe ey eepy y ca Tap (eep c Maaa a o ooeoc eooeca) cycac A Ope, aec epy py. epe y e poac y ca Tap ao popac epea ceoo Cca epa, cpec yec Aa cpaoo epepa.

Mpae pe ey Ae. Ta poeae ce eea cea pea Cc.

oa oopo yc ca o. a a co o o Axepo;

y yepx oaa co ceae, o ea, x pae epea. B oeo apce cpyc ae aee ceo eoo o coa e. y yepx, xeye o oo e, aa o coe poo (oca paee: ayo ey, . e. ao acea).

o pa o apca Aa, apoc e ea oo aa acoea occ ecoe e yepx. O cey a co epaocy e cea e ea. Txo paac x co, ea yoe, ooe eecy yx ce, ox oce epo. He oy opaa oo apca ea. Tpexoo ecco ec epep (epep) copo xo Aa. C ao pex e oo ca caae yca pa cpax ox e.

Beco xoca y epepa poc cpe pao, oop caec oa, coae ocpoe ao .

epe o ceoo Cca a ae y yepx epeo cypo cap Xapo. ao a epeo cy ea ea oea oo, oopy aa po yepey. epeco, o o pe oa, po epe a cee xpcaca, ce-a oe-e coxpac. ec pycc cop M.

. e ceecye: B capy cyecoa ee ocao eca, oop, aec, y eoopx yo eepype cyecye oceac. B po yepeo ay ee e, yo epe ae opoe.

Ho a ae copoa Xapo e oee oy yy opao, ya, e po ce coe . Ha eoe epaocoe cyecoae opee y yepx pao apce Aa.

B o apce, o oopoo e oxo ce, paoc, ea eo , pa pa eca A (yo). O c a ooo poe co coe eo epceoo. Ey cya eyoe o e p. poe, c a e, pecey o pecya, e a ey y oo epa eo ype coec poa Aa c cy apca yepx Moc, Paaa a. Co eca cepx e, yy yp pae a ee, oce cep o ceac cy apooo pa. Coaco aoy, a cy epoee, Paaa aao, a Moc pea coee cya.

ec e, y poa Aa, axoc o cep Taa c eo pyax, epo ae, c poa ep p. peae Taa oy ypaeo, o cpea co eo p ooc c eo oo copy yy. eceoy cepx, xpoyoy ap opa Cy yaoc oay Taaa.

oycoa pee oa cep, C oapo aoa eo oo. epeca oa a ee ypa , e oe e coepac e oxopo, epeca poc ep oa oeoo apca. Hapyc a ee opo, aee eco. Toa pooepe oca Cy oyeo oa o Apeca, oop ocoo Taaa oo. Taa cop yy Ca oe ee apco ee, e oa a ocyea eo aa a coy pyy opy poa ae, oop oa e yaec aaa a epy.

Po c Taao Ae axoc pae ep. Ha cox px occ o, ecoe, o o . ep y, , a o a py aa cpaee epo;

co poao-pac ya paa o paa, ao opy po cpaex pa ea x y.

B pe pex epee ecopeae yepx, eo, o eco cao c pao aoo-accpco pe, pa oe yee, coco ce pyo, oya eoey e opaa. o eepa, poac, oea y e a. Ta a pee epece cae popo e o pyoo aaa eo eoea ae a eoe aeco cpax ex ye, o o eco oep yee o yye , o e e eee c, caae oxoo, oe opaa epeoo, epeax eo coo A (apep, aeo peeco epeoe Bexoo aea Ceyaa epeoe ceec ooo).

a, eo pex yee oe aoae a A ey cooecye eop pooe cyecoa. ooe pecae o ee o ee e ce oa, oa oee o epo y epee pooe opeo epeopo epoax, oa pee ye o ppao pooe ycy eco ye o ocpece oe. peee pecae po ae aoecy eey, a opaee oax, opaax Xpca cxo a, o ec oya apapxo.

Haoee oo eop oe papaoaa xpcaco pe cae.

Coaco xpcacoy epoye o ocepo cye y, oa pooae oce cep o ce, o c e o. B eee epx yx e oce cep ya acaaec ooceo cooo oe ece c axoc p e Aea ocea a ee e eca, oope e opo. ooy ya, a eo, caec oa ooo oa, oopo payac c eo, oa ooo poa, oop ooeo eo, a opao poo a a a, a cee eo. B pe e e oco oeeae oecc co xpcaco ye a eeca.

Bo pe (a pe e) ya poxo o y ey epe eo x yxo, oope pepaa e y o pax pexax. o cae aaec oy apca y. B ae o coo apco oo cao c a o, a cae, yee. Oao o e coce a. Bco eaece p o apx. o ao ap cop oae? B oapco e, coxpae, oe o pyccoo, opao oe capocacx ope, a oaae ao. a, apca y oo paccapa a poxoee e coeopax aoex opoo a y ey.

Coaco pa opoe cx, cyecye aa ax pec, apc, a ao oopx caec o o pex: paoco;

;

ocye ee;

peoyo;

eoc;

pa;

cpepo cyoc;

xoca;

epa;

ac;

opoc;

ea poc;

a a eo;

yca;

apoeca;

ya;

peoe;

coo;

epece;

ecoocep. po oo apco, ya pxo a ceyee, oo po yceo ce x, oe poo co y, e yy eeeo epyo a.

ceo po epe apca ooc oy, ya ee a poe 37 e oceae eece oe ace e, ee e a, e oa ocaec, oo a copooo e aaaec e eco o ocpece epx.

Coaco opoe aea peoooy Maap Aecapcoy, ocooe epooe ooee ycox a e e oce cep cao c e, o o ceo pee (c peeo o e e) ae oaa paco pa, oo oce oo (c eoo o copooo e) e oaa ye yac aa. a, coaco paocaoy xpcacoy aoy, oepa y eoxoo coepa oa a 3-, 9- 40- oce cep.

B peep ceecoo Cpaoo cya, aeyeo oe Cea, ocpecee epx ooaeoe eoe ocyee peo, xpcacx oaax cyecye opeeee acoo cya, oeaeo y o Cpaoo Cya A Pa.

A, coaco xpcac oe o eco ocepx ye peo. a ye ca, Bexo aee ey cooecye epecoe coo eo peecoe aec, oopoe ooeo epeoc coo peco.

B Hoo aee cpeaec coo eea peeca opa epecoo coa exea e-Xo, o oaae Eooa oa. B Eooo oe y o epycaa axooc eco, aaeoe Toe, e oooo epe ca ec Mooxa cox ee. ap oc c e cope ooooco pepa y oy cay eco. Cpa, e o, cea ee ocec coo aa. B ao ae yopeec coo eea Hoo aee 11 ecax y pex epx eaeco. oa cpeaec aae eea oea, oo ooaae e oo aa.

pae pea pa. oce epeoa Bexoo aea a peec 70 ooa (Cey-aa) coo pa cao o aae ecoo caa, a oee yece o aae oo oee apca yepx, e y paeo oa ocpece. epoaao e (. e. poc) ooaa eco a Bocoe, e o aca ca, oop oa Aay eca.

Ho oa cope, ce ape o, o a x ecoo caa.

ooo xpcac ycyace pecae o apoo pe, o ae ocoa a eop oe. B ycyaco oo ae cep pa (Apa), o epex ax aeo, ae cy e, o e ae cpo o aoo. oa o cpo acyae, c epea, pacyeo y poa Aaxa, ceae co c ee opeeoo, oce eo pa eee copoa e oe pay yy eo eoea. eoe oe pa cocoa copoc pay, o o cea oeae.

e cpay oce cep, oe, yepx opaa a aea Myap Hap. ooy oa y ycya eaec o oooc pocopo, oo c e ooo cee yyee a e, o yep o cec p oe x yx aeo cep. Bepyx ae cep e poa, a eepx a coo pee, coo oeae Aax. oa x ca e aea-xpae, copooa aoo eoea. ea Myapa Hapa yoac oo peax, opae ea x aeo e aac.

B yooe ce pe Aax yoae ce cyee a ee, ocpec epx ye ep cy a . pe yy epy a, pae opey aeco pacx caax.

Oo ocox aa Aa (. e. eca, ya oaa oce cep eepe pe) cae axaa (o peeepecoo e-Xo, eea).

Co axaaa oo, a, poac, . . ep axaaa op oe. Bc pa, a cooc x oa, ae pyo oe, o o yc aaae, oopc opae (4:59). pe axaa ca e. O e o epea ay, ooe ooa aao, o, oop pacceae x ypeoc oy oy. pyo acx y y xoo.

Pae aeop peo oea pae co aa, xo eo epe pae opoa. axaa oxpae aeca cpaa, pye ce, co oopx 19. x oae ae o e Ma.

B opae oapyac ee yx pecae o ppoe aa.

Coaco ooy, o eo poe cpaoo, paeo, oooo oy o ea ooo, ooaeo peo. Coaco pyoy pecae, o yoa poac, ya ey ce opo. oceeo o opa eapoa a opooopa paep c oepec pya, pae pae aeop peo. Tao opa aa ocxo peeocoo pa. B ycyaco ope o oaa e a cpeeeoe epoece pecae o cpyype aa, acoc a e, oope opac oeceo oe ae.

B oceopao pa pope oypoc opa y (cpa) ooo, a ooc, ocpoo, a e, oca, poyoo a ao cyaeo ca epyx. pae poxo o oy ocy c cpoo o, a pe caac c eo ee acoe ooo. e oca ca epyx acoaa ycyaa, o, cce pecae opoacpe. Ta aoe oeco Ba, cyaee ao paex, poo y yepx o ocy a.

Meco, e pae opey eoe aeco, opae aaec aa (ca). o opay, aa o ece ca c coa, aaa pya. Ta ey pe o eopec, pe ooa, yc oopoo e eec, pe a, poo x, pe ey oeoo. Ta o, a, paa. Oae ycyacoo pa oax oeax oea a oax pacx. O e, o oea, eooee a. pcya a eo e.

paea a cypy epooe, oeae ece-yp, oopx e ocyc o x eoe, . yp oca a cyeca pax eo, coae apaa, ycyca, ap, ex popay oy eo, ycaoe paoeoc. Ha py y yp ac c ee Aaxa ee coeo cypya. yp cpeac a opao pax acx opaa.

oe po c paea oc x ce (oee oee) cypy, o e ece, ya e, cepc. Cooaec, o e paeo ece c oay pa. ycee opa yp cypy ece, yaax paeo oo opex o ycyacoo pa o xpcacoo, e ce y c eco.

a, ocoe acae ycyacoo pa o poxaa, oo, pocoe oe, pe ea e, eo ooe cypy pacx e cocex e, oope cay ece eo oo. Bopac cex oaee pa, coaco oceopaoy pea, 33 oa.

He coe o, o ycyac opa pa pooae peeocoy pa pecae o apoo apce. B opae yppy ec (e) epcc (apayc) ep ooae pa. Heoope oca opae axo cee apae yecx, xpcacx peeecooacx ecax. B eo ycyac opa pa oo ca apac pae apox pecae o pae, oax cpe oceoaee pax eocox pe, acoc xpcaca, yaa, opoacpa.

a oo o e, opa apooo pa opae opao oee eapoa, e . eceo, pecae o ocepo cyecoa Bexo aee eca eopeee, a Ho ae ae eae coo-y opox oca ce ocepo . opee opa xpcacoo pa aa caac cee, peex pax opoex ex cx. aae XIV ea aaoy py a aa epa a cy c e cyecoa xpcaca, caa oea, aoea, ea, pacopea oxoea apa a cep, ee e, cc cpyypy oecea oe ae Aep (1265 1321).

ae oe acoo ae ceo, pee caeoc ec, o eo oae ca paccapa oecey oe a ooe opoee.

coy ooece opa aoo Aa, a ae xpcace pecae o apoo pe, acy ooe y o Acoo, Apcoe pco-aoeco pa, ae coae ey poyay oe oycopoeo cyecoa.

Eo oycopo p pacaaec a p ocoe ac A, ce Pa. aoc A (epo) pecae coo oey opooopay poac, oopa, cyac, ocae epa eoo apa. Ee co ooca e oepec ycya, pya Aa, aoy oopx cooecy co pex, pe e eee pex, e oee yoo pye oee ya o cyaec.

B aoo Ay poea pe ao pecoe. B cyoc, o o oo, opaoa cea pcoo Capa poa epa e. Caaa o ec a Axepo (pe.: pea cop) oocae ep py Aa. ae, cea , o opaye ooo Cca (pe.: eac), ae Ccoe ooo, oopo ac ee. Ee e o caoc eeoo (pe.:

y), oeopao peo e po, oopy opye ac po eo. oo, e poaoo py, pooaeo aac eeoo, o epeceae ec caoy yc, e aae oe o.

Oca y ooao o cepaec y, o epe e pepac eoe oepo o (pe.: a).

B epo pyy Aa ae oeae epeex aee opoeex expca. o (a.: yc aa) aoecoo aa, e o epooy ye pea y exoaex paeo o oo, a Xpcoc, ey coe cep ocpecee, coe a e oya exoaex cx pa, opac e oo c cyee epopooo pexa.

Bo opo pyy aoa aa ecy aaae caocpac, pee peoyo, eepo cy pacoe, o ( Cco ooe) ee, eco epe, ceo ac. Ceo py paee a p oca, oopx cooeceo paee ac a , ac a coo ac a oeco a ececo (coo).

Boco py (e e) pecae po oeopa ycy aco opo, ooca pyo ceo opa. O opoe ec oepec pa (aa, e), oope oee py o pya aa. ep o cey a pae pyoo cee, a epe e ya pooo eoo ooa, a e oopoo e oce, e py Aa, eoe oepo o. B x ex apac oa, oope oaa e, e cax c oco ya oep: co ooce, ce, coy, popae, o, eep, op, yae coe, a paopa, oe e, ee co.

o acoo acoo ooa oopeeo e pyo aoa Aa cy eoe oepo o, oopoe ep oaye oepxc, . e.

peae. o oce py Aa paee e x pa a epe oepecx oca. B epo ece c ao ac peae pox, o opo peae po eoeo, pee peae pye copaeo, , aoe, eepo peae aoeee. eo a, epe eepoo pya, o py oaec o a ep, pex acx oopoo ac e, e pex, o c ae, yacee cex ocax: peae eeca oecoo (ya) eeca eoeecoo (py acc, ye eap).

Bopoe apco, ce, ae opaae e opoo op, oaec o oyap ocpe Oeaa. Oa ee yceeoo oyca. epeoa ooca ac op opaye pe-ce, a epx oocaa ce ycya (ce pya coceo ca). Ha oco epe op ae oeae yc ec eoo Pa.

ae oe oy opoc, oya e ooe y ae oc ce, e o e e yoaoc paccae o xpcacx pecaex o apoo pe. eo o, o coe paccae ceoa paocaoy epoye, ooc oepaey pecaee o ce (a e, a yee poecaca). oe ca pcycye oo aoeco epoye, e oo ec poeyo eco ey pae ao e y peo, e oye poe eo , o e ooee cep pexa, pee e oy ocy pa, op oae oe. o cae aoece ooco oa o-paoy. O pay oo ca a co e y coec paca, pye pa peaoc oo o.

Cya y ce oe oeea, a cpo pea ee a copae op ea (oa oepoa oy ep) a yepeo ocac a ee po .

pecaee o ce cooc ye I ee xpcaca. ee o e papaoa oa Ac (12251274). oa o ce p opec coopo 1439 oy oepe 1562 oy Tpec coopo.

oo op aoa ca oc yepe o epo oyee, a ycyax peca epae. B epo pye ca ae pacoo opeo, o opo aco, pee ex, eepo yx, o cyo pacoee, eco peoyoo, ceo caocpaco. B ce ya oe occ o ex pcpac pe popec ooe oxoee a y, eye epx, pa. ooy ce pyo ca cooecy ce cep pexa. po co pya, ocec y oc ooe eoo pa a epe ca. Teep ya oca ococ eo opoee, o ee e ocoa cx peeo pa.

yeece y oa epe pa eeca copyec ocaoa yo a pax acpooecx eax, coeo poa yex cax y, peax apce paoc, o ee aex o eecoo coepeca. a peca coo ae eoeece opoee: cpaeoc, aopaye, yepeoc, cooc, epy, aey, ocepe. epoe eo Pa ae pacoaae a ye, opoe a Mepyp, pee a Beepe, eepoe a Coe, oe a Mapce, ecoe a epe, ceoe a Caype, ocoe eoe eo, eoe pcaoe eo. Ha e eeca ooeeo cce ae, coaco c epo yee, oeae ecoe, e pe (pe.: ae), oe oeca. po ce a, ya cae ocae p, e cea o pee pocpaca.

oeo, o pao epecae e ocpoec oaca yoeoc c, y pope ceo oo, o eae ocae ae oce cep cepo pa eepo, o ae oe ca o oe opac oy yeoy poee.

oo aoecx xpcacx pecae o ocepo cyecoa y ooe oeee pe oy pacpocpaee a aaee cece opoe. Haoee cceapoa opo pacca o oycopoe pe pae ecoy ececocae ocoy-cy ayy Ceeopy (16881772), oop caec ocoaee copeeoo cpa. O cpe ye paccaa ae XIX, ooy ceac ocec oo ex paeo oco cpa, oope acac pecae o ocepo cyecoa eoea.

a, Ceeop aypaco aeao, ec eo py o aepe, epoo, ocoo, exae, eep, eoo. Ho 40-x oax XVIII ea eo pocxo epeo: o ocae ayy opaaec ce, oe ce yxoe pooeye coceoe eococoe yee. Xo ca Ceeop oa e ac coa co cey, eo oceoae a coaa ocoa ceeopaca epo.

Ca Ceeop oop, o opace 57 e o ca oeoee yxooe pepaee, a paepoc eo, o oy coo ocy apco yxo, o epeeac e, eceoa c eo oae, cceoa o p. a ocee 25 e Ceeop coa opooe oeco peox poee, ocax Heo, a, aeo yxo ce o a ocoa coceoo oa. Eo oca ocoo coacyc c oca oyo epayp.

oa eoe ypae, o, coaco ye Ceeopa, o xo p yxo, axoc a oy ey eeca ao. o p oe oxo a a eo, a eoe cpeaec c yep py ao. a oo eoe pae pea pe yxo, eo py paccaa ey o Heecax ae oo pae opoa, ca ap. Bo poeyoo pe yxo eoe xoe oye, eoc o ecox e o oa, pooec Hea. Ho cao Heo, a eo ocae Ceeop, e co oaec o pa yxo, oa oe cxo c ee. Ta ec ypee op a, a a ee, ap ca, oa ca aeo acca epee a x. Ta ec paeca, ao, cy, epoe a, cy, pa, o, oecea ce, o cpeaec a ee. Ocae aa ae aoae aoe-o eco a ee, eo oae xapaepyc oo yp ocya.

oco cox copeeo Ceeop oepy a cyace, o o ax e eo e peo ocpac cepe.

Cpaeoc pa co oe, o ee oco ay a aepac oco P. epco coo oea cece py Ceeopa ep eoope pep eo coe. Oee epeca oyy ae pe yo Ceeopa epe a ca coa, e opaeoo aoec xpcaco. Oco e epec eo pya poyc oce oo, a ae oocee epece apae ey opoe Ceeopa oca epx oeo oce cep, ecx paccao peapoax e ( ca o o ae IV).

Ceac ooc eoe cecoe apaee, aeec coa co apy ocepoo cyecoa a ocoa pao Ceeopa, oocex cpecx oo o oe c ya yepx oca e, epex ecy cep. Coaco x ye, e cyecye aa pa o e, a x ocae epo, a y oce cep pooa ec ceo poe cyecoae, coxpa a oo ce epeo oceeo coepecyc coe pa. Teop peo pyc pecae oaoo xpcaca, yepa, o ce e cpecx ceaco p ocep o peapoax ec e o oe, a ecoc oa, apae a oe y.

ee Ceeopa eo oceoaee pae eoco. Teocoe (o peecx co eoc o co ypoc, ae) aa peoo ococoe yee o oooc eocpeceoo oce oa c oo ceco y. pae oooc eocpecex oao co cepxecece ca cae eoco c oyo cpo.

cop eoco yxo yoy peoc, ee ee oo oapy paxae, ye, aae, yxo eoco poy eoao oc peeo pa, yee axo cpeeeo.

B acoee pe yee eoco aoee oo paeo eeoc Teococoo oeca, ocoaoo 1875 oy H-ope ae cooeecee E.. aaco (18311891). Ceac eococo oece, a oopoo ec o ox cpaax pa, acaec ooo 150 eoe. Me oeoc oa ao epe eococoo oeca, oop acoee pe apyec Mapace (). o ep pacooe opoo ape, aoae oaec ca, a eo ooc cp ee eyx oecx epee.

Copeee eoco pooey e epoc o ce pe, ocoy ao x o cpa ea oecea cyoc. Ooceo e ocepoo cyecoa o pepac cooo ooepaa pax peox ye, ocoe oopoo ce-a e e o epeooe y. Coaco a oceoaee aaco, ce c cpa ooo ae, ooo coa, oya ce ya epeeo o epyc.

opo pacca o eococx yex o ea oeo , ooy eao aapoa x e yy.

M c a paccope ce ocoe a ocepoe cyecoae y, aa o epooo aea o pecae ax pox pe, a y, xpcaco, ca. B ocoe cex x ye e oa o eccep y aoap oy, ecop a oocee pa, ye e oo oeo.

py oco "pecae eoeeca ec ae, yepa, o ec oo coco cyecoa eox e ooc pepaaec c pacao ea. Bocae yxe aepaa ( e y oco ax aee), oa oaaec opaeo ecey peox pecaex o cep , opocy oop, oa e ayaec o x ox. e ca coe e ey-o ay ae, pooeoa , aoopo, poa ay-o oex ec e. He. oo xoe y y pay opo aeo a oca opoc, oe a oope a ye ca caocoeo.

TEPATPA op A. oce cep. a o o o paccaao epoy coy. , ea, M Bec, 1991.

epooax Cepau (Poy). ya oce cep. Moca, Maca and Co*, 1991.

op eeoe opy (H-op), 1990, . e M. . Cap eepyp. C. eepyp, . A. C. Cyopa, 1889.

Taop . . epoa yypa. M., oa, 1989. Toape C. . Pae op pea. M., oa, 1990. y H. A. ee pee pe. M., oc. y.-e aeco, 1955.

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