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COBPEMEHHA MAHCTECA TEPATPA oea cxoaaeco epayp o oe peae M. M. Peeoa A. . ea Cepe Pae TAHATOO HAA O CMEPT Bocoo-Epoec ...

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pee, ya axopoe ooo ee, oo, poec cepee II cee o . ., pea. Oe o ca c oe ee ya peo, o c pao paeco apaeoc o e. axopoee peo ee oo oaa, o-epx, o, o o a oxpa eee yo ee (cea e peo), a o-opx, o o cococy poaec ce e. p pyocoe e coepeo oeo pocyaa oa e y peo, oope o axoc e-o cpee ee coecoa ce eec oepa (o, ya, ce) a ao ocac a ee ooa.

Tpyocoee e oo opeceee poco ya a op, o aeo oae o cye aaex eo pecae. Ocyec coee, ooca yy yepeo co pyx y peo, pe ca oce oo oop ce o, o eaoc c e oy aa: o xopo pax yepeo poo ee e ca oecea cee ce e aece peyeca, oope pcy poco ya.

Pycc cop XIX ea Bac Oco ec a ca o oxpaeo y axopoe y ca: Oooope peo ecoac o ee ypa, epoo-caco ope ypa;

a opa ocee yeea coo coe payp. aee oo ea pooaaa a oxpae poe, ocee coxpaoc aa o eco c eao oacoc: yp e!, . e. xpa e e. Oxpa poe o coo xa, yp oepea x poooe ocoe... Hapyee e, aeae pa, aoo ep eep paae coo epecyp... aee ypa oo oc oy epy opeaoo opa y pyccx ca, a eo ocae Haaa eoc.

ooa, coep a py, ca, oc eo copa ay ocyy ca a coy a pacyx, e cpeac y, . e. cxoc e pax ae... Oca cyeep cpax, oaea pycc eoeo a epepecax.

Copeee apxeoo e pae e B. O. ecoo ooceo coa co eoc Hecopa. Ec ypy c paxo ooc a ao-o epe co, oop co peee papyac, o a o apxeoo e ocaoc eo, oao o e a. Coo co oaao peepycco e e oo co, peo, o ao o, capoa. pay c o coax pa xyo H. . Pepx coe ape a cep, e eoa ya co a epex aax. B pacoax.. Eeo . H. Tpeoa opee ypaax Xea epe oapye eoe epee cpy c ocaa pyocoe oeo opao opy x. oe o oepoc p pyx apxeooecx pacoax. . H. Pao po oo pepo coopye epex oo-coo a aax o apxaecoo Ceepa o aaeo oa a epeo oo peeo opa. pax pepoax axopaac x ypax, ox opax pooe , o . A. Pao cae c aec ya opo epx oo. p axopaa ye yoyx a coax (. e. ooax, capoaax) yp acx ypao. ec a aaee o opee, o opeax yp, . e. aa e ex aex pao.

oec pecae, ca c opeee peo, ec oeeoeec, ece ocoeoc caac eax coeax opoceex pao paopeeoc oe x pao, oe oce cyae ox ox apoo.

B oxy aoc, o o epoa Pco ep, apy c opeee cyecoaa ae pea. o oeocoo epoa ea epx peaa ee, o ye oep ocae oo pea, pooyc aepoo pe apae c opeee. Too yepx ee xopo ee. B pee a peoee oaaoc pea, xo ye aoax 12 a2 acpoa oa a axopoe. oce ae Pecy o o I ea pea a oe pacpocpaea, o II ee oa caa pec pee. Pce yp c eo oo ycaaac oyap. B epeoe c acoo oyap oaae y oy. Ta aac c oa pecyacoo Pa o cepe epaopco ox, cece x cxoca c a oy, , oopx ycaaa yp c eo yepx. H pacoaac ceao cpoex o e oeex, poyoo oao op, oope cpoc ae o ee ea o 700 c aypoa ypa. B ocoo oyap c eco axopoe ex paa. Xpcaco apeao pea, a poopeay ye o ocpece epx, ooy 400 oy pco ep pea paec pepaaec. B 768 oy oceoa oa epo ape pea. Ta, 785 oy xpcaco epe o caco a o coe oopoc. Bc caco, o e xopo a epoo ae yepx, a ca x py, aaac cep.

ca op pyocoe oec o oopeeo c oocoee paca o oeo oepoecoo acca XV ee o . . , cocyecy o o epe c yae, oa aa ce coe o o ox Bapa Mooaxa, oa a oea copee, e y opa Pyc, a op e. oe, c ooaeo oeo xpcaca a eco, pea, a aao Epoe, ooc ecec xpcac opea opa. paa, pe 'Moca yypa, aaa o e eeapoo ap Moca yypa pa, oca pacea 32 ce o . ., oaaa coe e a aepoy pe.

ao 12 a peea cea ca pcoo paa, ocyecea 451450 . o . .

op pyocoe, o eco pa e o pee eoca Hecopa, coxpac o ac e e (Tyca ayca yep) epeax o oa XIX ea: a xpcaco oe oce oxopo pao opo ocep. pee opeae y-oo, co (epee, x a a xpcacx oax c ae ceo oao aao coo) coxpac ceepx oacx o aaa XX ea. Ho o oo oooc pex ecx opo, pyo eaec xpcace epoa.

Co opo oo XIX ea, c c epeaceeoc opoo , a cece oo epeoee opocx a, o ox cpaax ca o opaac opy pea. Too eep pea pooac ceao oopyoax eax peaope. ep peaop op Mae oy.

B Pocc ep peaop ocpoe 1921 oy, oe oc peaop o ox pyx opoax cpa. Bo a oca ope peaop . E. epo coe capeco poae ooo eeo: B epoopce copac cpo peaop c cooecy oeee poox yp, o ec oyape, o oeco co copo aecoo ooea oey-o oe eceo paa. Moe , ce x oe coa peaop oyap, a oe , ocoeo aaa x caa c o o, o eoea oo ce, a oeo, o oo o pcaa o ce capa capyxa paax a yax c pa: T ya, capya, pec? B peaop opoc? :

poyce capa epe, ey peaop opa. yeoe eo, e oeoo opee capa oe opaac, a o ecee y a y x ooe oopee. ooe paoop o cep, caec o cx op eyo ee, ca opoac epoopce apae c aeoa epeco aaco a ceo epec. eca ae acya oo pee:

peaop opa, ecpopa ca, ep op o aye, O, apoe, a o ye'.

Ho aoee pacpocpaea pea, c peex pee o acoeo pee, y coeyx y. o a ae op eeoe opyc (H-op, 1990 oa), ec epee c aceee 1000 eoe poopoao peca aceee ce ae o eo peoo paeoc, o oyc aa apa: 300 xpca (183 aoa, poecaa, 33 paocax), 175 ycya, 128 yco, 55 yco, aco (peoe epoa epox apoo, cax, o aa e ee co yx), 210 aoco aeco. Ta opao, oeco yco pe eca aeo, x acaec 520 oo eoe.

ycce oa pea coxpac ee c eaax pee. XX e pec o pya epece peaop. Ho opoocae yc peoa pao opea ocep. Eo paa a pae yoex ecoo po po. Ec ca eo cocoeoo eoea, o poa epeeo -oa ecoo oee apoaoo caaa.

Meco coe epx aaa pacoaaec oo a epey pe.

Oo a o eao ece coopyaec ecoo ecox aex aop. Heoope x o ae e pa, opac a epe coa, eoope op ey.

oca ea ecy pea yc e coy po. ooa yaa a ayoe oc ypa co eo aepe. B acoc o ocaa o oe xoo, epc e. epe oca oe c oooo. O paae oc paoe caoc. Bpye y eo opoe c op y, o oopx ye paoe ocep. Boa, coaco oa, e yacye paypo poecc. Ec yep eoe peox e, o ece, a pao, opaoa eee copoe. B e yacy ae ya apaa, oope pa apoe eo.

oca ooa ecy pea, eo yaa a e. paxa aa a ap, oo ce ee aoey ee yy opoe. oce oo coepa oceee ooee eo opya a pay po. Ha oe ay eoe peo. C ycoeo oe caoo ae opea ocep.

Ec o xopo a, o oo aae oax, ec oa o y oo.

C ce pecae ycoo oa ce ce pa oxo opy opeaoo ocpa. p o o oo apoaece aca c e, o paopaeec a oxao ce eo oooo.

pcycye a paypo epeo aeo ce a epeo ycoeo. Ec o pacooc, a ya coa a xo apyy oya eo. Ec e, o c oooo oe pa epe pya eco c eaec aoeo, o yc yy.

oce oo a oca poop ocpe, poe e oooo opaac oo, e coepa pyaoe ooee caooe. Ha pe e o opaac ecy pea copa ee ypy. Oo pax ca oy oo cex pe, pax o oe oooo.

B eee ec e oe oooo e oo y. Ey poc py e. ec e oce epeo pea cac ca a, a a eo ya axo cee oy oooy. Ha ep e oa oa pa oy ooy, a opo e, a pe cepe, a eep cy.

ae a ocey e ya pae yo, ooe opa, epa, oe, o , aoe, py. Ec e opea op oe e o ce aoa, o ya e ae cee ooo ea cae ya, a o yx.

B epo ey 10- 31- e apac pae co, coac ce poe e. Hepeeo paac pecae ce ac ya paxa. yc ep, o aocoee paxao ooe ye opec ocooe eco oo .

B e oo ox aao, pacooex a epey pe a, oo ex cex pe , eec cea ap eco pea ocyapcex epo. ec, ape, pacooeo a epey pe ya, oyea oee eca pea Maxa a Paxa (apc epe), aaxapaa Hepy a-Baa, p a a-ca (Meco c). poyac o oy apy e eapc e aaye Poeca 1990 oa, e o peca, o ceo epe ooa ec ye pepoao eo aeoc ocyapceoo oecoo ee Paa a, yoo eppopca.

B oe-yee p a e, yo y e, a opoe coeo caa op 1984 oa, e pey oopa: 11 op 1984 oa Pa a pacceae c caoea a aa ao ee coe aep, pepoao op. oopa aeaea o oe: opa epa caoea, a oopo ec eocee ep op, Pa- a, ca ee yp.

ee Maxa a aaxapaa Hepy pae oax aa a . Aaxaae, a ece c x pe, paoo epe aoeca yco.

coo, oe e coce ocoao, ycce epoa aa poa xpcac p. B paoo xpcace eoea eca oceeo ycooe caoc cao cpao apo. Bco, a o eee pae y ee p Caoaa.

oee epx peaope Epoe e ypao opa axopoe yp oy oee ee y oyap. B oox cyax coxpaoc opeeeoe eco axopoe, eco ooe paxy yepeo.

B c c xoec pec epec a. BC.-eepype, cye cepeao e xpac yp c paxo copyo, ox o y.

Ha ope Aecap I, pacooeo eaeo o poaa, ayce 1899 oa aaa paoa opoaa o ceo eeo pa aopaop cya cepeao e o ye y. Hecop a ce ep peocopooc, e poo a cya apae yo, oa co cepe cxoo. epo epo oaac aey aopaope B. . Typo Be, a epe p oa yep o eoo op y oe pa M. .

peep. Oa yex pepoa, a pax x aeo coxpa cy.

Ho oc oe ee. Bo ocoo ce xo ecoo a eepo e A opa e...: aea oepa ea aeaa pae ee pax oe ocpoa Cpeeo ope, e oa poac. o cea opa c ooa ee ypy c eo e oy ocpoy...

o ooce oopa a xopoo eca oa apa Mapca ooe. ppx ec coac 5 ayca 1895 oa, a 12 e oe apa Mapca, oo o oa, o eo oxopo e-o po c eo pyo copao. Oao oo e cyoc. oee oo, o eca e cyecye.

po c eo ppxa eca oce paypo epeo, cocoec ayca 1895 oa ae oa eeoopooo oaa Baepoo ooe, cea oeo ocae peaop oe. ec oea, o pax eo oye ope. 27 ayca poe e epee ee oy ecy oxa eca cop pae eo a ope.

B oyeao e o Aepa ec ecoo epecx ceo. Aepace ya o-paoy aea pacopc co eo:

pae a ope, a opoo, a e apo (ayc ceay paey cpaocepy) ae cpeccoa e o c aooe. p ce cpaaaoc eooc oox aea ycyec, o y ee eo c ye aae caac pae, oe e e yccoo poope.

ae pae op e, coep cecao oe ope 1966 oa aco p poo ocao coe Coeco Coe, aea pae eo pax ecy ooo coe a.

Heo, aepo, eco, o e cyecye o aeoo coecoo cae ocaa Cooa. Bo o paccaae o o coe e Ceoxopo oo e aep, oxopo ococx caee: e xopo? apaee o peeo, o coaco pea a Hooee...

Bopoco e Coo ec Coo. py oo... ooc cepeap Coa caee CCCP p Bepeo: Oo. He oope eo. Cpoo o e.

pexa, eo e oa.

Bcp aeae. Bo oooo aa pepoa pax pae.

ye o.

oey pae? oey eo o oee? Eo pc paccaa e: a o oea, oa opyee, oopoo paec o eooo. Ta, ooe, oca Coo oc ooy ooy:

Ec ce-a popec ocaec co pax pae ec.

oe o oo ca aao eopyccoo oeoo opya.

Me ao o ce cea cpo. Oe eo oco peaop. oy oeae epe p oay ypy c eo. Ho yac ye e a apa, a ypo.

poy ye, pacooa. Boe yoe:

Heo e oyc.

a, opa peaa e...

Pa ypo a c pco eepao cye peaop poy opoe. M oe oa ey yay a. o, pac, cpaeo eoo ec Cooa opoe. oeo, pax, ee, a ee oy e o oe oo caa, e. Hac e peco, e ca, a oaa... e, o. yae o oo: a e a, c opoa, paoopaa, aa co, cpac oa cae yecac oe o o opoe! Bo ce? Toa?

...epe p eca yepa eo ea. Oa aa, o oa, ao aa. Ee poca pac ee a e, e Coo, a oea.

Ta opao, ye ocaoo apyepoao oe yepa, o a , a ax aax apoaec ooe ooee pao opea opa, x epeoccee.

TEPATPA Toapeu . H., peoa T. o cea yx e. ea, 1986.

ecu B. O. ypc pycco cop. M., 1956, o 1. Pueo, Tpemo.

H. ypa o v t. opea. MA, N2 8. M.-., 1948, pc. 37-42. a pyeo, 1990, 43, c 19.

Pooe po o Cooa. Hoopoca paa, 1991, 2 . puo A. C eaax pee. paca ea, 1991, 1 .

Pao . A. eco pee Pyc. M., Haya, 1988. , empo E. ooo eeo. M., Xy. ., 1976. Tpy o 12 a 1990 oa.

ABA XIII Cpeoe ae B peyae apxeooecx pacoo 1963 1965 . pee o aeo opoe ae c pyo oa, epoo, c epo p e a ece yyeo cecoo coopa. opocoe ae pacoaaoc a oa ey cec coopo apap aaa, o yaea x a. cp cceoa 19 paopeex axopoe. a coc, a o eppop ae cyecoao e epo pee o o 20-x oo XIV ea, . e. o oo pee, oa ca epeece poo op.

Bcpe opee paoo pee, c XII o XIV e, ooo o eoopo cee poce o opeax opo. axopoe, apoae opo ooo XII ea peca coo oc, oepye epeco. Tao (oc epeco opoe) ec o ypa axopoe e. a cooae A. opec, o cacoy oa eo ooa oepaoc y, oeo po ooe oc aae opc. eco, o o H epecacoo ae epec (Mca, Me, a 1294).

o eoop a, oa cooa aece poa opy cyecoa ee XV ee. Ta, paccae o cep peoooo ay opocoo (1394 1477), ocoae epoo yea ayea opocoo oacp, acao eo yeo, oo oee, cpay e oce o peoooo capa, ec ao ao:

Toa cpoc: e e oy cee coa e e oo?

Cape e e oe: e a yea oo, c e opee. A poa yooo e oya. Ha e ec ee aae y a pae . A e yo oep a coy o eo, ooa, oo.

p pacoax aa Mococoo pe peee opoe, apoao opo ooo XII ea, oapye ae axopoe c ocaa epex poo oex oo. B coe, apoao epo ooo XIII ea, cp opo opee yox poax oo a, ceax oox ax a ax, e oe. Bee opepoa ooee ooo oe: ye a ce pyooe ooo a aa. Ta opao, p ycoo ope paocaoo opee, a pyee XIIXIII eo cpeae o ax poo. Coxpac pee pya opee epece, o ae pacpocpae yoe oo epe opa poo oo a.

opee yox ooax oe pacpocpae a eppop Pyc, o ao opaee oope, oocex caax, caax, ax, peax. ca aa yoe oo eepo ae coo-eepcoo oacp. ooa pecae coo cea oeca acc co epea, pace oepe oe yp o oypy eoeecoo ea.

oa ep I aa cpoeco oa, co eoxooo ypee oyeca Pocc, o opa co ao a coxpaee eca, oop ye opaecpoe. B x ex 19 op 1703 oa a ya, apea opeeex ecocx pyy eca. a opyy e yooo eca oe apac cepo a. xo a pae cepa a a opyy eca paec e peac, pa oxopo yox ooax oceeo yxo ee. Ha cey e pxo oxopo poax, cooex oco. oe ceo opeee ooax cyecoao y capoope.

aa oo pacoaac y coopo epe. ax opoa xopo yp epe. Ho oxy cpeeeo a Pyc epeo cyac oo opoe oep, yoce oopeeo c e. Ta, op o ooa oa pooac oee yx e. He ca ex, oope oy oee oeoe opeee 400 epax co, a aax o oxopoeo 127000 pyo a acae Apaa a. pye aca co ep o 500000.

Bo peea accox e ooa paoaoc axopoee pacx oax e poo. Tae pace o aac cyea. Bo a o o oecye Hoopoca eoc 1421 1422 .: c a ea c a op e, aeaa epx p cye oy co Co a aape, a e y Poeca a oe.

B e y coe, cooae eoc, c op 1552 oa o oce 1553 oa o opeeo 25 c e cyeax, poe oeca cxopoex ao ecy opaax.

B Eaepco ape opoa ya (ee apcoe Ceo,) poooo paopa oy Opoce opoa, a oopx ceea cop oe aopa Eaep pop Opoa a opoo o. Oa oe o a o e, pecae oee e a 600 cpaax, oaae eca pocpao: Ocae opoo , e coo opoe Moce c 1770 o 1772 o c poee cex pepae oo oa ycaoex ypee (C., 1787 .). O ax ocaoe ceac ya 1772 oa, apea xopo epe opoa o ce eppop Poccco ep o eae e. Bce opoce aa oa poa, a oe pacoaac oo a opoc acaa.

B c c ooc xpcacx opo aao Bocoo epe, opeaa opoc aoo ao e oaac o aoo y paocax. Ha ape xpcaca, oa oceoae o oo pe peceoac, opee xpca coepac ao, oex aax aaoax.

Texec aao papaaac a py. B apoex pyax, aeoox epo oe copac e xpcacx o. axopoe aaoax cooa cee x cpa a aypoa. H, pacoaaec ecoo pyco, coca paeey ccey aepe. aao oapye Aecap, Cpayax, Heaoe, Pe.

C ycaoee xpcaca a ocyapceo" pe coppoaac ea, co xopoo a aoa opeaa opoc. e ooea ^e e co e oocex ce. Ta, cea aoe o pa caa c e pao epe ceo peepeaa aa.

B cpeeeoo Epoe pocx pec opoa xopo ox oax, oope opa c pa, oa yo o oo ooo ooa.

epcea oy oy ypoo cocea a oe epoa, o o oecy oocee ee caa. Ta, ee o peea epxa III oac a ae ea ycxaa co:

ya opeeoo ec xpcaa. Cpaa -a oo, o oe oe oxopo eo oyeoo, oeo o oc e oya oo o o cyoo .

TEPATPA ypeu A. . yypa oeco cpeeeoo Epo aa copeeo. M., cycco, 1989.

eenua H. C. Apxeooece ae Mococo ppe 19631965 . B .: peoc Mococoo pe. M., Haya, 1971.

ompecu A. O opeax oax ecx ca. M., 1868.

Bauecu . Cyoe pe. C.-eepyp, 1911.

o oemu. Pacca o cep ay opocoo. Toe opoe, 1990, 9.

Cepa a: a po. M., peca epaypa, 1989.

ABA XIV Tpa Bocoa Typ a e ypa, a ce , oo xopo x c eoop oe o aoy x opa.

Muxau yo epece Caece ca 17661768.

Bopo o ae poo pee oce xpcaca ec ca.

Mycyae peoco coa ycaoe coe pe, ooy opeae op ceo ycyacoo pa paec e, eaco o eopaecoo pacooe, apacx cpaax eo Bocoa, Ceepo Ape, pae, Aacae, acae, Cpee A, a aae, ycyacx peoax oo. Coaco ycyac pa, eo ooa oo ooeo a ceae opeae oc oy oeceo a ae e cep, o axoa coa (o o cao c e, o apo ae ea yepx oe cpo oepac paoe). po oa e cooac, eo o ooc aepyo caa. Baaac epaa oa axa, y oopo aaac a, ya oea eo. Hy aypoa, oy aca ee ycaaa oo ae ao co.

o a aecae, o oe o aa, cocoe oocex oaox aex coo-. e oee oocc aee co, e peee ae, opa x oceye, coaco pa, e oaaoc.

x pa oa, paa peo, eac ce. Ta, Xopeco oac ecaa e ocoo cpeac pye ycyacx axopoe aee opeae capoa pa-cpa, ya eocpeceo oeac c-o. Mece e oc y pa e, o ex ecax Xopea cece oc Ay-ap coo co pyoe o, o eae o axopoe. Tao e axopoe, eca pe, aa ae X, o oop o aoc pa o peoe.

Paccaa o opeax coopyex Cpee A, e e co eoee aoe Caapaa. o pee ceo ae aoe yp-p (. e. ycaa pa), e ooc coac 1405 oy Taepa (Typ), poa aoeae apoo A, ee xpoe, a ae oec aoee ax-a, aeac a ycaa po a Typa. oo x yx eecex oeco Caapae ec pye aoe apep, aoe A-capa, oop caec ycae ycx pecaee poa Typo opo oo XV ea;

aoe Pyxa-a (oe yxa), ocpoe 80-x oax XIV ea;

aoe Xoa A apy, oee a paxo aooea, xoa Apa, eo IX ee.

poe oo, ec oocee aoe yxap, X ox pyx pex opoo Cpee A. ec aoe pecaee ac Bex Mooo (apep, aoe XVI ea Xyaa, paya aypa e, oec aoee Ap oe, oe pye). Bce o oop o ycoo pa axopoe ycyaco a cx ceax oex apxeypx oecax, aaex aoe aapa (ycaa coo).

Me xoeoc ao cop pocxoe caoo coa aoe. Ta epoaao aaac paoa ycaa Macoa, epccoo capaa ap (oac a o-aae Mao A, a eppop copeeo Typ), oya cepee IV ea o . . caac o ce yec cea.

ocpoea e poa cocoa apaoo oo ooa co cyeao pao, yeao ae Macoa eo cypy Ape, cox a oece, apeo eepo oe. oee aoe ca aa ce oyeae po. oo yca Macoa oyea opea coopye aoc oocc ece yoe po, aoaace opeae coopye (Hapoe epe), pce pye po (e Mee, ao coo Aea), a pcx pox (eca ooa).

oa ee a ae o ce aaxcaa, o ooopae eaa pepaec o eo oc pya pyx coopye, cepax ooe yoa, cepep oyeca a x. a cae.

Moe , o ao oye op? a e, eo caooo, eo capoo. ooe oe, epe a copeeoe aaxcoe ae.

yoa ea! apo, o-eey aap. e paepo c co yxa o. x opac e oee 1520 e. Ec coce oe.

Cpe x yex coopye, ypaex paoe paa, opyex yop eaec opaa, cpoe o ae cee. Tax, paa, eoo. B oceee pe caec ep xopo cpoo, ce capac oc aapa epeeo cocea. a oceee aaee a aaxcacx pocopax paepyoc cpaoe cocae ao po, aa ce oey co yep oee ape opoe aap.

C eaax pee aaxco ce oe ep, o yx oepea yx peo apax, cycaec pe o pee c eec. Ha o cya a oe ca py. oe ee aeo oxoee coopyee caaa epea aap.

oa pa ca poa ca, eo cye yeo coe ycyacy pe c pe epoa ec oa. Tep, epxooe oeco oea, oe ooecc ( yac) coa e c Aaxo. o oepa co aap ca epeo yooc aoe ycyacx cx, oee Caapae, Xe, yxape, Typecae... Ho aap Caapaa yxap ooc a oa aeo e cex yepx, a oo ex, o pocac aoec ea.

Hoy, apoayc aaxcae pa oepye pecae yxooo ypae ycya Cepe A aaxcaa Aa-Ae a Pae xa Hcaae: ycyaa epe oa epe oo. O eo.

Oepy eo pocy ey aep. Coop poay oy. pea eo ee. Moo oec oy ecoo caao aeo opao, o e eeo eoo, o popo Myxae caa, o co peee oa paoepoo oa cpoc c ee. Byp opa papeaec oca epeo, o coopya o-o a oo ycyaa apa e papeae. ece a aoe a oa cx ypeo ocpoe epe oo e oce x cep, oa cao co, o o-peey o x aoece ea.

Capx e aoee a eppop aaxcaa paec e. ae e pa opeax opo coac y cex oeo ocac epo? opa o o oe oepy cooe yeeceo, ocex ce A cpee ea.

Ta, o ocoaee oaecoo opea pacae py caoo coo paca Acccoo, ao ap exa oa 16 ape oa cocae cc, caeo yo a oe IV oocoy xay.

Eo cc ac oee yx e, o oca epece ac o oax aapo ooo. B acoc, o e:

...oa o-y x ypae, o, ec o ax , eo xopo ao oe, e ye yoo;

xopo e eo c eo cao, eo ceo ocepee ee, epe ca co opo, ooe ca, ay c o ooo, ece c xopo oy c epeeo o c yeo ceo, a pyoo o cea aa oy cooo ca ee oe a yx epex epeax, o a y eo pyo pe caa, e ... o, a ox o o e...ooo cepepo o xopo a e opao ece c . ooy, a oopo ey eo, oa, a cay eo papya, o o o peeo ooe e epae aa yepeo eo coce ee...

o ae coco cyecye opee eoopx ax . O y ao oe, ya a pay c ope ea oy y coy o ea y o ee ay o ooa oo paa, oop caec eo e. Pa e o a oo, o aae a aa ao, a ae eo aca, o o o oxy, a ocya p: ec o yeee, o ocec caoc coo, eae ce, o ey ye yoo, caec e cae cpee poceo ycoeo. Mepoo e ay y, oopa ceaa coy, ece c e ea, o oopx caao e, ae apa y, oopa axoc epe eo o cepxy ay pay, a o pae, c o e, o pe e o a o eco. B ocao o ocya a, a o o caao e, o apya eo aay oca oe. Bx ee cyecy a aa;

oo, a oopo xopo epaopo, e cex eo, e o e yep, x epeoc ya, ec o oo yoo cea, a ece c xopo oo ooa cepepa. pyoe o, a oopo oxopoe e, o y Bep, o a yepe oe. aa e epae oo o, poe copoe, oope pcae a oxpa, a ec o ooe, o eo xaa, oaa, y oepa oe oo.

Cooee ao ap o apapco xapaepe axopoe ooo oepaec py epayp a;

a, cooa o oxopoax ay 1256 ., epcc cop ya ca: oxopo eo o opy oocoy. oo apoa po, o ec o y x ypae, o o ee ycpaa eco poe oa , coopao cay oo pooo, oop opac peco. Meco o ypaa oe, opo, cocya oeco ee;

a e xopo eo c opye co ce eo yeco. Xopo c o ece eoopx e cy eo.

Mapo oo paccaa o ee oee cpeo oae p oxopoax oocoo eoo xaa: oa ocyap ypae, cex eo yx oae o ya... o o y eo a o cee. oa yep Moy-xa... oee aa c eoe, cpeex o opoe, e ec eo eo xopo, o oo.

Apxeooece aepa oaa, o oo coco axopoe cocee o apoa epao A. Cee ap o o, o oo capac cp eco axopoe cox xao, coaa co cee Mapo oo, ya pa pyx aopo.

Ta, 12531255 oax oax-op o e Pypy oa cc Moo oca epece ac o coe yeec. B acoc, o e:

opeee oo, o ypae, ocaec eec, cea ooo ex ec, e o opea cox ax , eec oca oxpax opee.

Moo epa ae eco axopoe cox xao. Heeco o cx op, e oxopoe cxa. B oo oocx eoce paccaao, o a oo c-xaa poa ay 10000 oae, o cpo eco opee o o e o a eo.

B 1990 oy ooc oc ye a opaoaa ce o ocy o c-xaa. acpy ee paeco Aae ay MHP, a ae aea oyp eeoa Hxo p.

poe aaec ypa-o, o epeoe c oocoo oaae:

Tpexpee. O pacca a p oa. peco cceoa eppop ey pea epye, Opxo Toa: e oe oa peo 450 c apax oepo.

peoaa, o eo ec oxopoe pae ep. Bo co cyae a o aea...

Paccaa o ycyacx opeax opax e e oe, o o ec opao ca c opea oa pex yee. eopee, ocae y ep, caoc pee pae ea ecace, oaa oy-o opee o yac apyaeco. a oa ypoa ocy a py c pyo (I a apc, 17:44-46). B eopeex pyo oe epee oepe, a a oo pee pocoee ep oaoc o aoy, a ocepee, peoaac ocoa epeo oe. Te a cococoa paoe pya aca a oo copee xopo epx.

a oo eoe ypa, ey apa aa, ce poac c , ey eo, oa eo. po yopee Ee Baoe, o e y apoa pacoo. Teo oepa oco eea, oope aac yce eeca, ooy oa oco ao a ocax ec ooa oe.

Moa y pex yee cy poce , oae ee, eep, oopx a oo aece. Bxo eepy aaa oco ae aae. oa o ceac caax e yp opo oa c ae oo aepa, oope coec opopa. Mo oxoee ceo ea o ec epe caax, e opoo. Too ap popo opeac opoax. oae ooeo e ae o cea x coo caax. Caoc ye e opee oe cox oo. Mo, ceee caax, aaac o a. Ha oa oa ca a, ceae ae ceee ca. B epoco oe e ycaa cap ao a aa.

oce x oe o ec eo oo, o peypea eoepe o ocepe p pocoe oe, ooy cyc Xpcoc yoo apcee opae, . e. apyo pac poa, yp aoex oc epx co ecoo (Eaee o Mae, 23:27 aee).

ea o yep paaac eca co opao: poe pooo aa, yap ce o epa, papa oey pocac a e, oca ooy eo ee. B a ea aea a ce pee pyo, eoo ea a, pa cp ooc a ooe opoy, opa ooy po, ca c ce ce ypae;

ce o eo e pa eey y copeo oeao epoc;

ae apaa epa ce o po. B aoax Moce cyecye oo opeee, ex e opa epe eye oa, ocoeo acaec apeo poaa coeo ea pa yepx, a a o o acoao y o.

B ocee o ea ce ae ae ca oc cooe o yype, pax oax peeo a. Bo e pe o opeax opax a pooy pyy aee eco pae ao.

B capo ae xopo yepx oaaoc a pooo ae a paeae cee yace e. Ec eoe ypa aeo o oa, o eo eo acco peao oo epeo poy e poe eca a xopo. po oo eac acoo epe, o o ooe pe o co eap e. Bpe, aoee aopoe opee opeeoc cea aae-eoaa a ocoe acpooecx pyx ce.

B aece pepa opeaoo opa cpeeeoo ae pee epy acoo poaa , , M (e c ooo ae).

a a acaa XVI ee, o cx op oa ec o ocox accecx poao a, o aopa eeco. aoo epo poaa, oaa papaa C a, ypae oa ec e, pacaa -p. Bo a aop ocae ee oxopo:

coy ap ya opao, ocyp aoo a eyac ce. ae pca e yx opoco. Ooy ooeo o aeoe o, pyoy oa epey yay. Ha paccee, ea poe eyx, c eoa... caa: Boco e eco y, oye ac caoe oxoee pe ycpoca yca, a eaa e, peoye ac yy aop oca e ope oy x...

p ooe o po e o pcycoa e, poec o ao paoa, Tpa, yp e. Ha ocay po ce ape e pacpocpaec.

Bcope oc ocop pyo c opy. O cepy yaoe opao pao oe. C coceopyo coep ooee a ycoe, a -, a paax ca, ce e e. oce oo C o po ooe aopcy eyy. a oo aepeo o ooee a op oyc oo, ce, o ec , o aa o ea, pc oaa ycoy.

B oxopoo ae ao y epe oooex yp eye cyao. Oa epaa a, pya ooee, pe pee, eepa ee ae-o pee yaea. (yp cyao a oy;

peoaaoc, o cya yy pcya yepe a o cee C. P.). yp oca po c opo. ec e paec epee cocy, yp pe pyay yap.

Ha pe e oce o -p cocoac epeo ooe o po, a oopy copaoc oeco oce pae yce oax.

p ee paee eoa C oac ooe po, oopoe cocooc oce oea epeo epopoe. o pay C po oo epe cax yx oe epe cepepx ca, o ooy a yo.

Ha o poa oo ocy ce e c ce oepc, a ee ooy ap po po. oce oo, o ay ocopa pyo, po ca aa o.

Ha ceo e oce o -p a opo eee oce ee cep cococ e ax.

Haoe, a ca eoa, eaa e eco y (. e. epe ee oce cep -p) cococ oc ea ycoe. B oao oxopoo poecc yacoa apc, opaae pax yxo, paox ec: yx y, yx Oacoo y, yx-aa, ocepa eoee copooe coo eccep ypa epeax oe pye. B aae, ceeo ex e ea, ec yy ycoe, a e xopy o paoe oa oy pocoo apo po.

Ha ae eoa, a oac, oep eco opee o ya o oca epy yxy e. oce oo po oyc oy.

aee ceye ocae ee ooo, eca pacpocpaeoo oa, yoaeoc o o cex cpeeeox acx oecx ycao oe ycoe. C aa o oca oey, a oopo acao ooa, ycaaa ee oae, e o , ceeo aape, e oa xpac ooa. Caec, o oee ooaec ya ycoeo, e poc ep, epe e ca ceae epee yae e.

Paccaa o acx opeax opax, xoec yoy ee ecoo epecx ocoeoce. Heo ac, epoee, ec e paypa o paoo e. Cpaa cep y pex ae accopoaac c aao ( cpae, y ox epoecx apoo c Ceepo C. P.), coo cep cy co aaa e p (co , ec co Bocoa, ee pao C. P.).

o oce cep oa oe cpoc oyc epyc oo a ec cpo paypa (aca payp o pex e), oo oce oo o o coa opac ecy cy.

o ac oep, y caoy yepx acceo cep caoc oo ecp yxa y, ce oc x ec.

Ceo y ec capo ae cac ece oox yxo yepx, aa c aaoo ca oo eca o paoo oaaoc ocea o yepx peo pox poc a o ey, e ceooe e, ceae ya, apep, oey, oc ooe pyoe, o eoxooe ye ooa apoo .

oo apxeooeco cecae caa axoa 1990 oy axopoe acoo epaopa . epaop , pa Cpe apco co 157-o o 141-o oa o ae p, papo oca ce eoopx yex e, e 14 coe oe oyaco pa ocyapceo eoo.

pope poa eo Myp. opoa aoopaeca cpaa oa opac, ec - ape 1990 oa pece po c e oapy eaeo o pee co acx aceo Ca eo poy.

Ha ye ce epo x opy opc ap, a oopoo 291 ep, a pa epe. Bc o a acaea eoea 60 caepoo co. oe ee o, a eo o coca pa apca ee, ce a o e paco-peoe oo, epe aa eao popaoae yae ep a.

Caaa a ce o ee epe pca pyex eoeo.

Bce o e xapaepy paeoc ycoy oy, xo oa-o ope ecpe oe ea. a ypo e oopc. Taoe eaee, o x e c opex pooo.

o e epa axoa a aco ee po c oa. eo o, o c peex pee o acx aceo yaa c copooax. Ha epx opax o ee, oopx eaoco ya o pe pyaa opee. oo pa ca e, e ae e o.

B cepee ceecx oo eaeo o oo e Ca a oapyea poa ooo eax epaopo a xyaa. Paco ec pooac a . Ha oa 20 c apax epo cpoac 8 ca pa x yp, oex aypay eoeecy ey.

Bcoa caoo cooo oa 195 c.

poy oo 700 c oax eee 37 e. Cpoeco pyoo ca epaop xya. ca, o oae pa, ec o yep o aepe cex pao, o eo eo o aaapoao, a op opee epeec o ca oxopooo oea o . Tae paoe cpo oo ooy, o ye oae ae poao ooo oo eoe.

ce e, oxoe, poa epaopa a o coey apxeypoy ae ce pye. ap coep oo a. oco oo, apep, e e py. Ec epc, o o o cea aoo-y paoeoo eaa. pye oaa, o py y pyex coao epea, oopoe a ea pepaoc pyxy...

Booe-o axopoe acx epaopo opaa co acaa.

Tpyo oep, o ace cooo aa a e, a e oooa opa x opee. o cee, oe o ac yoo peoc, epaop xya aaao oc cep. eco eo peee: o oe pcyc aoop o cep, oe y. coo coe o epa.

Ha o aepae a pa aeo e o oop opeax opo pax yypo-copecx ox paccop ee o a epec oe, ca c cope opee, cycco a.

TEPATPA ec oeec coap. Mpoa xpcaca cc, Topoo, aaa, 19S2.

uo e Pypy. yeece ocoe cpa. B.: yeece ocoe cpa ao ap Pypya. M., oc. . eopa, -p, 1957. paa, 1990, 13 a.

uoau e ao apnuu. cop ooo. B.: yeece ocoe cpa ao ap Pypya. M., oc. . eopa, -p, 1957.

Tueaye B.. Cop aepao, oocxc cop ooo Op, . II.

ee epccx coe. M.-., . AH CCCP, 1941.

Muae .. yeece Mapo oo. C, 1902.

Poao A. e oa? Haya pe, 19S7, 5.

e c ooo ae, , , M. M., Xy. epaypa, 1986, . 2.

ABA XV cycco a o aoe a? Coo o coco yx peecx: a, a aoc oa. Ta pee pe epoaao aaac apoa pe, a oe apoa ac, aco cxoopo ope.

B ep ep oaa pee, eee ae apxeyp VIII ea, xpac e eee ea oe ax apox ae, oa cax ox pe. Haa Cepeea eoa, ceac o ao ae, o pe aeoaa aepo acoo a 1-o epacoo ecoo cya, 1974 oy paca e, cyea-epoypca oo cya yacoa ocopco apxeooeco ce. o, a ep pa oe o poxae co ep oaa pee, a Haa Cepeea oa e o ooo a pyoy, aa y e epeoa oocee a. pe, o pao oo, epeeo, poe e, ayc cope oac a oo oe paya o o, o e oop ae a.

eo oa, 20 e aa apoc ace o .

Caec, o cycco a oo pee pe, o eceo a. Oao coeopa a oo ca oocee epo, opae capoa pex e. oo peox opeax eco x coepaac eoopa opa o oc ooa.

ec a pee yee. ec apxeoo yoop aece pepa po ceye ac a epecx aax:

o ae oca a yaaeoo oooo Eaa. a ac ey o oo Eee ey py c e. A. A. Cea. a oo ey ee ay ac: o a oca a cee, cee, opoeeo paceo Peeo, oep coo paa, ea Caya, o oopo ce xopoo oac. epa oa 8 eap 135 oa. a ooc ee ya Eeco cay.

B Pocc a oc ooo oo. Xpoooec ccec apo c a peecoa ae aoe eoaee . Caoe peee axopoee o ao o o cpo Mococo pee coe epo oo XIII ea. oe a x ax oec opae, ocpoe oa paoo aepa pyo. Opae o co oepe eco ca c eoae apo Moc XVXVII eo. ae pooe pacpocpaee oya apo c ac.

ec ao cop eepypa M. . e po epecee cxoope a a oax aex oeaao, ocyapcex epox eee, oo XVIIIXIX eo, oxopoex Aecapo-Heco ape. Ta, a oe paea A. C. ya A.. aaa a ceya a:

o Ap po, xa po eo oo, Pocc o cy y eoc ycpo.

Ha apox aax ap eao cxoopx a, paeax ec oa XVIII ea . . pey,. P. epay ae epape Eaepe II (a oe apaa aoa).

Ho eao ape cpeaec a, o oapyax eeeco aopaooc;

oa x ac pae yepey yeecy. Bo oa ax a:

ec e, ee o e, a aa, oopa a a a ocaa oceee ce aeae: e pyeo, po oe o, o po a ee, cypyece a a eepypc yo Bace pa 19 e 44 oa, 10 ece 16 e;

ecaao oe ae ea, payac c a, oca p c a aocoee.

pya:

o c ae, oy eepypc 2- yo Hoae aoe oxo, opeeo eo eo, poeao eepype eeo 42 oa coce pya e opoa x pee o cay e o pyo cox.

B ce a, eoo ax yy, axo ceyy:

po ocao, Boocc, pa Acpc, pocxo o poa peecoo epaopa oaa aaya, oop apcoa 1198 oy, papay eo Baax ocoape 1619 oy Cepaa ocaoa aaya, poeoc Tpaaa (eo a, e Tpaca! C. P.) o oo Mxao, ypoeo oayo ayce ece, pe cye p poccco epaopco ope ae e aceceoe pao a ope ocaoa C. Be, (eo a, e ocaa! C. P.) oeooca eop, yep 4 . 1787 oa ee oox cox e. O poy e 16 . 8 ec..

Ha oo oe oa axo aoy ac ca:

oo po, o ce coopy.

Bcoe e epe ocxoo coa Mxa oeo, coa eo oe XVIII coe eepype oeap paa . . yoa, po ceeca eo copeeo, paccaax, o o c eooe pee oocc o c oxopo ea o eeeo pcycoa a oea coepeo eaox ey ooo, ecao p a aax o ex, ca a ce a apoo e ooo coeo pocea:

aa, e ? ec. ABa? oaee eoo. A a? Ocaac cyeax.

Paccaa o pax ypex ax, xoec pec eoope aoee epece apoe ac, copae epeeee.

Aecapoe:

O oeae poy apcooo epea paeae cax cax epe.

(a a oe oaa aco opoe ce.) ec cap Map po ooc a eco oe. oy yy pey eo, o oe! Te epeeo o pa pcpo, oa , a o oo.

(a a oe Mapa poa oaco opoe epe.) B o oe e a aoo a ee py, Co yc, o capa Peea e coa yco po aoo a.

(a a oe Pee oec aco opoe ocoe.) Cpaee cex y aa eo o, o ae y a a eo oe ecao.

(a a oe pocoa. ae ep ae.) O oop ce e, poe eccepa.

(a a oe caoa. Ta e. aa (CA), 1964 . . 189, 4.) a poc ey oco ac eo pepee a e oe c ypco, oope o peae a opo.

(Hac a oe aeoo paoa a Tepa aco opoe ope. opp oc. 1968, 14 .) O oa e oaa ax oo, poe oo ppoe.

(a a oe oa. ae ep ae. oceco (ap), 1972, a.) Xo ecaa oceeco pa, Bce Aae o e pa.

(Aoa paycoo oa-capa )7-o coe ppoa. ae ep ae. oceco (ap), 1972, a.) ec e cep Pa, oopy o pa cee. Ee eye cypy Toac Pa, y aeoec Aep, coceopyo o y ac oo cea o e caoe ac a 250 oapo.

(numau a oe cep Pa aepaco opoe Meao-ce.

Meaoc cap, 1974, 13 .) ec opee cep epa c, eyea oa c poae o cp 7 co 24 oa oaae ce, o oo oo peoa o eao e.

(a a oe . ca . apcoe (a apoua). Puepc aec (ee, CA), 1974, 7.) ap a c pooaao pa. e a aa paa? epoaao ac a oo e, epeo peoe, caye oeca, . e. ao e oaac o oo a. ax ace oceeo poc cee opoe opae paccye, ooe o eoy oy. ae x ce ocpe oe apco, xapaepooece , capece ooe a opao poac acceca aa paa, caa pooaae cex pyx pa payco, aco, pycco.

B xoe pa cycca pa aaec opa poecc opaee pa apy a. Ho a o pa a peo, yaa epaypa opa, o pa co c. paa, epeo eoope epaype a, a ocoeo aco aoa eceo oeac a apox aax.

pa ooo pee aoee pae oy o pa, aa c XVI coe, oya o ap ay pye epayp. ooy pee ecoo aoee x paycx epaypx a ( epeoe B.

Bacea):

ec c o cypya. Ax ao e oo, e oo!

(a opa, 15S3I658) o ce o o ye. O oe epaye:

p eee oe, O oe a ce e.

(o Cappo, 16101660) numau oepy, coaeyc om aeo oeu (a-ac oep, 16191683, eao aco, p opo a eea ecoa ccea aooooe C. P.) ec ca oep oe e ecoa oe eo cpaa:

Bo cpo pye ae a, ox ca ep cepe o (Ao XVIII ea) numau amoy nymeecmeuy He ae, o ooe ypy y eepoxoa epa pe pax, ep oo yeecoa o cey, Ho e a ee a eecax.

(Aya-y epe, 16801743) numau anmeap ec o oe, o c e e a po caa pe ao a oe.

(Ao XVIII ea) ap epaypo a, . e. cxo, popyx a cep eca apaoca ap. Ocoeo o o aeoy acoy epoy opy. ooy A ap epaypx capecx a oy oe pooe pacpocpaee. M pee eoope x a epeoe C. .

Mapaa:

ey o ae oa Baea oooo a oop oe poe Mo c coep aeee.

Coe o pooy ce ece p. ooo, o ac e Oca oa cep.

, o y opee?

Hy, ! Ao o?

Ta o , o o?

a, oa-o o!..

, peaep, ey ee cpo. pocyc, pyy a. He ee a apo opo, A ee cp yee !

Ha o eyepae a (cao coocoeae y ecoo apaocao) xoe ao pa oop cycca a, coo e peey a ayy ooy, a oo cppy o aceo aaoo.

TEPATPA Hcmpe . ec oeec coap. Mpoa xpcaca cc. Topoo (aaa), 1982.

peoc Mococoo pe. M., Haya, 1971.

e M. . Cap eepyp. C.-eepyp. . A. C. Cyopa. 1889.

payce accece pa. M., Xy. ., 1979.

ABA XVI a... ooa B e Tea Ayae oae (py-, 1985 .) pae ooaoe p pypyc opy epaoo oa, poxoeo epe c apy o oooc pea ee ea Tpaa. o Xyoa aae o py Tpaa opacae eo pocea Tpaa. Tpaa o xopo o py oaaec poe o. Cy, cpyyeo aapye pecye Tpaa peae opoc o paoooc ec oep Xyoa. B oe oo py Tpaa o aa o poca opa, a pacepae opo.

a oe ope cop,, ocye. Moe o peccepa opeo aa, py eo a aypacece ce c pyo Tpaa. Ho p cope a, o eee ceo Ayae ao cyae oo o opeo aa. Eceoe, o o cea o po ce o aceo ooeoo cxoo eoea, co oopoo epc yoo yoo poo.

aa o po a pecye eoea aaa eo oca.

oepee oy axo oocex copecx ceecax.

B 896 oy a ce pc peco cy aa Cea VII. B aae pae o paa p o eo ceeo a opoa I, coeo peecea, poeaee ee ye ce ece, oapa eo yypaopa epoo ac.

epe copae cx epoo Pe papac oepe cea;

py opoa pooo a o yca a po;

eo oa apay oey, a ooy oo apy, a py o e. ooy a aoaa paa, e coo a, coo yoo oa. Bcya o e ea, oop e o oep opoepy oe, o o coeo ooeoo o cex cepx pexax. oce ooa pe aa Cea VII pooac poop, oy opoa o ep, o yapo o ca eo ay c pecoa. o eo pacope c pya c cee p, opy p aa pao py, epeoa py o oo oce oo, a aa oce ey ooy, ypooae oca poc Tp.

B X ee aa oa XIII (965972) paa p o eo epoa Popea (coeo oecoo poa, paoo ocyo Pa yoo ooca ao ae ya), a eo p poc a opocy cay. Bcope oce oo, 984 oy aa oa VII, aop ooo coeo cepyoo peecea ay oaa XIV, pa py coe ep, apao oae, oeoy ocy opoo peoc. Oao ye epe o, 985 oy aa oa VII ca coac o aoececoo yapa. Toa, co oepe, paae Pa a py epocea poa, eao , c c ypooaoo ooa caa, ooo o ya o oa Mapa Ape. Ta eo oec a o, cea e eo. Ha cey e peeo o ycpo ey ocoe oxopo, cpoc ay co eco, o ecoo ceo, o cac o oopa ay xpcaco ep, o pa py acex oxopo a peea opoa.

o pee coaoo pc ao ye III (11811185) coopa, oc yepx epeo, a ocepe xpcace aa, oea p coe.

Bo pe op c aoco epec a e pa epo ooe XIII ea Tyye paecc cyx, o a aoo ep coo Cepea a cepo ope coepe epeec op. Toa oae Poa p c oo oaxo eo epea ce eo a aax y cex.

payc opo o XIV (16381715) papy cecc oacp op-Po paa oa ae py oxopoex a ceco.

Heao oox pepo xpa pycca cop. 16 a 1606 oa y axa pycc peco caoae, aa ce apee pe. Teo caoaa oa a pacy oa oec a ooc a oo ece.

Ha y ce pe eac, copee ceecy, o ae e aac epco opyae ecacoo pya. O aoop ca ey po yy, pyo ap ey o ypoo aco, aeo o ope.

epe p py e a opo poc oy oy yoo oe.

Ho y e pacpocpac cyx, o epe xo e ya poxox.

paa ap eo oye, a o o e. Bopy eo o poc cpae pe. Toa pe eo ce. eo ap yy cpe a aa, copoy o, oya oc o caoae.

Ceye ae, o oa ca eo pecya paea eo pax o epy co e a, a apyaeco a pyo. Ta, Apo peac, o oe aeoaoo aaoecoo eopaecoo e a 1155 oy coe a epe, a pax eo poc Tp, o oa eo e oa ca peeo ooe oocex pepee.

pepo aa e cya a y ea pop Pacya. Pacy y o c 16 a 17 eap 1916 oa cyoco ope, a py eo yoe Hee. o oo epc, axopoee. E. Pacya o poeeo coo poy, ooeo o ceaoy poey o pa. oe Pacya epepo ao, poecc copooac ae, cepa epyx, cya caoyca. B c c po c eo Pacya ao epeaxopo y paoo e Aecapocoo opa apco Cee, o yo, o o eco cao oceac aoa.

3 apa 1917 oa epec paa oca eco opee. E.

Pacya-Hox yo py c e, o oa eo e caa eco aoeca apoa. e oea ypaco, opaoaoo p ocyapceo ye 1917 oy, E. . aac (oca co ocoa) opac apcoe Ceo, e cpoec Bpyo-co acoee oapy oy Pacya.

B y e o po, o yaa epecoo, p o, oec poa o po o o yaoo cpyea opa oapo aoe epopa pope o, a oeo oa. Ta o ea ecoo e. o opye epecoo, ypac yc oe eo opecoc epopaa, o a yo. Ha ooo ope aa caa.

Copaac oa ea. pe, o oe ea ooo ey e!.

cp, oa axya pxa pa. yc pe y e, a ece, ce eo Pacya. Teo o peao o, a ee pae o epy.

o cyxa, py ep ae coe, a ee eo, cpeo opy, pae.

B apee 1605 oa coac opc oyo opeceo opee Apxaeco coope pe, apco ycae, a pooaa oo ac. Ho ye epe ee oce opee, o pay ep, o y co poo coopo ce, a eoco po pe ocee paa.

Tp c ooo ea cyc, o a 1 op 1961 oa Maoe o eceo eo . B. Caa, oeo oxopoeoo a 8 e o oo. a o, eoeeca cxoo ao eac a 350 e. oa oecx co o cop oaa, o cope, epoo, cae cee accox epeaxopoe eee Peo, ox caa oee oeo pee. e ceac paac oocee p oy:

...p eyx ypo a oo. peece y o o oa. oo-o pey ya.

Hecop a co popecce, poaae , ep I oe aeo e y ope apyaeca a ea cox yepx poo.

oa p opocax cpeeoo ooa epa 1697 oy coc, o oo op a Mocac pace aoopy ape Co, ep paa p e po Mocacoo pe peopaecoe a cx. po op;

Cooy epy (a aoopa) py pee py o, oo opy oo;

po x ac po Mocacoo.

Oco apyaeca oepac ea aex pecyo. Tpy ac ea aex cac a ece a c e, o aex poo a poxox ycpaeoe eaee. oa aee ooy ocaac a oy, a ceax a oece;

p eepoa opyee e cac pax oax opoa pac epe, o opoa, a ooa aeoo opyaac yo ece oyo a o.

B ae o 10 ap 1775 . o caao: yaey y cepy a, eepoa, ooy oy a o, ac ea paec o epe ac opoa oo a oeca, a oce a ex e ecax ce... e, o e apy... oce ooy, oy ee a o ceapooo pea, a py eo ce c aoo yo.

B cox ocoax oee a Ape ooo yoe: Haeao oo ce ac pya ceo epa (yaea C. P.) pao o pa ac opoa a coa x a ecax aaex, a oo pax paccea o oyxy.

C oo eco ooee ea aex ac opoc copa epa I cee A. . Meo. e oce cep epa, ca ceoy ao, o e Bepxooo aoo coea 12 1727 oa o paa paopa co, ocaee pax ecax eepype c oy ooa aex, a ca oo, c, oxopo. Oao ye o peea A oao apapc oa oooec coa , a oo o e ocoa Ape oooa, cyecye o o oa XVIII ea.

B XIX ee ea aex ye e cac a yax Pocc (a caa cepa a pooac pae peo). Ho cpeee aaa e oo eoea, o eo oca, oo poce o poceeoe pe. Ta, o cx op (ecop a eoope cecaoe ya) e aeo eco axopoe aex eapco. o eoop ceeca copo, x e oo axopo ao, a o xpcacx a, o a ea ec, o ooc yo py.

B Epoe, aa c ox Bopoe oe, ea aex pecyo oaac aaoece eap pooca yx cp. Bce xopoo eca apa Pepaa po aao oopa Tya, acaa 1632 oy aae. apa opaae yoe cpe ae copa Xpypeco Acepae ape 1631 oa aeoo pecya opa Apca a, ecoo yoox aaax o o Maee.

epecyec cope Pocc XVII ea aepa a coee pop ooxa O Pocc apcoae Aece Mxaoa. Oo eoopao epeaaoc. pop apo oox, o ococoo paa, ea e, e aca co epecee ac. poa Cooe, o cepe 1667 oa o e y coeo ooxoa, a o poope cepo a. oce a eo ooxa o epeeeo cay aaopoao a poeccopo Oao Pyeo. oc eo aa a ee cae pooo, oyc a opao cee cooac a aoe ocoe o ooe cyeo ecoo ayea peeeo ecoo yepcea cae. Ta opao, ec o-y ya paca e oy aopa coe O Pocc apcoae Aece Mxaoa, eo oc e a peyao: oox oa e opee.

aooepe epec aee pec opa copeeoo oeeceoo aooaeca o opocy o cye e aex pecyo.

ooe pe caa ea a ac ao a ce ea. Ho o oyoa oe copya pecc-cy eo MB CCCP . Bacea a oocee ca aee, ocee o ee:

ecy aooaeco o opoc e peaepoa.

Beoce cpy peycopeo, o cyae cep ocyeoo oceceoo acpa cpaeo-pyooo ypee ceceoo oopa eeeo eae o o poceo. Ceeco o cep apaec oe ac o ecy ocooo poa. Ec poce yepeo pexe cpo cooa acpa ypee o ea ocyec axopoee caocoeo, o aec eo yepeo, ce pacxo o axopoe o ecy ca. Ocoae oaa ae ea yepeo oe cy ycaoea ea eoa oe. o oepa paa. p ocyc poceo p x oae xopo yepeo pea (axopoee) pooc a eae ae a ce ypee.

pcyce poceo p o e apeaec.

paa e pacpocpac a , oop peea cea epa aaa paccpe. x ea pocea e ac, o ece x axopoe e cooaec.

oea a e co, ya e ea ea aex oa aaoece eap ecx cyo, pepy, axopaa a ox aax ceao oeex ecax?

Copee ceo oceee. Ta popoax epaa, a eaoco yco oe o co oece ee aopo oo yaco eca. poxoe o p ae e oaac, o a aopo axoc e e oeee, aepec cpe pocx ec coce, axopoe c c epae, aex 30-e o. 1990 oy aa eaoco yco caa ocoe acoc. Bo ye oo ece aee Beep epa oepa oep eaaec cop appoo cco cex opeex a eaoco yco. Coo e x a oxopoeo, a eee a aopo eaoco yco?

oa ca opoc o coa eopaa a ece axopoe pepeccpoax eaoco yco, ca eoaa pyoc. Oaaoc, o ece c eo ocpaa ec axopoe acoe yooe pecy a, y, ac. paopac ceac e o e, cpe eappoax, ae e oeex xoa axopoe, poco eco. Ta o e, cex x oe oe o o eopa?

oa pecya, e-o poc epe ocyapco epo, oaa opee o o o cax cpax aaa.

11 eap 1610 oa pee aap ep pyco y o pe oxo ep II, aeoo ycoo opa, peo caey caoaca o ep I. Hecoo ee py ep II ea ayco ep c ooo, oeeo o yoa, oo op a apco opa, eo ca o Map Me, eee c c oeco cya oo pea eo ee.

Ee oee paa ocepe ca aeoo cpaa Hoo aa. eo p , o oaac oac epe cep, epoe ac ape peaa eo eo ee. aa yep 1840 oy, o o o 1896 oa eo aaapoaoe eo yeo o cpacoa o pa a, ey ee oaa ocee pe. o pay aoeco ep eo aa epe oa axooc ae ocae poaex.

Oco ae oeee ooac epea oepex pao.

ec ac cae, a pyee ac M (1611 1678) coe oee a Copa caoce paccaae oy ax cop.

epo oe, oooo opoa pe a a yc, oapo oco o cao ya (copeca oc, apeope acoo epaopa ac M yya (15221566), cca ypy cay co pa, xoco pacyo ). oa poc oe yaoc paoa o ae, a yaoc pao eo epe, o cea eo cocy o. B y ooca oa aco ea a epe oopao ooac o aae.

Xpecoa ca pacca eoca Hecopa oec peex e o o, a oo, oapay a epocx opoax Cocaa, opaaeoc e c eoo pyo, y eo, a epea cea ay.

Oa o, o, poo pacpocpae. Caa o Bocyax yoae epea x, pepaee a, ca x po, c o ceay.

Moax o e Pypy, oa aoecy cc ooc xaa 12531255 oax, oca a aoe ceeco o oax ee Tea:

Te... ce ee ea pace a oo poee, o p e x a coa o poex o pe coeo acae. o paccaa e oee.

Oa ea a eoeecx epeo cyecoa y ooo.

eco, o c-xa ee oea ooo epe O-xaa, coeo eo opoe, a ae oopeoo paa, ooac o ae o pe po.

o pea, o cax ecox ecoo cop Taepa (Typ) oce aaa co epeo 120 pa. Moeco oox pa ae o ocpo oce ae e. o poo Taepaa axoac aa paa, coea epeo oepex a. Oa cax ycpaax pa, ocpoea Taepao o'ce ae caxaa ( epc) acaa 70000 epeo.

oa aece poe xpa e oo epe, o ey acyey ooy yoo paa, o poo eco oae pa ecx ee o Aep.

Ho e oo y ee cyecoa o apapc oa. ep I poop a co oey Map ao a ee o ey ay Opoy.

Opac a pyy ap, oa oa a ao pcea peepace. ep po pe ee cee, o, ye aax y eac, poy, coaa coe ecce. Oepy apcy o oay, ooa oaa ceo ooa oocy coa ooy axe. A oo a y y ce copaec o c opoaeoo aoa ep o opyey ooy o, oopy eyo ... oeoa ee y, o oee ae coxpa ooy ycaepe.

21 eap 1906 oa oee cya cepeao e y eepypc paoaa eepa-aop o p ay, pcycoa a opeceo op ox oee. a ocpeac, o apye a ece oepa c paoaaa. oc eo c e yaoc.

Cyeoy ceoae o ocoo a ea H. B. aey, pacceoaey o eo, pa ooy c oe ooy pecya o yoa, aoceppoa ee o eoa, peoe eaoo o oo aaoa, ca ceoeo oope c e ooa oc pecya. Teo y o oxopoeo, a aapoaa ooa eo oo ee peaa o ea, caea ece cya cepeao e. Oao ooa yy a e yaoc. aeo oe, cox Bocoax eppopca opc Caeo yaa, o ye e eppopceco py ap coaco-peooepo (cepo) o e Apa, opoo oca, a oooc oyee.

B XIX ee caaec ecoo eoceoe ooee ocaa, pxo oa a oeopoae epeo. Bco xo ycoe:

p ce epe, e, o pae ee o pay. Oea eo, apo, B aopcoy opay. ee poa pepa B yeceey ay, Bo oc, a aa yxy a ay...

pepo o e pe apoo acao cxoopee Hac a ye epea. Capac ocpec pe poaec oa, o ocea epoa caao, coaco oop y yx xpapx oo o epeo oepex pao eeco ope oa Oa Baae.

Bce o oo o oec o oec eaopa epoa, ec oopeeo co cxa A. C. y e py ey epe, o paea pey oceeo oxe oo epox ceo P. yy o epe ocac o eo pe A. H. Bya, oop epa e aa (oe xapaepa ea ox).

Moo oo aa oa o epee Moapa. Mo c aa Coo Mapa Bee oap eo coey aooy oy Xp 1842 oy.

ocoepo eco, o Boa Aae Moap yep 5 eap 1791 oa Bee opace 35 e. Caec, o aop ce 20- oep ooo 50- co, a ae oepo, coa, ecc oxopoe e oe a ae eo.

e ce c oe. H ea, py e a oxopoax. Eo oa o a ocaac eeco.

o oaa axoy pay, poeccopy aao, oop oe cceoa ac oce epea ec, oe ypaee. pa acoo yee ooc coeo popee, o aex cceoa e pepa. Ho oa 1901 oy epe oa a poy Moapa, ayp, acpce cep ooc ey oaa, ypa cae ae xpaa...

o ye a aeooo aypcoo yepcea op Tx caxy c eo yey . O pcya paoe c p cecco, oao c c coae, o copeee eo, oope coy pac, cceoa epea Moapa e pec. Heoope cox oo ye o paco ypae ooc. a...

opa epea opya, o, a eo eoa ea, xapaepo ee o epa. paea o apoy, ec caoy ye, opace o 25 o 40 e. Cocoe yo ooe yo o o o 35. Oe epeo opo 1585 yecx caepo, o ec cpaeo oo. Opyoe o, yoc a, ye oc aac epx ec ocoo poceac a cex ecx opaex ooopa.

Coaa ae poc caoe coee: ca Moap aa ce ae.

A copee oea, o p o ooa yeo a pyo.

Bce o opoepae cceoa aaa eeo ea oepae e, o oocc cepee pooo. oy e co oo coae, o aoop ecoo oa poco ca. Ho ca ea o pao poeccopa Tx coco oe opee py cep Moapa.

O-a, ca ooop paac apee ae 1790 oa coey pay o accoco oe yxepy, o yaec ooo yo o. Eo copee ae a oe oea ce o ayca 1791 oa, o Moap cae ooopye. A ey e acpc ye oapy a epee... oy pey o 7,2 caepa, oopa ec o eoo ca aye. oyea p yape ae, oey cep pea ye paec apoca, oao cao e ac epea ocac ce pooee. Bopoee a e oo a ee oa, a ao cyae ae cyx coo oepa epc poeccopa. O cae, o Moap yep o ocec epeo-ooo pa (eao) e, a e opae Caep, a ac eea.

B c c paccao o epee Moapa xoec ee pa co eey o epee oo, oaaec axpyco eapao yee ece c epeo aepa ea.

eo 1931 oa ae aoa oacp, e 1852 oy oxopoe H. B. oo, o ypaeo, a eppop oacp a opaoaa pa ecoepeoex. B e o ece c papye ae oacp o o eco e, cocax eoa cay Pocc. pax e oo, Xooa oa epeece a ae Hooeeo oacp.

B aee Coeca Pocc o 5 ayca 1988 oa epe oyoa eoe ac ea Boeo-peoooo oea Moce, oaa, cae Aecapa oea Apocea o ecooc opoe: ...26 a. o. Ha x y Bc. aoa, aeo, H. Txooa. Paccaa, o op pax oo, Xooa oa. oo oo e a....

oo e a... aa-o yaoca epoa! oe, eo poae Macep Mapapa Mapapa poeyce cyae ao-o eo paoop yx paa. paae eac o o, o y aoo-o ooa ceo ypo poa ypa ooy o poc ap po ep opao. oe caoc co, o o ooa peceae pae MACCOTa, apeaoo paae a apapx pyax.

Moe , coe poae M. A. yao cooa cyx, ocec opy ypaeo oo H. B. oo?

poeccop epaypoo cya, cae Bap epao pcycoa a cp o H. B. oo ae oca ocoa, oaaee epeecee paxa oo. ...B e 1931 oa e oo o eeoy o copyo copecoo ye. apa a ae ocoo oacp ye pocxo cpe o oo, caa o e, peae.

oexa. e e e. o pe axa c coo ooaapa.

C, oope cea a ae, oaac ece. Oopeeo c oo oo cpa o e o Xooa oa;

pax x oe oea epeece. ae aoa oacp ypaoc. Ha eppop oacp opaoa pe ecoepeoex paoapyee...

...Moy oo cpa o e e. Oa oaaac a aeo oe ye, e oe axopoe. Haa ee pacaa, ayc a p ce eoo pooc, o aypoaoo oepc e e oapy;

oa ca pacaa oepeo apae c a paceo, o pacoa pxoac a oco, oo eepy oapye ee ooo pe cea, epe oop ocoo ce coe pe y po.

Paoa o cp cea ayac. Haac ye cyep, oa oa a aoe cpa. Bepxe oc poa po, o ooe, c coxpaec oo, eaec ya pya aco yee oyoao-o oyeo, e. Bo o peca coo pax oo: epea poy e oaaoc, oca oo aac c ex ooo: ec oco ceea ae xopoo coxpac cpy aaoo ea;

o cpyo yeeo ae ee c oc yoa;

a oax aa, oe ooc coxpaec, oo paa, coea ooy c epxo, poa a ocax oa ecoo aepyac epxy, oaa oc co.

aa a oe cox ayax, peo 4-5 caepo, o ae eycooe ocoae peoaa, o oo ecooo poca.

oa p ax ocoecax ce epe oo, ocaec aao. p aae cp o, a ao ye, aeo e cea c aypoa poo, oapye epe, o apxeoo pa eo paea oooy eoey.

pax oa Xooa e yaoc coopapoa. Ocao oo , coae, c e o, a a ye cyep, a a ceyee ypo o epeee a ae Hooeeo oacp, e pea ee.

oo cee yco cpya oo, oop ocec cyc epee ea yp epoo a Mepx y. a ype c o pee axoc oe oee.

Ho ya e ce-a oeaac ooa oo? e oo oc co paaecy cya? Cyecy oa, epc. O oo x paccaa Bap epao : B 1909 oy, oa p ycaoe aa oo a pececo yape Moce pooac pecapa o oo, axpy ooop, yo , oaxo aoa oacp o eo epe oo, o eceo axpyco eapao yee Moce ec p eeco oy paeae epea: o x o peooe epe apca ea, pyo oo, o pee eo e eco.

Ec eceoc yee ae epea e a, yoe aee B.

. , o eey y, copooay ceoee epea oo, ca o coae, e o o oo. oe, yye yacc pop aecy a o ao.

poe B.. a a epeaxopoe paxa H. B. oo pcycoa pye cae, ce o ae pxa c coo eoe cyep:

Bceoo ao pepo coae Mepx y, Aecap Ma oy poa, a oa paoy o epeaxopoe peop aa, ooo ocooe o a Apaee pco cee cao eoo cae.

epeco oe, o cop . H. a-aec, cp oxy Hoa I oy A. . Meoa epeoe cee a a aoy coa epa, ea e ay co apepy, oe y e oopoa epx oyce.

Ho, oe , e co co cpoo cy coecx caee (a cee oo apoepa Apaeea). y ocao acoo poo oe pyccy cop yypy, o a 14 e coeco ac apax ee cxe ae y epeooo opa coeco ee oo e poo.

B ae Heee o ye acac opoca o ye cx oe.

Oao pacpocpaee ya ocao opao pe. Ta, a Coeco ae eepypa oco oae oyec oa aeo ce (oao aopoao 1988 oy). B copo pee oce ee oxopo ( oe XVIII ea) ocee paopa c oy ac;

oa e a oy oo y, o ee paoa o ycoa paec o oa. Ceaa a pya a, o a eoo ocaaac eo.

Oco oae ooac cape pooe oc. Ta, Tpoe Cepeo yc a opae eepypa, ee apxapa Bapaaa, yxooo oa epap A oao, xpac opa coo Cep Paoecoo, ca a oce o poa yoopa, o oac o op eo oe.

B ceco coope Mococoo pe, ooo x epe, cea aeaea oa Coo p Coycoo, caa a pooo oce p ocoo, opoee c a co.

Ao ee o, eca xapaep ocyaeo e a.

o pea, a Apee o, pycc Cpaapyc, cea o pye aoy, aeoy cpay aaaey oea ay aaay capo, po o pooo oc, o a ee pa A.. Opo peaa ey 1000 pye.

peea ya ae oy cy eoope opeae paeoc, acoc, caa opao epea. aeae copae pyccoo oopa. . y (18221872) oca epecoe ceeco a ay ey: ...oo ae, o epeece oy o oe o py a pa ea y oooo oe. ca, o eaeo o Caypoa ( Maoapxaeco yee) e oy, oop oe cea ay yoo ecaxy a oy ey, a cex;

a o, a e... O epe y opaa epea, aae ee y, oopy eae oo pya eco e: oa a a e ya, o ye eo e c e cea... Bo a, oceeo, o apyaeca a ea epx epe aa x ooece ya. Heo cpaoo y e, oe paoc e copo oo ea, xapaepye oe, oa ae oee, epec epoy ey. Hapy c apapc apyaeco a ooa, pa ooc a coepeoe p o, cop cpeaec eao pepo aooeoo ooe ep.

Ta, ae apc aa Caco ocpae o ooc a o, o opy ooy apoe ope, ye Mapaa, o oca y ooy op aec e oey, eo e e paa ea. Haaa, e ya ao ao o ox.

B oe 1772 oa, oa coac ca pycc eapa ep Ceeo Cao, ococoe aaco, a, o oo oae y apeope, e ao ax pacope eo oxopo.

o oyco opco epa aoa aa (ecoo pyccoo oooa, ay paecex oc p ycpe occa yaea). ea oa oce oec acyeoy aopeoy oooy, o, xo ocae, ae co eepac yp Apeeco eopeco eax eeeo opac o Caoa. oo poy eapaa, o oa ay caa: o ex op yy co ec a acax, oa e p oeoo apaya ce.

a xoa caa eca epape ococoy yepaopy. oo, o c p oxopo capoo oeaaa, cope o eeo opaeee oo, cex eepaa aa a paoo axe.

O o, co ooe aee paaoc pyay oxopo oa oceeo oa ceecye y pacca cpeeeooo apacoo cae A Pax (858940 .) yecoe oepee:

Ay A a Maa cpoc:

oey ca, o Ay A a-Acap oee oco eoeo, e Caa Ay--Myp?

ooy o, oa yep Caa Ay--My, Ay A e a eo poo, a oa coac Ay A, Caa e yacoa eo oxopoax.

aacy ocepe o oa e , a cxe c ppo. Ocoa po ec pae ae eepypc aoe, oope paa pacooee ax aa opoa.

Oee aoe 1824 oa Cay Aep oop, o ya epe e cao, a ca ca aae peca c o, aece c aa. Ha Coeco ae oo cex o o pao oo oeco poo co. O o a oeca c oee o oaee ae po c ooo, yece co Coecoo aa, o peca eo, oy ao ye 500 pye. ooy aay peco oo p e po eo pe, oopoo o oxopo a a o aoe.

Aep. A. apa paccaae, o oa ooa oa, poaa a oo Bacecoo ocpoa, aaye aoe 1824 oa oxopoa a Coeco ae coeo capoo cypya, a paxo oopoo e pacooea a oo aa epac, ooy o oo y ee coe peoc.

poo eo a eco eoo ycooe, oa yaa a, aoe, yeoe cooce, o ao e ee yac, oa eepo poooo oa yea po coeo cypya y caoo pa oa! Heeo ea, poc eo oye opo xopo coeo eyoooo ya.

Bpoe, eo ocoeo yeoo peex ec oax e.

Boe ooo, o po co Coecoo aa, pacooeoo a Baceco ocpoe, oo aec oa a oy oo ocpoa, e, o co cyaoc, poa py poce ooa.

opao oee eepoa cop, coe pe ooaa ec cyeep p, pooa c eo ecoo aepacoo aepa oa pooo coe apa oea. ap oe poc a ocpoe pa yapa, ae Coo ape (aaa). B 1899 oy a acpox aepaco opoe aeco o yep. oxopo eo ec e, oo epeec oo po. epe o, 1900 oy poec ypaa eao c, aa oee ypaao ea, opyc a aeco. o aopo epa o Mecacoo aa pyc a oepee. a opoe apa, o coc yy a ye. poc eep oepa papyey paoy. oo yye o pa aece o po c eo oea yece ope.

O oa ocp eee epa aece a Coo ape, e eo oapy pa c ocpoa pa yapa. Haxoc o e e oeae, op paya oopoc. Pa oc eo po a pe yepeo... o, e o oa-o poc, axoc ceo ecox x!

Coo cecx oeape oo o paepy opy o cop. Oao o xo a pa ee aa, ocaex o e.

Bepoee ceo y ee eo c ye coaee, ax eao cyaoc cop. ocaoo co oocee pacca o yoo oe, oa poeoe ope ocae axoo apecaa a pyo pa e.

TEPATPA e M. . Cap eepyp. C.-eepyp. . A. C. Cyopa. 1889.

Copae apox ece. B. peecoo. ., Haya, 1983, o I. ac. .

ya.

oucu C.. cop aca. M., oa, 1986. anucu . N. ama aecoo 18251834 . Pycca capa, 1873, . VII.

C. aee. B e poc oo. e, 1989, 2. yepo. cop c caoa oo. Mooo ee (ea), 1991, 22 .

Bauecu . Cyoe pe. C.-eepyp, 1911. Tac . Ce epe. M.

oa, 1988. xao . C. A ca opoe. Coo, 1990, 6. A Paux.

yecoe oepee. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1985.

Haapo A. Oeo yep Moap? xo ae, 1990, 14. Mypae A. H. yeece o c eca pycc. C.-eepyp, 1846.

Meee B. A. yeca. oypa oe. Aa-Aa: . pe. a. co.

oe, 1991, .2, .4.

epecemo P. T. Ta ex cpo. M., eca epaypa, 1970.

cpye peycopeo. Apye a, 1990, 50. aocu H.. Oep o cop cepo a Pocc. aa, 1892.

pe Ape oooa, ocae ca cox ooo. To pe, 1771-1795 . M., 1931.

acoco . A., u B. . eepypa 18901910-x oo. ea, 1991.

Apye a, 1991, 27 .

Mypae A. H. yeece o c eca pycc. C.-eepyp, 1846.

Boececu A. Acyp. epaypa aea, 1988, 40, 5 op.

ocmoapo H. copece oopa cceoa. M., a, 1989.

Caeo . Bocoa eppopca. ., ea, 1990. A. C. yu. Co. co. 10 oax. M., paa, . 2. u . eaa ae. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1985.

Cucapeo A. . Tpe oc ypoc. ec eco Epo. ., ea, 1989.

yeece ocoe cpa ao ap Pypya. M., oc. . eopa, p, 1957. aa 28.

M. A. yao. paoe. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1983.

ABA XVII poe apaoo B ex ye ox Aepa Hao eoy oey papeeo cp aoe Typa... cpe aoe peoaaec poec 15 .

a eoa aea aea p pea e-o ae, poe ee cop. Ho a caapacx aapax peoo epeeac ey coo cap , aoe, pec opa cox pecaee pyooe apxeooeco ce. eo o, o peee peae aco: oa yy opeoe oc Beoo xpooo, aec poopoea o a ee. Mace apxeoo, cop, apooo oo oceac a y cyeep caapacx cape pooa pao...

20 ae cooa: Caapa, 19 -Ceo aaec cpe o Typa... B aee ec o 22 1941 oa eaaec aea:

Paco aoe Typo pooac... Ha epee Typa oapye oca ooc....

Bo c 21 a 22 1941 oa ec coec apxeoo apooo M.

M. epaco oycaec oo o cpy poy Typa epe py epe caoo pooaoo cex aoeaee pooo, o peocpypoa ep eo a o ceao papaoao eoe... epe ecoo aco aaee accx oc o ce coeco pae aaec Bea Oeecea oa, caa poopoa cop ae cpa.

a y e oep cpaeoc pex popoec! oa epe yca y cop aeo axae Caapaa, eaeo o paa ee -xay, e, eco oop, e oep oec papy pacox ee Bocoa, oopx ye eao aooc oe aco e. aoo e o oe yee, oa epyc epa poep ce caaoe o ae ypa ya, yec ooc oex ao.

Ta, o e, oep yecy cy capx po? Oao aae e ye opoc. Caa poopoa o poo cop, Bopa poa oa, a eco, aaac e 22 1941 oa, a 1 cep 1939 oa c aae acco epa a oy. oxaa oa ye ce oyopa e, xo pax Beoo xpooo o ee ae e copac peo. Bea Oeecea oa opaac a paa cece eyoo o oecx co oo epoa p acea o yc eoo oea Aepa Hao. Heeoc ee ycoaac o, a cee caoeoo pycoo aa, epeo cy ae cpa. Ec ce cpa poy Typa ceo a o e oe, o eea oepa ec co cc.

a, o poa a ce-a cpa a ecoo aco o aaa o, ooy capoe peae e c oa ye ya ce oee oee yeeo, xo oo o yec cyao ee eco coae ao.

pyo ao ao, cao c axopoe, ec aa eecx apaoo, oopa o ye oo e yopa y eoeeca.

poe apaoo oa aao peeeeco a, caa oeeco oce oapye 1922 oy po apaoa Tyaxaoa. Ha aeo p xoe ee oee o acao peocepeee: CMEPT HACTHET AOO, TO HAPT OO APAOHOB. pya aa, aea a e, aca: A MEPEO APAOHA CBEPHET E PATE MO, A EC TO A E Cߔ.

Cyoc a, o oeco ecex apxeooo pa yep yaco yeo cep oce pao c eec y.

o e eex cceoaee oea, po cpaa apxeooo a e ec pex y, a po, oop e pocoa pae eooo. B eecx opeax aepax o axoc eec oe c e, oac , oa ce yy op o.

Bepy oce cep, pee ee oea po po c y ey. poy paaac, cepooce cop paoac yp pa. oa axopoe poa cceoae, cop cpo opaa x opa caoc po paooo aoea.

Cyc o o poe po y ee ecox eoe. Cpe x:

ac apxeoo op epepo eaa eo eo ce. O yep eee ec e oce oapye po Tyaxaoa 1922 oy.

a ea aa, ocaeo o apaoa Tya apa oo oy. O oe opo , x cep a eoao.

eaa eo oco apoooeco ce. cep pa oce oo, a 1973 oy o oapy poy pyoo apaoa.

B ooee o cey, ceac oe copo eex yex paoo.

po x cpaa c cepooce cop.

peeeece y ce ae ece c apxeooa ccey e. B 1974 oy pyo exocoax aepacx yex o poeeo cpe y, opac oopo peae aa eo. Oo ee cceoaee o opee, a eo aoea oe e peeo Ea. a, e oe eoe, oo o aea, coepac eo po.

O e eoy cpyypy oy coxpac y cee. B oex cyax, oa eo o ypoao cpay oce cep, o ax e o coxpac ca oeeope aep pyc. Mpoopa, e ypex opao epea, oepac cea aepooec cceoa. oe ceo epeeaao Hayo aee exocoaoo ypaa Ves mir ( 4 a 1974 o) e opaa oopa:

ecepo yex peappy eay a oepaoo coe y. Me, xpypa, poco opoa e x cceoaee: ax cepx ecx aoe, aco, e yp pacyc o opoa xaao, o pyao xaaa ac ae pyae pyc o oepxoc y, e oe peox epao, apyo. Ae yee-e, o, coce e aoe c eeap paa ace, oca coe aae, oo ao, cceoa a eo oe cpaa pee ee.

Ec oee a e eceo coac o aoo-o eecoo aye (a oe , ae xopoo ecoo) aepaoo pycoo aoea, o y x ec ce ocoa ca co o e a cee. A ypac cax-epooax e pey oop pa yccpoa eey o pox apaoo.

Xopoo eco, o o eox oee coaoc ye oo cceoaee eecx peoce. Hepe ocac e, o coe paoe pyoocoac ae paa ace, a p paoe c ocoo oac e: ceae oc, ac-pecpaop, oa cepoc. paa, epoaao ep pepac ex peoxpae ae y o oaa x copeex poopao po, cocox papy a. Ho e e eee, o caco cceoaee o oooo apae.

eco, o cyecy a aaee ayae apa, e ypae ooc c c ee cpeo. poopa oy ec a apaec, a capo opa , o ec ac ep opaec eeca. oe, oycoee a poopaa, coca opy pyy a aaex capooo, oe pecae o oopx ee ooc oppyc. Haoee xopoo o py yea cpca a.

Oo ocoeoce cpeeo e ec cea cooc ee oex oao. ooy ex ecax, e axopoe py ox ox, cea cyecye oacoc ox ce. Hapep, co oac ec a, oopy ece yp ca oac eco e yca ya co. o pea, o ece a coa oc cxaa. Cpca a oya oa oco oae axaeoo oca coa, a pepaac ooe ae. peae o e eo ocoa ae pa e aa ec ee oea cya aea ox.

Ee acep opa ae a o, o oee ep oc cop cpeeo ao epxe co o a ee oepxoc, c c peoeoa apa py ox cyxo ecao ecoo oe. oa paccapaec e oo a acc xpae oye, o a opa oce opaa ox cpea oa. Heoopoe oee o coeopao oeo e oe aac p cpoex paoax, cax c oeo pya, p apxeooecx pacoax.

B ycae ocx opoe paoe, ae Bae, ca epecy cop. O ocx oapxo, oxopoex y, coac o eooo aoea. eoc ocaoo opoo acpoa eo co, oao o e cooecoa oo ecx acoee pe oee.

ee pe cceoa oca opo o e e po oe cyca, e coxpaoc oee ceo ae. Boye aceo oe a e yaoc, o ecoo eoe, yacoax cceoa, coaoc p oo ax e coax, ae acpoa capo eoc. cepe pe cpoo pepa ooy cyca co peaop. ee ca, o ao cyae o coyc c ee eec aye pyco.

Pyoocyc, o, coopae o oooc yye apae eeco ppo pyca o yepx, opoce ac ay oee ype oeoe ae yepx o Ca. o opeaoe eo oeeo o ooo aa o peea. ooo xopo o, aepy oo poae epy cocao caa.

Boe epoo, o o peee ec eca ao, oao ceac oco ypaco oo oeaec pae opaeo ppaaec ocepo cpa.

aaa cep, cpax epe e opo pee eoee opaee epoy ey o eo. Pe oepaa ypea yca. , o poy poecc copacaec c opeee pyo, aapo o caoc oeea. x e e e paa aac e py, poe poecc oo. Tae oee pee Ee. B o coca acy epacaex. Mao o ae, o eca pycco cop a Mopaco pocxo o epccoo coa opac (murdesuj) eoe, oa epx. B pee yee eoe, pocyc epoy ey, cac ocepe oe po ceae op oe.

XVII ee, oa yee oc paa cpa py yepx c ay e, cp aa yc epe aao aaao. Ho o ecoe epoo ea pooa . O p opy ye o a:

aaex pyx ax, xo o oo e a, o aoe py , a o aocc pay.

Bco o oo cax ecx epoe pycco epayp aapoe.

p cp pya o opa cee ae cpay e o, o opee. a a pa eo pee o ya, o epe ope eo eo oe cepe py .

...aapo oe oy oay cpoc, e yeo acoo a?

Ec, a o ee?

Hyo... pay pe.

oy?

Cee.

a, cee! ae e o? aa o paa? e oa?

Bo y, a ae. ceo e epe, ae oya ooo ya pe. O oey-o cpa eo copac, a ao o e ypac.

Hy?

Hy, o opoc yeoo paa;

y opeac.

Bac ao py oee ec , coa e oop, pocc ae, oya oac e epyc c ycoo acoo a pye...

a oaae, Ee, e ye a pe eeo?

o pae ao cea;

a eep o-acoey, ac ae e ye. Ec apac, a eep ye oo.

a... oo... ea o poec Bac ao.

Ee ! Cex op epe aca poo c o.

Oeo e ce-a ece poaa O e e cpeae epa py ? B eeoc opeee p e aapoa, o-oy, caaac ecoc o opoce, apa aye opy, oa cac poa.

Taa oox cepe pacpac oce oo, a cea co op acep. He py , a eoope poopao, oope cpo paoac ax oce cep poa opa epe cya ope, a oee apaee po cecc cep. O apae po yep aapo. Too ope cocoo op c oeeop poa ace ace paeo o pyo e.

Oao oe-e o o o ax e, o e ceecye opo oec Cepe aea Cpeoe ae. O epoe oec, o ea Bopoe, coae ao o coe pa:

oapoo eco o oa a aao yace co y, p, caay e a pae e oo. poa y pyo, o, payac e, xya eo .

oa, a , e epxoo (pya) p py o aa, o eo cea paopa po aycea.

oo o oe. Bpay e oea aoo. oeo ce: aa, py, ooc, yoe, ypo, oeo ecpepo, eo, yo, aeo.

Pea oop, apaee yx o. Bpaa e a: oc, oep.

Boa coa pae, a oa, ce pe Toa, oa eo, oaa caa e o.

Oao epec ee aeo paoopa cp axopoe ye pae.

H cpax epe ep, o po e ocaaa ex, o ca copoa. o o, ocepe pae o, a c e o aocaee o ay apxeooo, aa ea po, poa ae a opoa epx. B Ee oycoee apcx po po co acco xapaep aaoc a ao, o ye 3000 e aa apao ye ycao oe yca pyocyoy cpay, a yp coopya oe xo, ae xo, xpoye pcocoe, oope o oy coo, o oceac poy yp pa.

B 1991 oy pya eecx oo oapya opecocx opoa Ay-aaa a. Bxo eo aopaa y, ypae pcya, opaa e ox. y eoao eo opc, eo eeo ecoo eco cyxx ex ooo. p ae paccope o oaac cox copoa eca pyx paepo.

ace pex, epoo, a: op, pecc yo, opo eo yy cepeo yae copoa. o oe xo ocex, ye a ycaoea eoa aaa pya, cpaaaa p opa p.

Moo oaac, o ce eco ca o Aae oeo ae Tc oo o ocpoo cya opae apco po? Oaaec, o eceo a. Pacooee oeo copo, oopy oaae Aa, co oceoaeoc oee, oope ey pxoc peapeo po, e o aa e cyaoc.

Ocae x ocpoo ype cpyypy po a aaeo o ape Ee, oocxc oey epoy.

Bcece p , a oce cep oaac o ac caee copo, oxoo a ooo. o, e ea ea coe oceee pcae oe yo aoc, o aa py p, oopa pooaec ea:

epe pyc, e y.

B 410 oy aap yep opo ecoo Aapx I. To ca Aapx, oop o coe cep yce axa papa P. Cex op po ea.

ao ye e apoa, aaeo ce oa. Ho a oop c e pya pae, oaa apxeooa e ocyc o x o. o ecop a o, o eco, co oo ooa, paoex ae pox copo, apaex o ce Epoe, o coeo oy Aapxa.

oeo, o xopoo a o oxoax a aa. Bo oey o ocapac cea eocy eco axopoe coeo o. oo o epeopo oo eee pe , oa pyco oaoc, p yoy oy a e. oo, oyc ee ooo po ce copoa, o papy oy, pea epyac coe pyco. Mooepo co o cpoe eee ca cpaa opeex copo. A o e, o oo opeee o, e o oy pacp ay, ce o y y e o.

B 453 oy yep o yo Aa, ao yac a c Epoy poa o. Eo eo o oeeo ooo po, ooo po cepep, a cepep ee. ee po ece c ece copoa ae pea ee. oo, o eco, e oxopoe x o, ocaoc eec, y ae y cex, o yacoa oxopoax.

cop aecx opo, poooaee , a x aa pooopo, co e capa, a cop cax opee. Haa o eecx apaoo, ea a poxo oope paec cex apoo. Bo, apep, cap epcc aeo:

O eoe e, o ca caa c epeo poaa x. Bc pa, oa o-y ypa, o o e oe, papa ee yoc caa. o epe cep o pacac cox pexax ca coae, o o e oe eo op coo. C e eo ooea: Oe, cea ce, o coa e oo xopo.

o, oce cep oa, c o xoo popac a ae, c c oa caa, a py o poc po.

Ha pyo e p a ae, o a oy o ycoe.

e o, o cyoc, oop:

oy, oco, yepeo pooopa! O xo opoa caa, o e paca ooo o.

Oao cope pooop ca opoa e oo oey ypae, o ea yepx. ea o o, ocoo, o aay cpeeeox pae aaoo, a a epo apeaa cpa py e, ca o oyco. eco, o e pa-aao ox Bopoe Ape Bea (15141564) a ape coe eeoc o oa oxa oc a aax, o y cee eoea, , pcy , ca c ce py aex pecyo oa aaopoa x.

acceco caa cea pe Toa Coepa, e o, a ae, cap ya Me oep oe ec o poy ee o aa oopa Pocoa eao oxopoe py: Heoopoe pe ce cpee oa, opacax copoy ee ae o e, y ooopa y. Haoe, paac yxo cy o epeo: oaa ayac a po, epe ecoo y oae o eo aepx. Te e oaa o cpoc py, a eo ecepeoo poc eo a e.

B y yy ya a -a y ocea eoe o epea. py oc, oo a x py, op oeo pa epeo....

Co e acceco eaopaa caa cea oo epx aepacx o yaco paee, e ooo oop paee copooe opya-opyoo aae o a ae ooa, o coop eo ocpa.

a ye o caao, poooaeco cyecoao o ce peea paec y cex apoo. eo aoap pooopa yaaoc eoopao caca ao opeex, o e paccaa cooecye ae. O pacpocpae poooaeca eepype oxy A oao ceecye cop M. . e: a cya paeca... eepype, oope aa poooaeco. Ta oo pe ocaeo o a o eo aoo-o aoo ocpaoo eoea. Bop popac py, y eo poa opa. Bopo oca a cep.

aeoo XIX ee eepypcoo oca M. A. (18271906), xoa Bep, ec oa aape, ocea ee poooaeca.

ec payc cae Teo oe, oce 1858 oy eepyp, cpeac c oca ocae oo pcya:

Cea pocxo a ae. Ho. Ca y ce poae co ee oee y. epe epee pec, apoe a, oo, yp... Ha epo ae, cpe pacao e, co a acya, oye y... aece op poc oax, o ypac y cep ee oceee ocoe: oooe oo y e, cepepy opeyy y peea, eao oeo oeoo, opao y epyeo. O op oa po, popa pa oopoo oa ep apxao c cepep ypae.

o po a ooa ooo e, eaa a pyeo oye.

Cy caa popae oye a py oopoo. Oa o cao ooe yooo pay, oopoe aoe pooy . O opo, co ep paee a, c o aopa, opaeo apye, ep oapo ce, oop o ppae pyo o opo ooo epa. poa, epeo-e, yc ce aae a eoe o yepe. pyo, oycp e a c epa a oae co aa xpyy, ey, a oc, pyy, oopy py oae ey c epae ppaa. O cpae c eoo aa, oop, oe , oaec o eo coaca, paoeoe oo, oeo opyaoe! Tpe eo a cpae: a ope oo e, po yxy co oa, o pcyaec oaeoy a coa, oye ao, ee pa aa copoa, eaeo co oo oop oxo. Mep cpax caae eo ep, eo epoe oo e o, a yce, aoe o poc ca eo ao, aax po aeco ee, oe eo oe o. Heooo o ae opae poaec yacae ce.

Ho acoa e poooaeca aaac a eepypcx aax coecoe pe. Ceye oe, o axopoe oax eepype o po poo e poco e, a ceao cpoe ce, o aeo oeao ec paee. Coo oo po co cea, op oaac oe poa, e o o e eao eo eeoc. Ee ocaoe Ceeo Coa o 23 op 1738 oa o op aa p ep aoee a Baceco ocpoe pecaoc: Bce o p oo ep aa po co co e p, a oo yaa apeo e, o yxy e pooo, e eo p oo ep opea o oo e oyca. oe a pa pacpocpaac a o ope eepypce aa.

B 20-30-x oax aeo ea a cex aax capoo eepypa o eepa o oa cya oo paae cpa ce. o e paccaa oocee cee, cape eepyp. Ca e e oeco oax ceo a capx aax opoa Coeco, Booo, aax Aecapo-Heco ap eepypcoo Hooeeo oacp.

Capy ce ooa apec pao, a yp, a ceax, oo o e oca eoex epaecx o. Oca, ooy o oceoae oo poooaee ox epx eo e yac opa ae oca x eeoc oxy aco ( ae ee o epecpo), opa ooy ceo, opa yo coxpaec oae o pec.

oa ex, epx poooaee, a ecpaeo oae: opea, epe ypae, oepce op, e ooo oe, cepepe yo, paoee a.

opca aca apapco eeoc pooopo opoe e coxpaoc paec oo ao-aco oao eoopao o. Xo e eoopao oop, o epace ac oo epoa ca oepa apa y eeoc, a eooo o o oep.

Oao aee ya oceeo pee, coae, oepa o: Ha aa Aecapo-Heco ap c pa apax pe yooo, oope aa poo a o eoce. O cpa ce, oa po. ae py oca ea ycox. B aaco coope e oa ae ea M. . yyoa. A o pe oepeoo 1933 oy occ a pec cocy c eo cepe...

He yoee a epeacac coc oo aoe-y eco. a cece aoo poa eeoc oc a ce a aae Mye opoco cyyp aae oee e cpaoe... Ec opoy ye ae oo poyapo cpoeca ao o a ae. Beoee eaece ypae oac, oa cpae ye ea. Bce ep ap, e axoc opee, ao ocepe, a cee pyco ap paecc cypcoo, paccaae o yype. To e caoe aaco coope.

Taa eeoc eyeo oa a caac a cxoo apoa.

ooy e coce e y opa ox a ocepe opae o eao coaeoc Mapaa Coecoo Coa C. . Axpoeea, oxopoeoo a Tpoeypoco ae Moc. B o c 31 ayca a 1 cep 1991 oa axopoee o pacoao, c ooa c apac yp. Taa e yac oca oy eepa-ooa Cpea, oxopoeoo eco pae. Mo paccaa, o oa poa a pca ee pecy e co capac aec ce. ypa, oope oo poaac pe poa, oopa.

epa c, oa pa a ya ooc: ocapac o-o ax oecx apaoo, e ao pax ex.

Ho coc, o ce opao poe ooy, oay, ee cpaee. a coo poypop aapcoo paoa co Bap , apac eepac yp oyc opeee cpoco y cepx oeecex aax oeoepo. Oe oe , o cope opa c oo aya ce ao-y xo aco copa. Peeo aeo o oo o. A ae o ceo eoeecoo.

Ha Tpoeypoco ae ye co ecoe oeee, yae ce epe, o eoxoe o cya opaoc. Tea Mapaa Coecoo Coa Axpoeea eepa-ooa Cpea o pea ee. Teep paaco oee.

Cpe poooaee oo e pyy, co eoy ae oo oecoo peeca. Pe e o epoax. Tea a co eoa, o o eae pooo eooo ocoo popye cooee ypaca Aecapa Tapacoa:

...29 ooo 22 aco a ypoco ae oe copyo ocao eoceca, paeaeo o poa epeecoo ooca. Ha opoc, o o eae a ae co eypo ac, oo ya eo payeoo e oe. B oee ypex e y aepaoo oap, o, caecy oeo ae, oce eo aec eoo aa pac, o o oepeo pa aepeac oa po coepe oooo aa c pyo.

Booc o ca, oa ae apooopoae opoe aa:

C 1972 oa poa Mococo oac. Paoa coxoe ooc coa-acyxa. poa c eo. O paa ee ca.

oceee pe c eo e oxo, c c e c apa 1986 . poa oeo. B ape-apee 1985 . y e ca oa ce ooe oye.

Pe yoeop ooy cpac c pyo e. oe a Poocoe ae, eoce, caecy oa poa oap. pexa a ae ooo 23 aco. ec, o oo e, ae oy eaeo axopoe o ce ea. op o poa, caeco oac op py, oao oo cea e co, oce eo coa epx ac p poa epe opaoac poo a o a poa py...

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