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COBPEMEHHA MAHCTECA TEPATPA oea cxoaaeco epayp o oe peae M. M. Peeoa A. . ea Cepe Pae TAHATOO HAA O CMEPT Bocoo-Epoec ...

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B ayce 1985 . eco paoo aee poe epoo. O oca:

oe ya... ae y oy. Pap ee oao, oo p oo caec oa py poa a oy ca aca py. Ba eo e co, oce eo c aa ye.

B aae op oexa a Hoecoe ae. C pa ye cey oy. o oxopoea ea, opee o ac a eax. Heaee ae oay, oopo ca papa oy. ca co copo epe ooca paxc e, cyac, aca eoo oy ee yea.

B ape 1986 . o pexa a ypocoe ae. B e ye cey oy, a oopo axoac oopa ooo ey. o ey opaoc, pe cp oy. Pap ee a yy ooo 0,5 epa, oapy, o ae axoc oa, a e epa ee pyo oa. ooy pe oaac o aca.

epe ecoo e pexa a ypocoe ae. Hae oay ca papa oy. Haac c o, oa cao pyee, c aa yexa, cea aca oy ee.

Ta opao, ooc pa ce o 10 cyax pap o.

Moe paoc eoe oycc o epeceo epoaoc?! o-oy, e. Opeeee apooo cya aa, 1948 oa poe, ypoee Xapoco oac, ypae, ocooe o yooo oeceoc a coeoe apae poxoe pyeoo ee cxapecy oy ceaoo a...

Hepo (yao o ep) oocc ooo pe oo pae caec cxec paccpoco. pee xapaepoe ocae ooo epoe aeap yapa capecoo poaa paycoo cae ap eae oep.

Aeap yaap eca cpao e ce c ea eoo oee. O poc x paec oaa, ap aa , aepyc poc, ac, py pyoe ooeee. B pyax o o ca aeoe pace, oopoe o cea oc p cee. Oycc a oe epe oce, oco yaap oo aa ap, a oo... oa ocpecx pacoo opac a ae... e pa pee a epeca x acy y... oce oocex poecx pe yaap oaae cxapecy y, e e cxap oee o pacp-a p eo eya: opace epaa e aeap ca coe epoe cecyaoe oee y oce yepe y, aapexee paca, oopy o ooa ae. Cea aax eo epoo ea c ao caoco co aa a oooo yaapa, o ocec eo ee c epecao cpec epyc oy oye.

B acoee pe ooo oece Pocc cyecye ceaa ca o ocepe opae o. o y ca oo oec caoe epeaxopoe, xo oa oye pa ec cya aopoe oye. Ta, ao, o, a epeaxopoea yepa oy oa cae Aecapa pa Ha Hoaea p. poo oo e oo o ee oce o oxopoeo po c ye. Toa py oo opeca pa, pcy o, p o a ae Capoo pa, p ee po oxopo opay yy. 20 e cyc o pec paccaa o o ypae Poa.

Ha cpaax o a eco epeec pacca o apxeooax aecx opax, aopox x ocepex, o aye cyeepx, o pae cax. Ho ee oee ecp aeoco yex ao e e, ae, ceye ae.

TEPATPA Map Te. pe Toa Coepa. Cop. co. oc oax. M 1980, . IV.

e M. . Cap eepyp. C.-eepyp, . A. C. Cyopa, 1889.

eae. oep. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1988. Ho a Capo pco ae. Poa, 1990, 8. My oepaoo. Haya , 1974, N8 9. Mupoeo O. Cace a ecace e ocpo. Beep epa, 1991, 47,26 epa.

opocu. A., Ceeo . ape cpa cop. M., Mc, 1988.

epcce apoe aeo. M., Haya, 1990.

ome T. yeece Pocc. M., Mc, 1988. ocyuo A. Ha ep y acoe. ocooca paa, 1991, 4cep.

Toapeu . H., peoa T. . o cea yx e. ea, 1986.

ocepa cpa. oppepe ea cepa (a) 1991, 16 a.

paa, 1941, 159(8567), 10 . oope . Cyecy po apaoo?

(o aepaa xe ae. Coeca yypa, 1991, 18 a.

Tapaco A. Ocepe. e, 1991, 9.

aeu C. Cpeoe ae. Ho p, 1987, 5.

Typee . C. O e. ., ea, 1975.

ABA XVIII e epe a o oaao aax, ocex opea opa, oxopo op oaac o aoee ocepax eeo yyp aoap ycooc opeex pecae, a ae oopx o coppoac. He cyao xpcaa eo o oac e peca coo-y cyecex peyao. B epe opeaoo pyaa oaac cpax, pe e cpax epe cep, a cpax epe ep, o-o oepa cpooc coe opaey ycooc aoo pyaa eee ox eo.

Pyae op e peoxpaey e, o o cococoa oy, o opa x o oo, a oac yeoo epx.

ae o ceoeo opeao pa coxpac oooc x pex pyao epoa. Ta, caec oae oc ooa epe epe oa. Bp o ceo payae a coa oo opa. A pa eo ce o e cpaxe epe ep ao ec eo a, o o e ae opo aa, e epyc. Ee poo ee x e ex papa oca ooa ooo ce ep e oe a, e axoc ep, ae o coe opac.

co x pyao ceye ca pecaex epox ee. B cooecye ae ye paccaa o oceeco pacpocpaeo oae ox eoa ca epoo epe opeee, o o e o epyc pe .

Coxpac pya y eoopx copeex apoo, axoxc a aax aax yypoo pa. opa aaa XX ea ec op pep cooae, o y aapo, oceoo ee Heae, oaae ooa poce aeo aopaa opoy o eo o oy o xopoco, oacac, a oo e ya epyc poy ce.

B oope oo ox apoo cpeac pecae o x epeax, aeex ocoo cepxececeo co, oope o xo o. o e epe, o aaa a e, oea x x po, o aca oe cep. Heoope cceoae ca, o pocxoee x epoa aceo o copecx p: o poope op yx opeax oae coe opee.

Beca ooce oope pecae o x epeax o apoe ec, ca, , a. ae ceo paccaax ox epeax cpeaec c apa, yp, ypaaa.

Coo ap ooc aaoepoecx ax c XVII ea. H cpeeeoo a, ae pee- cpeeeeo ax eo ee e. Ha aa Epo oo epeo epa, oopa, co oepe, epea eo y ocacx apoo, y oopx oo eco c XV ea. Coo ap y ca opaoaoc o oee peeo epa yp. p o ooec opa cacx apox oep. O ece y ypae (yp, ap), eopyco (yap), oo (upior), exo (upir), cepo ( XVXVI ee yp, oe ap), oap (ap, ap, p). B ope ap o coo oo, o oy, epe cepo, o ce epoece . B peecacx oxpcacx epoax yp o peeo ya: o coa Haaoo eocoo coa, cae, pee e ooc epyy, poc ep yp epe.

B oce cyae ap yp e oo aee ooaa caeo o epea, oop cacae po y cx e. o apo oep, ec ao-y eoe ca ype xo o o ee, o ao coa p eo eo e po cepe oco oo. Toa epe epecae ype. Caec, o yye ype ca co oepe caoc apo. Moo apaee a, o ye apo ao eoe ee oo p yo o py;

o ocoeo aco cpeaoc y aex ee (oee opex yo p ee eax oox), oope o oep ae ceo ao cyae pao ypa oce cep ea o ooo ey a.

oceee oepe o pacpocpaeo ocoo oe, e ax ee apo aa cpa (strzyga).

cepo pyccx opa yp (apa) ceac c ooec opao oa-oopo yoaa (oca caeoe ypaa, oeee xyoecey epaypy).

oep, cae c oopo, acoo pacpocpae cop Epo, o o eoe ae oy coce ep apo. apo oope oee pee yp, ee ap. O oca eax ee peepc epaopa. Ae aop yepa, o oopo o y e, oope oy pepaac oo, a ae po ao e o oa, oxoc poa a eoeec co.

Moe o peea pcx epaopo ep, o e oe opoo oe pepa eoea oopo. p ooa opoo yo oaeo co p yo cee o, apc oe ypo pooc opeeee aa.

Bpoe, o ee. o oe ea x ocoe? a o xo e eeece cya, oa cxec eopae e py pa, oa a eepeax ae aaa a opyax, apaac ycac. ec eoe caoc oee ceo oxo a oa.

poe oo, o oo eox ox Epoe, oope oooe pe aaa a e.

Hecop a o, o epa cex ooo cpeaec oceeco Epoe pyx acx cea, acceco cpao ep ype yo pa Pocc ooe cace e (ocoeo eopycc, pay oac x ca). Bepa ype yoaec peepyccx xpcacx oyex, eoc ( apeeco cce).

B ece peea coc pecae o yx ax ooo cox peo, paypo, ooax ooa opx opoee poa x epeax, ypx, oopx pepaac ye, oeee oo, yepe e coe poe-ee.

p ca ae e, yepx o cpoa peyae ecac (. e.

oeex ca), ooo, ex paoo opeao opoc.

aox ooo (. e. cex eececeo yepx yx, ayxc, c epea ax) e xopo o ooy opy, o e ceye epo, a a oa oaaa opee caoya. Ec e ao ep oaac oxopoe a oe ae, o o o, o apo pecae, ca po ox ox ecac. Ec ecace pocxoo, o aeao oa yp o, po eo oco oo o oo ( cyae acyx) poc py o c aa.

Bapc eco Cepao 1273 oy, o pe eo cyoc ocya ooe ec:

O eye oe, o, aoepe! C oa yoe, o yoa yaea pec? C oa xoee y? O oox oax ca XVI ee Mac pe:

Teeca yoex yex oepex e cooe opea, o a oe ee x, oe oe (o ec, poae o).

o coco op c yp epea oa oy oco o, poy oo p o py yoaec y cex cacx apoo cae pae yype ox. a, acae XX ee, paccaa o yceo ec oo pyaa ope c ca o epea ye a . Oo aa aa aaaec coa:

Ey (o ec caey o o oa epey) oa oy o oco o e pxo oe. Bo, oca opoo a.

Oao ooc oepc ceeca ax e a e x oy pcycoa ee ca, coe oope a.

Ho o ex e cocoax op co epea ceecy oae oye. B 1878 oy aae cae Bee cxya e y. Cpe acee aaac aa. o-o co, o Aecap Mapeo, c apoe oyo, yep ca ep, ee eo, o, ypa, popo, o cope ce oy ce a . o c ece eo po, cap pe p po py oya oco o. a a cococoaa pacpocpae e.

B 1910 oy ecee eeeo pece epec ocao a ceco cxoe: Ey Mypoey, epy epy xoep, oa o, epeepy o a e o cy. eo o, o ooa p ca oye, ooy pacpaa c ee pyo oa a, o e pec, ocao e.

poo pacpocpaee y ox epoecx apoo, ocoeo y ca, epoa o oxpae po ocooo oa, oo oy yaeo ooa (ae ceo oya), e oe a pa. M ye e, o o o oae yoa Mac pe XVI ee, apc eco Cepao XIII ee. acpoa o oee pex oopx aepaax ax caax. Ta e e ca co oo yeo oa?

Bo, pyae ca ooa y epox ee, o aca epoo ocaac oe. Ee eapco apxeooeco yype (cpe Epoa, I ceee o ae p) poo acpoa oa a o opye opy pya, poa oca ooa, oeee ypy y, o apeo pa x ee.

Oa papya opee aa pacpocpae y ox apoo pa. e x papye a eooao, o cea aeco ao o cea apxeooo . A. Cooe, ya opeee epxoco apxeooeco ox. Maccoe papye pax epxocx o pooc ecoeo c aec e oo, o peoxpa x o oopaaeoo yepx.

Ta opao, epa x epeo, apo, ype ocaac eoeecy aceco o epooo epoa eo cop.

B XIX ee oc epe epaype opao apox caa o x epeax, c ex op ce o caoc eca pacpocpae paccaax, oecx, poaax.

B 1827 oy pocep Mepe ae Cop pcx cxoope ya", copax aa-, oc, Xopa epeoe. Ha cao ee ec aca ca pocepo Mepe, o y yay epaypy ca oep oe, o ce Aa Me Aecap Cepee y, oop epee oco ece copa a x 1834 oy o aae ec aax ca. Moe ec copa, acoc ay Xp, Mapo yo, Bypaa oce apa yp.

Tea x epeo aoee ooe opaee aa opece H. B.

oo A. . Tocoo. oce aca e p oece paccao, ocoax a apox oepx o apax (apep, oec p).

B 1816 oy eee copac eoo pyo, oop xo ae ac o-poa apo, eo pa, ooo ae oop, ac o epc e co coe eo, 18-ee Mp e coo cecpo Mp p. B eace py paeac, paccaa py pyy cpae cop o pex, epeax, apax. o peeo co cocee pacca. e p o cpay oaac o o ae, apo oca pae oec Bap, a Mp oop oe co ace o oa. Poa Mp e paee ca acco oecoo poaa eoopao papoac ax yaco. oec oop Bap, aa 1819 oy oe aa cox aee. Ta, aao-epoeco epaype epe poyaa ea apo.

Ho acoe cecae ca xo ce 1897 oy poaa pa Coepa pa paya, epa ae eccoe oeco epea.

copec paya (Wlad Dracul) e Baax (copeco oac a eppop copeeo Py). B 1430 oy o axa ac, pecoa Pay III, pa ce accao eepcoo opo Cya. paya oac eoeao ae oo pee opeo ecooc, o e coxpac oocee ee caa (apep, peepyccoe Caae o yco oeoe paye). Cao poe paya oaae c paoa oa.

paya pa Coepa ee ao oeo co co copec pooo. o pee ceo accec opa epea-apa.

a o paye-ape ooaac opoe ycexo, o ee oe oypoc ooac ce 20-30-e o oye oocee yaco o oa poaa Coepa. paya-ap op eaopae ooe apaee, oopoe ycoo aa apo. acoey pee coa co o o apax, cpe x, oeo e, acca eex eapx oeo, o ec eceo aae poee, ae a ae eo Maa ecoa Tpep aepac oo c ap e ao po. Coppoac opeeee ao apa, a eoope apy o o apax, ae a acaccoe , pepac oypy pyy.

a, acoee pe, aoap eaopay, ea apo caa eca oypa a aae. B ae cpae apo, ypaao, x epeo ooe pe e yca a pa a cpa ypao, oepea ay cxy co e oopo eyeo, a ay paceoc. cee c oe acc oo y. oec o ypx A. . Tocoo ccxoeo oycac ox copax coe.

pa acoc papya eee ape. Ho a eoooeoo pe ae opyac acca eaeceo poy a ey o x epeax, pee ceo epe eocao. Be a pa 1990 oy ep coec yaco Ce ypaao (Topecoe oeee Ac, peccep ea o op a), pae y eap. epeca ceo oo yoo ooa apa acyae, oay, ya Hoo pe oop paccao . epyeco ec ocox ca, ocoax a ax o yax ooax.

ya, o oaoc c o ao, ae eep ca coe opepoac axyx a eo aepaax o x epeax o eceo aae poee, ocoae a xopoe a oopoo aepaa, o eccex epaypx oeooeo.

TEPATPA Toapeu . H., peoa T. . o cea yx e. ., ea, 1986.

Epeua B. . Pya oop. .;

Haya, 1991. opea op ee Ceepo Epo I cee o . . I cee . . M., 1974.

Cuoou . A. Ma op opee epxocy oxy. Coeca apxeoo, 1963, 1.

emyxo E. B. Cepao Bapc, pycc pooe XIII ea. C.-eepyp, 1888.

eeu . . Oep pycco oo. epe eececeo cep pyca.

epopa, 1916, . I. Mooece pacca pyccoo acee Bocoo Cp. Hoocpc, Haya, 1987, ce 386, 389.

pep . . oop Bexo aee. M., oa, 1989.

ompecu A. A. O opeax oax ecx ca. M., 1868.

Pao . A. eco pex ca. M., Haya, 1981.

Cmoep . pa paya. C.-eepyp, 1913.

empyeca . ec ocox ca. Ho p, 1990, 8.

ABA XIX ooca apooo pa paa epoa, . e. oe c ya yepx, a oe poo pacpocpaea cpe pax apoo. Oo peex , oay, aoee poo ecx cooe o epoa cpeae (I a apc 28:3-20).

Cay, ep ap pa (peo 10951055 . o . .), opye paa, paae oey aeoo opoa Aop poc ee a yx yepeo popoa Caya. Aopca oy pea co ap yea a oa, xoeo e. Cay opoc oca eo, oy oea, o ya pecapeoo, oeoo y oey. Toa Cay ooc o yca yc ppaa Caya cpaoe pecaae: pa ye opae ca, a ca Cay co co co a cey e oe.

oo ecoo paccaa o, o peey pa xopoo ao paa a yxo yepx epoa opaee a coea. Hae cpoe ocaoe po epoa e o yo ee, acoo yoo oa yopeac paax pe apoa. O epoecx aoo apa cep epe oae a coo, o pac a yxo yepx opaac a popa. o e coo cope epoa cpe ecx oae, opoex cyc ooe pe oce Caya ape Maacce, oa a epx. Oocy, ya cpax epe cypo aoo aa cyee epo a, cyeep ap e x a eo ce yao x peeco. Oao cyc opooe pe aoec ap oc coa pc cex epoao papy pecyo.

Oa a yepx cyecoa y peecoae pa aoco-yepco yyp. B eaao ece o o aee epo oaae coeo epoo pya aa poc oa epx Hepcay a ey oeoo pa yx oeo oapa: Boa o ce opo e, a yx aa o, ooo epy, oc epx. o eo poce, aey c yx aa oea ey o opeco ooe epx oeo pe, e x opae ep e ce opo paxo.

Ca pa pep epoa ao epaype cpeae aeo oe Occe, e cc pae ea epea a cao pa Oeaa ec ae yxo oeoo pa. o aca x oop, o oae po aaae a epy oe a, o po x ceaa a o . coee ao yx copac y pa , c po, pea epo co popa.

epoao pee pe oa yxo yepx cyecoa oo cpoo opeeee eca, ee eocpeceoe cooee c oe apco epe poxo pe ee, co oope yx, oyc paa, o xo a oepxoc. Tae eca aac opaya yepx.

B ce x opayo o axoc Aopya ecpo;

a, o pea, eeap ya Ope a yy o oepo p. B oeee pe opc pa epap ae oca oy opayy, o a e coe yepe e Mecc. ac e oeaa, o oa aa e xooo, a a oe, oope oxopoe ece c ee eo, e a e ea, o e coe. Toa epap ee ce ea opa copac ce ep. Te ocyo co paae, apc co ye oe, a paa;

o a oo o copac, pa ee co eoxpae copa co cex e oe, co x yy ce a ao coe ooo cypy.

pyo opay yepx axoc epae B. Capac ap aca, pa epco e p aee, oce o eco ec ac a yoc yx cyao yo aco ey o e eoa. Ee yx c ey ycceo a, o ce eo ao cey, oa o epec Capy. popoeco o coc co cep ap, cope oceoae.

Haoee ooe ocae poeyp a yxo peeco epaype axo pae cxa epc. ece pocxo y o epccoo ap ap. apa Aocca, ea cepca, c peoo e ec o ye o opoo ap, oopy o oe po pe. oec oe, cooa o ooaeo opae epco p Caae. opcea yaco ope, apa peaec a o yx ap cpoc eo coea. C o e oa coepae a oo o ooa, ea, o, a oooo aca, a xop o pe oe , ae oe oa, poc x ca aepx yy yepeo ap. yx ocyo pacae -o e ae oopeoy apoy coe peypee. Bepoo, o cx ocoac coe oca a pyae, oo peecx epoao.

aopec oco Aoo Tac, a epeae eo opa a ocpa, a aa yx Axeca eo o ecca. epo e coe po opae cooo pacoo oooo eoea cy ecey c ypeo.

B oooc e paa Ao yep, o o a e oepa.

o ya oca a pacca o ca Ceca oe, ca oe Beoo c eccaco oye epe o p apcae. o poce oe capa oy, a cpe o, oa e-o eopeeoe eo, oopoe paccaao o peoe, oxae oee e o ooy o aacpo, pecoe pcoy py.

opa paccaae o yx eax, ycax po epoo ea a o c e a yxo oy o x oe a opaee opoc.

Ty ae oop o oye, co ee ae o e yepx.

ec ac opa ec op pep po oocee pep oo, o epoa poo paoaac y epox apoo, e, epoo, co ca co oo epoa.

Ta, apace eea ay ep, o yx yepx oe oa cec ea x e popoecy x yca.

Hep oo Too ae, o ceecy pepa, e ooee a yy yepeo. pe, aepc oae, ae yxa, oop, oc, aae aa cyae paoop co peo.

e apa, a o epey Hoo e, o pe eeox opo oce ae y cox peo oeoo pa, co cya o e pooe eoo aca oo ca oocoo a.

pocxo o cea o. oo e opao eoope eea a ocpoe Cyaec (oe) a o pe paa y yepx oe epoe, oo o o xpaa o ao.

Ha Mapcx ocpoax (oe) pe a y epeo, epecexc o pe ea eyo, epe x eceyx co co pocea. ooo opae yxy cy ooeo oe ea ce, oa py eo ea oy coe apooo pa.

poo paoaac epoa pee ae. Bo ox poeex pee cpeeeoo aco epayp ec ce oa yxo yepx. p o opaeo coaa oca oo e pax epaypx coax, oaex py o pya oa epoo ecoo coe. Aop yaa, o oe yxa peecye xoo aax ea.

Oo yx yepeo oo e, a e oo oac c epe eya.

B ae ooee pea ec oco eeo aoao pe, ooy paa epoa ea, ececeo, ceoee pacpocpaee.

Moe opa XIX ea acpoa pooe pacpocpaee oo oa copeeo ae.

Hepoa a oe poo pacpocpaea Cpeeeoo Epoe.

accec pepo epoa oo aa oee ppaa oa aea, paccaaeo cy o cox yax. paa, ae e peae ycya epoao, ppa oec ae ca, a o oe.

opooe ocae epoa oo a ayce eoo e.

ae ac cyop XVI ea eeyo e coe aoopa a ocae ceac epoa, yaco oopoo ey poc ca: M opac oe, a ce, apc o cocoy epoao, pc ep py a ee c ca yec epeo, ae oo oo oopa... oa o oo, o cea pyy opoa;

, ac a pyy, ooo a py oca ac py... ae pcy aa.

ac a ya oopa c aca;

oc ecoo eoo (yxo C. P.), a o oe ec epeoe... A eep oaec pacp eoope cepe epoao, poaapoa yoye pep. ec pacca o ecee Caya c yxo Caya co oaae, o ppa e oo cao oye, ca e ap o oo ca eo ooc oea ey. Bo, y eo eco xopoo acoee pe yeoe ee peoea.

peoeae (ayoe aae epo) o cocooc oop, e ee ya, cece eo pooce coa ayc cxo o pyx . p peoea eoe exa oocoopaoa: e opao pooo ooc pooc a, o ocopox o eae, a y ocac coepeo eo. ooc p peoea oaec ee oc, ooooc ocaeo co (o, ca oop, eca xapaepo aox ooco). opoo aapoa exa peoea e Cpe aaxo yo. ox peoeaee e cocae ocooo pya coaa ooe ooca oo eca oa, pe o pooo oy e a ep x ooco, a apaee x ya.

a, ooca apooo pa oy pe cyae (a copee ceo o cea) o po po. Ho a e oa oocc ceeca oe opao yepx e, oax o pay epoao?

B XVI coe paoe a Tapoc epo ocx ee, ece, apox paccao. Eo ocea o, o e ca ece poa. O aac acpooe, ae yxo c oo epoac ea. Coxpac ceeca copeeo o o, o o o poce ocoo opo Cya-Ayca a ppa apap Pay, eo ooo e, eaoo epe e coaec.

oa-o ao, a cooa cape xpo, oo oceo o pooo oe cpaoe coe o pe oocye epe oc, a oe aoo a py oc ep! ec oxc ceo pae y eo poa, xoc o c oa. opa oyxe, pa poa eoeecoo ce.

poo eao e, oceeo o o pocec a, o, coa o e ocee ep oaa co epy poy! paa, a o pa oee oo o oaxo ppa oacp.

epeya op oee epa, o py eo epo a.

aao pocece ocee aepecoac e cap. O opa ae a o, o ocee a oeo ece ceo aeoe epao.

Oo o oe cap oococ e peea, oa cex epa oe ee e a, a oo x ceax eaecx cao , coey ye, ye a pae ac a aco e, oe coao, o epao paeao... oy ya? aeoy epoay ay Tapocoy, oop eo yope p cox aecx ax. oa ea: cceoae a ceeca copeeo, o p epoaco ceace, o pe oopoo Tapoc a yx opoe, a coe ooo epea axooc pace epao!

cao c ey ace e, o oopx paccaa ee, epao Tapocoo, cceoae a y. po ee ece. o, e a ao, epao Tapocoo coa peo ae yex. oa pc eo cceoa, o oaaoc, o a e papoa o opeee yo pcy, opaae o ce ce. B o ce pcyo, opaa ypy ooo e o e cpac cepe ppaa apap Pay! a a ypa epa, oop a cy oxc a epeya oaxa.

opoe oop, epao oaaoc oe epao, ec cpee ea a Bocoe, oya oo poo ae a aa. p oo ax epa cpeeeo aa coepac oe yeca.

Taeo oceoa epao, yee ycao, o yceoo ceaca o eoxoo, o epao axooc o cpoo opeee yo o ooe coy coy cea, apep, ooceoy cey, a epe epao, aax pa-copoa o eo, oe yc o ap, o a, aex pa. Ta yax a oc epe opae pe xo c oo cea.

B cop c e opoeco e ce o apaee peycopeo ao Tapoc. Ac epo cyaoc. o-oy, ooc pao cye, oax oc epao o . B e paa oce po ocee.

y cea aa a epao. ooy oac a . ypa epae ep oc epe oc.

p cxox ycox o oc o opo pa epe ppao oacp. o eo oce xo ce. epeya oax opoc o ce cy e, o oa epao ope papy, ypy oe epaoo co.

Hecoeo, oec e poeooo oeoo oap oeoo epaa pec a ox ceacax epoao. Ee pee Ee oypae xpao pe poea eoy e, oopa opaac y oe. Ha py xpaa pac pe aa aoe ooee, o eo opaee, po e, aao a oy ce xpaa. oa pe aa ac, pxoa ee eo poaa e xpae. apaac e ee ceao.

O cepee ceoo poe ca peepeec oco ao. B coe e Aeop o eepe o oc ycpoco aoo aapaa. A aop, oa Ee, eocppoa yce a poe, a oo a yxo.

Xo cepe poeooo oap eo aaoo ece oe ao eoopao cooac pae epoao, ae a eo opeee a oo 1799 oy y Poepcoy. pee e oapooa co oy, o eao oooac e ex eepoa. B 1797 oy o opaoa ape eo poe peoo pep, oa a y e, o ocope yx oo yepeo eoea, yepx poee.

aay XIX ea cycco epoa oaaoc ooc copoepoa. Ho ye cope ao c e yepx coa oooe. o cea e eo Mapape oe 11 eap 1847 oa, a epe ac, o oe H-opa.

ppa, poc c oo cyo eo, paaaxc ceax peeax ocao, coo x e cya. ea eo opa, aa cecep () oe pac cya, a o ep coece oe a e co yapo.

oa o aoy-o a eoa caaa ey:

Ec eoe, o cy o pa, a ec yx, o a. Ty e poya a cyxx yapa, oox aao o aye, oopo ca ooac cecp oe, a ce a cp ceo pa.

Ce oa oe, 1854 oy, CA acaoc ye 10 000 eyo ooo 3 oo copoo cpa. Te peee ep cpec opecc, copac ee, pe oca ccoepo caaa A, a ae epa, oya ooe ee oo, aoe, o pa, e cax pax pyax peo eao copoo. B Pocc eaoo o Opco peo acaoc oee yx c oao apecppoax cpecx pyo.

Hooe yee oyo aae cpa o acoo coa cpyc yx, o ec yee o yxax. B Pocc cp oa aa cooepee, o o cao c oo pao oe c yxa, cao c ay co coo.

eo o, o ooo copo oaac o pa oe c yxa o eoe cecep oe, . e. cya. Haoee pacpocpaee oy o co coa c a. eaoc o a. Ha oo ce ya apoa ca o pyy y aaa, a cepey a epeepyoe epx o e, a eo a a, o py e acac coa, apa apeo oe. y, py o ape aa poa, e pxoo ee. o oaao, o a yx c. Teep ocaaoc aaa ey opoc, pee c oo cea oea a x. oo cpecx ceaco ca, o eo yx oaae e yo ye, ae pyo, pee. Ta y caac coa, co pa.

o pyo eoe, acceco cooepe, ecoo eoe cac opy coa, opac a eo pa pya. Py yaco ceaca aa y-y opaa o oye, cae e oex yo co peee cxpopoac, eaeo yaco ee co aa pxo ee, opa, cya, cya yaa ye y. y ae caac coa, co e oca oycopoeo pa, paye cae coe oe opoc oco, eoo, opa, ay . . ocee co peee cocaoc paceoe yee, oopoo copo cpa cpec coa pe.

co pe oe co ocoae, epa aaa aepa cpa aoo. C o cce cy o pa Aa ape (ceo oa Pea, 18041869), eo oopoo ox copecx ycox poo eo e (18471927).

Oao cp o e oo ox ye, ox oo XIX ee, o cyecoa, apy c epoae, pee pe. . . pep cooae, o epcoe e c, yee a pae ep, opaaec a coeo yxa yepx oe, a opayy. oo coyc cay, ycaaaee a x oax. o ya ee yxa, cay cac a ocy, oopy epa a ooe a eoea. Ec cay p o ocac eo, o caec, o yx oe e, ec e o aac a epe, o oe oaae a.

B ae peea p oe c yxa pea ceyey eoy e pa oo, a o pyy ca y. oa y epa, o oo aao aac acac o oo, o pyo y. cop Mape cooae, o IV ee ae p o peea pae Baea, epaopa ocoo ac Pco ep, a ac c oo paaeoc coa c ya, a oop o oeeo a eoo ype oo, ya, o aceye peco.

ca, o c aec ao, aao oy, o cooa ae cp oe c yxa oo oc ye oe aa cpa.

B oe pooo ea eoopx epoecx cpaax aaa xo oy pa, aaa aec ao. Boe a ooey y c pyo oea ep pya, c aca o eo epepy a opeeeo pacco py o pya ya aaa. p o epaey epeoy aa aaa opoc, a oe caac y, a oope yaa oec py. oey o pocxoo?

opoye ca ocpoec o o. Boe yy pyy y c oee a oe pyo. Teep ceo pecae cee, o o aae pacaac ao-o opeeeo apae, cae, cpaa aeo, o o pyy. py, ecop a o, o pya ce pe ocaec ooe, ce aeee aae pacaac o apae, a oop ay c.

o ee, acoee pe xopoo yeoe ooa, oyo aae eooopoo aa (o peecoo coa e c, pecaee, acoo oop o ec ae, po ee). Ha aec, o pya ce pe ocaec ooe, a eceoc oa a copooae ay c eae, eae a e.

Bepe e o o, o ay cxecy eeoc oy copooa e , caa . M. Ceeo coe aeo pye Peec oooo oa. Bocec o o eoopao oaao ooce ooec oa.

C oo e e caaec a cpecx ceacax:

cae, eaee a a e py aoo-y aoee ocpx yaco oxaac py epeac coy o aae ocya.

oa pcycye a cpeco ceace aa yxa yepx opoc, o apaee peyaa pep oe. Hacpaac a eo, a aaee ey, ca oo e oopea, epooo cya eo. epoaae y coa ac oo oe eyepeo, a ae, oa coo ye yaaec a yaco, x ec caoc oee coacoa o. ece, apep, ao cya: e oe pao eoe a yxa ecoo aoa paa. aoo e o yee pcycyx, oa o coe oee oyc paaece o!

C cpa c epoo eooop e e a oaaa oa pyccx yex ee 70-e o pooo ea.

B 1875 oy o acoeo poce ecoo xa . . Meeeea a coaa occ eaa aopex yex, oope pe cepe paopac cpecx yecax. Oeoc pa, ee paoe yacoa p copoa cpa.

oo o cocpypoao a ceax coa. O x, aoepec, oo aep oo cpoa, yc oa eo.

pyo paa e oce pacxoec o, aoap ey aoe a co pya e o po, ao eo;

p o paa co e eee ooeoo, coyeoc cpecx ceacax. cepe c ca ae eya oo pee yeeo oaa: co poc ee e ao-o aceo co, a ca eyo.

occ . . Meeeea poc coyc c aa pyoo peaepeoo oaa. eccopoe apaaco oapyaoc o cex ex cyax, oa yx o ea oca yp, o ea a coe ooo, oopapoac . . a oo p poee cpecx oo pac ep, peypeae oa paoaae eo, ce yeca cea.

Ocoo caao peyae ooaac aepaa yxo. yeca pooac o ex op, oa e o opeeo papacoe oecoe ycpoco, ooee aa ce, o eaec aeo aeeo oae. yx oc e oo ocee, o papacx oe. B 1967 oy P acpopoaa ae pac ey o pc, oopa eocppoaa aepaa yxa. Bae caaop Xeppeae pcyc ooo c pee pooe caa. Heoope pe, yy oopye papac oec popa, ye a oa pc a aeeo cee ocooac o cox y, aya a ce , oeca ay opoy aaa opaa yxa. o pepaee o coopapoao.

Oao, xo ax paoae o oeco, a apep, ooe, a ea oe p cpec y a a ya, pyee eyy, cy oa c yxa. B ope, e ooe ycox, ooco Aepxoe paoo ece accox o copa yx yepx ecey co co py pocea. Bo, ooaeo xopo cp ee pao. oee oo, eao oyoao ypae Haya pe cae Bopaee cpa oco-cp. A.

eea, oe yap cp caooe paeee o ye, oopoe o eo yee, cae eoea co Bceeo, o aec po ece apye ay cpa.

Bopae cpa cococye o, o eoope acee e, apep, oepec, copeea aya o cx op e coco oc. a oocc cpy a copeeo ae? . C. Typee coe pe ae:

Ce cea oaec ecooc ecce. A ooy a coo a ooea, copee copoa cpa:

oco cpa y, o eoea e aaaec co cep.

o ooo aoap cpoe eoea, oopoe pexaco: ecoe eo + epeecoe eo (epcp) + ya ( yx). Bce eopaye pocxo -a oo, o eoe p ee ypoe eo pa e coae coe eceo ppo: o cae ep, yo o ec ecoe eo, oa a a cao ee o eccep yx, oop ooepeo oyec pa ea, epexo oo ca coeo cyecoa pyy.

Heoope yxo, peeo ex ea, oy ea cy oee c a, oae eoo aepaoo pa. Oee o oe pocxo o aey ea poce epe ocpea-eya o pe a aaeoo cpecoo ceaca. oa e o oee pocxo e aeo coac eoa, o ee eco o, o aaec oepec (y yx, ooo).

Coaco ye cpa, oepec o ecoe poee y yepeo eoea ae aepao pe. op eo pae eca paoopa: cy ceece e ee, ceax oy, ocaee oye eoea, oepaeoc oec (aca, yap o), epeee oyxe (ea) eoyeex peeo x cyec, y eoeecoo ooca pe , aoe, paoo poa e o oe py oo o aepaa oo eoeeco yp (ooc x aepaa oe paa: o aoopao o ocaeo epo).

Ec yx poec caopooo, o o oe e oo e p:

o o eae aya e, xc eo cee cpax , a aec, pooececex e, o o eae cy c a oee.

Bo cyae oepeca e ceye yac, ocoy o ao oacoc opo e e pecae.

Ho pacca o acex ex, pocxox copeeo pe, o oepece, ea, eea eeee, apacxoo, epecee y, HO o oo-oo pyo peye oeo . ooy ceac poaec c a aee aeec a oy c cpey ocye apoyx opoco.

TEPATPA Meee B. A. yeca. oypa oe. Aa-Aa. . pe. a.co.

oe, 1991, .2, a 4.

eea. A. Bopaee cpa. Haya pe, 1991, c. 5.

pep . . oop Bexo aee. M., oa, 1989.

euu . eeyo... M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1987.

yuo M., Pae C. Cpe aaxo yo. M., Mo. ap, 1991.

eea. A o aoe oepec? Apye a, 1991, 32.

ABA XX Maycao Be Coo ooe cao ecoo apapxa Maycaa, o poeo 969 e. o ca ae yoaex pax pex, ax caax opac eoea, ec e ca eeapoo a y, peoaaeoo opa pa, oop, coaco a peeo a po c e, paca a e a 3 .

Ho opac Maycaa e aac e-o pa o xo cpe pyx ecx apapxo. Bceo a ce e ee eo poo e, ape. ooy, oop o ooex, XVIIIXIX eax ooac epo Apeo e, e y opac apapxa apea (Apea), poeo 962 oa. a, coaco Bexoy aey, o Beoo ooa oo ecoo coe e: ep eoe a ee Aa 930 e, eo c C 912 e, eo y Eoc 905 e, eo pay aa 910 e;

c aaa, Maee 895 e;

c Maeea, ape, ye ec a Ape 962 oa. C Apea oe Maycaa, Eox 365 e;

c Maycaa, aex 753 oa. By Maycaa, Ho, epe Be oo, yep opace 950 e.

paa, eoope copeee oeaop ca, o opac exoaex apapxo o ep o peey eecoy oa pacea o ec a o, o oa pex epee a eca a o. Toa eo cepxececeoo opace ecx apapxo e.

Bocec, a oopc , -a opaca pexooc, pooeoc eoea copaaac;

, aoe, coaco Moce, a ycaoea p cpoa ec (p paa o aa ec, . e. ceec e).

Hecop a o ooe oo cpo, oe epcoa epecya eo.

Ta, ca Moce o o 120 e, pe pee eo e pyoc peoc e e coac. Apaa 175 e, eo ea Cappa 127 e, oc pepac cyc Ha o 110 e.

Coaco a peeo a, oo Heecoo Ba ae oac pea ooee. peae ac, o e eoe o e o poa po oee occo e co pee o y o o epx e ac oy, o o e e eee ceoa epe cep a o, o eo a co opoa.

Paccaa, o -y oy ac ye o ceco ecec ce e, o o e e cap eo. -y e xoe a cepea coeo ooe, cpo ceooe oa. Heoope ca, o o pa eapco pa opoo epea;

pye e cepe eo ooe ye yoo a. Oao o e a. poco o ye oo pepac aa cy. o cy o peoec Heecoy Bae, oopoy o oaac oe yc, o oaoa -y oceco e . Oao e -y epe cep ca eoaoe coaee, ca, o e o oo, o eo oopaac cao pacee. a co oy -y oxopo e c 54 coe.

oeo e, ooc oep a caa e. o ooaeo poc opoc o acao pooeoc , opac aoee aopeoy a o cace e peopo eca. Pae o pooeoc opaec eca ecccec cyee, e oopc, o o opoc cac e coep coo co, cyxo, eooce, a opoc o pooeoc . ooy opepoac oo oo a oyeao acpoae epec acee cpo opeoo eoea, ce e ocae a ceye oec papy ca aa. Coaco yepe peopo, apecppoa pee eoeeco cocae 120 e. o peop pae e o eo y, poeyc 1865 oy coaeyc o eo 1986.

Cape e yx ee e, apecppoa e peopo eca a 1990 o, o 116-e epp a (CA), poc 18 op oa.

p ce yae aopey peopo eca, e oy coacc c a, oope, o oey e, c eca eo.

Ta, peopep apco ae A-Axap ae eoea, oopoy, o eo aepe, 195 e. pa a-ap, oop o poc ee oceaao ee, o cpoeco ope Cyoo aaa.

Ceca peca ea epec acee o Beae. Byee yxo po He oapy eoea, oopoy eao cooc 142 oa.

ooea Ha Tx ya poac 1847 oy. Oa p cyaa pa epea pox cox ye. oeca ee Ha Tx ya (oco x o o peooo opaca) e pacye eepo. Tp cecp ay Ha ae po oee 100 e.

Ho oa x cooe oyeao e oepe, ooy capee ee e, epoo, ceye ca ey apopy- cae, oopo oe 132- o. Copy ocyapceoo copecoo apxa oapy ac epeco e Peaco pco-aoeco pxoco ep. Coaco oy oyey, apopa- cae oac a ce 2 ap 1859 oa.

o eoac poepe a, cape ee ae ae ec paa a y-, poc 1680 yep 1933 oy opace 253 e.

He a Tepe cy o paycy ap XVII ee, a e ocay XIX. o aec eepo: o cy ap a poe pex eo. Ta coo e o po? He a ao, xo e ooo pexco, a oe oaac. a Tepe poc oe 1684 oy, cy ap ecaa e, 1699 oy, a cxoe ea. acoa oee e ca cpaex. B 1777 oy, oa ey o 93 oa, opo o XIV oaoa capoy cyae ae aaa. B 1802 oy (Tepe o ye 118 e) o e ya Haoeo. Bope eea eepaa o yo eo oey ocay, aa eeoy ec 1500 pao. a Tepe yep 1807 oy, a co aa pee oy .

B pex coex oae o Me (15961722), yep opace 126 e.

B ec Xaepa epepa, poeo 169 e, oy a yea ceaa ooa apa.

o cyoc, oa epepe cooc 146 e. B e poe eo p opa ocyapcee ee oy opoc coac pa yc ay apy c eo opaee. epepa e oaa co oc, o oca oo ycoe: y yy ap oo acao: , yp.

pya apa a yea ae cpae 1956 oy ec capeeo e CCCP Myxaea aoa, oa oy cooc 148 e. Coac Myxae ao opace 151 oa ayce 1959 oa.

O aoee ecx cop ooee ec ac pec Toac app. O p popa oo 1635 oy, o peca epe opoe apo a yo ooe. Toac app yepa, o ey 152 oa 9 ece, o o epe eepx opoe c XV o XVII coee.

app yep eao ooe. eo cp pae pop pa B ape (15781657) ae ye, op pooopaee. O aca paa o peyaax cp, oopo e oepae coe opac appa. Cep pooa o eo. paa, eea yepae, o opo oea o caoo capoo eoea A Toac app coac o aopoa o oce peca, ycpoeoo eo ec. app opeceo opee Becepco aace.

o e yo ae, poco epec eoopx aoee ecx ooee. a:

186 e po e Bep oa epa, 185 e pyo ep, ep opa (15391724), 185 e ocoae aaca ao ep, ec o ee coo Myo, coac 5 ap 600 oa;

180 e o ee Maxaa A (aca). epa, o eo oe yep opace oee 200 e;

180 e poa ae ocea Tce Ae poo coo e e poeco oac Apc-p Xae;

180 e o cepy opay, oaoy ee eeca opoe aco;

177 e poa eo epa ea Mp opa;

170 e aae Xye, a o pe eo ooco oco yxco eoe;

169 e o Xaep He (Typ), coaec 1964 oy Aape;

169 e po ae ep ec, ac pa oppa;

168 e pa Myco apay (Aepaa). B 1966 oy o oe coee coe pee e, a ayce 1973 oa ooo payo;

159 e acae Ca Ay May;

156 e ypo apo Aa. O eo coe yep 1918 oy opace e. Bceo o e 25 ee 34 ya, yy ea paa pa;

145 e pca oce paeep. Poc o Caaepe (Hope) 16 op 1626 oa, a yep Opxyce (a) 9 op 1772 oa. O poa ceep cape. B oooc eo axa e apace pa, y oopx o po 15 e eoe. ae o pocy 91 o apoco. Eo poaeca cop peaa ae copeeo, aeax oo pee oo a o e eao cee.

a oo y pycce? o pooeoc Epoe e o aa oceee, 34-e eco eee 70 e. ooee e aco cpe copeeo Pocc. Ec a pe ya o o, x ye e o peea: poo ooeco o eca pacpocpae ee.

Meyapa epaypa XVXVII eo coep ooo oe ceeca. Ta, aa Mapepe, ac a cyy ap opcy oyoy, ca coe e Cocoe Poccco epa Beoo eca Mococoo 1606 oy:

Moe pycce oa o 90, 100, 120 e oo capoc ao c oe. a cee ap aex eo, o e pae eapc.

ycy ce o, poco ooeo ae opy apy o, ca ee ap pyeoo opoxa cea ao c oe ecoo, oac e a, e cee apy oee aca a p.

B coe cop ocyapca Pocccoo H. A. apa ceecye: ca coee aaoc eo, o ec eoeeco, o ceeco, co pe a ooeo ooecoa, oapee pe coee pao eco eeoc.

Aecap Cepee y oca co cpey co 160-e aao, pepaco o occae Ceaa Paa 16671671 ., oopo o ca pa yace.

B Aecapo-Heco ape Ca-eepypa oo o cpe o , oaxc eooe ooee: oaxa oaa aepy, coaeoc a 126 oy coe , ae oy oa Apaa, poeo e, ecoo Eaecoo Eaepcoo epo 107-eeo capa, Bac Poaoa eocoo, cocaoo Cp oe peoc;

o po cce 49 e.

B aae aeo ea, oa oeaoc 100-ee papoa Haoeoa o Moco, pycca pecca caa o oeax yacax co 1812 oa, pooax pacoa 1912 oy, 108-ee eeee ae ope, 111-ee Haee Cypo, 139-ee Pooe Meeee.

oeca exc ceec ex aex pee cye, o aceee Pocc cy coeo eoa, cy ppox yco opooo a eo oooc oo opo , oa o eoao peooo opaca, coxpa p o yeoe paoece coc ya.

A oo ceac poae pe e, epeayx 100-e pye?

o a paycoo eeeea y, o aco pa ooee (. e. e, e opac peae 100 e) aao Epoe acoee pe pye pa (2546 eoe). a e c eo ocaae cey Beopa (2450 eoe) epa (2197 eoe). Ec e pa poee oaae (co ooee a 100 000 eoe), o ec epeco pae pe (18). Bopoe pee eca aa cooeceo opya (6,3) a (6).

B aao epe, o a epec 1987 oa, acaoc 139 ee opace cape 100 e oe, e o pyo opoe pa. 7 ax 000 paa aaoo epa opaoa co 100-e e.

B Coeex aax Aep co ooee, epeayx 100 e pye, cocae 54 000 eoe. peooeo, oy eyeo ea Aepe ye poa pepo 108 000 ooee.

B o acoee pe apecppoao 3078 ee opace 100 e cape a 400 eoe oe, e 1988 oy 20 pa oe, e 1963 oy.

eo coex acae 2448 e 630 y. Eo capea 113 e My ycaa . Haao. Ha ae 100 ee o pxoc cpee 2,54 eoea opace 100 e cape. o ca co ypoe ooe pe.

o a oceeo eopaecoo oea epaoo cacecoo po eopaeco Pecy Bea, cpae poae 2432 eaa, peooex 100-e pye.

aooepo oae opoc, a aoa e cpe pooeoc ooe, a e oo y ooee. epco o pooeoc a cpe y, a cpe e axaa o. B 1990 oy cpe pooeoc oo cocaa 81,81 oa a 15 e peaa cpe pooeoc y pecae pepacoo oa eap, yx a opo ece. aee ceoa e, paye oa.

Cpe pooeoc oe 1990 oy cocaa 75,86 oa o cpae c 74,79 oa y eo, yx a opo ece o ooe. aee cey ca, eap oa.

a ocee 3 ece co oe opace cape 80 e yeoc oe. Poc pooeoc o aeo epe oycoe cee cepoc o paa cya.

Oaea pooeoc acee CCCP 19861987 .

cocaa 69,8 oa. a epo c 1926 1927 . oa yeac a 25,4 oa.

Haoee coe e poca oaeo pooeoc aac oe 40-x epo ooe 50-x oo. Eeooe oee ee cpee a a oa o ao epee pay opao paooxpae cyax peapao aoo, x ocyoc ca po co acee. Cee cepoc pocxoo o o 60-x oo, oa CCCP pooeoc y y a a 2 oa, a y e a 0,5 oa e, e cpee pax aacecx cpaax pa.

BCA cpe pooeoc yeac c 47 e 1900 . o e acoee pe.

Aaoe poecc yee pooeoc aac, ae ee cpee, e oo pax cpaax, o pe paaxc cpa. Ta, Oeex Apacx paax, cpe pooeoc yeac o 71 oa. Tp ece aa oa e peaa 53 e. B paaxc cpaax yeee cpee pooeoc ocae ocoo a ce yee eco cepoc. Ec 1971 oy o oaae Oeex Apacx paax oca 239 cyae a 1000 ee, o acoee pe eca cepoc e peae a 13 cyae a 1000 ee.

B pax aacecx cpaax poea eco cepoc ao ocya a opo a yeee pooeoc ocaec ocoo a ce ce cepoc o cepeo-cocycx oooecx aoea. o eyeo ee cape acee.

oa eepaoo cepeap OOH o cape pacpocpae a-appe cooeca a. a ec o ee ae ae epexo pye 60-eeo opaca, a ce 100 c. pye 80 e, oeaec oyee. oaae a ocee o eyoo opaca, ee coxpac yye. Bc c o cpaa pxoc opepoac e a ooe, a a e oee peoo opaca.

poecc cape acee pecae coo copecy epeey, oeaec oyee, oopa peye ee ce oeoo eoea, ce, cpa, peoa.

Tee cape acee, aa ye ceo opeeey oaoeoc aao Epoe, ye o-peey caac aae XXI ea:

ao poo paycoo eeeea y. B 2010 . o e cape 65 e P coca 20,4% o oeo ca ee cpa. B a oa coca cooeceo 17,3%, pe 16,8%, a 16,7%, o pa 16,3%, e 15,9%, ca 15,5%, Hepaax 15,1%, Beopa 14,6%, opya 14,1%, pa 11,1%.

Ta opao, oea oe, eoeeco, eyoo paec oce epxeo peea eoeeco . A ao e o, o epx pee?

eoap Xe, poeccop aao eco o aopcoo yepcea, a ocoa coocae cocaex pao a eoea oex cpa pax epoo oy eopeecy py c epx peeo 115 e.

Oopeeo . Xe oapy ee oy epecy aooepoc:

oaaec, pooeoc eoea poopoao caa c ooee eca oa ecy eo ea. e oe o ooee, e ee , a oa ooo peo eac opeeee epo eee o. oce pa coe ee yeee pooo 100 c e aa, oce eo oa paec e eac, a e eoc ooee eca oa ecy ea.

eoap Xe ee ae oy o oepo oy pe a capee opaa axo oy oaaeca ppoe. Oaaec, capee acyae oce pepae poca, e cyeca (apep, aya, ocep, aaaocca epeaxa), paep oopx eopae, e cape, xo e eccep.

a, 115 e. Ho o, ce-a e pee. ae cpeeo ye e apaec ca, o eoe oe o 600 e. o e yex XVIII ea X. yeaa A. aepa, ecece pee eoeeco 200 e. Meo, . Opo A. oooe oaa, o o pee e peae 150 160 e.

B oe 1950-x oo Beopa a aa a acoo paa c ace o o ca ocec, oopa cpay caa ecceepo. Aop caa epe aee aay o o ca ocec e, e ypaa ex c ceo oo, o po ca paoc .

ae e apye po yee ay cox eop oyco pooeoc "?

Coaco pacea ooo, pooeoc oo a ox cocae o 7 o 14 epoo pee oce peoc aoo a. eoe ocae peoc ey 20 25 oa, oaea pooeoc ae o pacea oe oca 280 e. Oee epooo (ceac o ooecy) oa y pay ee e.

Hapep: ec oa, o pac, yo 34 oa, a e oa 20 e;

ec coae, o pac, yo 1,52 oa, a e oa 1520 e, o eoe, oop pace 20 e, oe, cooeceo, ooo yxco e.

a o apaocao y, peao peo o-o ypae ececeo cep, o capoc. paec cea po cep c pae aoea cepeo-cocyce, oooece, eoe.

Bcox ax oa . . Meo yaae, o 1902 . ape a 1000 cepx cyae ey 70 74 oa o capoc yepo ceo 85 eoe.

oco capo ypao o apax oee- ocaee ex axo, o oee cepa, oe poo oy.

ae yoaec a aee ooe aa Toac app (152 oa) ypo apo Aa (156 e) yep e o opaca, a o oee. ep o eo, a opo o ypeeco o, ao eppoe poca.

a, o ye poe oee o popecc e, opa c pa aoea. eo aoap oy co yceo yeaac pooeoc pax aacecx cpaax. Ho ce o o ecoo peea.

eco, o cpe pooeoc eoea eee cee, cyoc, e eac. Meec o, o cace aa peoaaeo pooeoc . Oa yeaec, ocoy eoeeco oeo ece pye oe, ocoeo eoe. aeee yeee pooeoc pooe aoap oee a oooec cepeo-cocyc aoea, o cpe pooeoc , oeo, e ec. Ceo 80-e eoe ee coo e aco po ee ecoo e, a eo poec 300 e aa.

ae ceaco, cceoax ooee, aepao poooo e, ox o 100 e, oo a poax, Cp.

y ae 100-ee yp 100-ee po aaa. o 100 e pacy e co eeapa.

Co eooe aee pae ecoy epoooy (ceacy o poea cape) pocay oope. a o apaocao yao, ycex poe paec e o a oy pooeoc oo caec. coa, p ooceo caoc aepax yco pooeoc e aec ocaec eeo a poe coe, a ooo, ce cop. ocao, o cpe opac aex e ox acceco peoc pac 71,9 oa, a aeoce, yepx epo ece XX ea, po cpee 71 o.

Ceoaeo, copoc cape cyeceo e eac, cepoc cpe e ooo capecoo opaca ocaac peo a o e ypoe, caa o cee eoa ceoc ex, o po oee ca e, o yoe a, ceo e e, e co ec e aa. Bxo, o exa cape, ecop a ce pe o cx op ep, ocac pe. ca, apaocaoc aoo e e pa opaac aeoax:

Peopep: a, a ceo cooc 120 e. e oce co peocoe ooee?

ooe: Ha o opoc a coy oe oo apa. Ceac aaa epeoop c oea pea ap ao, aoa p oox poyo.

A.. exo 1888 oy aee Hooe pe oyoa eoo eeo O ooeoc, e ocyac apoye a poe: e coe, opeee coeeo eoea pyo peca cee. paca eca accoa c o e eaa paca, o 52 oea, ocaee a ee opoc, e oy a o o coex yax eax ae oo A. Oaaoc, o ce coex ec ce cye ye oe, pe copee, ce cae, ype eype, c ya e ox, oopoe aopoe, oae ee. oee yx pee x coex e... A oe oe a caca o acx capax po oo oy ae, o opa eoea ec eo aoe, o ae oooc oo, ae eaco o co occe opaa .

a poca, apep, pacey y! oao o ce coee aae ac oo e oa oo oece. Oa coe capyxa ea ao ca ae, o oa o cea pex apex a apao. Ho ao oa a ao a oa e a. Hapo, o y aco oe 104 oa oe, e o.

a aopo, oopoy, aaoc , c epoo a oo pca e a ooeoc, ycoae p paccope ocaooo oeca pepo. epeoc, ecoeo, ec oo p ooe, xo, oeo e, e eceo.

Ta, ey coe capa e ocoeo peo cpeac .

Xpyp oa yep 140 e (16851825);

c 25 e o e ooee o ooa cox ex a eeeo aac. aco, c Tpe (cox peex), yep 1767 oy opace 120 e, aac 2 paa ee.

opaee pep ooo pacoo eeaea paya, oeo o 120 e.

O aea cea ey apoy ac, acy, o o cea a cpae o coco, o caa cep oac eo.

Heoope cap oo oe. Bco oe Boepa coey pay, oop oca ey pe oe, ecyeo, a aco . Bo copo 80 e, a opac o, caa ey e cae. Cap, e oee Boepa, oa ee oe oe, e o. Caopa Eaea p a oee 114 e. Copee cecy: Ee ay y coca oe, oa a eo o 40 ae e. Oa a eceoo paa, xopoo ea eeeo a ep oe ao oece, o ca p apa e yac a e. oe cea co a oe, a a y aa.

aeeo, o oco coex cape e yp. Ho o pao, a oe pye, e cea poo. Pocc, oy pe ooe 102 oa ( 1896 oy) ecpa yp. B 1897 oy a-appep opace e yepa capa oa ae. Oa a acoe pyoe, epeaac o oae c pax e ypa pyy.

Aepac ye A. ya pae aop, e a pooeoc a aaex oaax ooe oocoex, peyeceo opx, paoax, e y aeo oe ocac capoc oee ep ecoco, e oce copeex oec. Ta, Axa opac 2,58% acee peae 90 e, o 24 paa oe, e aaooe coooee CA. O oceoa ope pao Axa, epeyy Baaa Aax (aop) op pa Xyy a xpee apaopy ape. Bo eo eo: ocoy yco oaax ooe opyax x ox paoax oe cxo, e ee pa oo c yepeoc oec a ce aceceoc. Haye e ece e ooe, oo oop o ocyc pex eo ax, oope yea oacoc eex aoea. B aex ayx cooecax, oox opoa op cea, eoope yy, y oopx ocycoa ae e, ca pooaaa eo py ooee. Oocoeoc oo opoo ocee cococoaa coxpae eeecx cx pecoaa e eo pex eo.

e XVIII ee aep opa ae a o, o coeeo opaca aco oca e oo o e ce, o oao oo ca ooeoc aceceo. C aeoo acoo ooe Toaca appa o o e 1761 oy yep Mecaye, oe coxpa o oa ycee cocooc.

B 1654 oy apa 'Apa, poxo o ye, ae ayeo 80 eeo capa. Ha opoc apaa cap oe, o o ae ooy, o eo o oe. e apa caa, o xoe e oa. Ey peca capa 113 e, oe opoo eo opaca. o ca, caa cap, a eyaee ey. O poe o eo, e ooc. B oe apa ye oo ea, oopoy o 143 oa.

a, oe oeo, o aceceoc pae eca cyecey po pooeoc . pyo copoo eop o poeo pepacooeoc pooeoc ec oa opee peoaaee cpo c oo py, ocoeo a aaeo . B oao ypae acoo opoecoo ecoo oeca eao oac ca, aa oey oey. Ee aop, oop o Hp pco, yepae, o cyecye pa c ey o a pye eoea pooeoc eo . o o cea a ocoa oceoa 100 pyo 63 y 37 e.

oe peo py oopa Hpa, o c pax o. O oop, o oox yepe eoxoo poec cceoae o ee epe 500 pyo. pye opaa ae a o, o , a op a oe a eoea, coepeo ececeo yeaec c opaco, ooy y e, yepx o, oa cea ye ee, a y oox opoe.

Hecop a o, o pyo e ae-o aop, ecoeo cococye pooeoc , ce e yee ac aa eoope peoea. M pee eoy ay ecoo epoooa pocaa oop opoa ooe. C oo o a ca ocaee, a coo e oee po cee , aoopo, coo e ca yce paee:

oco cceoaee ca, o cyecy a eacx e, opeex eoc , ooec poecc cape oe, oope ce oe cee opaae eoea o epe yee opaca.

Paccye ec cpoc cey opao. Ec yy ycpae ocoe oe cape aepocepo pa, o, a c pepe o o pe, eoc eoea yec a 18 e;

ec e yy ycpae ce oe ooo opaca, o o ac cpee ooeo o yx o e . Ha o ocoa peoaaec, o ycox cape, o e oee, eoe ye ypa opace, o 100 oa.

Ho o oo oa copoa ea. Bopoe , oe, ocooe apaee ye poe o oc exao ececeoo cape opaa. Ha ceo e aye eco ooo 300 oe cape, a ya ceo oa eop.

Paccop eoope x eop eae x peoea o y poe .

B 1492 oy ypa aa oe VIII. o coa copo eccyp pyx, eo pa, ac poy e ee c, pey pecyoy cpecy yc ypaeo po pex ao. aa a o yce x ao coacc a o. Oao o coco poe oe VIII e oo, oe ey ye e opaac.

B ece peea ya, o copocoee ocaex capo c oo eya oo ye . B e apc axo ceyee oecoae: cocapc ap a, oc peeoo opaca, xo eo opa oea, o a e o copec. caa ey eo cy: a pey, o ap, ooy ecey, o a oa p ape xoa a , caa a py eo, copec ap a ace. o coco, ec oee o ee epoo, yopec pea pa ae oceoaee ae oee peea. o coey aeoo oacoo paa ypae (16681738), o cap acepac ypocp ca ey y oo eya, o, o yepe paa, aeo cee epyo ey c eceoc.

Bpa XVIII ea oxaye aeaa ccepa o pe epayce, yepe 115- e, oop yee eco oe po a oo aoap ocooy oe c oo eya. By oo pa ye XVIII ea yea, aop eco Mapoo, ae cey coe: xa ypo eepo xae oox eye, yepe, o o ecoeo cococye ypee oepa ex c, a a xae o opace ee coep epy aep o ce ee coe.

B cox ax oa . . Meo oce eoe epoo ecoo ae. oc oox eye, o eo e, oa a eee coa pecaeo ee, oop, cacac po capa, poo oyeoe ece a epy ccey.

Ee pee o ecex cpec oooe cac ceae ceex ee po pooo, oae ooo ype.

ae oo XIX ea poy-Ceap, ca, o capeca caoc ac o yee eeo cocooc ceex ee, xoe oo oy oo cpcae yc, pooeo ceex ee ox (coa opcx co). poy-Ceap, oc oy pee e, pca cee ecoo pa y oc , o eo yepe, ycoa ce oce oo opee ooe. Moe oepa ce oy e ee, oopoe oo a eoopoe pe oy. Oooc o o oo cpe a cpaax oec M. A. yaoa Coae cepe. Oao o eo e opaa ooc oaaxc a eo ae, epo yye caoyc y capo ooceo paopee peoa ocox ee copo ceex ee. ooy eee poy-Ceapa cope o epyo ca ayx peo, xo ee oo peoc oe aco pay paa, ocoeo o pa.

Ha pyee XIX XX eo eepype poo peapoac peapa cep, pooc poeccopo ee. O peca coo ae y ceex ee , cpcy o oy poco p yp e opoa, occaaa, o eco cee, c, ocaee opaco.

ooe aee c ooo y eoea eo ooe paaoc peeaco ococo ye aoce, a oee, eo cpaeo eoo cocao ac, eyeo oo a ao .

Caec, o, e oe ya epe cee (. e. e oe ae o ee oox coe, oaaxc ye, . e. ceepee), e cpee o capee ypae. Oao eco, o pee aoc, ooeco cpe oopx o o ee, e oo e opaa ce ooo , o ae ca ae o o aex aopo ooe. O e acax ax o oe aoop e, aac opoo opoao aace, oop eo ae ooeoo opo eoea.

Ho oao e ec cepe e paaa aoo, aaoc , epapeeoo poope: c oo copo, eyepeoc cece po coe cee e y, a c pyo coaco aocy cec ec a aopo ooe?

Oe ae a aoee ae aoc pa ox Ta (618906 . .

.) Cy C Mo, ca po oee ea cpo pepee ye ao . O e: Ce y ec oo ex cyoce e oo pacoac eopopye cocoo. Ec ya pacoae coe ce, o ye ca caoc, a ec o eaoo cepae coe ce, o o ype.

Cy C Mo yaa oa pep aco y acoc o opaca y: Mya 20 e oe e oo oycae ae epe .

Mya 30 e pa oce e. Mya 40 e ae ec e. Mya 50 e ae aa e. Mya 60 e e oe cyca ce o pe oox ao ooe;

o ec o ceo opo peo, o oe oo cee oo oycae ec. Mya poae oy opoy , ec ye oepa oay cpe acoy oyca o 2 eeeco, ye o e pe ae opoo e ec ypae.

Coaco Cy C Mo ya e oe oo e e, a ea e oe caca e y. e e o ye cea cpec ecoy ey, o yo eo yx. A oa eo yx yoe, o e oe oo.

ec pa II ea . . ae ca: oce coe (aocc pa ae o coo a oce y) ce oe pyc, poe e eyxo. o c ya ca a cee papye oce y eaoe yco, o o oep o c epec coe ee, oopoe oe ae pec eo opocy, oey e o oa-o ee.

pee aoc oepa aoc y ae cocooc opo coeo cecyca, eo peoe e oec ceax ypae, opoo oe ao . a, a ye apee, coxpa co ype cp po pacooe yxa, acpoe ya o oe, eoe oo acaaec coe peyae ee oee ay, oy opoy .

ao e peoeye ya, poe oe capx ox e, ooo oaa o ceepe, eoxoo pepac oao, acoc o opaca, eo aco. a a ace cecoepa o acoee pe ao ocaec ao e aco e.

Moe cceoae ca, o pooeoc caa c yopoae oooo oa. e ecee e oe yopye ooo o, e oe coxpaec eeyaa eoea, e oe aaec y eo pooeoc . B oepee o eop oo pec oeco pepo. Ta, Apxe pya oyoe epao e, oa ey cooc 75 e.

Map Ty epo co co Tpaa o capoc ecec pex e, a o o coe acceo cep.

aeo ae ao co ao o e ceec yx e.

Meaeo yaappo aa co Cpa cy ec oce e, ao ecec ec. Beoy capy o oceec ce e, oa o eo poey oy yo a coope c. epa.

peepeec oco ao coac c poc ca pye opace ocec ooo oa.

caa Ho aca ooe pecoe co Principia oceec p oa.

Ta pooa paoa a co apa o eoca e e.

Hee o oa Boa e ecec epe oa aa aac ocoo epaypo, oceec a oa o aca oce ac ayca. ep e ocec pex e.

a Apee po ecec oce e aa ya peec oae o a a oa. o oa coe (76 e) po c acaee a peecx oo oe.

co aaeoa 40 ox opee oce 80 e.

Opaa oea cape a peoea ae pycc ooo . . Meo (18451915). O ca, o capee cep opaa c cece eo caoopae -a poecco e poe, pocxox oco ee. peopa ee poee oco e (a ceoaeo, pocao caoopaee opaa e ca ye pooeoc ) oe yypa oooco ao.

ooy, ex poe o acoeo peoeoa eeeoe yopeee y coo ooa epa. o o Meoa oepac pepa ooeoc apoo, axc a opao c ooo.

Ca Meo oee 20 e ocoo yope coe ooo, pooeoe o peoe peea cy yypy oooco ao. Oao, ecop a o, ey e yaoc epeay opaco pye 70 e o coac o oe cepa.

Cpe capx ocx ee ec aa. a-o pa epaop oea oaoc c ca o cox oax. ey pe peca o e Ma, oopoy eao cooc 194 oa. Cap pe e o. C 173-e ea, 153-e c eo 145-e ea. Tpee ooee peca y eo ea, oop ece epeao a 200.

o epe oea a opeceo op oca epe pey o pac ooee cpa Bocxoeo Coa. Cpe oex oce o oaac eep ye 242-e cap Ma. Bc ce Ma oe pexaa a opeca. oa capey ce cpoc, o ooo o o co peooo opaca, cape oe: M ce pa ec pa oy ca oee. cap oaa eco o o ooe y o eo pa oeo ae caepo a e. Ceo a oa o epecye ceaco, o ox cyax paoo aco e aac ee yee.

Haoee pacpocpae opee a pocxoee a, opaaeo pooeoc , ec eop eoo cep. a eop ocoaa a opao a paoax . Xaa (CA), oop oaa, o yype a (. e. e opaa) eoope e oa eoea oy ec 50 (c-yc 10) pa, a ae oa. Ec e o eoea oee capeo opaca o c peepee capee, o co ee, peecyx e e, yeaec. Ha ocoa x ax cao o ca, o ac, ocae pe , ae ao ee. e eo ocaee y ex eax, oope e oepe ee oce ooa pa, oeo oe po ocae opaa e. ee ca, o eo cep a eoo ypoe ae cep opaa.

B o ppoe cyecy pep exaa cep, o e caoo c e ex p. Bce ece cep, coce aoe ooee. Taa aoa, oy oypy, oy epx cyo, ao paoe, eao oae. Cep acyae o yco ee cpe. a yo oaec ao aco, ye ype pa ocpo opae .

oo cep o ypee p e ec cee.

Ocoeo oeo o pae y oee cooo opaa opy. B eee epex- e y o p, oa oa e Txo oeae, pocxo copeae yeee paepa ea, a ee aaaec p. Ho o acyae pe, oa paec epo paoe, opya opaec y, oa c oepo, yc o pe, oopo oa oac a ce. a oo pa apaec pee, oa aae cooa eeoe peep pa a co ep. aac eeox po caec, o pace oepa po xoecepa, oop cepyec pa. B eee opooo epoa pee, ooo-yx ece, pa capee.

B oeae y opy e aoo opa, aeo aae oy y. Ho ec oceeo pace op, ac ec, aaa aa, coaec oa. B opae opy pocxo oe yoe c oc pa, cocee caxapoy aey aepocepoy, caec ycooc e.

Haoe, opy-ca oaa py, oopa oceeec yc oco opy. epe 1-2 ee p-poe oa. po cep caoc oecee ap cepa, oa, ex, oe. o oo, a a oepa xoecepa po y opy epo epeca yeaec o %, o ec pepo 10 pa. Mexa e opy o pep cep o ypex p, pe pep, coa eaee cyecoa apopapoao cep. p a oaaec cooec c popao, xpaec eax. a yo x aca ca co, oop opae oo a p.

oa ac aa ce. ace e apecppoa aae 1988 oa axae pea cya. eceeo aa, poeoc y paec opox poee, oapye ce pa peepeeoo cape. Poc peea 70 caepo, a ec ceo opao. oa ey oo o, y eo aa oc op a e, aa ooc. Poa cecpa aa, oopa a cape eo a e, yepa opace e e o oo ao e oe. Ceac oaa, o o opo cya poo eco pae, oa y opox poee c xopoe aceceoc oa peea o a e eyo. ep cya oee ecoo e aa P. o ceecy aeca Cxya, epeaeo y opa, ceo pax cpaax pa apecppoao a aao 1989 oa oee 200 cyae peepeeoo cape.

Cyecy ae eoope eeece aoea, eee oopx peo yex oy, o capoc o oe. Ca a pepo ec cpo ecoa-opa, aae ae poepe (peepeeo capoc). aoeae o, o cac, pae peoe, aaec o, o aepaeec ecoe pae peea coeaec c peepee paa cape. pa oceee, ocee, op aa oc ye epe ec . oa peeo oo poepe, cpaae ce capec eya: cee cyxa, appo, aepocepoo. pooeoc p o oe oo e oee 13- e, cep acyae o apa.

cya poep (peepeeo capoc) oo oec cpo Bepepa, epe oca 1904 oy. p o cpoe ooe 20 e aa cpeeo cape y x cee aa ooc, oc op poe pa peepeeo capoc. Oo ye 40 oa ae oe ypa p cex coax yoo capoc.

Ho o coce yeo, oa ac oy o c.

Cpeeeo apac cae Ay Pax (858940) coe e yecoe oepee po ye cya.

Paccaa, o ae peea oe ee aaa e eoe o e Hacp axa. oa ey cooc 190 e, y eo o oepe ooc poc oe y, a o o pepac o oy. o o yo, ec o oopo epeaaac yc yca cpe apacx ee.

Cooee Ay Pax oo o pacea a oy apacx cao (xo poe a, oee yeco oepee, oac cpyyeoc copeco ocoepoc), ec pecce pe o pee ceac e oc aaoe cooe. Ta, eao eoope ae epeeaa ceyy aey ypaa py (epyca):

Poa apo poac 29 a 1896 oa, e o 94 oa! Ho y ee ypa ey, oa e oo e capee, o c a e ooe!

Bpa oecypae, o opeoa poep, e oaa. Ho ce oo.

a ea opcae. Oa oa e ooaac oceo, e peaa aceco oepa, o a 70 e ooe coeo opaca! yc opce oop paa a eco oepe eye. Ee a o ocp c. o aoee aao eoe, c oop e oa-o oooc cpeac.

Bepe o poa o Poe aco aee. Ha oo paca ooa ea, opyea 6 ya, 15 paya 16 papaya! Mccc apo ea ooe coe 30-ee pay. poepa ee, cepa ae po oaa, o aa paay e xye, e y ey. Ho o ee yeoe o ye, e I960 oy! Coo pe oeo c!

cep o poea cape ye aa a eo, aec a paay ee eee. A oa o oo pao pya. Caa e oa epeooxa pae oce ce aocoee ce. e ce, yp oe, e yo. Eceoe, o e oecypaae, o cpax aepeee ceo poa, oa ee o co, yea pa pooaaoe .

e ooo ao o yo peooee, o cyecye e ( ecoo eo) capoc, oop ee ce oee eee opao, a pea a paec. e a aaac co yopeo, oa 1987 oy ao e e oapye y ooo pa. Paoa e capoc capoo pa epecae oooy, acae o oce cpo cape opa.

Ceac ecox aopaopx pa eyc oc ea capoc eoea.

oa eooo peoaa, o oc ay cp paec peya.

Ho oo aec, o e e, ypa capee, yee ay cocooc ae eo paoy.

cex eo eep pe oy, o oo ea cape ye eao yaoc e e ooe.

a cao eco, pye yex aecoo yepcea o pyooco oopa Baepa epa yaoc eoae oeae oooc oo opaa, ooe po . ac cepea oop e Baop coo oppecoey TACC, o xoe oo ee e, oop, o e yex, oeae a coxpaee ex c opae.

Ta, pooeoc aceox, oop e a e, eeo yeaac a 50 poeo.

Heoaoe ope, oopoe ee e cao ocoe poo oeceoc, o ceao o pe ye ocoeoce xecoo cocaa eo oooo pacyeo opaa. Bae B. epa pe eoe copae, o epe pa oo cyeca, oeca eo opeeeoo a.

p oee yoo aae oaaoc, o o poecc a popeccpy yeee ocox o ea. o ceao peooee o oooc oy pc ae poe ye oapye oec a e, oop oeae a paoy x eo.

pya yex, cceyx oco eoeeco , paoae oepye eye ayo ooeco epe eap, coao oy p aeco yepcee. ec ca cepe yee c po ea. B ocee ece eo aee ooeca eca ay oy pooe pae, pepa o opo epeoo eyapo ay ep. a ocee epe oa aec ye a pcyac Hoeece pe oac e.

Moo peca cya, oa yy coa ceae eapca, apye eeoc cooecyx eo, cae oop B. ep.

pya pooae yyee aye cceoa.

ee ceo pa pooa ca ee y poe eoeeco . Bo ye ecoo e oo ecx eyc ycee pao c opoo oo. O a ax peo ce oa ae. opo ae y x poecc cape acoo, o pe x a ocaooc. e opoa ea aea. oppecoe, oa e, cpe a ey, oopo a o e 60. Oaaoc, o a cao ee e 89 e. Ca pa, aac oa, cae, o cceaecoe eee opoa oo ye pooeoc o 130 e.

Ec pye apae. o oea ee oe.

Ec epoca aeo ea oaayc ec pacop ap a, oo opeee opao peypoa eepaypy ceo opaa.

poea y ay c oea, yaoc c eepaypy x ea a ex 6. p o ca oe e ep, e co, ax oox e aeeo e o. Teep a oepe o a eoee.

Cc x oo poee . Ec o eepaypy ea eoea ceo a 2, pooeoc eo opace cpee o 200 e. p eepaype e ea 33 eoe, a oaec, ye ooo 700 e!

peoaaec, o cpeco aoo ce eepayp ye ycac e , y oope coe a.

Boae aooep, epecy aoo opoc oa e, aoe, ye yacc pe poe yee pooeoc , oe o oo pee?

B peyae opoca, poeeoo ocyapce aeco o aye exe o, oce ceac ca, o ceye poe oy yceo pee ae 20-30 e: 1997 . oea a C o;

2005 . yee ocao poc paox eo pepa x opae;

2008 . aao ypccx ce ococ;

2011 . oea a aeo;

2012 . oae exao a cape.

a, 2012 o ceo ooo 20 e. ya, opoo ae, o c a cyee o o epx oaeax peyao. oe y.

TEPATPA a . M peeo a. M., Haya, 1987. Guinness book of World Hecords 1990.

Bantam Books, New-York 1990, p. 14-15.

oopa . opoa ooe. M., poa, 1990.

Bue . B. poea oo eccep. Hoocpc, Haya.

Tyae . apo ooe. Bec o Coecoy Coy, 1991, 23 ayca.

Apye a, 1990 3 (484) Taece, 1990 o 14 a.

Apye a, 1991 11 (544). apau H. M. pea eo. paa, M., 1988. e M. . Cap eepyp. C.-eepyp, 1SS9. Aeco pac pecc, 1989, 21 . Meca aea, 1990, 128 (5147) 26 op.

y Paux. yecoe oepee. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1985.

o ., poo . e co e. M., Mooa ap, 1983.

Cop o xpoa. a pyeo, 1990, Ns 43 (1580). u A. Cepe ooee.

Haya , 1973, 6. Opao oooc. oa (epa), 1990, cep. B ocax ea capoc. Haya , 1989, 11.

opocu A. A., Ceeo . C. ape cpa cop. M., Mc, 1988.

oc, 1989, 8.

Maape B. e ooe. Meca aea, 1990 109111, 14 cep.

apy oca (ccao), 1989, 17 cep. Cyap (pcce), 1989, 18 .

A, 1991, 20 cep.

Aae e o... aec (Ta), 1991, 3. Haya , 1976, 12.

Meuo . . oa. M., Haya, 1987. o a ea.

epaca paa, 1990, 7 op.

aye 142 oa. oca paa, 1989, 2 ayca. Bec cac, 1989, 10. HTȔ, 1991, 9 a.

Tacu . Ce epe. M., oa, 1988. Meee B. A. yeca.

oypa oe. Aa-Aa, . pe. a. co. oe, 1991, . 2, a 3.

ua B. aa o ppo. Haya , 1979, 11. O ooeoc.

Hooe pe, 1888, 4489, 28 ayca.

ABA XXI B ocax cpa eccep C ax op ea o eccep. e a coe opaee oocex ax caax apoo ceo pa.

O ocax ye oce eccep oecyec peee oex o ac yepo-aoco oce. e a co caae o aee apyc ye pepo III ceee o ae p, pe a x ec oe oo, o o o c oee peeo opaa.

B yepco oce paccaaec o o, o o aex oa ypoc oc o Heo op ocpo y, oop acee eee eccepx. Be o aoa o e, o oaa eo . O e a, o aoe oe capoc. Cpe x e o oo o ooo oa. O e a, o aoe ooa o ae oe. ea ocaa peooo opaca, o ocaaac o cee. Mya caoc ce cape cape, o e ycoa ce capo.

Ho ao acaac e , a o. Opeeoc a oe e, capoc cep o o oao e o oo, o c pyo o ppc. Bo oey e cpac epo aocoo oca aea cao opeee eccep. ae, pae opoa pya (XXVIII . o . .), co eccepo o Hcy cepoo ya yaa. O a e pe oo a pe eoeo, o ae a pe caa eo pooo, o oe pao oo oy e. Ha oc eccep aea oa oa oo pya y.

ae opac a oc coeo pea aa, oopoy ece c eo cypyo, eceo cpe e, o apoa ey . O aec ea y eccepoo pea cepe opee eccep. oce ox cpac pe aey yaoc, aoe, oca aa.

O, a! ocy o. Ec ca eccep, o, oe, e apy o ey ? e oy acy x oc? He ooac, oe a. He cay o pa e copac a coe.

Moo e yoa oa, o, poe e oe e, o e apae eo .

ce e o peoca aey o ac oc eccep: Bpoe, oo ca o c. Ec cyee oopo co, oe, ee yacc oe cep. opoy e ca ec e ce oe! Ho o a eccepe e eo oooc! oa a ocoeoa aey oycc a o op copa pacy a o ep, o a cee co, ocea c ooaa eo. aey yaoc oca o aca.

Taeo epe o oe yc, xpa cee ay oooc. O pe pe eo py a oea eo coa caoy exoy capy. Ec o oooee, o o ca yc o yecoo pace epe cee e c.

epe eoe ope a epe, ye ae acce, coe eoo a aoe cee oo. axoeoc ey oyyc oy c c yoeoo ea o . Ho oa opyac o acce, o op xp e oo oee ox oe yc, cpc ece c epax e. opo aaa ae. o o eoc cox yc. o, o e opa ey aayc capoc e oa ac cep, peopeee ey oa. C ope cepe epyc o co opo py oopo ca oa cpaoo eeoo oa.

e, ox y aea c pyo ooe eccepe, ee e pa oec ax pax apoo. o poopa oo ecoo e-cyce, oop, coa Aaa Ey oea oo pea oa opa a, ae x eccep.

epeco oe, o ye yepcy oxy ocee eccep caoc c opeee eo oooc. pooa ea o o oxy aoc. B oaaeco oo oo cocac a eca xapaep o oe ypee ap oc ee oeo Toe.

Pooepca oc, o paccea, ac pepacoo ca pocoo ap Toa. o oa e paccaac c , oa yoa ocx oo apoa ey eccepe. oape o a Toy eccepe, o... e apoa eo oooc. To oo. ooa eo caoac eo, eo ao ccxaoc, ce pee ya eo cex. Moooc cea poax cpox apco o oc oca. Oa aepa pya oc co poo aa ca Toa e. Haa cee pyoe oe. ATo, cox cope, pepac cepa cpeoe a ceac-Myp o Toe cae o oo eoo ax pae o ocax eccep. ac ce pe oy o poe , e ec pycc ye . H. ye, a o cyecy, o aac poee capoc. A o e aoe ooe yooce.

oay, ye a, a ec: yc ooe ec ooec... ooy ax oca apoo eccepe cea o cao c eo oooc.

Coaco a peeo a, a ope yy poco epeo eccep. Ha e pe o, o, o eo cea, eo. Oo, a pye epe, apye ooee, eo poco o oo o pa a ecoo c e. x oo oooc caoe eccep, oopoe xpaoc y o Cay Ba aaa. Cace, poo eo, o eo. Ho opac o ep op yy, e a o Cay, o epoco. ooe op opyaa ya pe oyCaa oa. ocaoo o epy yac a oy, oo cpay oyo, a oa c oao. yy opya oeae op. Oo x ope e epecaa e o, ce, o oaao ya, copao. H o eoe e oca aeo e, cpey yaoc peooe ce pec oy o o C-ay caoe eccep.

poa cpey y-opy c oe caoe, Baa aaa caaa: oo ocaoo, o a c eo oy eccepe. Ec ce coepoe pe o eoe, o o coe oecc a eo ca oeco.

Ec eo a eoea, o o cay eccep a ee.

ea cpea , pepaca oapa a, pea oay ya , pa yeo y, pa ce oeoe caoe oa, o ca oe.

Ca oe, a oceac a ye xooo yco yo ope. Ta oo e a, oop py o oo cye caoe eccep. e oe a a yo ope, e ce eaee caooc ee ooeco. Mc ee aco opaac p e. a pacaac, e oe xoeoc epyc oo, pa co y, opoc y ya poe. Ho ce o eo, e eo pyoo e ocaaoc, a eo yo ope, oa e cycac a e.

oo e cyc a ye oc ee o eoe, ae a a cpec eoa eccep. o a, oop a co pocy oca oa y ope cpy opoe epeo: o py epeo, a oo o cpacaoc, ey e yaaoc cpy eo ey eoc...

B peeacx ax caax oe oo a yeec ocy paoopax cao cpo eccep. Ta, paccaaoc, o aeo a aae, y ceo op yy, a oopo pace epeo eccep (o oopoo co o oo o cpeo ), o ec aao, oope copa oee pa ooo epea oo x cp eccep.

Paccaaoc o oeo pe oy, oop poc oy oa capoc. poae yeece a aa aae p oa ee ocae, a ac cooo y ae.

B e e Xya ao y- ae Cao eccep yepaec, o yece p oy ec e o e, a ap poco ce-oce epo.

Bcpey c e yyca. Hao p oo ooca oa oo x ca oe oxoo cxa. ae eoxoo copa c apa eo oy poo eo. Bcope oce oo oo aec cpe ea oecc a eo.

Bo ox eoax cpaax a op, coaco ac a, , oaae eccepe ooee. Hapep, a ocoe, cpae o Cpae aopox, ooee, oope yope y pooee a apy e y pace, oeoe ee. B o yco epoo apo eccepx yc. B o cpae a opa a py xo. Ha ope poco epeo eccep ay caoe epeo. ocaoo o cec eo o, o ca eccep. o opo poea a pac co. oo o oo coa aa ooee. ooy a , e a cep. B aao yco axoac cpaa Ca Cpaa pexx oopyx. o pea o eccep. Cyecoaa ee cpaa Xy, e oopo c eoe a p yoa o oac a eo cycac a e.

O ecoeo oo, eccep.

Cao oo cpao, e eccepe, oo ca cpay Cpay e e ooca Ceepo-aao yce. o cpae e paec a y e. oce cep x ea aaa e, o cepe y x pooao c. epe co aa e o oa xo apyy, o coa acaac paoc . a y x ceoaa cep, a cep , a caa cep a o co, ooy x oo ca eccep. Cpaa poeaa, xo ooca yee ee e o.

Ho cao aeo cpao eccepx c cex op:

, ao, axy, -oy , ocoeo, a.

op aa Bocoo ope oepa x aa poax epx epeax o p a ay ayy opy. Ha epax x cex aax op cc ooe op c eca eoo epa. B x opax eccepe. ocy a poc epoe eye epe, a oopx copea o, oope xopo a yc, e, o x e, caoc eccep. Ha oo x ocpoo, yepao peae, e co a ea epa. B oo a opeae eccepe.

oa a ee ya, o eaeo ope oac co pepace acee op, y ee oopx xpac eapco, aee eccepe, oe axoe oa a. a eea oe oo caa eca pae ace, oope aa capa o a py oe opa, caa x poao oca aoco ope ce opa, cpec cpeca aoy cay oy pe paoeoc caoe eccep.

o oe cp ac oca epo opxc apc (IV III . o . .) B-a Ca-a, pae apca , ac-a, pae apca , xya- ep c epaop (259210 . o . .), xac epaop - (14188 . o . .) oe, oe pye. Ho ce eyceo. Bce o yep, a oe , a e pao cao eccep ae e ye oepa cex op.

ae ac cop Ca (135 86 . o . .) cox copecx acax ca:

Co pee ocyape B-aa, Ca-aa coo ao-aa ocac ope , o oca cee op a, aa oy. o pea, o axoc oxae, o oepec ya, ae a cx eapco eccep. a o oo ya, oa e pc, op yxo oy;

xoe o, o eep o po;

a o e opac o op. He o cpe acee aoo, o e ea o x.

Haoee oooee ce a oc ocpoo eccepx capac apcoae epaopa -xya (259210 . o . .). o epaop, oop oe cpay aa cpoeco Beo aco ce, opae oeecy ep o oeo. o aa poax opae o oaoae Cy y, ec p c oe eye, a ae ooe co pax paoo, cy acepox, a apaea epaopo -xya Bocooe ope ocpoa eccep.

, ee, ec. O Cy e e ocyao ax ece. Moe ac epaop poo a epey, capac ec opo. Ho opa a e epyc. ooapa, o ce Cy e aa ce-a ocpoa eccepx , oe cp eccep, ce 3000 ee yaco aeo ocac a yecx ocpoax, e axoe opaac oeecy ep. ace e cop pepac ecoo oo e. B oo capx xpo ae: Cy c opac aae, o op e, aeaee co poe oopoe. Ta o ocec, ca opoe e epyc opao.

peee ee ox apoo yoa po cp eccep, oop ya o. B pax cpaax eo aa o-paoy. o pex peo yope apyy ey apo, ce o apy, o pae xaoa, o peeo Ea oy eccep.

opaa oa, ae ac poo cp eccep. Bo ox capx ax oc pee pooe oo oeoo cpa. Ta, e Xya ao y- ae C-o Cao eccep ec oo peeo ooe oo cpa. Peoeoaoc ay, oopa poa ec c e, eyy , oopa poa cy e, cy x e, pacoo opoo pa yp, oa oo po o copoa c e.

A o pee peeepccoo eca: Hao eoea peo ecyaoo op eo oa o 30 e, ae oyc eo ae cocy c eo py cocaa, a o cocy opy epeec ayop.

epe 120 e eo eo opac y. oce oo coepoe cocya, a o, o cao ye, oo o pa aece cpeca, poeaeo .

o ac oe pee cpa eccep, cocae pao a oa VIII (1294 1303): ao cea eeo e ooo, ey, cap, ypy, py, oa, ee pace opa, cooy oc, caaooe epeo, cepe oe, ope ao, ycyc apy.

O payc ye XV ea ocax eoo cpa cap , oe e o eo , cea x c oo, oopao epeo, aec a ye e coy cyca .

Moe ace epaop yeac oca cao eccep. -, epaop ac Xa (pa c 141 o 88 o o . .) opy ce aa yeca, oope o oaa o eoe coca ae cao. - ea a yoopy pocy, oopo o ac eccepe, o yece epc, oea oope oo poc eo .

pyo ac epaop, Cay (713 756 .) opac co apce pea aoo pae ooeoo cpoa oo ooy, o e eocopooc p cp eccep, ooe eo pop eape.

Paccaa, o p ac Xa Xyaa A, yeac yee o eccepx. O acoo oc yee o ao (y), o cea ca eccep, p oy cpe ea oc a eo. co o oca oa o ae, x cea yp ce coa ce.

Too c ea oococ yaxae a ae coa oaax. a eea oa, o oo. Be copecx aco Ca eco, o xyaac A oo c coo, ooy o o-o oec a eo, o ee. O cyac aaa epepea cee opo.

A yaaoc eceo xo oy-y op a cpa eccep? o ce epooc, oeo e e. Oao cop pe o pee oc aaoe oc, oop o yaaoc o ep eccep.

Oo ax acex oce oco aopeco o Aoo Tac, poec cyca Xpca, poc a p oa o Hoo p.

Aoo Tac oce oe cpa aoo pa, ya cepe peo Baoa, copee pca ey oe yeca. epe ec epaopo, opace 70 e Aoo Tac epyc P, e o pay epaopa oaa oa o cy o oe epo. Ho cyoc yo: a aax y cex Aoo ce epeoeoo aa cya.

B eee pa eo caoc, o Aoo, cye poo cp eccep, pooae cpac cpe e. B XII ee oco ax, aa ce Apeyco, o oopoo o aeo pee oo a acex pya, ox aao eooo paa o ococo ae coee o yx poe . Moe copee oaa, o o ee Apeyca cpaec Aoo Tac po ece apye ay cox oope.

ee pca ocee ooo eccep epycacoy ye Aacepy aeoy Beoy y. Coaco peo caa, Xpcoc, o pe coeo pecoo y a ooy, pae eoe pcoc cee oa, paeaeo Aacepy. Ho eco ye e a cey epeoxy Xpcy, ecey e epe pec, poa eo. Toa Xpcoc ope Aacepa a ee ca, e ae oa-o opec oo cep.

o, o a, o ec, ea e, oec eoe, oopoo oe ooec c oc eccepoo Aacepa. ac acpoo o oa 1223 oy cpe eo p caco ope.

oa oe o e yoae ac, ceaa xpoe aaca c.

Aaa (A). Co co apcoo apxecoa, oceeo aaco, paccaaec o cpeax c Aacepo, axoc o pe Ape. o eoe, aa ce a Aacepa, xopoo o co oee e ceee aoc, o eoc aocoo oe opooc ex e, o oopx e ae o e yx.

B 1242 oy o eoe oec o pa, ae a a c ooo ea oapec oae copecx xpo. B 1505 oy Aacep oec oe, epe ecoo e eo a Apaco Bocoe, a 1547 oy o coa Epoe, aype.

O cpee paoope c paccaae cox acax eco ea ay o e (1522 1598). o eo ceecy, eoe o oop a cex ax e aeeo aea. O e ay aceec opa e e aoo yeca, poe a, oopoe o a e. B 1575 oy eo e ca, ec c eceoa ace ea p caco ope pcoop paye o Xoce. B 1599 oy eo e Bee, oya o apac oy, copac opac o Moc. Bcope o eceo oec Moce, e oe o ae e eo paoapa c . B 1603 oy o oec ee, o o aceecoao ypocpo oepyco, copo oocoo oepo py oa a. B 1604 oy Be oec ape, 1633 oy aype, 1640 oy pccee, 1642 oy ee, 1658 oy Caope (Beopa).

oa oe XVII ea e cpa coa oc A, ceec acpoee aae pe ycpo ey ae c yace poeccopo Ocopa epa. Oao oa eo peee cop, eopa cax oaex yoo e, oope o oce o oce, opae. oa ey eao aa opoc a apaco, o e aeeo aea oea a o e. O oop y e a cex a, a epoecx, a ocox.

Bcope eoe o oc a, a ae e, e ce eo coa epc. B 1818, 1824 1830 oax o e, eo, aa ce a eo, oec A, c ex op coa aoo ceae o pe.

Bo opo ooe XVIII ea ae copeeo pea e acee oc, o aee cpo eccep pa aocpo (17431795) pa Ce-epe (1710(?)1784(?)).

Ooceo paa aocpo acoee pe y oca cceoaee e oae ax coe. oyeao oaao, o o o aapc ypoee aepo oco aao, c ax e pocac pa xp poea axa. Co oa a ax o oa apy Aoacy, c oop oce pae ca Ea, a oo paoac ax p ope o, Beoo Macpa Macoo opea, eeo oy cooc ace aya. oy May paccac c Aoaco, pa aocpo (a o ca ce aa, caooo pco pac y) ca eocppoa co aece oa p opoecx opax Epo ae Pocc. Bepoo, eo oy pee oocc cyx o o eec y eo yeco cpe eccep eo oooc. Oao eccep aeaeoy aapcy oc a e yaoc, o yep oy, poa e cee paoo oaa aa coo Aea Pe, ya poe o poopy a epe, a-oa paaco.

opao oa aa opyae paa Ce-epea, copeea aocpo.

B poooax cya coxpac aca co co aocpo pacca o eo ocee Ce-epea, e o yepa, yo e cocy, oopo pa xpa cp eccep. pa Ce-epe opaa copeeo coe eoao oceoeoc o poo. Eo oee poo yee pacepoc ox apcopao, oope poa py, o e ye oo eoea, e ao, ece, caoax cox aye. c ex op, opaac o, o coepeo e ec ee.

Ce-epe oc eao, e e aoo pooo. Oe cao o pocxoe eo aacecoo oaca ae a e ao, a eo copee. Co e acea cep eo, o acya 1784 oy yeeo ae o. O copeeo, a paa, aa ee o cep, o ca, o a oo ox opye e e Ce-epea.

Moe o cyc oce o cep aoe Ce-epea cpea paa o ox opoax Epo. Ta, Ce-epe pcycoa a cpee paacoo ape epe o oce coe o cep. Ee epe p oa, 1788 oy, payc oca Bee pa aoe cpeae Ce-epea a oa Coo Mapa eceye c . Bo payco peo paa o ooa oo pe, e coepac apcopa. epe 30 e oce cep Ce-epea pecapea apcopaa aa ac, xopoo aa paa oooc, cpeae oo eoea, y e eeoc, yyapax Becoo opecca. B ocee o pae y-a, oa ye o oo e, ax Ce-epea o, e ocaoc x, aceoo paa, ce ae y e ocapeeo, cpe ape o ocao cao.

Ec ee a oee ox cooe, cax c ee Ce-epea. O o o oc ape, ye 1934 oy. oce pa eape oa. ocoy, oao, oy pee e ocaoc e, o aox c pao, cooe pyo ca ocoep.

Caoe cpaoe aacecoe copeex cooe o eccep cao c ee a Taac, poeo o 186 e (17701956). B opace 50- e o, yy pao aae, pe yac aa. oce ooex ypae Taac ayc opyac a aaeoe cocoe caax, oa , aaoc, ooc oaa eo eo, o ooy e pa e, y. Oa, paccaa Taac, y opoo aae ey cpec cap-oe. O ac pya ooo, a e a peoc ep op. Ho, caoe yeoe, oe e oop a oo copeex cx o, cc oo a cacpe e pee . Oaaoc, o c ex op, a o pe ca, poo e! po co o ax peeo ey yaoc o aoap eoey cocay, ao oopoo o ae.

Ho ce-a co pa, o ce ocaoe e cya oce e o eccep oocc copee eea. aae cae a oee epy oy cyecye peaoc poaapye, a cpeca oac oce paecoo eccep pacoaae copeea aya a aco oe. Cpay e opoc copoy ce eo yee pooeoc . Bo-epx, ye paccaa o x peye ae, a o-opx, x pe e o yee cpoo cyecoa opaa, a e o pax ocax eccep.

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