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COBPEMEHHA MAHCTECA TEPATPA oea cxoaaeco epayp o oe peae M. M. Peeoa A. . ea Cepe Pae TAHATOO HAA O CMEPT Bocoo-Epoec ...

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. epacoa, yepeo 1943 oy opace 56 e. M.. epaco poc poe eco epee Op Mococo yep. oa ey o ce e, 1894 oy, y eo yepa a. eo o oe ap eo, ooy c oxopoa pe oopoc. Peea ooca ec a ea, a ooy e peee oo a co ocpe . oa a epyc, e oa ee ooaeo, o a epa, o pc opo ee y a pyy. py ooa cae, e ep, aec a yy, o, ayc a opo, aae o acae. cyae poce oopoc oxopo ee o e e o axoa coa.

B ao pepe o caaec c eeeco cyeepe opyax, oope eco oo, o oaa oo ooy, cpec a oo copee oxopo eo a ooa.

poaoe oeco ya o opeex ao ao opo accoe cpax epe ee. Opaee x cpaxo ec pacca apa o ao opeee. epo paccaa, oep pcya aceo oe, oopy pa ycoo aa aaece (epoo, pe e ye o eco a eap) aec oc oxopoe . O a pacopc epecpo co cee ce, o eo oo o op yp. O aeeo aa a pa, ee aeo yy po, eee ep oac pacaxac. cea oy, poycae oyx ce, a ae yoe xpaa o, o oopx oo o cooo oyc ... poa. Ca po ca yp o eo oo, py eo ca a e pcocoee, o ep cea, c pya, oope oa ee p aee e ea. poe oo, o coo cea oee oo ooo, epey o eo o poyc epe oepce poy pa ... pye. Ho yxpe e caca ooo o ocooo cpaxa, o pcy eap cyc e-o y o ye oxopoe eao a oo ae.

oeo, o ocae o epaypoo poee, o oo oe opaae (xo c eoopo oe opa) yoacpoee o ox. Bo ocae Beapcoo oa yepx, peeoe ayo eco a XVIII ea: B Beape o yepx cpoe a ae... coco oo a, oopo cooo oo oec oce epx e... ce a axoc a co ce ep cpaa, a o ecpecao o cope a epe ea, yx pooe yx oco, oa yep oe, a o: a poee... Opeeeo aoe apaee oy, o ep pe pa . Beeo pa o ce ac, pya oa ooa, ox aeee ee yaec o oy oooa, oey pa oe .

poe oo oa pae ecoy eeoy pay XVIII ea.

yeay, ey paoaey Beape oaey oo c peopae peepeex opee. Ocoe oa yepx o opay eapcoo ypee aype, Pe eoopx pyx opoax a ace oepoa, a pe ec op aaoe paecee ypee.

B pyx pyoocax oo pee oo cpe ae coe: Heoa pea poa py, o xo apyy, a yca p oeo eoea... pye coeoa ac opeeoy py eoope cpye, a o, oa oe, ca o e poa... B Poccco ep o ypee ocox oo yepx, c e peopae x peepeeoo opee pep oe eo ocyapceo Meco oe, oopo e oao Eeo. Ho poao ep aoe pepe o pe o eoo poe aepc popaecx apax. e 1801 oy Ee c ope ocapye: ...Caoe ce ypeee co ao eco, o , ecop a yee o peopye o ox ecax, o ce pe e oy oy oca oao.

Toa Ee eae oy o ox ox ax oacx opee ocox ecx o oceecoa epx. Ho ocoy : o pe eoya o aoe oeco eo, a eyex e ac pyo, a aco ecoeo o aca yx ax, o o o e poc oaac. Ho Ee, ceeo yee ee peopae peepeex opee, e pepaae cox yc.

Poccc Coo c ax ye pee o ypeeo, a e opea epx pee p oce cep. Ee opec a eyocea) coee oo ocaoe. Ho o o ae e poco. B Poccco ep poa pax aoaoce, pax epocoea.

Ee e: Mey o apoa, oac Pocccoy cepy, e ooo, ca Epec, oeo epa oa peoaa pec apye oe peaaex... coeo peoxpae o co yacoo ec y opee. Epe e opeoe ooee opea yepx pe axoee coa o ca e, oop o... yep. Ee oaec aaox oae opee pepac e oo epe, o ycya^ apo: pce, aace, ap, oa C.

P.) C pyo copo, apca acpa caa e peo apyaa peca Ceoo Coa. Ta o pe accox e oc, y, xoep pyx eox oee ex peopaee aeeo pacpocpae aoea o pe cao xopo yepx a oo copee. Ee ca, o p o e cac cya pee peeoo opee axoxc oopoo co co, a epoee ceo, a oo o.

Haoe Ee axo coco peopaee peepeeoo opee, eca yo o ce oey oe. paa o paec, o cm opeee yeo e o, o ca pao Xpcoopo oo oao, a Coeo e Meo ecoo yppca. B e e aaec o opeee? o cyecy, Ee peaae ocyec opeee e paee, e yy apecppoa pye e, ec eopa (o pyx ex ye ca: peyx aax). A a a ao ay a aaoo (poe, a aooeca aao cyea ea) o pe ee e cyecoao, e cex pyx e oopa o, aoee p ecoe pa ee. pao coe e Ee peee yeaa: e e oc, a o e oe Cye ey cep . a paa c yeaa, Ee eae ocoo o coeo aaoo pyooca: a copo oaec ep aax, o o e pe ceae c aea a opaee ... a copo oce cep oaec ycc ep aax, o aoe epe ea, oo po ape o, a oo copee oo opea.

eo c pao yeaa Eea aaec coae cyeo eco aaoo. B acoee pe opoc o oacoc opee ao , axoxc coco eap, ooc ypa coe aee, a a opeee oo pooc epe 12 cyo oce cep, oa ocoepe pye e a ye xopoo pae.

Ec eap coepeeo e ycaoea, o ooo oooe aaoecoe cceoae pya oyepeo eoea, o aaec cyeo-eco pae pae peo. Hepaa ocaa acye co cep cece eocaooo oceoa oyepeo, oe pec eoaa eco oo, o p ycox, peycopex yoo aooaeco, caoc poeccoa paoapyee.

ecye paa cyeo-ecoo cceoa pyo yaa, o cpe e oo pooc p aee coe eceoc cep, ax cyax eoxoo pa ce ep oe.

ce-a, ecop a o cya opee ao cpeac a . B eape 1963 . o ooe opace 35 e oep coae, pa ep oyc poy oo opocx opo. B o e 1963 . oo opo H-opa oce epoo pocoe cae o py ec opo aoooaaoy. To yep o oa, a ocpec ooo e oe.

B eoopx yoax A, Ap, aco Aep peepeee opee oy cpec ecoo ae. oy cococy e e aop, oope yoa coe pe, oop o e axopoe ao cpee ea o o oa XVIII ea ocyce cce ecoo oceecoa yepx peoe oa, peye co oceoo opee. B oaaeco oo po aey ae Coaceca ycp.

B po Acp a e Cayoco Apa e Myaa ap A axpa, opee co pocea, c oaey oay oce oo, a poea oe oee cyo. B peyae co eoaoo a oo ca paa a cecp A axpa yep o opce.

po cep cayoa c yap po epo e o pe poee peox pao, -a eo o oep coae. He cye pec A axpa yco, poce, oca eo ep, aepy Myaaa caa oxopo. poea ep ee oee 27 aco A axpa pe ce o ooa o acyxc oe ca pa. acyx pacoa oy. oa o ye caa, x oxa yac, o yea.

Ho ce o pee ce, oepae pao, oopoe ac:

a copeeo ypoe pa e opaa eco oo cya opee ao ooc ce. eec poo a peepeex axopoe peca acoee pe e ay ec, a oo copec epec.

TEPATPA ap o. Pacca. M., Xy. epaypa, 1980.

Meee B. A. yeca. oypa oe. Aa-Aa:

. pe. a. co. oe, 1991, T. 2, a 4.

epaoa O. Ca pacaa poyaec? (o aepaa ypaa Ca cop. A) ocoocoe a (e) 1991, 27 epa.

oa eca oe. ae opoe. M., Coeca oe. I960, o 15.

oa eca oe..ae pee. M., Coeca oe. 1980, o 13.

eaoe ocpeee. Coaceca ycp, 1989, 19 ayca.

A. H. Mypae. yeece o c eca pycc. C.. . 1846 o.

Bpaee ec o peepeeo opee epx, copae .. .

Eeo, Ca-eepyp, 1801.

unu P. Pacca. Cxoope. ., Xyo. epaypa. 1989.

epcce apoe aeo. M., Haya, 1990.

. exu. Cepa copyee, Boa, 1989, 6.

H. M. apau. pea eo. M., paa, 1988.

oec paye acoae. oypa oa poa XV1I1 ea. M., Copee, 1989.

A. . ypeu. yypa oeco cpeeeoo Epo aa copeeo. M., cycco, 1989.

pouca . ceye oe. Haya , 1990, 9.

ABA VII Ceecye py Ec y, opoo ae, c a yee aaoo, o a a e po o ooo ee paeo, yaeo poe cep. eoooeoo ae, eaooo c ocoa opao aooeco aao oo, oa e aeo aaoecx eapax ecx cyo, ea a oe oaac epecyp pao cpao, a ooy coeoa poyc y ay , pocy ecoo cpa, cpay e epe py paea. Tex e, o pe ceoa a a o oa, pa aacc epee.

o e pocxo c eo eoea cpay oce acye cep? Teo pepaaec py pocxoe e ee oy aae pyx e. Tpye e oo e a e py: pae pye e, paaec eee epx cyo oce cep, oe, aaec oo co opx cyo ae oe paaec eee oee eee pooeoo cpoa.

pa py e oocc oxaee pya, eo cxae, oee pyx e, pyoe ooeee eoope pye e. a cpo acye x e x aooepoc, oo c oo ooc opee pe acye cep. Ocoeo ooe aee o ee paco. Bce oe ee epe yeac eea, eep a peco oaoc c aa pao cyeo-ecoo cepa.

Oxaee pya pocxo ooo eeo. Oo aaec c oepxoc ea, eepaypa oopo a opx ecax ye epe ec-ec aco oe cpac c eepaypo opyaeo oyxa. p oao eepaype eepaypa yepeo aae a ac peo a 1, ooy ooo oxae pya o eepayp opyae cpe peyec ooo cyo.

Ho oo paa ec oo ce, oa oxaee ycopec aeec apep, a opoe cy apy. B pex cyax eepaypa oce cep oe eoopoe pe oac: p cep o xoep, coa, cecca, oo ae aae aa.

B cyeo ee caec, o oo eepaypa ea 20 e oepae ae cep. Tao eepayp py ocae ae p cax aopx oxae ycox e pae, e epe 1012 aco oce cep. Ta opao, a ao oxae pya (1 payc a 1 ac p oao eepaype), pac oe opee pe acye cep, o ae peao ao p pacceoa yoox e.

py eocop aoee pa paa acye cep cya a aaee pye a. Tpye a oa cece cea po cy ec, oeo eeae ac ee;

eeax acx po epeoe cocy aae pocea epe oy e oeox ox e. Tpye a oc ye epe a-epe aca oce cep. p aaa o ee, a p epeopaa pya epeeac a ooe, eaee e eco.

Co opx cyo o acye cep, cece poa x ae o po cocyo, pye a ye e epeeac p epeee ooe pya e e co e p aaa. Ca pyx e oy a oe yaa o pee acye cep. oy e, o ocoeo ao paca, o pa acea cpy ooee pya. Ta, ec py oapye ooe a ce, a pye a pacoaac a e, py oe, o cpay caoc co, o paee o axoc ooe a py ae c ao-o e (oe , c e cop pecye) epeepy a cy.

Hapy c py a o aex pax pyx e ec ocepoe ooeee. Bcope oce cep ce pya paccac, caoc oa. Oao cyc eoopoe pe ce oceeo caoc oee o, ep, cea copaac cpy py opeeeo ooe, oopoe oe pyo e, a a oo ao po ooo' oy cy. Taoe pyoe ooeee epc eoopoe pe ae oceeo, epe o-a , ceae.

Bee pa pyoo ooee oc ye epe a-epe aca oce cep, oa ae pae, cya ae pepe eopaoc acyx ee opaa. Ooeee aaec oac ecx , oope cpy ec opeeeo ooe (pacp ap po). ae ooeee oceeo pacpocpaec y axaae e, py, py, o, o, oy cyo oce cep, oa ae epe 12 aco, ec py axoc coco ooee. ooy, o oa ox apoo, cpay oce acye cep apa aa ay a e ee oe, o coxpa x (e) o ooe, oa ec, cpy py o.

p pyo ooee epeo oe xopoo coxpaec oa eoea oe cep, a o cee oxaa oex py py ooeee oo oy yaa o pee acye cep.

Paoa cyeo-ecx cepo p ocope pya oaae eoey oo cec. B aece pepa pee poo ecoe yoox eocx Pocc eo ea, coepeo epcoe yco eepype.

3-o op 1909 oa oo app oa 2 o eyoy epeyy oapy o eyaaeoc oeopae oeae py. Ooo poa, a oopo ea py, axooc aypao coeoe ae, po co o.

p pepe e oo o pc o oa pya, o ae acoo oo oxoo paepa ea yoo, o aaoc c a eo o epe Hecye eoe oce oo, oay, opoc ce coe, a o pecy pacca. pooo e aoopo. Coe ee oee ycc. pecy yyc y, o oce cep oee ac ea ac cece paccae . o o pe ae, coe o epe, co c oo, cea oaec ao pyy.

a epa oooc pecya ooa aee paoa ec yo xpoyoo oeca. Heo Ape e acpaxoa co a oe pyy cyy. oce eo cep cpaxooe oapaee oe oy eo pa, oca e. C e oeecoo oye ee A.

e oe a yco cyea aa oyoo, eaoo o oo ocyeo ey a cyy cepeape. Tpy oyoo o yeo oeopa o eyaaeoc, a ca cpc a pay. Teep ocaaoc ye cex o, o A. e a epo pecye. ooy c . e peeo ooa py coeo oeo paa eo oey. pecya aaoc, o ce peycopeo, ce poyao, coca cpaxoa pe copo oaec x pyax. Ho, a oopc, e y-o o...

cex pae p oceoa pyo yx pe ooe oocex ee o. Oa ax aoee pacpocpaex yx ee o eea oo, o ay yoo oeaaec oppe y.

eea a aa opaee cee poaa Bepa pa .

Oca yco aaa app coa, ep yoae o oopaeco ce, ceao c ee ocaxc op a yoo. o co cpa peay po opaa pae , eo oex yce, o ox y apoco a oa a Moa, opa, aeaee a ceae a yoo, oopac a ooce.

Hacoo ea a epa peaoc oopa (a aa ee coxpae opae y aax pya), oaae cey cya. B apc eep 1873 . eepype pooo yco epooaxa Aecapo Heco ap apoa. Bo a opao . . y, oee ex co, pcye o oeo ocopa eca pocec: Ooe, ocoa, copoy!

opac a oop. M oo o oa. oop o coc a pyo pcao-pcao ca capac epe aa apoa.

poo ecoo oex y. poce, oop, aa poypop, oey a pcao cope aa yoy? A e oaaeec? Be , eoope copeee yee aaa oac cyeo e cea eca aoe eoe ope. Oaaec, o x ae, o x cyax aa yx, ooo oopaeco ace, aeaea opa y.

Cyaec o oa, oa pecep op ep cpeaec co o y... coae, ao cyae oo, oeo, e pooo. pao yc, oee... a... a eo, poo eo e o.

epeco, a ae aye op ccac oop? B 1876 oy ee oo pa o oapy aoax cea y po-pac e, oe aa pe ypypo pooco. e o ep co opacy o e px ye cea, o oc aa ao pea, oope aepac aoo pee.

Ocoeo oo epec ye pooca poa eeepca aopaop, pyooa poeccopo B. e. e o, o, coy e, oop oeceaec a cey, oo cea oopa c oo oo aa. O aa o eo oopae, a oyee c eo oo c oopaa.

Oa epx oopa e a oyea cey opao. e po cpoa ooe, p oopo ooa a opaea peeaoy oy. oce oo ooy oce ooy, y aa, ceay cpoa pacope aco. Ha cey e e ye a ceae apy oa c e pcyo pee.

B ope 1880 oa e cceoa ceay aeoo pecya. epe ec y oce a o y eo ceay eoo aa oy ey oopay, aoay cye ec.

Oao ooaeo opee, o oaae oyea oopaa, e a e co.

Ope e cpay e aepecoac opa, eye opy c pecyoc. Oep-oecep epa Moa paa cceoa aa ooo yx c e op oc y. cceoae o poeeo, ceaa coopapoaa, oopaa ooea, o opae y a e e oaaoc.

Te e eee ope e ocooac oxo o ceca aee peopep. B aeax ypaax pax cpa ca oc cooe o o, o oaaa oooc ycaoe oc y o oeay ay yoo. Oao ce cooe p ae aae oaac ae ya. oa peopepo o aye ca ceoae, aa eaeoe a eceoe.

oo o coeey xoe ee o oopa, oo c oo yepeoc ocapoa, o xo oopapoae c oo pooca pe ooo, o y eo e yyeo oac pa. Bo-epx, ooo cpoae cea oo oe px opacx opae (a pee e), o a e oopaecx oppeo. A, o-opx, ae oye ax px opae eoxoa eeea oce acye cep ca cea xecx peaax.

ooy ocoo epec ye eoea pooca aaec cceoa poe x pe, o a e oe cao c opoca pac.

TEPATPA ymuu . . ac. C, 1904.

o . a ooaapa. B. Bocpe: Mexa oe. M., Mp, 1974.

po . . Bpe pac. ., . epacoo yepcea. 1989.

ABA VIII Heee o Hecoo e aa ae opce yae Hoo pe oec C. aea Cpeoe ae. Bepe ae epaype a opoeo a oaaa oceea paoa oo , a x aceo ey oax oyeax ocox paox a.

Bo opo aoa aoo epo oec oa e Bopo eo aapa cyea M:

e, a o c ooo oo eaec, ee?

a eo? e cee, ceyeo e.

Ao c pocxo, c ooo? Ceo?

e cee... Cepa ayaec, ec e a e poepe, oo oaec. epe o-oopa, o-paoy, o ea ac o e. Cyo ec, a cpo eo y: e oy ep, a c pao acpe. Ec eco ee oe. pxo oe o e aae... Hecoo e ee. Beae ce coxe. cpo coxe. B e pepaaec. Oa oc ocaec. e a oce eo ceaec. Bce co. B e ye...

A ae oa aa e a?

Ha c cya, ao o. ae, oa oea co a o apc, e e e. He e oa? . Ha o eee epeaxopoa ye. He oeaec co cpaxy-o? a, pee, oopoo ocyc coe oec C. ae, eceo yace, o aa a ce ea, oopa pea popaec oa cyeo-ec cepa. paa, ocee o, oa poe co acee caac c e. e y oec a eepaax oyeae ce pooxc cya epeaxopoe ep cacx pepecc. Haco opoee e ca ap pao eyapoo occ o cceoa ocao ocx oepo, paccpex a ( cocx oyeaco Ca ep, eocppoac e 1991 oa o pocccoy eee). occ paoaa epe a-p oa oce axopoe paccpex.

Bo ye ecoo e ecax ooax eaeo o ocea Mco op (Hoopoca oac) paoa opoo o ocy axopoe ocao coecx oo 2-o yapo ap eepaa Bacoa, oope ooo 50 e ea eopee. Mooe pea epe coyc ec co cpa o cep, o o e oyyo x, ee ye pea c eopeex pyccx oo. ae ceo, oeo, axo oc, oca oao opye cao, popaeee opye. Ho oa axo ac pyo, coxpae o o eax opooce co opy ae pee o. o o a ee? e o oo oc? Oea a o opoc e aee oo oypo a.

ce Mco op ece c pea py oc ao-o epe ocy o oye aca o aaoo, ae oe a co epoce opoc.

a, o e pocxo c eo oce e eoea? Ha e cyeo e o y a oe pye e. oe pye e oy papya (apep, ee) oceppy (ya, pooc, opoe yee).

ee aaec poecc paoe eox eec o e eeeoc poopao. Bce eoopao o aa ee a pepe ex oxoo. Ho ae coae oaaec epeec o ee a oca oo, o eoa o eoeo. poecc o pocxo o opoo e. eoe cace, o ocoa ac aeo ooe, oopy oaa oa, oa e ea o poecc oo.

B cyeo ee cyecye oe cya, oopo aa eee oxopoeoo pya e. Oa pooc a epoaaoo, a oopoo ooeoo cceoa pya. Ty e xoec oec co ep (, cac, oce) oo cya.

oce ooa ecoo cya ea a cpoeco aao Aypco acpa. Paoy pao cyeecoo cpoeoo opa coea c paoo xpypo Heaapco epao paoo oe. o ooo e oy xopoy xpypecy pay, a ae, ea a epoee o oa pae oaee oce, oaoc c ppoo paa.

ooy capac e poyca ooo ea caaa. o oa cyeo-ec cep peo e oexa ooo a cya oceo yopa, aep yxo aaaco ae. Hecoo ece aa a eao coac oxopoe ooo ape, o ae o oope, o cep a acceo. epe axopoee py oceecoa e , ooy opeoaac cya. oeo, e o oaac o oo peoe, e oee, o a o ye cye pay e pcycoa a cya (a, poe, o 500 ox coypco).

a aopo epoea poa ep coo, cpce ep, oya eoa Bepxe Aap... Bo, aoe, y yop. ax coo pacaee ap c coe coc epeecoo aa, ya e, oa paox eo oa cyxy ecay oy. Bo ye pacoa oy, e poco epe po, cp eo...

...Hay o cax a apey acy, capac e xa oo aax cepooopoa, ccy y, acccpoa cepy o pe eo cp. Ho oce oo epo pe paoa cyeo ee e coy oa. po o, o cy a c co ya, ac oec o ae o, o a cyxo oo oeo o ecx epo, o a coo epeec a oeeoeec .

Ha copoc e oaae e oeco aopo eepaypa, aoc, coca o. e poee cea po epeee ap, e eeee e papyee pya. B epeec aax eaecx poax yaaoc axo py cpaeo ao papye cyc oe o. B pyoepco oe ee e copee, e eoepco, a eoepco copee, e co. peepa aoc peepa cyxoc oe aee ee. B yoo oe ee pocxo eeee, e oepxoco.

Ho pe cyae e oe e coce. p ocyc peo eocae oyxa e a, apep, oa py axoc o oo ( peax, oepax, ooax) oxopoe oe, oao oe oa, ee pocaaaec pocxo coeopaoe pepaee pya, oopoe oyo aae pooc py oc. Coaec eaee, o eo eeo oca cepoaoo cepoao-eeoo ea;

e cpyypa opao oa ooc coxpaec o o eax ocoeoce peea o. pooc e oaec e coxpaec eopeeeo ooe pe, p apea ac.

Bepe pooc ae p oce ox o a oo a apa 1787 oy;

oa e yee ca ya eo coca exa opaoa. ae o cpoax opaoa pooca poope;

oo p cooecyx ycox py ooc epexo pooc epe 8 ece, xo epeo oo peyec o ae oe.

opao oee pe ocepa pya opoe yee. Oo pocxo oo ooax c co paeo co peae, ae py oy axoc a e ec ee coe.

B o ecex e 1950 oa paoe, oae op Toycx ooax, epao a (a), ayc a py eoea. aaoc, o o coce eao ee e ocyoc eo a. poe ocpooeo oao a oaoo pe, a e eo e o. Ae ca pee-yaa, e peaac opo. o co, o eec o acceo cep.

Ha op pa o, a ece c e copy ooo paeeecx yee. Bo yex eoa: o ao pecye oop e pxoc. Paoe a eoea eeoo ea. O ooo yx c e aa. Peocy axoy oca oeae. Ee aeo cceoa pa cyeo-ece cep. Bcpe oaao, o ypee opa coxpac xopoo. B eye ee oapye oca , ceeo pepo a 12 aco o cep. Heec eoe, epoo, oee, a e yye oapye y eo a ee pee. Teep ooa oycoo eoea axoc oo acx yee. a ee, pyo oep, o o eoe c e aa.

epe a oa ex e ecax cee payae, opo o e ee ooo ooa. O ae o acceo cep: o yxa o yxa a oa oea paa. Coxpaoc pya a ceo. C oex ae ae yaoc c aocoece oea. ee ycao, o o eoe ce yx c e aa. eoe payae oee ocopec ye Opxyce, e o e o e e, ao oapye ope.

B poo ee ex e acx ooax oapye oepe py e, oeo oae oe. a oa oaa ca? Oe yee a oce oo a y coxpaeec oee. o ac eoc ycao, o eco e aa a ae-o pepee opo a paa yo co ey ooe.

B ae oop, ee (P), xpac ooa y c eoo aeo pee peco. Peae ooc, ooo e, copa c pao copo acoa, cyco cpye ye. oa a ooa a aea oo opo, yee co o o, o peepc cop Ta, oca pex epae, yoae eo o ao pece oa a o y y acoo ee. B coe coe epa Ta e, o acceoe ee eoea y x ee o o aaae a pecye, o epopoee oa. peaee epeeo ea a epee, a pyco pecyo poca ooo.

Top ceepo-aao Epo (a, P, Hope pyx cpa) c coeopa xpae ocao e eeoo ea. Bx oapyeo ye ooo ceco y, e, ee. aoceppoae cao ppoo, o peca epe cee ao e, o coco a cyeep cpax.

poecc opoo ye ee e ca ocaoo ye.

a ecy aao ec c, o-oy, co, oope yo (y) oy, pacop oceeo e ypex opao, ya oce poopa pacop ec oce.

B cyae opoo ye oa pya eee, caoc oe oo, a yeo;

ypee opa co yeac oee oa coce cea;

oc ep ec, caoc .

Coce y pe o ececeo ocepa pyo ec x aepae. ee p o ocaaaec o ca, py oe coxpac aepe e eopeeeo ooe pe. o aaec opx cpaax a pyax ee, oxopoex epo ee.

B oxy apcoa Hoa I cpc eepa-yepaop, epecoac opoca cop, peca opoey epoa, opoa, e 56- e o poy, 12 op 1729 oa cce coac ae co epa I Meo, op eo oy, e y a eco eo axopoe. Co pee cep Meoa poo ye ooo ca e, a oo oaoo o e yxaa, oa pa ooe aycee aepac cpe pox ex o. C oo capoo opoey yaoc oca eco axopoe Meoa, o, o cyeoo pe, o epeycepcoa:

coo op o o yao , p po Meoa, cp eo. eoe opco ceee Meo y e ec a poeee coee.

B poy ea a-yo oo o oxopoe eoe, e popo eo opocy cce opoy...

eec ae p ceec aop o aex axopoex pepeccpoax, ea oopx y e ec a poee 5060 e.

B cop ece pea cya, oa pooa oa ocepa pya p coepeo eoax ocoecax. o o XVIII ee A.

Cyc oea oce oo, a a ooco oa ae poeccoa ya, ppea ooo aa ep, p ocpoe ooo a a ece a pecya ee oapy oaee py, o ao cee coxpac, o eo ooa o epa a. Cepe ya pacpc copo: o ece, e aoa ae, poea oo po, a eo oe coepaoc oo ec. Tpy oecoac opc poo eo ec, ocy ey oc aep ap.

Heoopao e oooc ca pacca o o o, o apxeooa o cpo opeee ooeoo aoc, e epeec apo poy ( oo aypoao cee) axooc eo (ae ceo paccaax yppye ooa ea), a yo oo epa oxopoeoe;

ooee po e ae e a. Ho coo oo ey copocyc c oyxo, a oo y e, po a aax, pepaaoc pax.

Me e yaoc a oyeax oepe x paccao, xo oe oe , o o-o oooe eo eco. ae e cpea pao, e paccaaoc, o epeoc opee oe ooc aoceppoa py a oe coe. Ho co oca a ceeca, oope o pooa yaao ee.

B 1534 oy a Aeo opoe Pe a cpa pe poa, paeaa oep aeoo opaopa epoa;

p o eo oo aceoc ocopec eco y e paccaoc pax.

o ycpaaee ee, oopoe opoo e aee peea oo cyeepx yo, oo o pooepoa cey opao. Cya, oa o cxa eao p cp o, ec ao. Oaaec, ec ae eeca, oope aopac a oyxe ca coo. oocc xecoe coeee ocopa oopoa ocopc oopo, ece a c aaxo o p. B eee pe o aco eec o, epeoeo paaac o pace opaa, oope aece oaeoo ooea cea xo ocop. oa opa ypae, o ocop epexo oy, a ac eo p o coeec c oopoo, opay ocopc oopo. a oo ao a oaae a oyx, o caopooo aopaec, e oo oc eoe ee oo, oope o acy, o cxa pax ecax a ooax aax. oa e e eao xo oo ocopcoo oopoa, oo oe o, o, epoo, eo eco p cp po oep epoa.

pyo cya ca c ee pcoo a Cecpa II (9991003), o aeo co c Caao. aa Cecp opaa copeeo aeaec ococ oa, oop o oa e ae a oy. o eee epe cep aa Cecp oac, o ooop c Caao cyecoa, opoc pex oo eo py a aaa, ape e oa, oa, o o ocaoc ca o ece, e eo ae oxopo. Bo a Cecpa a coea ooc o o ocaoc epe aepac xpao, e oca a pea ee co ce cooecy oec.

C oo pee, e eoce, oee ec eo op a pa aaye cep epocea, coo peea eo oy, cya oc Cecpa a a poe eo opaec poa cea....

B cepee XVII ea p epecpoe aepacoo opa op poy c eo a Cecpa II, oopy o pea ocea Caaa. a oop eea, eo aaoc ee aoyxao, o py y cea oap eo, acoe a paoc eo, ocea ce opy, eo pepaoc ee, ocac oo cepep pec, a acpc epce...

Ec opoc po c cy, cay c ee a Cecpa II, o, copee ceo, ec ee eo c xeco peae caooopa ocopcoo oopoa, coeoc poe. A a e c yepee, o eo a aaoc ? ya, oo e oo . a ye paccaa, ocopc oopo opayec oo p paoe opaecx eec ao cyae, ocao a. A ceoaeo, o ao coxpaoc ea e oe pe. ocopc oopo oe cxy oeo p oaa ceeo oyxa o cpy poy, a a cee p ce ea e o yce paccope eo a. Bepoee ceo, poe a oe axooc o. o ocec co a ee coeoo ac oe a, a a cao ee oc peyao ooeoo eeoc poopao.

O cax pacpocpaex o ececeo ocepa pyo ya, ac cece oeo cxa pya. oo eoxo pee ceo o oyxa xopoa e. Mya oe pocxo e oo a opo oyxe, o oe, apep, pxo ecao oe, xopoo epyeo cacae ay, a ae oeex c xopoe ee, apep, a epae. p ya py ao-oay aae copac, ep ece oee, ee epe: paaec epaeoc o, cxae caae cex ypex opao. oep eca oxo o 75 % oe. B ao coco py oe ocaac eopeeeo ooe pe. Cpo, eoxoe ya, oo ccc eca. p ocoo aopx ycox py pocoo oe ypoac a 23 eca.

epeco, o oc ypoax pyo epeo xopoo pacoaec.

B eepypco Myee paooxpae (y. oa aca, . 25), pacooeo eoaey o Hecoo pocea, xpac yae coa a ooc ypoax ecx pya. My oapye cee ocea Mapo (o eoo oceo pacooe ey eepoo Opaeayo). pep cpo axopoe epa eep XVIII ea, oxa epa I. ae y axoc yee ce 50 e, pe opaae a ce ae eoea coxpaoc ae eae oe. Oa y o ooa ea capo apo ae, yax, yx, c o peco ooo xopoo coxpac pac o. pya y oo e ecoo xye ocycy ooc a ooe, o e coxpaac oea, o o ce ocao e ax ceo papye ae ea. peop Mye paooxpae paccaaa e, o y oapye p papye capx ceo a ae ocea Mapo, co oo ac ocepeooe o. Bceo oapo ye o ocaeo 7 y, cae co, a ocae 5 epea py ye (ce x aepc). Mya pooa ceo aoap yco axopoe xopoo epyex ceax, px ecao oe.

oa y oe opaoac ycox oo opoco app. B ae 1986 oa Aao Hoae Hacoo, xpoec aoo, 55 e, ac yopox a ococo ca epo Peo oa oy yey eeo-pyoo poaop. Ho ec e oexa, a ce. M ca e caa e pecy. Eo coce o pexoao oyao appe o ye ecao Moce e co epea, pox e o. epe p c ooo oa ca opoc o cee Hacooa oa. 17 ap 1990 oa yaco ceop 126-o oee oa ep ye apy yxe acepa o yaco Xoa: po co ooy, a ae cea caa oa y, e eepo opopa acoo pa oee aea ec oa... a ycao oo cep opa, cep acya ooo epex e aa, o eo e paooc, a ypoaoc, po cce coa o oo y cocee o oyao appe.

oa po ya cya e yco poaa, a eoope pye p. Bo ope xecoo xpaa ay 23 o Xao o ye 300 c e c oe ooca y acoe oacp By xa M.

epa, o p peocee eaco opoeco ac e o oc ep popo apep, e e eee yac o oacp, oaac o oaca ac. oy e e cox, yec poxoo po acoe a pa oacp, M opyc oc oy, pape yea p ey oa, oa epecae ya oe apaa. Co pee aopa eco, o eoe oe oepac o e yepa ea e oee copoa e acoe M occ eee ca... oa c ooaeo oca eo, o opac coc epe oaxa: po pe oy e o p. oa o yx oe o ea, opeee ec. Ec oycyee aax e oxopoe e, a ooeo o opy. Ec e e e ye, ocae e ec, o eo ooc o ye! yee oax oc pay: oce o acoe e e o aeo epe ec, epe a, oa o op eo eo paco, a a o opex aceox, oca ce a eoo oe e po acoe, e o po co ocee .

oce cep acoe po coe. BPocc ycea oapc y cop ac Poaox. Bo Beae pecoo oaea oa ac Hyeo, oo p pay, a o, aaac aooaa oa, ee cea opa po aepaco apecc a acoe ce ce coe e, eoac xoy pee.

oce opee Beao eacoc eea o oaeee oaxe pea ae yex, cay oep peeocoy cceoa ocae a Mae. aoo e o yee pcycyx, oa o ye a pae oyp ceea yec, o epe eceo e cay, a eoeecoe eo!

cceoae oaao, o eo e o aapoao oe o eecx y ypeoc o ocac epoy. a opao eo acoe coxpaoc ycox poecoo Beaa, e aoc epc a ypoe 100 poeo, a yccoe o pooac eca, aaa. Be acoe, e xpac eo acoe ceo oo p ce, a a aeaec aaeco oe coe opa ce epa o. Te e eee, oca e yac, a ycxa: p ea ocae By xa M ec ceo... ce opao co ao, ae ec ya oe cpo poc eae XVII ea coe oc.

Cya o aeo e ece, o acae ya o opeeeo pa, cyecoae cpee yccx oaxo. Cyecye oeco ee ox, yax aeo opax py axox ao-o yeeo eepe ycoo oaxa, ye oe coe aeo capy cypy oeoc ye... Bo e xpae ooo Xao xpac y pyoo acoe, peea ea By xa M.

o cx op ooaeo e c p co eoeo coxpaoc e oaxo ycox aoo aa, a e cococyeo ya.

Beace yee, cceoae eo acoe, oapy a e poeyo co cepepo pac oaa, o oa cpaa po ocepaa.

Me aec, o opao oee ay po poeccax ya cpao coeoe ooae, cococoaee ooy oeoa opaa.

o peooee oepaec aa cyecy o oae ya. Mypoae y oe aaec ee p eoea.

poecc o pacca a p oa. aa y epecae ec pc, oec, poco, xe (ypoae pe ycx peo, py co o e yope pae). y x coca oe cex pa, epa paco co. epe p oa o pao co yy. B oe peo yeac poa ea a, yopy cae ae ypee opa.

oa eoe, coxpa ao pe a, ypae, eo ay epe cyy ocx oco cyxo oeee. cop, oao, oea ecaoc peyao, acoc x o ox cyaoce. oce ya oo a ya ycoo oaxa ya 1903 oy. Coaco epoa yco ce oy, o ocpec y, ocaoo oxoa ee o ey, paa, epe... 5 670 000 000 e oce cep y (544 . o . .).

Bc c eoop eo aopa, cococy ya, xoec co o eey cop, cyyc o pe pao ocee apxeooeco ce o oceoa axopoe Cocoo coopa . Hoopoa o pyooco B. . a.

Ho ae a pacca aea, c ox Cyoo pee. B e o a eppop Hoopoa xoaa ap ecoo oooa oa eoaap, eoa paa a o ocx epeo, a e, oyc caoc pyccoo ocyapca, caa pepaac oyaoy. B 1616 oy, ocax o, ece apoep papa axopoe eopecoo coopa pea oacp Hoopoa. Bo a o coe ocao Pocc oopoco c, cocaeo 1634 oy: ...e ep eoyea eop oacpe, y oae, ope eoea ea epapyea, eco oe , po, o a, oca y epoo ce.

a, p papae axopoe pea oacp ea a oapyea pepaco coxpaac y, oopa, coaco epooy ye o eex oax, oa paea oo coy. Ho aoy? poaapoa oopa cpoo axopoe, poo cop oca, o o paea capey pay Aecapa Hecoo eopy pocay, oe, yepey e coceo ca. Mo opeceo epeece Coc coop Hoopoa, e ae oee 300 e epye ooc ee ocaa ooo coo.

B 1987 oy apxeooeca ce ea-oppecoea AH CCCP B. .

a cpa axopoee coo a eopa pocaa poea cyeo-ecoe cceoae ypoax ocao. o ycaoeo, o o paea ye 4550 e, ceoaeo, a e o cooecoa -opocy eopy pocay.

aoap pacoa, poee a eopeco coope pea oacp, a Coco coope Hoopocoo pe, o oaao, o aa y pae oo cax oox yp pycco cop p ee. Ee p ea pea aaee;

epo coop oa, ocya oceee Bac Teoo axa ococoo pecoa, oo o oeo cee, o ea coop a e ee peeo paoy aa oaoo Cooa.

pao ao cy co. Bopa eep XV ea eca poao 27 ee opo a ac ey ya p ocoo Be e ococ Bace II (Te) pa Bace oc, pe eo pe pac, oopa copooaac paea, yca, ooepe axao oceee coepo. Haoe, oepe opaee p ea ypec Hoopoe, e coaco eee, opae ooca Bace Te ya. O oxopoe eopeco coope pea oacp aay XVII ea ooc aoc ocoae o oo ece eo opee.

ooy p papae ea axopoe pea oacp 1616 oy a o eopa pocaa p oca p e, oope ae oac o y ee, pepac oy x pe.

oey e ya oepoc eo ooo p e, oa o cex ocax opeex eopeco coope, o ce o eo oep, eae c oo capoae, coxpac oc? Be yco opee o coope, aaoc , o ooc ca oooc ececeo ya.

Bepoo, co oee aeo pcyac ceeca eoce, oecyx o oe p e. e XV ee cyecoaa yopa eoca epc o peaepeo opae p e o pay Bac Teoo. eoc yepa, o o yep c opa, pooe peapeo e.

Ooae oe a y ooeoy aay aa paceca cepa ocao p e, poeea oce 1987 oa. B cceoax opaax ax oapye . p eyoo-eo ope opae o oe pooaec o yx ee (o eoc ea ea 12 e pecac) aaaec cepe cxoo. B poecce oe pocxo peoe oeoae opaa cece ocoo po ooca, eo o oeoae cy po ya ae. Ta opao, a cyae c eac oaxo, ya e acya o pe peoo peoo oeoa opaa.

Paccaa o poeccax ececeo ya, xoe yoy o pex ee oo y, y epoa e pya, aeo Tae. Po co ae ep Hyce, ocpoeo cepee XIII ea a oo capx y cpeeeooo Taa Pacaey, c ceepa o ee, axoc aea oa, oopa a eoopx cap? aax aaac aeo e pya. Haae o aeo cee ycoo cao c ye epoa e pya. cop epoa aoa. oa 1698 ooo pycc ap ep I ea Acepaa, e epo e pya oa ey co epacoo epaopa, oe peoeoac a xpap o eepa. y oa oe epo o pecae epe ape, a ce pa Hoopoe eca ope aaac Ceepa oa. ep I epe epoa a cyy apae eo o Hapy. Beco oo, o xpapo cpaac a ec pyccoo opy, e pya oac a apo (o ecoe coo) ecoy ooy pay eoy.

ocee o epo poe Tae, e yep 1702 oy. Ho oy pee o cye aea coo oo, o aoa ape eo xopo aee, o ace epy e, e oca eo eopee.

Teo epoa e peee oo oa ep Hyce ... a o e a eoe coee. Oapy eo aae XIX ea. B 1819 . pac eepa-yepaop ap ayy paa oec y epoa a aaae oo ae ep Hyce ap ce oao. Hac a aaae (o ooe ypo e oop!) aca: epo ceac ae a cao pox e, a x paopooc. My e pya eeo peaa ae yeeceo. ep Bec oc ey coe cxoopee, a py ya e oo ce Taa ae cooa, o ae epo o oxo a Cepe oa (ya), oo oaee. B 1870 . o eepa-yepaop Booc pe pepa o eopae. Ho oaaoc, o epo epe cao cae e o Hapo cye oy ae eepaccyca. A eepaccyca o ycay oaaoc xopo co ce oec, pcyc ce apco a, ce ap oaecoo opyca. Ha paope Boocoo Aecap II aepa peey peo:

oxopo xo. e ae pe pecapaop ep Hce oapy y epoa cee ae oa. Oca epoa opee 1979 oy...

B xpcace eeoc ocao ac oo cax cx oyex p pce y cx.

oa 1549 oy p cpoex paoax ooo Cocoo coopa Hoopoe aoyc a capoe ae c coxpa eoeec ocaa, ep ece ca oa ap ococoy pooy, xopo eeca x e xopo. ypo coa oo pee oe pecaec o a, o coxpaoc ocao ceecye o x coc, a ooy o e oy poco epeaxopoe, a o oee ceay pay ooe.

B paocao ep caoc oae oaaeco coxpaoc oe p aoa ox cx. e opca ea, paccae o epx pyccx cx x opce ee, oapo yx x pao Cooo, ocoo oepaec py opca e paaac... Bopoc o aoa apea p, yoo e, peac a ocoa oceecoa eo ocao ceao occe.

B eepax eo-eepcoo oacp ooc ypoae oca eco pyccx oaxo. oco x pceo paocao epo y cx. Mya cococoa oco cyxo poa oex epexoo. Bepye o eocpeceo epe o cx yoo ae eoa x ypoay coxy c py. Bce ocaoe eo o apo cea oea ae o ppaoc ocoo aaeco.

po ya, o ya e acyae x eepax, o o e a.

B eepax coo-eepcoo oacp, ee aoax ece, y e opayc. axopoe ceax oex opopo, popx o ecae, aac . B y oeac po c eo ooa, a oepce apaoc epao epaeco o c ee oa ycoeo.

B oe o ecx eep, axopoe ec ocopy eocy oo ec epaecx o cea eepx opopo aoa o o, o eec epe acoe oeoe ae. oo ox axopoe p, ocx oae a oacp, ec a pacx aa, e oxopoe o, capoe ooe. O peca coo pocope eep, o oope oeoo opopa oo oo epe ae a, ap peeo. Cepxy oy eep oo acae poa c ea oaxo, o a pyo, c oa o ooa, oa ec oee po coy. ooy e, aoee cape po, a oa ooc ce. Ha capo paco ae eco poo ea ea ocoo yox ooax, paoo yopexc oepocoe pe, o ae apooex oa a pyy.

Hecop a aeoe oeco axopoe, oyx eep c, e oyaec aeeo aaxa e ae o eax axopoe, o coae cay eepcoo oacp. He epaype e e yaoc a pao, ocx exa poecco, pocxox eepax. Moe yeoe aa o yae, o acoo eepo. Me eoopao pxooc a eepax coo-eepcoo oacp, e oe ece c oo Cepe, epooaxo copee eepx axopoe. oyc cyae pec yoay paeoc oy yeoy eoey. Ho o, oeo e, e o pec ececeo-ooecoo oce e, pay ce c peox o.

ac a oe a epecye e opoc, oo aoyo capoo pacoo aa pop capy yoy ooy, oocyc, epoo, oxe Cyoo pee, oa a paco ae xopoc e oo o, o aee oacpe p oy xoe pe. y epe po oy aoe ce a coa e pax. B ooe o oxopoeoo a eoea e ocaoc eo, poe ecox opco opeoo paxa, eax o oypy ea. aaoc, eocopooe peoe ee, ae ce o oec a oyxe eep. Ocac poae oae cao, o ao ce o paccac a ac: ooa oeo, oea oeo...

Hecoo ex ceoo opaoa apxeooecx cex, cpa epoo aoo He (ooo ep) pae-xpcace axopoe eopo-epoco peoc, ooy epoe, o e ec pococ aa ooe ocyce ocoo ceea. Xo o axopoee o o a e c e ooe ax, epooe He pepaco pocapac epe aoee pye oc, ec e ce pepaoc paoep pax. Bo, yco poaa coo-eepcx eep pecy o poecca e, o x pocxo e ya, a eeoe ee e.

Ho ecoo oo copoy o peea aeo paoopa. Hao, o paccya o eex oax. B paocao ep o oy op epyx, a, apep, eo-eepco ape, ea o cyo.

aee coa o cyo ceac o ao, ooy oo cee pa ooec cypc. B peepycco e coo cy eo a ae: cocy epa cyx e. C o ceao o coo eco py cac a, ya oo po eeoo. oee pycco e cy oyo ooe aee, epe acpoaoe Coape Aae Poccco (1794), copoeoe eco. eo a cpoe eco, a coo yopeoc XIX ee:

copyo oey a yca xo o cey;

e c ypy B aoe, a o cy.

A. C. yu. Caa oape Caae.

eo ao ae (cpoe eco) ceye oa epo ep o o cyo o ec, e ocye poy ocopy, a cpe o axopoe, o pae. Pao aa cea oao ypae xpae oe. oay, aoee a paa o ooyoa paa coo cepepa xpae oe coo Aecapa Hecoo Aecapo-Heco ap C.-eepypa, xpaac ceac pae.

Mo e oaeo o peca coo ooc ypoaoe eo. oa o a ae-o oee ypoae pae c py, a. B xpcace o, ec peeo ooe epyx, peca coo aey eoc.

Ta, 1719 oy, epaop ep I e y pcoo a ea XI eceoe poeee cycca ay cay Beep Tapeco (ceac copyec epaco pae) a o co p. pooo o cey opao. B aae XVIII ea pyccoy ocyapcy a pcoeea paa. B coe c Peee (e Ta) axyao oacpe oapy oca aoeco co p, caec poceee co. C XVI ea, oa co ca epaa, o coepeo a cy py e oaa ee ocaa aoo a. A pycco ep e oee e o aoo ea o yx c. Bo a o co p oaac a.

B o e pe, axoc Pe aa p oopo, o opyee epa I, ooopc o oye oo o oao e eoeo paopo cay. Ho eaoo epe aa pc e XI, oo ao opoe cycc, aeopec ape poay ocpaa acx peoce. Bo y-o poc ae o co p.

poce aa aoeco ep pepaco oa xyoecey aepay cooc cyyp, oopa e a aoe cpaee c ocaa eeooo paxa. Ho ae o e o o pape co coec pae oa oe ... cea cocoac.

B paocao ep paoo oac o cx yoo:

Copaee oe cx apapxo aa ap Aece Mxaoa, epeeceo cec coop oca cex pyccx apapxo. p ocoa eepypa Bapa o o opy Aecapo-Hecy apy 1724 . opeceo epeece o coo Aecapa Hecoo.

Ca epaop ep I cpe ece y cea c-op, epeec o yoa cee oy, a oopo ca y py, a cox coo pepa pocx peo. oa, coycyea oeco cyo, pa eepyp, e ee cpe epapa, ec op, ce yxoeco, c ap apo. ep c pe o c o c epeec ocey oo o e oy Aecapocy epo, e oa peaa o ocpo aoo coopa.

oe, ye p epape Eaepe II, o pe ocee Tpooo coopa ap, 30 ayca 1790 oa, o Aecapa Hecoo epeece ya. Mo ec aaep opea c. Aecapa Hecoo, a oa a epapa. Bo pe ec pooc ooo o aa ye. Ee 1752 oy epapa Eaea ypaca o oao pao cepepa eco eoco yo. (Ceac a paa axoc pae, a o Aecapa Hecoo, oee cpoo pae, o Tpoo coope Aecapo-Heco ap.) B pay, e ooc o coo Cep Paoecoo (Tpoe-Cepea apa o Moco), a ecoo y oyca aea epa (yyeo epaopa epa I) ecapea Aecapa (yyeo epaopa Aecapa II), o yoecea ca oe aocoa x a cacoe apcoae.

o ao ox coe pyccx oacpe, cax paocax xpao xpac o cx yoo. Bcope oce peo o ox cx ce a aececy cay, c ex op x ce epc. Heao p poepe oo xpae aacoo coopa epae (Mye cop pe aea) a pee, oxo a ac ee. Ha eo e o ax ao oyeo. A oa eo cp, oapy a o coo Cepaa Capocoo, c o eao aeo aececo ca.

peoo Cepa Capoc ( py poxop Mo) oax o oa XVIII ea, o aoee x pyccx cx, aoee oae yo ocee apco ce. ooy paocaa epo paye opoe opeee oe a coe poo aoc.

Ha epeo epea oe coo Cepaa Capocoo paocao ep, cocoec 11 ap 1991 oa aaco coope epae, pcycoa apapx Aec II oe ce epapx paocao ep, o ceecye o eocaeae pa oa oe acoee pe.

Bcope oce peo, 20-e o, paepyac poa aa o cp oe o ce ep oacp Pocc. oapye oecee aca oe, eco ypoax ocao aco oapya oe, ae pa eo, oycee oc.

o eo poaoe aee aececo poaa o pe. Ceac e ce o paceaec a opyae aoax c. yc c o pe e oo aee o e cooecoa paa ececeo ya (c oop oaoc o ae), apoa epa pepaa x ce pe, o, o o paceo eae, eoe e epc ope a.

Ho ec ye acaec poe ooeooo oa ay pe, yxooo aepaoo, pape oop oa ee oy e yaoc. M e epee e eee cooy ecoy opocy o paoepoc axopoe y oe aoex.

TEPATPA C. aeu. Cpeoe ae. Ho p, 1987, 5. aeu . Ocae oopoco c 1634 oy//e OP, 1862, . 4, Cec.

poca cpaa cop. paa 56, 25 epa 1990 oa. . uceu. a eccepoo capa. Haya pe, 198S, 9.

Mypae A. H. yeece o c eca pycc. C, 1846.

Mo oa o ac. Beep epa, 1991, 9, 12 ap. eeucu B. . B yeo pe a. M., Hepa, 1978. e M. . Cap eepyp. . A.

C. Cyopa, C.-eepyp, 1889.

Bauecuu . Cyoe pe. C.-eepyp, 1911. E. A. Pay. pooe capoo Taa. Ta, epoa, u B. . Hepoo Hoopocoo Cocoo coopa. M., Haya, 1988.

Meee B. A. yeca: oypa oe. Aa-Aa: . pe. a. co.

oe, 1991, . 1, a 1.

Meee B. A. yeca: oypa oe. Aa-Aa: . pe. a. co.

oe, 1991, . 3, a 4.

a ocpec y Haya pe, 1987. 1.

Tacu . Ce epe. M., oa, 1988.

ABA IX My aoee yo co o 1990 oa e aoa a Coco oae. o opae yoo e oea a o ocaaoc ecoo aco, oe opo o oo Co. ooo cpo opac o epao oa, oopy oa ye opeceo pxe, ao e e pa, c eoo aep ypa oeoo apaya y epe aoe c poco ac a xoo eop po. o oay oepe e, yx o ceoo capoaa, oopo cyco cp poeopa oceaoc aopooe o coee py aoaoo epo oap, oee ecoo poecca. aaoc, o a ye cea...

Ho ceac pocxoo eo cpaoe. Hecop a o ac oa ypa, ee ao ec aao, cy ce oy, ece ec ee -ec ece aa. Bopoa aoe oo aep, oe apay ocycoa, a ce oee aaa, pa poc o y. oeo, oppoa o poeccax, pocxox oap, o aoo cpeeoo pa co e oa.

19 o pexa oa Co ca ceee copecoo co o e aoe ec po c eo poa. Ha epao coco ae a poeea pea, a oopo, o ea ce, pcycoa oo e. poa. epe ecoo e ypy c eo poa oxopo oy eo pox a coco ae. ce ya. oey ye a oe oo e o, poe yx oepo, oxpax ee.

ao yeaa oa epe oyce aoee ycpo ooo epe acy popoay cay. Hec cy pyx, cy, ycop, o oe ceo o . Poca poca opa poex pyo oo, oy ee a eao cpaaac a oepe aooeo oax e. Haoee aoo a o copecoe coe opeapoa eeee 21 e (Opa Paa-eopaeco ap oap, 17 o 25 1990 oa)-Be c aoe opee. Maoe yc. Maa oe. Ho ee oee pao aa a epx aoe: po, c oo! , y oo! e copac, a e coy poaapoa o e ec xo p pye oyceco cce Bocoo Epoe. Me epecye ao cyae o poxo ace: eoepoe oeae, a ae co e cpeeoe epee oc o, poeec pyae eo axopoe.

Ho aoe poa Co ceo c Maoe, pacooeoo cepe ae Po. ooy aa pec aea...

ee opoc o yye axopoe ea a ocyac eoop ea opo aoo o o o, oce 1923 oa. (Cee o o coea ec ocoax Tpooo, Baeoa, ocyac peoeeco epaype aaa). aoop o o, o cyae cep e eo ceye oxopo a oco aep, M. a. Eo y e oepa . Ca, caa, o xopo ea ao, oeo, o pyccoy opy o ec pea ee, o c ce e. Tpo, yxap, aee cya po coxpae ea o oce eo cep. Ca, a pye a.

Bo, oce oo coea Ca pooa oya e aoe, ypoa ea ea, a cea ao, ooece, c e e ec co aa, e oca x ae eoeo.

aa Caa, peee peya B poe a cex oooe eaee. C o pe cex oecc (epocoea) Pocc o o ecxaoe eaoe oyco, apyaeco a eo o. Ec oy pee yxoeco cpa e o opaaoo papoeo, ec pec pex oecc e ya, o ao a Caa e ae oep, opaa. Ca pa ep op o peoo coa cpa, ao oco ooo ya. O ca a oooe, a ce oecc cpa, aca peooe coae acc ocy aa, y eo, copoy eca.

a, 1924 oy eo B. . ea o aapoao o eoy, ceao papaoaoy aaoa poeccopa B. Bopoe . apc, oeeo ceao ocpoe a paco oa aoe. B oe 1939 oa a coaa Hayo-cceoaeca aopaop Mpaa CCCP p Maoee B. .

ea. Pyooco o eoo (22 eoea) pyo cceoaee, aaxc ce oeco poe, cax c coxpaee ea B. . ea, o opyeo . . apcoy.

Bcope oce aaa Beo Oeeceo o, oee, 3 , eo B. .

ea o aypoao Te, e o aee yex aopaop oo axooc o o apa 1945 oa. 10-o cep o op ep Maoe B.

. ea. B oceye o aopaop p Maoee a aeo pacpea, opoc oec cox epe e ayx ayo-paecx aa.

o ooo eceo aopaope poey aapoa coxpae ea B. . ea? pye ycoepecoa ocyc pee ceo execx copo. Cea, apep, eyope, c eepo o pe, eoe xyoeceo ooe capoa. Oceee a ce py pooc e ooce ya cea, oope oac o opoaoo ooo coa o ce ceooa o py capoaa oce ocee ypaoeox eox ye apac a eo.

Byp epeecoo capoaa paec ycpae oea eepayp aoc. ( cpae: ep capoa, oop oec eo ea, e opy ceo p, ooe ococ oopo epao epeaa opaee. Oceee e o ca poc: c oo ox epecx aoe, ypeex o epxe ocpo pa p. ao co apea eo, ooy x pxooc epoec a.) Bao o, o yaoc ycao oae coco oepa ococa a ax ea. Co e peypo pooc ooeoe poae eo aapy pacopo epoec apooo yac oe opo. Oco pea occaoe, apep, ypaee pee oe x ae. e yaoc oc ae paoepo eoc ooo opoa. papaoa oe coco oopecpa oeo peea a ce py, oope oo yo eaee aa ee.

C oo epoo ceoo poco cceaec cceyc ae eae yco ae.

Moo ocapoa: acoee pe ax ea acy epo caa cex o-xecx poecco. Bo co cyae, x peao eeoe eee o eyoo copee xec, ec pocoec cocoa. paec pocaoe ae aeee cae poecc oce poa pa.

B 1990 oy Coeo Mcpo CCCP a coaa ceaa paecea occ ye eeoc Hayo-cceoaeco aopaop Mpaa CCCP p Maoee B. . ea. B coca o eca pecaeo occ xoo 12 eoe, pyex ceaco ae cpa oac aooeco aao, ox, oeypo oo.

Bo occ ooa: eo B. . ea oe coxpac eeeo e, epoo, ee e o eco e.

B 1953 oy, oce cep . B. Caa, eo eo ae o aapoao oeeo Maoee po c capoao B. . ea. Ho ye epe 8 e, ope 1961 oa, a XXII cee CC o po peee o oce ea . B. Caa Maoe. Peee o po 30 op o peoe . Cpooa o e epaco apo opaa. epoaao apoaoc epeaxopo Caa a Hooee ae, oe o peeo, o axopoee ye a Maoee ea y peeco ce.

O o, a pocxoo epeaxopoee, oo ya ocoa .

oea, cyeo o pe oapo peecoo oa: 18 aca ( op 1961 oa) ap oc pacy oa ap ce xo a ee o e peoo, o ye pooc pee ex oc Mococoo apoa apay.

oa ceeo, eco, e peeo o op oy, oec aepo oce epec poeopo. pepo 21 acy coa oa oy e oec ec eeoeox paepo 100X75 c. Ca copyo oeayp Maoe ayx paoo eo Caa capoaa epeo oa po, o paco aepe. Ha ype ooe yo ae a aye. Teo op ya eoo ea, oca op o ooy py. po ycao oae po c payp ao Maoee.

B 22.00 pa occ o epeaxopoe, oopy oa H.

ep. poceo oo e o. ycoaoc, o y cex pae oaeoe cocoe, ocoeo yH. epa.

oa ap po po, e oaaoc oe, o p ee. o poax cpo ycpa oo . Tapaco (aa xooea). ae pac oce oepo oa, oope o po a py ec Maoe epe ooo xo.

B o pe o paco oa poxo cpo pa aoo, pepyc apay.

22 aca 15 ya po oec oe ycao a oca. Ha e o oc eeoeox cea coeopa capoa. oce yoo oa po ocopoo oyc oy. peoaaoc po cepxy pp ee y eeoeo a. Ho oo . Tapaco peo a e apa, a poco aca ee.

o pyccoy oa oe-o oepo ( o ce ) ypao poc o opc e, coa aoa oy, yo a e y c oa poe cep Caa, oopa oo e poeaa ao e o ycaoe aa (ca).

aapoae e oe oycecoo e oeee x ceae aoe ceoeo oope ooe pepaaoc pao pya. B apxeype coacecx cpa paoa o p cpoeca aoee axc eee, coeax oopeeo ycay, pyy. B 1949 oy oce cep eop poa p oo coecx ceaco Hayo-cceoaeco aopaop p Maoee B. .

ea eo eo ae o aapoao caeo ceao ocpoeo aoee a epao oa Co.

B coe Moo a-aope aoee ooc ea ocoaee ooco apoo-peooo ap Cyx-aopa (18931923) peep cpa MHP c 1939 oa oacaa (18951952).

2 cep 1969 oa a 79 oy coac pee Beaa Xo M. B coe aea, oyoao 20 e cyc, o ca:

oa ypy, e ao ycpaa x oxopo, o e pacxooa oapacy pe cpeca apoa. poy, o o oca coe, o ec pepoa. Haec, o pea cae oe pao. o e oo xopoo x c o pe e, o oo ae coo axoy e. oa y ac yy oe aac epoep, ee ye poo epopea. Paee o pax a p ac oece eo p epaece yp: oa Ceepa, oa epa, oa a cpa. B ao ace axopoe ypy c paxo a xoe. Ha oe e ao ca aey cey, pooy cay. Beco oo ao ocpo poco, pocop, po poxa o, e y o ooxy. Hao papaoa a oca epee a x xoax opy x. yc oc caa epe a a.

Co peee oca opay eca, oope ypac ea yy oe cecoo xoca. aoy o x epex ceye opy ec capa.

Oao oce o peea e a coea.

O a yaco aex co peop Hayo cceoaeco aopaop AMH Cepe Cepee eo. O coae: B Xao p oe ayca, oa cocoe Xo Ma o ye, o cyecy, eae. po 2 cep a a pa aa cpoo ocaa 103- oca. o y a coo o cep eacoo peea. B ocae poe cpe epoaaoe aapoae, o eo oo o ca poa o ope copa a. O o, o aea Xo M poc pepoa eo oca, eo e a.

a e oyoc, o coece ceac o aapoa apaee oaac Xaoe? eco, o pao o aapoa ocao x apyex eee peoaoc peee opo CC. Moo, ceoaeo, peoo, o oaee pyooco Beaa, cxo yx oye, ao opaoc coeco copoe c poco oaa coece coxpae ea Xo Ma. Bocec e, 1989 oy, oy ay o ao aoe ocee oe opo B: pa o ae yca oea apoa, opo ap 3-o coa coo eoxo coxpa eo Xo Ma c e, o yye apo ce ae cpa, o ce cooeece a e, a ae a apyee py o oa ey a a pa co yoe yca . ey.

a, ca opoc o aex paoax o aapoa ocao Xo Ma. Ceac o ooc yepa, o eo yo cpoo o Mocy poo ce pao a, ae eo opeeo a poa. Beacoe pyooco aeopec ocpooc acaao a poee aapoa Xaoe.

yoopa, coae aae eo, oc A. H. oc, oop o ae coeco apo-paeceo eea p Xao yac paypx epopx. Pyooco Beaa pooao co a coe. oc ee Mocy oo o coec cya a opo CC. o peeo o acpey oea eaco copo. B cae Xao o oyxy epepoc oopyoae, eoxooe aapoa ea eo aeeo coxpae.

Coece ceac pcy paoe, o ce oe cooc po a peceoa eo, po oopoo, a aaoc, ooac caa cya.

Aepaca aa aaa accpoae oappo Xao. poc cpoo epepaca aopaop a aaco cepe y oepax 3040 o co. Hecop a coee yco, oa a paepya a oo ece a ae-o e ee. Too ce aa ycoaac, a ocya ee oa peoa ec: eoaey cac aepac epoe eca. o poc ceo copaa aopaop epeo ee a ooe eco.

Ha ce pa ee pe paec eoaey o pe epo, oo eepe y oo opoo ca, cocoo, a yepa, epa ooo oo yap. Tooe ecoaxoee o o, a c cya aoceppoao, o ce e coxpaec ae, a y oa, o pe o, ce, caoe c e, o opyeo cpoae cepeoc. Coece copy, oope coaco papaoao eee, aa ce a ceaco o ecoy xocy, pea ya oo o oa. Ta pooaoc o oa o.

Topecea epeo op yca o cocoac ye oce o, 29 ayca 1975 oa, ay aoaoo paa. Cpoe oo aoe oc a o cao ece, oya 2 cep 1945 oa Xo M pooac eapa eacoc.

Cpo eece aoe Xo Ma, axoc epe ao xaoco oa a, aeo peocxo paepa ec Moce. caa o e oo capoa c eo, o oe xooe ycao, cce oopoa oyxa, eeaep oop, epocae pye cce eoecee. Bce o cooe xoco, a, payeec, oxpa) aoe, axoc ee ceaoo apecoo ypae.

aepae e x aoee aoe Mao e ya ee, e capoae opoo xpyca o oeeo aaapoaoe eo acoo o oce eo cep 1976 oy.

Ho, a ye o caao, ce aoe a pa, epe apoec Pocc oce cep B. . ea. e ca co o pa?

Be oa cpaex o ce peea ap e peaa ea ee. aae, oaec paopac o opoce ece.

oa oop coo y, o oo y ac epy oepe accopyec c yypo peeo Ea. Oeo, xo ooaeo e oaao, ee ae ocopece peea aapoa yepx. o poeyp epeo opee aca peo paa cea epeoa. Texa aapoa oea eoopx ecax oo pee, pee ceo eco e epx.

Maycp o cep coxpae e yepx, aa oee o epx, coa pe o Ha o peea epo eeco ac, ooo 4266 oa o ae p. Oee pae oo coe coxpac o ax e. oee oe epc epx ooe pea eoo aece oeco peeceo e epoo a ceax oee epexoo yp pa, pacooex Caxape, epo 5-o 6-o ac. poee aa Teca pa. Hoe ec, epeo c opaee pax yp, o peea 11-o 12-o ac aoc a ooe ce capoao (a aaee Tec capoao), a epo 26-o ac a apyc ocpeco epaecoo epoecoo o ca. Haoe, o peea ooe cyecoa ec a apyce, oo eco epc. o apyc c eco eecoo aopa oapye oeo oeepe e capoaa. B aece xpaa apyco cooac cay oo yea , oo cpeo. oce epc, oocac peo Pco oxe coepaa ep eco a ycoax apyca, a acaa oe epaop aa.

Coepeo eoo, oey epc epx, oee coe cyc, a paeo oac py o pya o c, coepa, aepe ca.

Booo, o eae acee 26-o ac e co epc aycpa oycoo coae pea ooo apaa epoaaoo eca. oceye epc pee ooe eee o, x poye ae pae pax eco. poe oo, pae cc epx eoece, op opo eco aco poo. pec ce cpoy, oceoaey ccey eooo.

eaaea oo oepea aoee co e Aya. Oa opaae e apooo oa, poo ecy ee eeco yyp o oca cxoca (ea y) a cye Opca: ce ap a pea ocex acx Aya. Ho o o ace apooo pa. a e pecaec pyoe ooecee ycoeo J Be oo eo pax ocacx (Pa, Ooc), epoe ae e oo eoo, oope cpeac apeeo pe.

a oe e o ooo oopeca, oa ee yooe cxooecoe oocoae. Ee ca, o eoe ee p oe oa ae y pa apeeoo, yoo ooy oy;

oee oo, oe cc c c poe oo pa ae eooo aeco apoo apce. a e axo cooece poceo ae poo yyp eco e epx (ooo, oa ocxo oy e coy, o eece apooo pa).

poecc ypoa ooo o poo, o c e. Cpay e oce peoaaeo cep eoea pe ea ape a eo ooe oa yepeo oceo ea o, o e ae a ce e x poceo oooo. Tao oa o peyae cyae peepeeoo oooo ycaoe cep. ae oo ea ypee opa a cee cepa, cpeoo y c, aeo poa x apoaec oc ao x ppo apoaec eeca. ae ce o oea a eco aa, aepe aapy eeca. C oo xpoyoo pa epe op oooo ea o ac o, a ooc epea ae ao ce. Teo oa coe pacopo oca a 70 e, ae oa ee pa, apa ae, oepa ooa ae oea epe capoa.

Cao pee eoeeco y 7039 e. Oa aea e Ee, a axoc acoee pe Cao Haoao yee cop ppo.

My pecae coo aaapoaoe eo epexeeo peea.

Oa a oapyea 1977 oy y c apoooa oo ycx paoo a ceepe . B 1980 oy y a apaea CA aopaop H-epc a poeee cep, oopa oepa ee opac.

Typ Xeepa, oop o oaax ey Ho Cap Ceo, oe e oaaec po ceye, oee pa: ooccae coopye, ee paecx y, apep, pa;

eaece capoa c acco aeo po;

ya c peee co, o xooo a. Ta opao, oa aapoa ycox oee x capoa pa ocxo ca pe oxa eoeeco a.

Cxoco opeax opo peex a Capoo Hooo Cea paceaec eoop ye a oaaeco a a eo eco paa, pacoaaec ey oea, apep, oye Aa.

opeoe aceee aapcx ocpoo ya- oe ceac ca p ooa Aao. e aay XVI ea ya ooc cpee cac aoeae, ooy cee o o apoe ocaoc eoo. Ho oo, o ocaoc, acpoao eoocex coax ocaoo, o yepa: x oa oapya cpaoe cxoco c oa cooyypx pex apoo. B acoc, o aapoa epeo, a ee, xopo x yooopax poax, a pe Meax.

B 1989 oy aepaca apxeooeca ce, pooa paco Ee paoe -aa, oapya ae, ooceec peo-pcoy epoy cop Ea. Hao epec yex aa pepaco coxpaac y e. Oa axoac oooeo capoae, cepeo cea, oop cyco o oo ea ypae eo aypax eo. Bce o oeaoc oee pocopo epeo capoae. Po axoac y aea, oeo, ca axopoeo e.

Haxoa -ae oocc aay epoo ea ae p. Oa epeca e oo coe pepaco coxpaoc oa oopee. o axopoee ee ooe ayoe aee, oop peop eapaea peoce Cpeeo Ea oop A -Xo. eoc axo, a o apaocao, e ee peoc, a cpaeo oooc. M yeaec o, o cycco aapoa, poeaee pee Ee a ec eo o ae p, ee coxpaoc o peea oe xpcaca. aca y ocaea ap Haoa ye ye pacpo eco a oooeo capoae. Booo, cope coe ya oe o oapyeo -ae Maoe c aee.

peee a a ceecy o o, o oa aapoa ooo cyecoa ecoo cee pacpocpae cpe pex a a Capoo, a Hooo Cea. Oa o Ee ee coxpac ay oxy ae o peea oe xpcaca.

H peo-pca yypa, xpcaco, ca ye e a pa aapoa coxpae pyo. paa, cex cyax ocepa pyo ce e ocyecac.

A cop Appa paccaae, o oa Aecap Maeoc eao coac a opao y opace 33 e, eo co e axoe oca py eoo oooa a ye. B o e pe, ycox ap o eooo pacoppoa py Baoa, a a o oeao oepc paoe. Bxo ae: yoy ay ao oepxy ce eo, a e opy py Aecapa Maeocoo. B ao e eo epee Baoa Ee, e axopo. Tpy coxpac, e paaac, pca e. oa I ee ae p pc epaop Oaa Ayc, aoea Ee, cp eey ca poy Maeocoo, o o ye e, o py oo coxpac. Ayc oe a ooy aeoo oooa ee, a eo oca ea.

Coxpaee e ooo ey ay oxy peoc pae peo, o ce-a peoc. Me yaoc oca ee a ceeca oo oa, oo paccaa Appaa o Aecape Maeoco. Ta, IV ee o . . Capy o ocaeo opye e eo ap Aeca, yepeo Ape.

B cape peepcoo capa Mapa Tepe Bappoa ee, o opee, o oopo coxpac eoe pae, eec ceya paa: Cao , epa oc paye, o e ca ooo, e eop xpa x ey. oa ce ea o eo, o poa poao, ec oo o ay eoo c y a co eape.

o yeeey paey pyo cy, o e e opeo e pe, o, ecoeo, o yoe oa ocepa pyo ey.

Ho ce e ae ay oxy oa ocepa ea ooa copee pe cee, e pao. Oya e py ca e aapoa ea B. . ea? Moe oca oe a o opoc oee o ac poccco cop?

Ecey, paa oe oaey aao, yaec poce cop axopoe ea oea. a eco, aop Eaep II cee pop Aecapo oe-Tapec coac opoe, a y cc Hoae 5 op 1791 oa. Tpy oea pee opao cc, eo o aaopoao aapoao. Oeoe eo oea coo c ccax o op ae o epeeeo Xepco ocaeo ooo cee peoco ep C. Eaep. po ocaac eoye e c 23-o op 1791 oa o 28 ape 1798 oa. e Xepcoa ec cy ax pxo ooc paxy oea.

oe o epaopa aa cyx, o eo oea oee ce e co e pea ee, a pacopee oxopo eo, a ac ya e aee oac, cao e o ece, o ocoo py y, a ope aca aa ee a, a eo oa e o, o o.

M. . e, coo a, e po oyex oo aapoa ea oea co ooo xpae eo eopeeo coco. ya, o ce o, aapoae, ocpoa axopoe, o cao e c oo e pa paocaoo opee, a c ecoc aee oeco cya. Beoy, paoo o pay oecoy ae oey, oaaoc xopo coe. Ho oxaee Eaep ey aopy ycee aopa ooo, aoa yoa, pecoa oy. B o e pe copo oea, epoo, e oca ae epee eo eepyp ocoo axopo eo a, oey e ce c oxopoa Xepcoe. pxo ac epaopa aa I, capoo poa oea, ooaeo x o ae cococoa opee ea ceeeo . Ta opao, a copec o e oe cac p peeceo aoe. Ho ec ee o, oee o ae, aao pycco cop.

Mao oy eco, o ae cpae xpac ocye ocopy ee o py aeoo eoea. e y ypoaoe eo aaeeo pyccoo xpypa Hoa aoa pooa, xpaeec cee eo yca cee B o Be. oyc epo e oooc, eape 1990 oa exa By, o paya oo ce oopoee. Cya, oa epy xpca ocaac eopee eee oee ca e, a e yaac pa paooo paoca.

Oaaec, eo pooa o aapoao o ae eo opo e Aecap Aoo. B coe pe oa poa y ooo yeo pooa poeccopa aa a Boea (18301886) o aapoa (a a ceac xpac co yca-ye H. . pooa Bx).

a a acoo opca ee, o oa acoeo poca Boea, cyae cep ya, aaapoa eo eo o papaoa Boe peea.

Ceye ae, o XIX ee ye ec coco pooeo ocepa pya ye ee eo aceecx eec, ocaaax ee, oce eo eeo ceye ya. Ee XVII ee aaoy peepy Py cepy ecoc pec eo coco eo coxpa aaoece peapa aapoa py. P ocoa a aaoec ye o oa copeeo ocoe yo cea.

B 1698 oy ep I eoopao ocea aaoec eap Pa Acepae, pcycoa a eo ex, a oe epecac c oeac pe oe. Bo opo co pe Acepa, 1717 oy, ep I y y Pa ececeo-ayoo ye ycaep aypax ee oy oe aaoecx peapao. Teep ycaepa epeeoaa Mye apooo opa e epa Beoo Poccco aae ay.

oc C.-eepypa oy oce o ye co aa yec eoeo coxpaoc aaoecx peapao oe peepa Pa.

B acoee pe ca poc cocoo ocepa pyo ec coco, peoe poeccopo. A. Mao (18651931), oop aaec o, o py, pyy epey ooc ecpoo pya p oo pa oc oe cooc 23 cec opaa eayppoaoo cpa (opoy). a cec poae ec py, yae ocx poo, ocaaae ee yoe e, cepa x. oce oo py aae cxa, ypyec p oao eepaype a p eca ocaec ao e a oe o. oooe cycceoe oceppoae a pooe cpo epao aaec aapoae peec ocoo ooe ye ecx cyax.

Hoa ao poo coac 23 op (5 eap) 1881 oa 8 aco 45 y eepa opace 71 oa o paoo axec, ao oaeceo o a cco oooe epoo ea. e a pe e oce cep pooa eepypa By pae poeccop Boe y e opaec ee B, e eaeeo pcyae aapoa. poeypa aapoa ac epe aca. coae, a eec ce cepe Boea, xo ocoe peoea o cyccy aapoa coepac eo e. ea xoea xpa aapoaoe eo pooa po coe ycae, o y eac epoe ac, ycope o oyco.

poo oe ep eaeo cea epeeeo ap po c eo aapoa eo peeo oec oa ep. a a eca peca oo cea cpoe cea ce, ya oec eep ye op po c eo pooa. oe ce epecpo oe a epo Hoa yoopa, a coo opoe Hoa aoa pooa (epo ap 1956 oy).

o, ece, a Be oa a pyo poaac o peo, aepoco oya, epo, paaco o, a eo pooa, a yo aooaoe yec cycco poeccopa Boea, pooao ocaac a e, a e cep.

Bo Beo Oeeceo o acco oya epo ce e ocpaa, oao o po o pecya pa ceoo capoaa, epea a apyea eo pooa cao opc o ece, ocoeo pya. B 1945, 1956, 1973 oax pooac peaaa y a ece, oo 1988 oy eo pooa epe eaoo oyo By opaoc Mocy, e a poeea oce peaaa.

Ce pooa axoc 6 o eo yca B, eep ye a opae copeeo B. Ceac a ycpoe a ye-yca B. cycac o pa cye ce... Teo pooa ooc opo epo epeo poy c op cepepo paco pe ypae e py, yp aeo a pe. po oe o aay e pooa Acp. o oo eo pooa ppo eo apo, py coe a oe oepx opaa (o ocee peaaa pyax axoc pec, ceac eo e).

Oe poo ep yp c e. He co aox o oppea pooa x aeapo, c opoo ocpe, epo copc cea opoa yc. Op po c eo op ce capoao, epeca ocea xaae o pooa oypaa cea. pa poa co a ceao oe cea o capoaa, cpaa o capoaa a, o oopo e cap c pooa.

oo co a capoao eoo xpypa, capac eo o, o a e co o, o e acao eo poceo (oeo e, e e coac caoo pooa) pec a co cpa, e e aaoo pycco yype a. Ho oee caoac e yceoo aapoa ea B. .

ea. peee ye cyecoa, ec o ya eoo xpae ea o, cyc o oea, eo oo o oop. He a, ao Ca, a pye e opo c cope aapoa pooa (oe e), o o pa aoooaao, aapoae eo B. . ea, ecoeo, o a pao poeccopa . . Boea o aapoa.

oa ye a acaa ooac ea a a, o peooe oepc. B ep aee Apye a oea Maoe B.

aex a: Coco axopoe pooa ea pao oao. Oao eo, o oopoy aaapoa eo B. . ea, opee 1924 oy poeccopa B. Bopoe . apc, oee coepe opa. B o e ep oea Maoe epe yoae o yx oyex a eo B. . ea: Tax oye" o a.

Ta, 20 apa 1959 . o oceee poc capoa eaecy ac ooa pa ceo. paaa aepa. a coc ocec, o oaac yeoo opae a eee.

Bopoe pooo 1 cep 1973 . Haxoc ooe oceee Tpaypo ae e ooc o appya e, o paa poe p apeeoo a cee caoeoo poo ycpoca. O o. ocpaa pye ocee. Cece ycaoo, o o oe c yeoo.

B acoee pe ea yceo cypyec opoc o eoxooc axopoe ea B. . ea a oo a Moc eepypa. Moe , oey xoa ce opoc o oaec pee. Ec e e, o e xoeoc caa coe ee o oy ooy.

Heaco o oecx oeo eeoc B. . ea, eo eo oo coxpaeo ceoeo oope. B acoee pe ca a cyecoa Maoe ca eoeeo ac yyp ae cpa coecoo epoa, ooy eo eoxoo coxpa, a a copec a. Hao e pe yopoa Maoe, pepa eo oea ooe ye, ce oe apay a yex xpaee axepo.

TEPATPA Pca capa. M., Xyoecea epaypa, 1989. e M. . Cap eepyp. . A. C. Cyopa, C.-eepyp, 1889.

. Auue. o (Oep cooo ya oc). oc, 1989, 10.

B. . epao. e ca Aay? a opoca, 1990, 9.

C. Meea. Maoe 2000 e. epaypa aea, 1989, 33, 16 ayca.

B. Huaymuo. He ao x oxopo. xo ae, 1991.

Caa pe y. Beep Mc, 1989, 5 ayca.

Hao a e... acoc, 1990, 18 op.

E. aape. a epx. Haya pe, 1990, 8.

. oe. a epeaxopaa Caa. Apye a, 1990. 1.

Maoe coepc a cpeca . Apye a, 1991. 38.

A. . oep. Cep oa. ep. c a. M., Mea, 1988.

ABAX opeae op epox ee aa y pecaee pax pac, apoo, paoopax epoa yyp cep a caa c pao opea opa... Moo o oca o pae pepacoe pyccoe apee aa, co oeaeoe yooe aopa, o cpac ayo ocoepoc , oe , ea oya ac yo, a oa e eo apoc opeae op. Oe a o opoc oaaoc e a-o poco.

pee e ay co eoeeco a, a yo co ocoe p xpoooecx acca aeoo ea, o ae cooo oeppoa cox paccyex. a, ae e po e a pe (aeo) o (eo), oac e, o oc eeee, oooco oapoe pooco. Mey pe ae eo (aeoo) o ae eo (eoo) a ee oa yypa oxa cpe ae e, eo. eoe ox eoa pee ceo pooo ope e, o ep ppy coay.

oe ceo copo eec o oooc cyecoa opee ye oxy aeoa, ooy paccop o epo opoee. Ta a oxa aeoa a oe eo, eo opae a pae yype epo. epoe opaeee aeoa peo 1869 oy ape e Mope. Eo accae ye ooac, a a copeeoe, oee cooe, paeee aeoa e ocaex a aa. a, pa aeo ec a ceye yype cye (cy epx);

ae, ae yce, o aeo (cy epx) a op, cope ae. Bce cye aa o e poo eep ( ocoo a eppop pa), e oapye ce o o yyp.

B cceope, aao epa, ae pe cce Pe, ec oca oa, oopy 16741679 . ocea cceopc eaeec eoo peop aco o.

ox Heaep. B ec oo eoea, oa oe ecoo ex pax, oa a aaa oo Heaepa, o ee Heaepa. eo a 1856 oy epe oapy ceee oca epeo a eoea, aaoo ec o o eaepae. a, eaepae o eoe ox paeo aeoa, peece copeeoo a eoea.

epe cop eoeeca axopoe o opee eaepae, oocec ycepcoy yypoy epoy (c. acca). B 1908 oy eape Oo ayep cea ooo ocea Myce oe pe Beep (a pa) epecoe, yeoe ope: o ae oy eaepacoo o, eo ecoo eco c e aa. B eyoo oe ea eo cee o oe, oopo oxopoe o oa: a pao oy, paa pya o ooo, o coy. Ooo ceea ea peee opy ecoo ooex epx oce: o a epoy a opoy eoc.

oce o axo, oopa yea ox o, o eoeecoe coyce yaee epoy ocxo cop eoeeca ca pe peea, cea e p pyx oox op. Haoee ec x, oay, ec ope apxeooo Aecee aoe Oao oy opee eaepacoo aa ox Myce poe Te-Ta (eca). Eo oc ea eo yye. Bopy epea oy e poa cpcoo oa, pe o opaoa opy epea aa eoe ooe opa. Heaeo o o ce eooo ocpa, oop ope oe opooe pe. Booo, o o pya oo, e ooee opee.

Ba apyeo oy cyecoa peaepex axopoe eaepae A.. Oao ca ae , oopx axo x oc:

a oc pocxoee ax , x cyecoae ocaec ao o pae epe yx cyax. ep ae-o-Ce, opo, ca pae, poe -oa ( py).

o e pepee oe Oaoa, xapaepa ocoeoc aex eaepacx oco oaooe x pacooee ooo a oco a aa, a e a ceep, pe, ee: aao Epoe, py, aece. A.. Oao ca, o cya o e oo yaao a ocooe ooee e o ox ep cep, ae peoaao cyecoae y eaepae eoeo coeoo ya.

Cyeceo oo, ca A.. Oao, eaepae ye yec, o epe e poco c, o o ooe ey y ocoe ao, aeceo e, e o ooe oy eoey. O e poco oca epea a oepxoc e o oe, ao eo aca cep, a paa ey, oa ee e ooeeo eo, opeeey, cpoo epay oy;

a eo e a oao, e a poc, a opeeeo apae ooo a oco aa, aoe, oea eo y aca ee. Oca ceye, o y eaepaa ye o ae-o e o aeceo o ope cyecoa yepx oce cep, . e. epe e o a poo.

Oao Oao yepe, o o ax opeex oycepcoe pe (ocope ee pa a acca aae a C. P.) oop e pxoc. O ca eccop, o co aee peea o ococoa oyoe, oyce op pya c cooecy ypoe pa coa.., B I960 oy ec aepac apooo apxeoo P. Coe eepe aap ( pae) oapy- oaeeoc e eaepae. epe ecoo e payc aeooa Ape epya-ypa, ccey apco aopaop oy, y pacoa ece c eep aapc ceeo, oapya aoe oeco pace, oopoe peocxoo coe epoe, pe oe-e a a a ooax, a po c eoop x coxpac ae oca ace ea. oo cea opae o, o oy apoca oxaa eo, copax a coe op, pecae o py, oopo paea yep oxo.

Moe pee apo a o cox coeeo e, eee coca xopoo ec. Baae o pya peceoa oe yapy e: yepey peocaac oooc oec epyc oo poo ce, a a e. oy e c apoa epea aax e, epay epoe oyee o epoo ea. Ho oa o-o ae, o e o paco, o ceac peeo ape. apo peoa y ycya eco ceeco. o ce e poc e a o a a yae.

pex e a oe o copoa ca poecc cep: cee, o pay a, a coy ay ceecx yc;

oo x pac oceeo ey, eec aa ya oaa;

aoe, co, ae ea, yeyac, e ypa. Bec o poecc coo oe eoeecoo , pyo caa, o eo opoo y pace eapcee y x coa.

Bce o a, c pyo e coacc. Ho ocoo opoc aaec o, acoo opaao epeecee oae epoa oex yyp a eaepae, oopx oe yee yopo oaac paa pa o yceoy cxecoy pa oee ox ox.

Heoope yee ca, o ye oee ox oo oapy opeeee ec, xapaepe peaepeoo axopoe: apacae ocao copoa ee, ea, a oopx o e, poee, a o ecx eaepae e ee e paa coceo eoeeco cx oapyee oca e ca peaepe axopoe.

py apyeo poo axopoe y eaepae ec aoe oeco oapyex axopoe, ocyce ex opo o cex oapyex axopoex.

ca, o ce yepe eocaoo yee. eceo, oe peee pocpaca aeoa, ece ocoeoc oax a pao eppop ee, opee axopoe oee yype ox o o a yaay paoxapaepoc axopoe. Ho, o, ce-a ceye pa, o epe axopoe oc ye ycepcy oxy paeo aeoa paea eaepaa.

C epo oxo oeo aeoa, o ec c opco yypo oxo, ca ceee oca eoea, oope co oac o ecoy y o eaepaa e, o peca oee co ypoe pa, coppoa oee oo. Ta opao, c ox opa aaec oa ca cop pa eoea, aeyac oee copeeoo eoea, oopoo ooaae a Homo sapiens fossilis. paye , aaee ae o , eapoa, opao pe pacpocpae o ee, e eaepa, oca oce ce oocee ceeca cooo ooecoo, oeceoo yypoo pa.

C oo epoa aac ye eccope opeae op. eco oo opee, oocxc opy. B oe o x oo caa, o epx xopo aco a e, e o o oo , a ca oa o eco. oa a py po a oa, ec e ee oo, eo oopao pepaaoc ee oy. B pyx ecax epx xopo ceao oax oax, pe oa oaa ooy o a. oe-e a ooy, py o ooa aaa a, a yo xoe peype oooc epoo ca. o, epoo, aoc cpaxo epe ep, opae oopx yo o ce oo cocoa ocpecoa. ooy epx oac ca xopo co copeo e. Mepeo oa oca eepe, a xo ee aaa o ae. Hepeo py oo ooy oca paco paco. C ep oy a oo pax apo ypae, aee opy, y.

opcx opee oe oe oy poy ecoc, acoc, opeee oxoo a aoo, opoe 1894 oy peoc ooo pepoa (a exocoa). ec o aeo 20 ceeo, opeex copeo ooe opaex ooo ceepy. Moa a oao op, ea 4 epa y 2,5 epa py. Oa ee copoa a ooea oaa aoo, pya x ec. Cepxy opeee o opo coe ecox ae oo 3050 caepo, oope o cy ao o papye o x ep. peoaaec, o oy pe o pee a ypax eo ee.

B 1891 oy cao epe . po o pe aaaox pao paoe oapy a ye 4,5 epa oy opcoo oxoa a aoo. B eyoy y, oopa, aepoe, a caa ypa, oo epoo oxoa, oe aeo oeoo oey yp, ypaey oc pyoa. Ooo py axoc aee opy opye. Mepoo oca paco oxpo o oaey, oe pacpocpaeoy oa, ap oao aoa, oepo aoo e, aca o.

B e 1949 oa o pe apxeooecx pacoo co oxoo a aoo ox Becoax (a exocoa) oapy axopoee e. ea a ooea a o copeo ooe, epoo, caa peapeo pee. B oy ooe pee o, ca a;

eo yepe oca paco paco pp y oaa aoa, a oo oopx oaaac aaoa pea, oe ea ooee opeaoy opy.

oeaeoece oxo xopo e oo pocx, o ee.

Oa ax aoee ecx o a oapyea Meoe (pa) coce eoo poe ee. B opeay y ooe oe ee";

oe o o oe pyoo, ooy aec, o o yep oopeeo. Capey o ooo ec e. e ooe a cy, py y o ea.

Heyoo o oo ee oaaoc opeee e, ee ye oxopoe poc ya, cee oopoo ea a ce, epe oc o peoxpac o papye o ae a, ooe a a.

o o oo a oapyea ee oa. po a ece ocpa ea cee oooo y a pao oy copeo ooe, a o o acac aa. oe po a ooea oa ea, oe copeo ooe, ee oe o acac oopoa. Bce opee oocc oxe opa.

o pye opee poo Meo a Pepe op ee 1870 1881 . ec payc apxeooo e Pepo.

TEPATPA Oauo A.. O ae axopoe eaepae cop epoo yyp, Coeca opa, 1952, 3.

Bue . B. poea oo eccep. Hoocpc, Haya, 1990.

Ayycma ., ypua 3. peeo eoea. Ap. paa, 1960.

Cucapeo A. . Tpe oc ypoc. ec eco Epo. ., ea, 1989.

ABA XI Ta aea apaycpa...

Cpe oocex cao, p, aeoo o Xoe Hacpee ec o eca cpa ce. oae, oop Hacpe opo aco co poea, pea y acea, o o oe ya eo a. Hacpe apae py aep yeae cea. pexa coce ay, o axo o y, e eo, o oco oa ocepca, caa a co yoa. Tpy e coe aep xp Xoa oca a ece, oepe ao. Hacc, cpa caa: Ha ece e oae a, e ee aop? ocep ya ocae co o a aep Hacpea. Ta oya ee a pya, o aec o, py ya c ec. Hacpe oae cpa p a, oe yy, o eo oe y a cpaa, po cyo. o a caa, ya oae Hacpey eo ooa co pacay o, a py aep ao xopo a ae.

Bepyc poo ay, Hacpe xacae oye ooo eyo, yep, o e x a py coe aep. oa ce oae pocc o oa ca ya cox aepe-capyx , oo py pya, ycc o ceo. Ca o xo o cey peaa py oe a eye ooo, o x ce poa cea, a, o y x cox capyx xaae.

E. . Typcyo, yoa aaxce, pce, ypece, ooce, yce pye apa cea, e o pee pocxoe oo, oecyx o ayx c eo yo aep:

B cop c ep eo co poae pe oa aeoo axopoe yepeo, oa co pee oa eoa aaa eoa...

epo opaec y, o coep aeoe axopoee yo aep, eae o a, a oo peye oa: oeae ee, caae opaec oae o cee. Oao o eooee ay, oope epo poeae c pyo, coy eo oaa xpoc, ceecye o o, o caa opaa ye a, o e op. o ooe oec ooee oa o pee e oee paeo cpeeo aa ox po.

ec ac ye opa ec op pep yeo 1923 oy e oop Bexo aee ae po pep aeoo axopoe y epox ee acpacx aopeo. Tye ee appep (a Acpa) ocya ea cox yepx a ee oe, ca c x oy, opaa oxpo oea a a ooce.

ee aya yyppa (Acpa) eo oooo oea a ceeo ee ooce, a cyx epea, oca a, oa e oac ec cee. oce oo oc oepa opo yoc a ocoy oy, e e ee cac opy x ay. o ooa o paypo epeo oc ooc opao a epeo ye ooaeo oca a.

Aaoe op opee a epe epee cyecoa y eoopx ecx ee Ceepo Aep. B aepaco xyoeceo e Ha poe o, paccaae o copeex ee peepa, ec ao o.

pya oox ee, cy o c e, cacaec o peceoa oecx. O oc o ce ceoa oa peo. o, oa epecpee oae x oap, o pea oxopo eo o capoy opy oo oopye a epe coc.

To, o op aex axopoe coce o apoa, axoc a ca epooo oeca, oepa ac Ceaa pae-oa, oceeo 17371740 oax aay: B o pe, a pye ca cox ooo, opea ee oce ocox opo, aaa, aoopo, pa pee ee epea, aca eo p o y e oca a ceee coaa. O ca, o cee coaa epe a o cee ye e xopoy coa ypy.

Oooc oae aex axopoe coxpac peox opex oeooo. Oeoo coey yee apayp, oeoe e-Aece cex ecax c oeap eo popoec oye. B aapx xpao oeooo x oax ooc oceo ce o. Pe apeae ca apa e yepx, o e ocep e ca oo e, ooy x ea oa a ceee a.

Bepe o x cpax oax e oeoc yca eoo ocee eo Cypaxa, pacooeo 20 o ay. Ta ooc pecappoa op ocopa xpa oacp cx oeooo XVIIXVIII coe Aex. C IV ea . . cex coax ec yoa o eo oe, ope x ecax, ye epe oy caoocaeec ae eax oax ex aee. Mece oeoo e oca e a o yo. pee ca aeoo ocaa oeoo ocpo a o ece xpa oacp c 26 e. Ceac e o coeopa ye, a epe oacpcoo opa a ep yo ooa xpaa op e oo, oepae ao, ocya oex pe epe cyco cpae ceax xpaa py.

Ho oey oacpc oec Aex ocoa ce oeoo? Be paoa oac pacpocpae ye apayp oxaaa eppop copeex paa Aepaaa. eo o, o pe oeooo a ooc ecea acya cao. pee epc, oceoae apayp, ea VIII ee o peceoa pacx ycya o peea Xaa Oapa III ope yea Xopacaa, a ae epecec a ocpo Op. Ho ec x e oca ooe ycyace aaap. oa oeoo epepac a apycx cyax a oepee axaapa o paoe ooo 1000 e. B 1599 oy a 717 opax o opac ca oe ocee, a a e cao ooo eco. C op p x epea coo eca yepa. apc (a ca aa ooo pex epco-oeooo) oe cyce pyoe peece opo, ooy ce , cpec aoy x coe pacopee, oea py c pyo. Ta, ax Axaaaa epece apco co ae, a oe, p aaax, apc cocpeooc Maxapacpe. B acoee pe ooo c apco poa oee. O aa pepoaoe ooee opoe acoo oo aa, a a eo apc oee ceo e aepaoe aooye, x cpe o oo oax opoe, yo poeo.

oa e oeoc oa oee, o cpay e ae a eo yax apco, peo oaxc o oee o pox yco. My oe epe, aceye a ce yo, aa oc a ooe oooopae coe a. ec e, oee, cyecy pae a oa, cyae opeax opo apco.

Bce epe a a oo oee ya po opo, epeo y coeo aca. B oxopo a oa e ocy oo poce yepeo. Teo yepeo apca o pyo ece oaec a ocax a epy a aec a peey coepeo pae. Hoc cpea yea , a a p eeeo apacac a co oy. B eee aca o epoo ea ocac oc. oa p cea coe eo, pcy ae oa cea a cpaca oca o pee, yo ooe a o a. Ta opao coaec eocepee epex cex cx: o, o, e ea.

TEPATPA paeuuo COcae e aa aa 19 O opee yepx//0, eopa, M, Typcyo Eeec aaxco oo ca Aa-Aa, 1973.

pep . oop Bexo aee. M, oa, 1989.

aa p Hacpea. M, a. pe ocoo epayp, Haya, Pye B 4. o copec yo eca , Haya, ABA XII Oeoe opeee ec coec cop apxeoo opc Aecapo Pao oea, o o opeao opoc pae, opo peo oaec py o pya, op opeaoo opa oea cyecee epee ocoa pa, o ape pa, oopy pe eoe coaa cee coea oaaeo peaoc c ec pecae o peoaaex, ex cax, paccex, a ey aaoc, ppoe.

Ta, y peo ca o epa o Oepa o pacpocpaeo opeee pyo copex oax. Copee opee poa oy poa aepco pee;

copeoc ocaac cycce cae pya.

Po oo yepeo o opoy poe a ee, epeooe (peapa) eo oo x cyec. Copeoc pyo a accooe ee coxpaec o pyea poooo ea ea eeoo. oe-e apxaa copeoc oae o VI . o . . Ha cey copeoc pxo oa opa opee: ooo xopo yo ooe;

yep c, ocaac eoeo (coo eoeo ooo) e ooc o opoy poe, ooe pyo cyece.

Caa paea epeea opeao ope caa c oee pea, ooo coe pyo. e pea ae caa c pecaee o eo ce, o ee ecpeoc eoc, o eep e axo ooe ecoeco eo, ya y yepx oaa c o opeaoo ocpa.

p apxeooecx pacoax aaec cocyecoae oex op:

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