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COBPEMEHHA MAHCTECA TEPATPA oea cxoaaeco epayp o oe peae M. M. Peeoa A. . ea Cepe Pae TAHATOO HAA O CMEPT Bocoo-Epoec

cy cxoaaa Ca-eepyp 1994 COEPAHE ABA I. Memento mori.

ABA II. Cep eca ooeca.

ABA III. pao a ey cep.

ABA IV. O cep, e, o epyc.

ABA V. o py.

ABA VI. opeee ao.

ABA VII. Ceecye py.

ABA VIII. Heee o.

ABA IX. My aoee.

ABA X. opeae op epox ee.

ABA XI. Ta aea apaypa.

ABA XII. Oeoe opeee.

ABA XIII. Cpeoe ae.

ABA XIV. Tpa Bocoa.

ABA XV. cycco a.

ABA XVI. a... ooa.

ABA XVII. poe apaoo.

ABA XVIII. e epe.

ABA XIX. ooca apooo pa.

ABA XX. Maycao e.

ABA XXI. B ocax cpa eccep.

ABA XXII. epeceee y.

ABA XXIII. Ecece o pace ca ea.

ABA I Memento mori* H a coe, a cep e cope yop apoyo ocy copeex e coceo copoc ceo, o cao co cep. Ceo oco poaec ypae ye e o pe pooo oa, a ax oax. epeoep ce Mpay, eoe oy opoe ocooee o poe, eoe aco cep cao ocoo oco oaoc, o coceo oe e po paccya. M oepeae opacaee ooee o pay o cep, ypa yeco oop o e peo opace, xooy pooae oce y cox pox x.

oa-o o ya opoo ceoa oxopoe poecc, oao ypae aaa copooaa opecea ya yxox opecpo, a ceac ae paype e e ce c opo aoyco-aaao, axc eeeo ecoae oo a.

Bpoe, cea o coceo ea paoopo o cep, ae cao coo yepe oceeo pe capac ae a-o py, oee ce pae: opac y p, paa oo , poy o. Aaoe oe ay a coo yepe ec pyx ax: aco to go (y), to take the ferry (cec a apo), to hop off the twig (cpy c e);

eeo die Augen schliessen (ap aa), heimgehen (y oo);

o o cep (am.) aco ritornerare al nulla (epyc y);

caco irse al otro potrero (opac a pyoe ace);

o payco casser sa pipe (coa co pyy), il dit bonsoir a'la compagnie (o opoac c oae). Tae capac e pooc coo ae. Beco oo pycco e yope oe eco ycooe, aco God's acre (oe oe), eeo der heilige Ort (coe eco), caco chacarita (aea epa), o payco boulevard des allopges (ye yap).

aeae pycc cae-cap Mxa Mxao oeo ca coe ococo e epe ocxoo coa: Ooee cep o oa eax poe, c oopo epeeo caaec eoe coe .

Oao a poea e oo e papeea ( epaype, cycce, oco), o oa ae ao poyaa. Peee ee peocaeo aoy eoey oeoc. Ay eoeec ca, y. O oaae o opoc o ocex e, oa pea ye oo. e oee oo opoc, oo coae, o c o cep aca pacox... cpaac cep, a ae e oeo, oop ac oco pcc o (15611626), a y ee o poe cpax ycaec caa, a e oo cpax cep.

Copeee cceoae eoeeco aeocx coac o, o cae epe poec c y eapoo eaepae o a o co caocoxpae, cpeee po coe cyecoae, peooe eopaoc cep. ea o cep, ca coec ao ao oo o oocoep, e oa ee, e ae, e ce cocpeooee, yee pae c o e, e ca ce oee e oa ee (o aa aya e oa cep e ppa c e c), eoe, opc a cyecoae, a co , a co c ycpec eo , eccep. ae o e o, ae c e oa. O e epa e c o eo ... B yepo-aoco oce o aee III cee o ae p epe cpeaec c oyea ceeco cpaxa cep. epo oca ae a oaae cep coeo pya y:

poa ce oe eo pya, aec, o y cae. Ho a ceo e eo oc po ep, o, o o ye e epec, oxopo eo. Cex op e a oo. Teo oeo pya paccaoc pax ceaoc c ee. a, o e cyea aa e yac. Moe eo ae pepac pax y. cpayc cep...

Moe oc p 13, xo e oy oc, e x cpa o co.

p y pa apoo ooaac ya , oaaec, y pex epee co coo cep cac o ao. Bo acoo ce cpax cep, o ae e ea ye ae ca 13, ce pao capaec ea eo.

B o e ea p 4, o o o e pe: p e epoa c o y a pyo epo, oaa cep. B ocx oax e cpee aa c oepo 4, a ec ae ooaoe, o yaaee a e aee eepoo aa.

Be ocyap Mococ ce Pyc caoepe, ap Mxa eopo Poao (15961645) o epecax pay o cep a eooc yep o... py.

eco, o poccca epapa Eaea epoa oe oac ooo: oa ae e xoa o o, e ea oo. oa pa Apac yep apco Cee aeo a, o eo eo ec o aep. ooo eooa opa oo, o o e yep o ope. p e 1755 oy e ya, apea oc o opa ooo.

Copee c oco xaaa p Pae cox Paex o peex cyca oop: ... oa o-y a-y yoa o cep, pe aa poa. a o ae ep coae aa co cya oo ooy, o o-o oop o yx Ee. B pyo pa oe oop o cep o pyax, py pe apoa, ya oep coae. Ec cep a cpaa pea, o oa oop o eo yeax? oey cep ae ao cpax? Moee cee peca yy oc cep? Toa o oe e ya.

ec, paa, yec oeo, ocooe xaaa p Pae aae, o ya ca yo, aoap oey y eo cpaxy cep a oe, copec ya ape ayaa poc 460- oy o . . oo ceepx ec , opecocx opoa aaacy. ayaa poc ece epaoc, o oa, yea apcoo opa oaac a yax opoa e pcopa cy, o epe ye eo ooo eoea, ae yooo eo , aoe, eo yepeo eoea. opce oae, 29-e ayaa pe oy poo o ce pa cace coe y oce ox cpac ca aoe oc oo ocooo coco, oopoe aaec yxa pocee.

Ooee cep eec pae copece ox. o e eoopx copeex yex (. Apec) ooee cep cy aoo, aopo xapaepa a.

Cep Copaa a oe coe peopeea ooee cep cee peoc. Cep, oop Copa (469399 o . .), poope ac cyo cepo a oa, oa pe oece ey ay oo y, o oo yx: o yepe, a ca e, a o yep eo ye e ycye, o e, ec ep pea, o aa-o epeea y, epeceee ee ex ec pyoe eco. Ec eo e ycoa, o o ce pao, o co, oa c a, o ae eo e o ce;

oa cep yeoe popeee. C pyo copo, ec cep ec a epeceee oca pyoe eco epo peae, o a axoc ce yepe, o ec o-y ye oo? a oo yepe oo pa, ec ce o paa: e o ocxeo ec a ece... Ee oee e a ooo oaao ooee cep ypa (342 270 o . .). B ce coey pyy Meee o ca: pa ya, o cep ac o: e ce xopoee ypoe aaec oye, a cep ec ee oye... Cao , caoe yacoe o, cep, e ee a aoo ooe: oa ec, o cep ee e, a oa cep acyae, o ac ye e.

o ec ypa eoopao appoac oocex paax ox Bopoe oee oeo pee. B aece oo pepa yae a pay paycoo oa a-pacya apa (17311811):

Cep coepeo e peo Boopaee oe:

oa ec e oe ee, A ec oa e y e oe.

B copeeo oece aaec ee ece cep oeoo coa, oa, o yepe aax coooo, oeco ee ce a, a yo ooe o e ypae, cep a e poae ao pe cpyype oeca. B aoee ycpapoax cpaax aaa oa eoea ocaea a, o oa caoc eo ox oo pae pepaee, ax oxopo eco. He ye, a o oo aeo xye oco eo y ac. ey e y yc? o e epayp, yep o ox ooe, ypae ece opa.

peee acoe peee eeo op oo a ooaee eco aoo eoea. ao opa papy a cycce p o eaco epeec ay cep. Be payc ce Me Moe (15331592) coeoa: cep ee aaooc, pcopc e, pyc e, pa o e ae, ee o e-o pyo... Ta ocya ee, y oopx oa oc opecey ay, apy c ca y ca aa, y aoo-y ooa, o oa cya aoae pyx... o ayc ypa, o payc pao. oooc yepe ae ac o coo oe pye... eceo, oooeoy eoey cep pecaec ecece ao eoo y, a e ecxo paxo. aoy oy pxo o ox cpaax. Paaec ce oe ooco o eoxooc ceao ooo c eca, paaec ceaa aya aaoo, pe cpa ceae ypc o poea cep ypa e yee a ox yepceo e oo a ayeax e, o cxoo, oco paa.

o e aoe aaoo? o aya, yaa cep, ee p, poecc poe. Ooae o, oaaee aya, xopoo a eco o a epa a oo, oo, ooo. Coo e aaoc epeoe c peecoo oaae cep. Ta, e Aaac ae cpeaec c ope. aca a- ao cyae oaae opae, a aac o eeoe o eyaaeoc aaoc (cpae eop Teoop) ce ece oaae a-aaoc, eccep.

Ho e e ycpaae peeoe yo ecoe ooae epa aaoo. poea cep yaec e oo ea ooa, o opaa: opeae op cae c coa, oop oo peca coo aoe cpeco oa apox oae pa. He ya a poea apxeooo, oope a ocoe aepax ocao aex ox ac peocpypoa xapaep opee pecae pex e o cep apoo pe. Moopao cpeac c eo cep cop epayp. Peaa a poea ocoo. Cep o opex apaepo oeoo coa, a ocoy oceee e ocaec xoe cop eo, o ee e oy e pac ae cax ooe eoea cep. yee ycaoo ooe cep oe po ce a ycao e ooe oco ee eoc.

ooy ocpe cep, apooo pa, ce ey ep e, ocyee oopx oo cyeceo yy oae copa coao-yypo peaoc yx ox.

coae, o cx op y ac e yeo oo o aaoo ee poo oa. Copa py cee o aaoo pax oace a e, oo, oo, cop, apxeoo, opa, oo oac oco o poe.

TEPATPA pacya e apoyo. Meyap. Mac. M., 1971. e M. . Cap eepyp. . A. C. Cyopa, C.-eepyp, 1889.

xaaa pu Pae. opoe epo. Pae o peex cyca.

ya, , 1974, C.

A. M. ae. oe ay e. ., 1988. Peep .. M ee peeo ype. M., 1965. ypeu A. . Cep a poea copeco apooo: o oo apae apyeo copopa. Occe, cceoa o coao cop cop yyp. M., Haya, 1989.

ABA II Cep eca ooeca a o apaocao y, ey cep e co eoo epexoa, a o oa pecaec. o oe cy pepe acye cep?

Oco pao cep ocee coe cyo ocyce xa.

Caoc, o ocaoo oepa epae oe y, o yec cep ocyce aoea oaao pepaee xa. oa pa oea yy epe oco po eoea, o opee eoyoe ee oyxa, oaee p xa. B pyx cyax a py yepey ca caa, aoe oo, p xaex ex oa pacecaac.

Ho ee poo ee aeoc x po a opoepya. pae oo oo pocao xae, e ep , o ae oooc eee eoo pee oxoc e oyxa aoa e, epeecx ax, o oo. Xpecoa ca pep ooa Toycea, pooo ocaoeo xae epe ocyo oocx pae. Ocope eo coca ceeco o cep, o paoc o oa, a a cey e o oop epe o e cepe.

py paa cep cac pepaee pooopae (ceoee yca) ocaoa eeoc cepa. oaaeca pepae pooopae y yepeo ca ae o, ec e aa ec (ce, , aoopo, ee), o oaao, o pooopaee e pepaoc, eoe cac . B 1918 oy payc aooaeco o po ooee, coaco oopoy oepe cep eoxoo o pacce caee coy yey apep. Ec oce oo e acyao pooeee, eoea paa yep. aoo peycapaoc ae ypeoe eee opecpyeo pacopa: ec eoe , epe oaca cce ooo a popea eeoao-e e.

Oao pep cep opoepac aa pooo ocao cepa c oa. payc apoo a Baco e poo o c apo, cepe oopoo coaco oaa ox popo e yopoao eee 12- y. Texa oo ypae oc aae acaa. yc ae oe ocycoa cyax aooo o eoo oxae. Ceye ae, o c pae eoo aycy-a (cya) cepa epoapopa aoca cep caa ooceo eooo.

a, pepaee pex e (pao cepa, xa pooopae) ooe pe caoc cep. Ho pae peaaoo co opo oo XX ea acao ooaeo epeoe e. Ceo cepe oe paoa c oo epocyopa, ee oy a cece e exaecoo pecpaopa, py po oo poo epe aapa cycceoo pooopae. Ta opao, capoe opeeee cep ypao cy. a ocaoc aae eca cep, o ec aoe cocoe, oopoe oe opao aoap yc pae o occaoe xa, cepee, pooopae.

B apceae copeeo e ceac acac ec peo o oy eoea coco eco cep: ap (epe pyy ey) op acca cepa, epocy cepa, eo cycceoo xa (xae po--po . .), cyccea e ex c oo ceax aapao. Eeeo peaaoo opaa c e, e cocoe paee paceaoc a cep.

oo cep eco cyecye cep ooeca, o ec aoe eopaoe cocoe opaa, oopoe copooaec py e, o oopx paccae oee. Caec, o eoe ep, ec eo o e yopye, a ooe e e ya o, cpyex eaopao.

Ho oe cyc a, o peyae ec peaaoo pa yaoc occao eeoc cepa, o aa pooopaee, c oo aapaa cycceo e ex oepa xaey y, o o p o o, pe o eopao. a oa pacea cocoe eoea? o ep? C o pe capoo opeee cep , a a y eo ec cepe, po pypye o cocya, oepaec ocoa eepaypa ea, C o pe ooo, copeeoo opeee, payeo acyee cep a cep oa ao eoe ep. o ooe opeeee cep e coce ecoe e coce ooecoe. Oo e paoo ecoe, ooy o oee ee y coxpac eoope opa pooa . He ooc ooecoe, ooy o oe eec eax e pepaaec. Oo, copee, oac ea: cep eoea oaec o cep cex pyx x cyec. Ec eoe cyecye oo ooec e coa, o caec yep, o o ep a oc.

B peyae e oa eopao cea ce eo y, a ae caocoeoe xae. eeoc cepa oepaec eep oo aoap cycceo e ex. Co oo o aapa cycceoo xa, cepe ocaoc, acy ooeca cep.

Ho ee pa pao a o a ae oo a, o ooo o eopao o? He ye o yco? o oe a ce oeceoc aapa?

B peyae ocye oo opoca eco oeceoc a pe eyapox opyo, a ae aooae opaa ox cpa o pao pa yo oe cep, ca ee c eopa opae oooo oa a cycpaa oc eoea, opeeeo eo coay ooecy cyoc. Heopaoy opae oooo oa o ao aae cep oa. oyo pae cyecoae yx exao pa ooeco cep eoea: ooo, c ep pepaee cepeo eeoc xa eee cpoa, caeo oooc occaoe oa, ooo, opeeeoo cep oa.

Hooe opeeee cep, a cep oa ae p coxpae eeoc cepa, oyo pae cpe eo a pyeo 70-e o. B e CCCP pa co pyoocoac opeeee c 1985 oa, oa a yepea Mpao CCCP coacoaa c aooae opaa cpa cpy o ocaa cep peyae ooo eopaoo pepae y oooo oa.

Hooe opeeee cep, a cep oa, ao e p cox ecx poe. pee ceo, pyo oaaoc e pecae o cyoc cep, caaec eee cee cpee e, aex o e, ocoeo c c oooc opao y ox c c cepe epeca x pyoy eoey.

Oepoe pecoe opeeee cep a ocoa pepae xa cepee c c oo oee cep oa oaaoc ycape. o o pe oo oeco aycecx cyex e. B 1971 oy opee (a Opeo) cyo peac opoc o pe cep eoea c ye paee, axoeoc eccoaeo coco, c paa epecoo oa oa a epoeaopae, oopoy pooac cyccea e ex. o ooo ee epeca.

Bopoc aac o, o oc po cep: eee opao paa, aecea ye? pce p oy, o eocpeceo po cep oc yeoe paee, o ec pae oe ce e a yco p cax ocoecax. Cooe o oox cyex eax, a ae o pyx, ee oee ayax, opaa e pyoc, oopx oo o ea, ec cocoe cep oa a poe cep eoea opeo pec cayc.

eo c c pyoc ae cpae cooae cpy o ocaa cep peyae ooo eopaoo pepae y oooo oa oa papeeo opaeoy cy ocaoo oooex eex ypee, co oopx oe pacpc oceeo. Aoa, c o pe aoa, paoep p apaa oee paa.

Bo-epx, o oe pooa peaaoe epop cycey e ex o o ececeo ocao cepa, o aaec a oo e, a oa ae a ecoo ee. o copeo c eccceo pao opoocox eaeo pee, a ae c coxpaee eopaax ae y poceo aea, ao ocooae paa o eo cxooeco oeceoc p oe aapaa cycceo e. Bpa oe ae o pecpaop coo po o cep ooo, o pecaec paoep a c eco, a c ooeco oe pe, o oaaec cxooec e paa. Haoe, pa, ycao cep, oe epea aea c paoa cepe pacaooa cooa opao, ocoeo cepa, ex epeca py o. B o cyae pepaee peaaox epop ocyece pa-pacaoo. Bop oo x apao opeeec a cxooe paa, a ce oeco ocoec, cax c ope ec cyae.

B ocee o ce ae oc ya, ocyae peaa ox c o oo, aae ay peaa eccce epaeec ypco. oee oo, paac ooca, peye a ooy pao caoy pacopac coe cyo. a poea acoo coa eoaa aeo oeca, o pe oc e oey ay.

TEPATPA oepA. . Cep oa. ep. c a. M., Mea, 1988.

ABA III pao a ey cep B epaypo aee 33 o 16 ayca 1989 oa o aeaao co B. Cpcoo pao a ey cep. Aop peaa ocy opoc o eoxooc pecae aoy eoey paa a aa ey, eoeey cep o eo ea, c oo eo. Pea oya oee ca oo a y ya a, opoc o yoo oye ae oeco.

poea aa apaae a opoca: o pae eoea a op ey cep oo paa eo o oa e a pae eoea, paeo cep, a oo ea. Cooc poe eo o opo.

Caoyco eco c peex pee, o a pax aax pa oeca oocc oy e o-paoy. Ha ae epoo ooo cpo pa coxpae poa ooe o opooo yep ce cap. B oco e eea o Hapae oaa oooc oo oa e ooc capo a epy ceo op, e e opooo pa cep o ooa.

B peoc paec y cex apoo cyecoao opoooe pecee ce epy oa o oecex epeco.

Caoyca o o ox cpaax c oaaeco epoc yy.

B pco cop ece cya, oa op, ea pya, ya o cep cypya, ee pooa opc opx ye. H. M. apa coe cop ocyapca Pocccoo ceecye: Ca e xoe epea ye opooo coac a ocpe c x pya. Boa a ececa ceeco. O o e oae caocoe o y ca oop oca apac yo aao oxopo oaoo pyca.

Oa epopoe e yepx ye ooe poo pacpocpae y oape. o pyaoe caocoee epe coe aao y apapxaoo ya oa o A. Caocoee o (Ca) popeo paoo acco xapaep coxpaoc o eaeo pee. Ocoeo po oaa o oa aco xyoeceo e aee ap.

y coc co oec ec: caoyco a cyee oopa oex opae. ooe opa oee oca ae Bexo aee, eo ocyae e caoyoe. B acoc, pe yee yoae Caya, aooeo ce oce opae a oe . Pc epaop Hepo, oepe opaee ope a ac, ae o ce c , pocc a oy e e.

Oa caoyca ooe oe poo pacpocpae ay oxy. aoea acee peoo aeo cee Aoa a ce , a a peoa opooy cep ecpaeo a. peepeec oco- oe Coc (o. 404-323 . o . .) coaco eee oo caoyco, aepa ocao xae. poope epaopo Hepoo coepe caoyca, ceece cape cp cee e a oex o oe pee-pc oco-ypee y Ae Ceea. oa cpyac po, o yce pooa ca ooe oo, o e aca ca. Eo copee ypee epo, aop aeoo Capoa ae cp cee e a poao py c py. Cae o oep po, o opoc peeo epea cee cpe e, o oce pa acac ee o yooce co. pocyc, o o copa o, o yepe. a cea cep epo ocaa poae epxa Ceea ao pe.

Bo ce peea pa caoyca apy caa c oece oea caa oe, ooe yype. Maccoe peoe caoyca xapaep Pocc oa XVII coe. Caocoe (ap) ceoa oo a py;

a aa e, c 1675 o 1695 o, x o ooo copoa;

oe o o aa c capoope.

o-paoy oocc caoyca pae poe pe. oa ea cpaa, cocax Bce, oac peo eopea xpcaca pexo, a yaea yoea poe cace y. oaa opee a ae oopo xopo a epepecax opo. Cpaaa ce pea, ac aooo aceca. A yo ocac x poapac ae aop paoa a a yco. B Boeo Mopco apye epa I eac ooo cypoa ac:

Ee o ce ye, o epoe eo eo, pa oa, oo o ya, a o oec, a cop a o, pye aoo eao a coo e oaac.

opoo yxo ceo peceyec cpaax aoa. pepy, oe c 1970 o 1986 o apecppoao cpee ceo 12 caoyc a 100 000 acee.

ca ae cpoo ocyae caoooe ee ce . ooy cpaax, coeyx ycyacy pe, o ee cpeaec pae peo.

yeca epa oe co a cpae caoeoc apeae caoyca.

o ac oep, y caoy caoc oo ecp yxa y, ce oc x ec.

o ycaoe pex eco, caoyco paoepx yco cpoo ocyaoc a e pex. Oao peooe caoyco e oo e ocyaoc, o oooc o a caooepoae oy oee o pexo. Taoo poa caoyca () coepac ye caocoe caoyoe. Bc ca epaypa acea pepa aa oooo poa. B cpee ea epeo pooc accoe peoe caoyca. poae epopoe xpaax o a, oa oec opea ac ea ya ce.

Ocoeo acco peoe caoyoe o pe aoeca ce pea p-xa. To, o coepae y (caoyco), o ocae o, . e. ooo ocooe o cpaa eo . Ca eae caoyoe caec eco c aa c ao y opoa Aaxaaa. Cyecy ae yaa o o, a ceye coepa caoyca, a aoee peoe caec cpae pey c ee ceoo aa. o o ceae, o, o oep, oaae oe oa . B Aaxaae o ce e cyecy ceee a, pocpae oce e a y oa aa. a poo, c x epee a pa oy aoee peoce yc, o oo ce ce c e ca opec cacee.

Ee o pe oae peooo caoyca yco ec cep o oeca ex oec. B c c cyecye pyo aoeca xpay aaaxa Opcce. ec eeoo aae ceoa oe p opoo cee aoo cay oo xpaa epeoc pyo oe opoa. B a pac ce ep, o peopa poae cep. Oao oee cya coee c oeco, a ae ye pae pocxo eeoo. oec y aaa oocee pcy xpaa. o oe copoa o x ecy co px opox oeax. oe ap o ea cpac c e, o oec o o opox ex oec, oop poa op aao.

aoa e caca caoyc ae cpae, o cpae c py ocyapca? Eeoo e CCCP opooo paccaac c ooo c eoe. o a ococaa, o 2,5 paa oe e CA. B opeooo Pocc a 100 c acee pxooc p-epe caoyca o (o ca oaae Epoe). B e CCCP, o a HECO, o ypoe oc o 30. B 26, o 19, e-18, aae - 14, CA-12, opya 10, a 8, Mece 1,7, aeae 0,5.

e caoyc, ocoeo ooeo cpee, oe opo aaoe poeee cycca. oaaeo ycaoeo, o oee oy Cpaa oo Bepepa ee, eaoo oca cep o o ecaco , ao ey oy caoyc cpe ooe opaee oy epo. pepo ao e e a pyccoe oeco aaa XIX ea oaaa ea a H. M. apaa. Co aepae coe pe oceoa pepy oe Mp Mopo, epc o opae oopo poo ocyaac ea.

Ocoo ecooc opeoc oac caoyca cxec ox e. B ay y a ocaea oa opee eya, pooa py, peapeo cepyy xeo e. B eoe pa pacpaac ocaa yoe peae pa cco. Bcece oaa e eoa aaoc accoe aoee ae eyy cac e yaoc.

a oo, coepa oy caoyca epeaec o aee cxapa. Ho e cea caoyca coepac coco ocpoo xpoecoo cxecoo paccpoca. Peac a pooo a eeo oe ooe , pecapee, a. oay, e oe pe, poe ae epaoo o opoce cpa, ex caoyca e coy ycycy cce apooc. ocec o pea x eec yac ae ceo a ooee cpaa, e oca ocaeo e.

Bo y epee o opo ocoo poee aeo paoopa o pae eoea, paeo cep, a oo paa, opae a aa (xy cep).

poea aa opoooo yxoa eeo ooo eoea poo ocyaec a aae c oa 50-x oo. B 1958 oy oop e eop oyoa ea p cae, oopx pa eoeeo a pecyo, poopex cepo a, a x ea cooa ayx oo, oee opa epecaox oepa. oee, ca ceee eccceo-ecox caoyc, eop pe c, o oac, eaeo o , pe oo c , eoxoa o oo.

O coecx aex cye eop epee ey aaeoa coe opeee, aaoe ocec ypaca ao cep. C oo oo pcocoe e ae oo cpo eoeeo yep e. B aapae o peycopeo ceaoe ycpoco pepa poeyp cyae, ec opooe eoao e coe peee.

oce ox pepaec oa ex ae ce-a peac oyoa oee ea eopa pepo aoo coepa: Ec pe yepe xoe o cea eoeeo, oap a ey cep.

ep oce eo aeo caa 54-e ae Ac, cpaaa eeo oe. B coe oopyoao o aopaop capeo aoyce eop pe ece ay cep, oceee, o yca o ae, o caco. oo po cye poecc, oca a cep, oeae eopa oee e aac oo oa.

B 1976 oy Bepxo cy aop ec peee, aee o pao oaac o ee, oepaeo . oy pepy oceoa oe pye a. Ceac paa aa oya CA ooo pooe pacpocpaee. He pooc peaa, ec ae aaopeeo caac po ee. Toa a eo poa oec aa c aco apeaypo, oaae e o (HO). Paccaa, o ae xpyp . epap cooa aa oee ocex y coe aep. a oa aa ao opae a ey cep p ae.

p o cyeceo, o ao aa e pe. Aa oa coy cpeca, ycope acyee cep (epeopoa coopoo, cepea e o poce ooo . .). acca eece pae, oa o op a aea. Ta o, CA aoo paa oo opa opa, aa e pec apeea o cex aax, a P oa peceyec yooo ope.

Bpoe, cycc e yxa. Peoe pypo CA oepa pao a yay cep. Aepaca eca accoa, paa accy aa, ooapae ee e po yco. ao yco peycapae. Boeee aea, eo aeae oae. aee oo ceao coco, oa eoe ooao yceo ooc oeee, ocao y cee.

B ca Accoa a pao yepe ocoo ocoaa ee 1973 oy.

aca Accoa opooo aa ecye oee eca e. He o o a ecox ax xo eyapo ypa aa.

A a oocc oy e? o-paoy. e pe paycx pae oop opoo yxo cyae yeo eeo oe. B oa aa oao pe pa o aoy a o e peceyc.

Ho oeceoc e, epa, a, e, A acpoea peeo po aa. a ee cooae peycopea epa aaa cepa a.

A a peaec poea aa ae cpae? oa a pyeo y epoco xo, a ece opo ap a , aa aa e ae a pecyee epe yao (Bpaea a eca eooo, aop A. A. pao, ao ee 1988 oy). O cex, e aop, coeae yay oo ooy c ay oco... Ho pe eapaoo yaa yxo. Hae oeco ce aee oaae cpe pae , a ooy e co pa pe a oey c aea ycooa. opao oeee pcyac cepe apyea, ae poa aa. Haoee oceoaeo o copypoa ce paa B. Coooa: eo o, o, o cy, aa ec yco ooo eoea py, eo. A yco ae eaeo ooo eoea, ae o eo coceoy ea poce poope cao cyoc paa cpeeo epaoa. pae, oopoy o oca , opa co cep, a e oo e.

Ec pa, o coopae, cocoe pyoo eoea eo eeeo yo a oa, o o pepac co poooooc, yy. He ae aa, o pa oe , a eoey coceo oaac coay. Ec pa cocoe y eoea eo epecax, o, oy pao ya aoo, oey o e oe o ea cox cocex? Bpay, aeeoy pao ya, pao oo epecay oep co . , a opao, oeco c coe e.

eo o o pe oo paocee, e oee yaoe oeco oa e oo cee yao coe cpae aa.

Bopoc o eaeoc ooo oe e poco. Cpoo oop, o aeop pee ceo ceye oec cex eooax capo: ce o epe ecoo e eeo ypy. o, oe oaa ee?

co ya e ae. Oo cea yco. A ya ooy ya, o ooae pyoy , a e yepe. oeco, ec oo xoe ya, e oo aa pay oaoc, poopeae cy eo eeoc. o a o o ao peoo. eco, ya oe aco ey ae aepe.

p ce ae yepeoc pae ooo a aa apye co ya. ya paycoo ypaca aa-Map ype 43 ap Ma o 1989 oa aa e paopaec o. B e paccaaoc o cyeo poecce a ep ec cecpa caapa cy epap (e pecapex) oo ecx o. ca aa aoa 5, a x opec ypac, ya aoex pecapex aeo. B ocoo cocoo yca cya epeopoa coopx pyx coecyx peapao, ox ypeo. B aae o ya poo, pa eex ox, ocaex ye. Ho ae, ocoa, o o oy ecoa eaaao, ca ya cex, e-o e opaxc co peoaex capo. Ha opoce o oa ececep, Cea Maep, paac, o ye eee yx e (c 1987 o 1989) caapa Bapo Baep ya ee ea oey poeypy o aae oocae pa, aa oc epe ao o e pe po oo. Cep acyaa peyae oea ex.

Bapo Baep, eyaac ececpa, pea caapa, eypa o oa eco oe, e coe, caa cpaa pecya cex pee.

o e oe ycao o cco cex capo ep o y: 300? B coe e yc Baep oyaac e oo a eecx aeo, ey ee py poxo aeoc. Ta, ec ooc paa, a aepa eapa Oepa Bee, ycpae pepo caapo.

pecye ec, oa capo paa, a oae, a aco o acpco oece. aep pa Bpa oxapaepoa o pecyee a caoe ecooe eoe cop cpa. yp Baxa caa, o o pecyee acoo yaco, o oopa cee aoe eooo.

Ho peee pep e ooao ooa a eooopo apye poo aa. oee oo, o e e eo oeo c aae a aoo. Ho ooca poo aa co pcyac, o ea oox oo. Ooaeo opoc o aa ee e pee. Eo peco pea a, aey ooe, ec eceo xo ca ce ooee coox e, coox ope opaa opaa cep.

TEPATPA KapawJiiH HM. pea eo. M, paa, 1988.

yao B. Mp cop. Pocc XVII coe M, Mooa ap, 1989.

Pyoe B. A o copec yo eca ., < Haya, 1980.

Caoyco peceyec? ocooca paa>, 254, 4 op oa.

HO' e o. Meca aea 109, 1990, 14 cep poecy a pa. epaypa aea 48, 1989, 29 op.

ABA IV O cep, e, o epyc...

Pae peaaoo eco epa ocee ece ooo epy opooe co paee caxc eae ox.

aoap oy y ox c e, eex paa coco eco cep, ooc o, o po aa oo cep. Oya, -a aaec eeo ep, oee o cep, opaac paccaa o cox oyex.

B cepee 80-x oo aeo ea cco ecceepo CA oaa a aepacoo paa Paoa Moy oce , oopo poaapoa opaee ceeca 150 e, epex cocoe eco cep. Oca co cxo, co epeooo ocoep, o o oy acea e eoeeca a cep, ocepoe cyecoae y ca ypa Aepa e 1989 oa.

B coe e oop Moy o y cxey eco cep: p acye cep oo yceae yca coa paa, ocapyeo ea cxo, ae c ep y, po o yae ycye, o c oo copoc ecec co ep ye. oce oo o eao oapyae ce e coeo ecoo ea, ce;

epe poxo c ;

ey pxo y pyx e, o cpe oo ey, o yae eoopx cyax cox pye yepx poee, epe oec ceeec cyeco, o oopoo cxo aa o yea eoa, ao o oa e cpea. ae o ycye pee pa, -a oopo opaa ye e ye, ... opaaec .

apoya Paoo Moy ea y e aa yaco. oop cxoo ee P cap ey ce o a aa oey.

o paaecx cceoa oaa: eoe cyecye e ca c ao-o aooe. H oca, coe, aa ec p e. poaapoa 102 cya eco cep, oop P ocapoa:

60 poeo ox ca eepeaaeoe yco oo, 37 poeo ap a coce eo, 26 o pae aopae e, 23 xo ye, , eo, ooe ope, 16 o cx op ocopac apy ceo, 8 poeo yepa, o cpeac c yep pocea.

oaa cea coaa, y o ae CA, cpa Epo ypy;

aec, xpcae yc;

ca o ce ppo ee oeceo aoa ce paccaa o e e e.

Ha pyo oe Coeex ao ooo apoo oop Ceo, paoa ea eoe, poa ec Moy, papac e acea , o coce y e oca o x a a ae, poe cceaecoe aepoae cpe epcoaa peaaoo cy o ope. oa e peya eo cceoa ooc coa c a Moy Pa, Ceo pe oc co ye oo eoea. O ae papaoa eccyeay oe coco eco cep, oopa eep oc eo .

a, a eoe cyecye oy ceaoe aae eoe HE (aca apeaypa, oaaa cocoe, oe cep).

Opaoaa ae Meyapoa accoa o ye eoea HE, peceaee paycoo oee oopo ec y-Bece Toa, pee payco aaooeco accoa (ec aa!). ep c ece Toa o oyoao 43 eeeea a pyeo a 1990 o.

Copeee cceoae ca, o pe aeo, epex ecy cep, axoc coco HE, oao oe oe pa, c popaoae cyax copo oo, oa e ca ( e xoe cya?) ax-o oox ceec. Ocec o e, o , aec ocy epe pecep o, ae ceo caac co ceo o eoae. o a ao cya aae oya, o o e-o ooec o op, ocoy o e epea oo, o cyoc c . aac cee capac oy e opa, o pooo c a pa .

Oao eoe HE oe ece ye ao, aoo o oe peaa, xo, oe , e ax aex acaax, a ceac. O o ceecy oee, papocae pax coax ceeca. Bo, apep, ocae ocepoo coco aeo eop, acoaoe coa X ea: oyac aa yea, o oe eo e e yca e. ooo oy, a ec o, cpoc c ce oey, cope a ee, a copea a coe eo, yo a oey, oe yac oy. o ocae o ocoo oope oocee ceeca, peee e Moy.

B oee coo-eepcoo oacp, oopy e ocacoc oce, xpac oe pea a, oecya o o, a e pycc eoe oa a o cee. a ca cpa Tpooo ca 58, aoo Tpoe-Cepeo ape 1916 oy. Ha ye ee ac: . ey Heepooe ox, o coe pocece. peee e ceeca ae coaa c ye oca a coa eoea HE.

Ha ape pe oacoo xyoa ocxa, eo eo oy aa, oaao xoee y yepx apco eecoe. opaae yeoe coaee opaeoo c paccaa e, epeecx ecy cep:

cpeeoe paaeec ee y o oy eoy ye, oe oopoo ce epao p ce.

Hecoeo, opeco ox xyoo, oo, caee aoc oo e, aox c eoeo HE. epeae Cep aa a a Hoaea Tocoo opcaee ocae eoea HE!

A o cea paccpea apaa oaa poaa cae-paa Bapa Eeoa Macoa ay ey: Cpao, o Apa e yca cpea e oycoa o. Too o-o oeo pecyo aooc e, a cpay ce a o yxo a oopa opop co ce, o o e pe pao ypoop ceo oe, yea eo oy cey, , oc oya cpeo oo, o paoco ocooeo pacopc e. oceee, o o oe coe eo a, o pacpocepoe a ce cey eo coceoe eo, py caee eo y.

opae ae o ooc xyoeceoo ooe ce eco cep aoo epo e apa Paoa Ooa eo e. Ta pecae ce ooe eoea HE ep y, ee o oy oyeoy opopy;

cpea c ya yepx poee, axc oo ey oooc epexoy o p;

copooae epo y ox oopeeo c e capo, oo-aae, ep epoco aap ceax ax ocax;

, aoe, p ce oe opopa, e cea ce aec ey y.

B coe e oce Pao Moy ocae oaa eo pax a, o poece paeoo epa o acye cep o opae , xo oco opaee e poxo ooc ce a. aae paccop opoee eoope cye eoea HE.

eoe HE, aec, ye ye xopoo, ao cyae ey cea axoc aoe-o ocee. Ho oa e o cx op e yaaec ae cxey: oeee o ea eopopa. a oocc o, oope oce oepa aa paccaa o o, o pocxoo cocee oae? Acee, eooo aae e acya y xpypa? Heoope peapoae paccaa, o epe y o e o o, o pooo. Haxoc e ea, o ac oac c opya, aoapa c c eoyee yeac, o e e ocpa, e ca x. ea, a o ac epy e . aac oop c , o o e e ca.

Ocae oooo ocepoo epea coep eca a epx. ep, oopc e, a co copo coe eo x, oaax eo. O oe aec oy x, aoop c , o o e c eo. a cyax, paccaax peapoa, o e cpay oae, o c pooo.

Bo ox cooex yoaec o paoo poa eox cyxox oyex oe cep epe . o oe yae, pooe eae, pe, cy, cc y, oxo a eep, ooo o, eecea ya.

aco, oopeeo c yo eo, y e oae oyee e c oe oo copoc epe aoe-o pocpaco. oca oo pocpaca coyec oo pax pae: eepa, ooe, eo cooe, eoe ayoe pocpaco, ye, oxo, ayy, ycoa, coa pya, oa, p. Xo o cyae oyc pao epooe, co, o ce o ac pa oy y e c.

Moy po ae ecoo paccao peapoax o cpeax pyx yxox cyec. cyeca, oeo, pcycoa po c c e, o oo oe ypa epexo ooe cocoe.

Haoee eepo , o e pe aoee o eeo o cex yex oopo Moy cyax a cpea c oe p ceo. Hecop a c eooc oo e, o aeo e coeac o, o o o cyeco, ceeec cyeco, oaaee oc. ea oo cyeca pa eca paa ac a opao o peoo cpe, oopo oppoac eoe, eo oca o ep.

aee, o oca, copa Moy, ceeec cyeco oaae eoey ap, a oop eo . o oop, cea ocae a e pa x opao, ecop a eo copoc, oaaec eepoo pea, o coac ce opoee cee. Hecop a o, o ap cpo ce py pya, aa x oeo yaaac ocpaac.

ae o yca, cae c apa, o epeac aoo eoeo, oa o x e.

B ecox cyax ae paccaa Paoy Moy, a o pe coeo pecepoo oa o pac ey-o, o oo o aa pae a-o peeo. B pax ceecax o ee ocaec o paoy: e aoo-o ooo pocpaca, cepoo yaa, ep, opa, yec epe oe, poco . a eae, epoo, co o o e o e, pae o ope pacca peca coo yae o epea c oo co ocoae o oo o e epea.

Ta a epa, epexo epe oopy oaae, o aa opaa e, aco accopyec c ao-o oo pepao, o epoo, eo oca co o ae ocee pepa epee cae pae oo yyp.

ocaoo co pe Aa, ey, Cc, Axepo ao e, pey Cey y yco o . . Taa pa a cocea pe ea. Ha pcyax peeeeco epx (coa cpy aa y yepeo) ya, ooa epexoy, peoe oe epe peo, oee eo p o apox oe aocoex, e eo oae ypoa oecea cy eceay ce yep.

H o 150 aeo oopa Moy e epecy y epy. Bepoo e, o ee ce-a epecy, e co epyc paccaa o o. Bce e , eee coco eco cep, epe opaee opao o aoo-o oea x pecepoo oa. o ce opoee o, o epe oe x cep opoao eyoe eae epyc opao eo opecoe epeae coe o. Oao oa yep oca opeeex ca ypa, o e xoe opaac opao, o ae copoc opae coe eo. o o ocoeo xapaepo ex cyae, oopx ea eco cpea co cec cyeco.

B cpee ea ca, o pao ex, o oa a o cee ec ecocooc cec. Heoope ee cx e, ex coco eco cep oea paec ce cceoae. Pao Moy cae, o epe o oaa a peapoax oe ooe ypoopee oece. Moe ya, o caa ye coepaeee, ec x a coooee eoc ecoo ea eo paya.

payc cxap ap ap, ae cceoa eoe HE, e, o cxooeca ypaoeeoc peapoax e cpeeo ypo, y x opao ee poc cxoaooece e, oope a poo, o yope ee eapc, aoo, e yope ax apoo.

a ceoao oa, o HE oaae yooe e a ooee epex eo e eco cep, ocoeo ex x, oope o oo e ya, o ec o-o oce cep. B o o ope, oepae Moy, ce caa oy y e c: o oe e oc cep.

Caa coa aaa, oopa cae epe aee oce aoca c pee aa o x oea. oco oeaopo P. Moy cae eo oceoaee eoyo a a a opae oy cpay oa eoeo caoo ce, oa oaae, o eoea e pepaaec co cep ea, , ceoaeo, ypee epy cyecoae apooo pa.

Ho oo pye, aepacece ooa peex a ao. o , a eoe, aac eopeec paec poea e, ca, o oco ocax eoeo oe oo eppepoa paax ecx ooecx e. Ta, p acye eco cep cece pepae opaoo poocae peeopo acyae peoe x copooe ooae, a oopoe pae peeop oea o-paoy. B cyxox peeopax oa oye, oxoe a y, o, cc, pex c poo cea. Ocpa e (oecpoae) ecypx peeopo, epoo, po oye ae, pae, cpeeoo e o ye. Heocao poocae oooo oa oe poa paoy eo op, poyc ooe ocoa poypoa opao yex e.

Ta a y cex e peeop peapy oaoo a eocao poocae, o oae oye oe e y pax , epeecx o cocoe. To e oo caa o oax opaax. Hapep, eca capa apoa pea, o yepe poce cc epeee oo. eceo, ee aocepoo ae p epeee oo a eee ca c oepxocoo a oee yo, oa opaoae coe ac ye exa a, coxpae opa oa-o x, o yepx e. Bepoo, eo oooe oe pocxo oe acye eco cep.

Xo aeo e o ce coace c P. Moy eo eoea, ocapac aoee oo o x oy pe. Mooopae oe pe oa ee e poco pea a ocy c.

TEPATPA Coo, 1990, 7.

ABA V o py B ocee o ce ae epcoaa o yaco caoc e py, o. a epo aepacoo peecoo a e paya apyc Hapcc o ece ooo opoa opyaec ep co, o p o ocaec oo coa. Ey cyeo ca ceee cocex oxopo, a ae cya. B aepee ey a ypa, oye pace o aae oype o. Hapcc oae, o epyc ye e oe. O acea ocaec o.

Hacoo pea pacca o pae oyo o. a o pepae eoea o, o py?

B 1982 oy ooa apapcoo yepcea c oa ce a a. o oapyeo, o ece oy ye oo , coco a yo eapec co. Ec opoo epe oy, o o apaye epy ccey, xae o ceae. C oo ecx yxox cyee cy yaoc cpec c oya oy opa a aaa. Eo a peeo oaac epaoc, o cax cx pe o epo-apaecoo ec, pea oece acoo a 500 pa. o oya p yya (oo xcpc). Ha a pee oo ooo opoa ece ee 400 e oy aa. oa e yeex ceec oo, a ecye epaoc, oey epa ocaec oo coa.

paa pepae eoea o a aeea oa-o a ocpo pea yy ooa epx pao xoe ea (paee aoe).

Coco oa yx ee: caaa yca, a ae opae . epe, oopy aepe pepa o, oea y epaoc (o py cee o pa oy). ep cpay e pepaaec xae, cee oepxoc ea, ceee aa acyae eca cep.

epe ecoo e yepeo o a oxa c aa, o o epy . Ta o caoc o. Ocoae coeo opaaec ey e ooc e opaaec ooe. Pacca oee, cpeax o, oop o x a ox, oope eccceo cop epe coo.

o ae cceoae, poeeo a a p oa, o apaee pa aoee cx ec e, o oo, epy , cooa x a pao a aax caxapoo poca. Cpax epe pepaee o acoo e, o oxopo pya a a ae p ec, e oopx oea ox yepeo, o epy eo .

a ye oopoc, paa o a aeea a a epa xoa ea. Cy o cey, ae-o pe oye pooa paoac ee o ce e. O o paccaae aepac pa-yeece, oopoy cyoc oa a oo ax ceaco. Ha ee, e o, ea eoe, e oaa ax pao . ce a, o aco eo co eo, cp ee po ey e, o poep paoy pea. Pea e o, e o pao e cepa. eoe eceo ep. Copaec o pyooco pea ae py ec. o o eo cpeee ey oe pae. O e ce cpee poe. aaoc, y yc ep. aoo e o oe yee, oa eo a cyoc!

Mep eoao poe pyo o py oac oepyc, p opyax eo e cc coo o. apaa aa ee pocee.

Haoe ea oepyc, oa o ce o eeo ca a eepe, eo aa, oope ecoo y aa e peapoa a ce, eep poo pacp cope a ac.

He ceo, o oee ocae ec eo oxoee a pya acx o.

Pya o cpa opao epeaec c aeco pao, o ce e ye y aopeo Acpa. o x paccaa, aca opaa, eoea, apaee aeeoo aece ep, oxae oy , oo a e o, oae ey cepe aocpey oc aoy. oa cepe ocaaaec, o a ya oya eo. oce oo ocpeco pax ay oy opaae eo , paa a o o, o pooo c . Ho p o ey yaec, o epe p o ype. Tao eoe opaaec oo, eceo e oaac o o, o c o poeao. Bee o e e oaec o pyx e, o o e eoe, a oo xoee eo.

Ee oee opaee pep poc e copa cae Aecapa opocoo B pye eoo opae, a op oopo, oyoae ypae Haya , ye ccac. A. opoc po pacca coecoo cceoae, oop poe p e , o ce cpe ee ecax, cpaex o a copoeo aae. B oo ecx oacpe ey oeoc aa coepee opa paa, e oopoo oo ye ocepo ee coco. p oo cee apoa (ee ax epee, oaxo, poceo yepeo) eo poc ay a oacpco ope. epe oe ooca pacoaaec aa. Bce coepaec oo e. poxo aoe-o pe, yep eeo oaec. aa eo ce a e ap, o ocaec o epoo eoea.

ac, a aoa, o p oxo o pyy eco, e ea, oc coa apae, oo opee.

aae co copo, epoea, ca ya a oey-o eececeoc, exacoc eo e o a aoa, aee, ya, oopy oy py .

Copa aepa o , aoyc a aeoe ep c o oepo, oop paccaa, o aoap papaoaoy eoy ye ey yaec aca caa ac py eao yepx e.

oppecoe, pa ep, yo ca c ceee x oo. xo a aepa oceo oocc yaeo o ee aaoo, opoc eo a acoo opy aey yy. Bec o oe paeo pao poecoa po aoo oeo pa. yepe ( yepe o o cx op), o epa aep a e oe peapoa a oecoe yee. Te e eee a, ae aaoc poopeae paoy ccy, o aeo poepe poaapoa.

Booo, pe paopeeoo oe pyo ecx oacpx (a coec oepo, oopa co oceo poc) ocoa a yepeoc, o ae p ocyc ex y ea, ae-o ypo coa, aoe-o aao eoee pooa ocpa opyaee.

Ee cepee XIX ea aepac caee apo o aca pacca a y ey, oaae paa o o, o cyoc c oce Baeapo.

B paccae oecyec o o, a aoap oo oa ecepa (poopay copeeoo oa) yaaoc ooe pe oepa oecy c c eo yepeo eoea.

cceoa ocex e ycaoeo, o cep acyae e cpay. o oceea ea o opaa c eco epooc opaoc oco po cyecoa. Tpy e ee oo, o o oe e pa, a a eo oe oep o eoe eoopoe pe e eo. Tpy coxpae opeeey epecy aoc, o eoop a o 39-o , oa pecppyec oce ae ooo yc.

oop ooecx ay, o opaoa opc cao coa cey oey. Cy ee ceye. B copeeo aye aaaec ce oe oaaec cyecoa ppoe aoo eoea, a poo eo a (M), poa ce ea ceeo. O, o M, coco cepxex poac c acco o 10-40 o 10-30 pao. B ayo epaype ocao oo eco paooce ax ac o epo, opo, o, eo, epo... Ceac e ec oe paooc ac, ex ee ey accy.

Ec oop pae ypoeo, eo o oce eoeecx ce yc, opa o peeax ex aepaoo pa. B M coepac cee oo ce, o o, ec ye o Bceeo. eo aoece pooo eooo aa c peeo aepaoo pa eoeec oo oo oc oe e, oope o cx op cac ace. o eea, coee a aee.

Ha oepxoc o eoea ec ecoo co ooec ax oe x ye coa cyape aoe ooo eoeecoo ea, pacooee oa yp pyo, o py ape. Coceoe eo o e ec eoe, a oo eo oe po, opy oopoo pacooe eo opaoo-epeece o. yee aox oooe oe cao c oepeec pea xoooo ea-pacaa a ep, pocxo epx eax.

O cceoaee aaa o-aeaecx ay Aao Oxapa aaa eooo-epaoecx ay Hoa Coeaoa oaa:

p papye pa aa paccacac aoe ooo. Ec o e oya opaoo-epeeco o, o epo x oypacaa ye pae pepo e , a ooo pacaa copoa cya. o oocc cyeca, eoyee peea.

epeco, o aae cpo coaa co peee oo o yco.

pex pyco caoc, o ya ec e xo ooo coeo oa, ee p o o oopoa oe pooo cea. ooy o cpa ceye oae op: a pe e opeee, a eco poae c oo, a e poae c ceee, a copooo poae c ee. oo, o ye ae yppy copo e, eee oopx ya e ooe eo epeooe. B eee x copoa e aa oe a yepey acae, pe poo, o e oo. Bo pe e e o aa pa, ocoy o caoc peo yepeo.

B cooec c eope . caoa oo peoo, o cec peoc o aa aoe ooo yepx e e pece oe, oa yepe yac oe c yca poceo pye.

p aee papaoe o eop, oay, oo o a oce ace e ecx oacpe.

TEPATPA aa acx oyo. Haya pe, 1988, 12. A. opocu. Te, o epyc... Haya , 1989, 5.. Pam. Cee ooca. M., 1971.

o ap. Pacca. M., Xy. epaypa, 1980. . cao, M. o. Teo ypae, coae ocaec. ocooe aaa, 1990, 24 op.

ABA VI opeee ao Ec e, poye ceoop epeco, o co yace, o ca ao ocoe epayp.... coa aaec o cax cpax paccao aepacoo cae apa Aaa o (18091849) ao opeee. opeee ao, ecoeo, yoee cex yaco, ae a a o cepoo. paoc eoe ea cae opa, o o cyaoc aco, oe aco. pa, oea o Cep, ye cyae, oaa eopeeea. o oe caa, e oaec oo aaec pyoe? eco, o ec oe, p oopx cea ce e pa , o, cpoo oop, o e cea coepeo, pepac. Boae peea ocaoa paoe eeooo exaa. Hacyae cpo, eoe epoe aceoe aao o po ee oee pa aece oeca.

ap o po ecoo pepo opee ao, cyxc c eo copeea oepy, epoo, ae. O ao cya, eca peae , epoo, ee e ac a eoopx aee, e eco e co ao cocee opoe aope poe a ox opcaee eaoe eaee... aoe aao pae aoy paccaaoy oy oyee ocoepoc. Ta o e cyoc aope?

Cypyy ooo... ecoo pca ea opecca oca eaa eoca oe, epe oopo oaaoc ecco ce cycco eo.

oce x cpaa acya cep cocoe, oopoe co cep.

Ho ae e oopea, a e e p oopea, o oa oce e yepa.

Oapyc ce oe pa cep. o ocyyoc, ep eo aocpc.

y ca eee paopa. aa oye. Hacyo ooeee. Cepe e oc.

Ta oa poeaa p , a o pe eo ceaoc ep a ae...

Ee oxopo ceeo cee, p oa o e peo o oo. o poec eoopoo pee ce op, o ycao a capoa, o, y! aoe cpaoe opcee oao ee cypya, oop co pya oop ep! Ea cop pacaxyc apyy, o-o, ayaoe eoe, co cyo yao po eo o. To cee eo e ee e cee caae.

Taeoe pacceoae oaao, o oa oa epe a oce opee ac poy, oop ya a o c... oe pacooc, a o e yaoc ca. Cyao a ac oap, a ooa, eep oaac yc... Ha epxe cye ec p xoe oey poy ac oo ooo poa, oop oa, o ce oc, ooa eey ep, pa a oo. p o oa, epoo, ac yc yepa o cpaxa;

aa, oa aeac caao a ao-o ee p, opa ce. Ta ocaac oa a ece, a cea co.

O ao e aceo oe e ap o? Moe , ce o o pao aa cae? coae, e. oe a xopoo eca ea oya aae eap. Haa ee ae cepec co, eapec co, aa , a cep. .. ao aa ooo B. aaa, axoeoc coco eapecoo ca eee 22-x e. O acy oe XIX ea poca o 1918 oa. Bce o pe o axoc cxapeco eee.

Hopea ap acya 1919 oy pocaa o 1941 oa. Bce capa pae pay ee oaac e. oa e oa opa aa, y ee oce ce poca o coce cap y, a oa ea ao e, a 22 oa aa. E aaoc, o poa oa o, oa y e caa oop o epax eax, o o, o yo copee oop ay. Ho ye epe o oa ocapea a ce a eca e.

B oo epe aepo (a) ooc eo Poa aapo, aeo eo, yepe 73 oa aa. Cooe o cpax cox o ep yopaa oeceoc o ye ooo 30 e. op oaac paoa ooo oce oo, a aa Poa oa a oee opc.

Mece e acaa a o, o e eoopao, a e eo poa, a oe ca, a eoa xaa.

Xo c eco o pe eoa caac epo, 1990 oy yee eee yx ee po o pyocyooe aee a ee eo, c oco epee epeco aoc oooo oa. oa o acpoa epy cy ooo aoc, yc 33 cey, o cao cecae, ce opae. Bo, cpoae cocoe oa, ca, o c. Bopa ca a aoo opoe a ea epe poe cyo. B acoee pe ae pooac. Bepoee ceo, ao cyae ae eo eco pae peoe poee yooo eapecoo ca.

oa eca oe (3-e ae, 1980 o) opeee eap a cocoe aooecoo ca c oee eee pae ocaee ecx poe , c oeeoc, ae oee oea ocaee ocyce pea a yoe, ae (pocoee) oee papae. p ooe eap oo e ycaoe.

oe cyecye, a p ee oa e ec. Co pee apa o ea a e coa ycao p peeo ocao paoe eeooo exaa.

ec cya, oa eapec co oa epoec. O ac ce ca ec e ee, o aoe ocpecee caa, o oec ocy oee.

Oo ex cyax eap aac eooc, paccaee , pooe xae. Ho ex cyax, peo cpeaxc, eec eceo apa o cep: oa xooa ea, pa e peapy, xae yc pyo oapy, ce oee papae e a pea, peec ocycy. B eee ecox cyo oe e , e e, eee o aa pepaaec.

ec, oo co ecoo ae, opoc eap popeae cyeo-ec epec. pee cy 2-o a oo eco oe (I960 o): Xo paa peycapa pooco cp pya epe ooo opooe pe, o ca o oo e paee, e epe 12 aco oce cep. Bcpe pya ec o ypee ayx ayo-paecx ex oycaec o cee aco, o e paee oyaca oce cep pcyc e eee pex pae, oope eocpeceo epe cpe coca pooo o pax paeo cp oaaecax eceo cep.

Bopoc o o cyecye oacoc opee ao , axoxc coco eap, acoee pe oep coe aee. B epaype peecyx coe o opoc e opaee, o yoaec cooe e oaa ocoepoc.

eo a e oaa ocoepoc. o py oo e oo , ooy o e oo oa, 3-e ae oo eco oe e co aeopo cox oax, oo poco oycae opoc o ceecax capx aopo. M ae: Bopoc o oacoc opee ao , axoxc coco eap ypa coe aee, a a opeee oo pooc epe 12 cyo oce cep, oa ocoepe pye e a ye xopoo pae.

Ho a e c ooce ceeca pox eo?

ooc pa x ya oo aa? B coe paccae ao opeee ap o, oo ye paopaoo a pepa, po ee p oa opee x : ceeco ecoo Xpypecoo ypaa o peepeeo axopoe apepcoo oepa, oepeo coae o ya oo;

cya opee ao 1810 oy o pa eo aeyae Bop aypa, po o caceo ee oe;

, aoe, opae cya opae 1831 oy oooo oocoo cpeo, a poeaeo oe. Eo py ao oa o paa pooca aaoecoo cp oo c aaeco aapee, ao e x yee cy, oa epe cocoy co coa a o, oco eoo, peoo opac, aoop....

Ho ce o ce-a oo oec epayp ca eoo aepacoo cae. Opac e oee ocoep ceeca.

B 1801 oy oa eop a Ee, oop e, oec coe, ece e ocyapceo eco oe yc Ca-eepype y, oaaey Bpaee ec o peepeeo opee epx. oop Ee eca aope ye coeo pee, oe eo epaopcoo ooo ooecoo oeca, a ae epocoo Heeoo, ecoo Mepaoecoo Heeoo oeca caee ppo. Eo oa cea cpyyeoc eaoc oope eppea ao, o e ceecy e pye eo pao, ee Pocc: paoe acaee o cocx aeax a opao o pe ox ocya ae, c ocae opxc e cocx oee , c (1798 o) pa oe a oe yce cee opoc acaeo Apeaocx epax o (1822 o).

a, opoe y Eea. epa aa o aaec O oooc peepeeoo opee, oaao ece oa.

Moe coae ocoe pep oaa, o ce yac pe peepeeoo opee eceo pac o ;

a oca e e ocoa aa oo, o aox aex cyae opao oee oo pc, ee coo peao ec. opao oee, ee peao ec... A coo e ce-a?

Ee ccaec a a 1800 oy e-ee py, e ae peoe popec opoc: He opea cax aoycpoex oecax pee ac e pee, ee oceye ecea cep? y e oae: acoe, o p ce o eca epooe ee!.

Cyc oea aaoe caae ap o: ...e ocaec coe, o e cao ee xopo ao. ec yec, a peo, cy coeo xapaepa, ae cya caoc a ec, ye ye pa, o o, epoo, aco pocxo eeoo ac. pao e, ea e c pa, a eeoa cyaec paoa a ae, cee oapya ax oax, o oa cae yace oope... B aae eeo ea aopea occ acx pae a ocoe poeex cceoa pa oy, o oo A eeoo ao opeaec o yx c ooo c e. oa oe 60-x oo A coa ep aapa, oo yo eca eaey epeco aoc cepa, o p epo e ca ope cpe pyo a ea a eya.

o e pe, oo eco oe yaao: Bopoc o oacoc opee ao , axoxc coco eap, ypa coe aee. e e ca?

pee ceo, ocaoc a pepax, peex yaeao paae Eea. O aae ceye p oooo peepeeoo opee: axoa, cepece pa;

oopo;

oepee o yapa;

oepee o x apo o pe poe a opeax;

oep coa p aex poooepx;

oepee o yex oye oxop;

o yapa;

o cyopo;

o ope;

o opoo , aoe, o coo oe, oopo pep co ooe, o ocac o ox paex aex.

B acoee pe oco peex aoo ooc ca oooc o a aec cpa, o XVIII ee o ooo xopo e, axoxc oopoo coco oce pooee, ao-o eoo oe, yapa . . Tae o oo oc oo pae ypoe apoao paeo oo o epo.

Coee oco eo c a aaeo coo oe. Hecoeo, o ec Ee ee y ye ocay a eap p pyx aoea, oope o aoa eap. o apoc cooc p ec, eca epeo cpeaec. o ae oe pae aaoec cyop. aaoec cpo o cxecoe paccpoco c peoaae apye aeo cepe, paaeec aopoeoc (cyopo).

Cyop p o epeo copooaec e ocoo oc, p oopo ac ea ooo eo coxpa paoe oo ee. aaoec cpo oe paac p pax aoeax ope, paoopax cxoax, opaecx cocycx aoea? oooo oa. He ceo, o p eocaoo ypoe ecx a ae oe o oaa co ao opeex.

Cpe paccpoc ca ece a aaee cpo ee-ea, oocc epco, . e. aoea, ca c aooeco peepo cooc. Cpo ee-ea poec pcya eooo cooc eoc o ecox aco o ecox cyo aaec o ceo yoe, coeac c cxoaooec apye.

Oco epec cpe aoea, aoax o co poe eap, pecae eec eapec ea ooo. o eoa oe eco (epoee ceo pyco) oo, xapaepyac ocpo ca xopao cooc. epe oca oe, cxoo o eco ape c eec eapec eao cea 16731675 oax T. Ceao, cooe o cyax eo cooc pea a oe oopx oe eepayp. B oceye oee cya eoe c aoea, oox eapecoy eay, eoopao ocac o pa aa. B XVII, XVIII XIX eax A epa a ae e eapecoo eaa. B XX ee epe cya aoea apecppoa o pe epo poo o 1915 oy o payco ap o Bepeo, a 19161917 oax c oee a pyx yacax paycoo poa pe cpa Epo. B oy ec acpc epoaoo oca ooo oca ay oe a caocoeoe aoeae. B oceye o oe poo pacpocpaac, axa o ce cpa oe. Tox ax o oece oex o ce pe e, o acy aoeaeoc pxoc a 19181926 o. C 1927 oa aa oe caa acoo pea, o e yaoc y ce p, xo pa.

Heoope pa ae ca, o eapec ea ce ooc.

Co epo pacea ceoe a ae y cxecx aoea. Hapep, ceac pae pe cya cep, a cpee ea oa a oe pacpocpaea. oa cep paa ae xapaep cxecx e, a, apep, e cepecx ae XIV ea.

p cep oa oae cpo epoeco ceoepco (peepo cooc), a aaea cepeca ca, xapaepyac oopc cooo coco eoc o ecox aco o ox cyo, oo oax c c cxopapy cya.

cep, ecoeo, eca oay ey cop opeex ao. Heao oox pepo oo poec e Eea.

a, oaoc c oe, poe oopx oo o ooo p a cocoe cep, oe cea ceye o. Bo epx, ceye ca ecoe a aeoo ca opee x e, peeo aax cocoe, oooe cep. oy cococoaa a eca yypa ox cpeeeo, a ae aco ooo pee, ocyce ooo oeca pae, oope o oceecoa yepx. Bo-opx, cpee ea aaoc aeo oee oeco cepox ox, e acoee pe, a ae, epoo, ox eape, eec eapec eao po pyx aoea, poe oopx opo pyo o epepoa o coco cep. B-pex, eca epoo cyecoae ceyx, eecx a eep oee, copooaxc coa paeo eap. Ta, cpeeeox xpoax yoaec aaoa oe, oca aae ac o.

oe oaac pae cp pae. coepeo opox e eao oac coa eepaypa, oa cyopo, ooa o, o cycaax, cepeee, ep yc o py opae aax o pa. Bcope oce oo ce eo opaoc o oo c xapaep ep aaxo.

oo ca cooc, acy, epeo oe e pocac. pao o 95 ae o ca poeo aoex. Bc oe aaa o ecox aco o ecox e. oe cpeeo opaca, e oe e apaac.

epa e o oe, papaac A I486 oy, pooaac ee aa opoe oycoe. Ceya, 1507 oy, oxaa pee ceo oo. Tpe e 1518 oy poeaa ee oee cpeeo, e epe e. Oa pacpocpaac a c A, oa oa pa, oa o ae o pa. eepa e (1529 o) aaac, a peya, ooe, coa oxaa A, ae oac epa, pycc, oe, e Pocc. oce e acoo oa papaac 1551 oy, a caee peyx apoya A. Cex op o aoeae oe e ooc ceac oo cpo oa o eo ppoe.

Caca ao opeex e eac oa. O x oece oo cy oo oceo o cy cyae, cax ocoe acoc. Ta, ye yoaec e oaa Eea Bpaee ec o peepeeo opee epx yoaec 56 oyepoax cyae opee x , e ca pepo pex aopo. Ee ae pye pyoo cceoae XVIII ea, oop pecae ocoepee ec o eoeax, oope opee ;

o ca ceec e, o coe yep pee opee oy epooe yce;

o pex opeex poox ac opaa;

o ecaa capaax px cee poy py a;

o epx, pax cee oo, pyx, o pa y ce ooc capaa o py. Co eo oe co aox ecacx e, o oepe pao e yac, e oca cey aoo cee! aeec aaae y ay Ee.

ooe pe copa ce eec eocx, copecx xpoax, ecx ax, eyapax, peax, eeax a ooceo eapecoo ca ao opeex. pee ceo, a Bexo, a Hoo aee eec opooe co pepo ocpece yepx, oope c oce coe e , a poyee e oce eapecoo ca peaae p eco cep. Ta, popo , axoc Capee Coco ocpec yepeo ca o (Tpe a apc, aa 17, 17-24).

pyo exoae popo, Ece, ocpec ca aoeco Coa: O oe Ece o, o, peeo yep e a oce eo.... oc e a peeo, po co yca eo yca, co aa eo aa, co ao eo ao, pocepc a e, copeoc eo peea... xy peeo pa ce, op peeo aa co (eepa a apc, aa 4, 32-37). ec popoa Ece ec aoa oaae epo eco oo axoc yoo oopoe eap.

Ee oe oo ocpece yepx cpeaec Hoo aee.

Bocpecee yepx caoc oae apyo yec cyca Xpca:

...cee popea, xpoe xo, poaee oac, yxe ca, epme ocpecam, e aoecy. (Eaee o y, aa 7, 22).' B pex Eaex epex aoecx (o Mae, o Mapa, o y) paccaaec o ocpece oep apa: oa pe cyc o aaa (apa, aaa cao C. P.) ye cpeo apo ce, caa : Be o, o e yepa ea, o c. cec a . oa e apo ca, o, o, ee a pyy, ea caa. paecc cyx o ce o ce ee o (Eaee o Mae, aa 9, 2326). B Pycco yee axoc ooe ooo . E. Pea Bocpecee oep apa. oy cey eoopao opaac pye xyo.

B Eae o y paccaaec o ocpee cyco ca o opoa Haa: oa e O (cyc C. P.) pc opoc opoa, y oc yepeo, eceoo ca y aep, a oa a oa;

oo apoa o c e opoa. e ee, oco cac a e caa e: e a. , oo, pocyc opy;

ece ocaoc;

O caa: oa! Tee oop ca! Mep, oc, ce, ca oop;

oa eo cyc aep eo (Eaee o y, aa 7, 11-17).

B e aocoo poc o ocpee aocoo epo opoe o (ceac o opo a) ooo ey: B o axoac oa yea, ee Taa, o a cepa... Cyoc e , o oa aeoa yepa. Ee o oo ope. Aa a a o, o ye yca, o ep axoc a, oca ey yx eoe poc, o o e ae p ... ep ca cex o , peo oe, ooc, , opac ey, caa:

Taa! Bca. oa opa aa co , ye epa, cea. O, oa e pyy, o ee;

, pa cx o, oca ee epe o (e aocoo, aa 9, 36-42).

Bce o ocpece yepx a Bexo, a Hoo aee, e ecoo ox ep, epecx aeo paccaa. Bo-epx, ce o yepe, c oo . Ta, oep apa, coaco cooe y Mapa, o 12 e. To opac pyx e yaaec, o a a x ey opo, ea, c o, o oo, o pe e o opocax, oax eyax.

a, cep x e oa ececeo. Bo-opx, e oopc o ax-o ecacx cyax, paax, paax, eecx oex. B-pex, ca ee pacea x cocoe e a cep, a a co e yepa ea, o c. B eepx, e yoaec o ax paax e, e ocex yaa a acyee pyx e. B-x, o cex oax pe o acye cep o ocpece oe eaeo, peeax ooo , a a o yec aoa opeee oo ocyeceo e cep, ec oo o e e pa. Bce o ae ocoa peoo, o ao cyae ee peee ceeca o eapeco ce.

Ho o ooo o co paa e oo ocpece epx Bexo Hoo aee aae o, aoee ec, aoee aco opaae poeex cycca epayp ocpeee aap. ae eee ypee aa ee aap aape.

Bo ce Xpca e o oee aoo co, e ocpeee aap, ca opa pycc ce H. . eopo. e e ocpeee aap Xpco oaec o ocpee e oep apa ca o aco. oey o o co ocoo poe py yec?

aaa ao eaec ce. aap pao Map Map, epx oceoae Xpca. eo Map, cecpa aap, coe pe oaaa o peeo e o cyca po epa co ooca. oa aap yep, cyca e o yee, o axoc a opao. ca o oe aap, o cpay e oce Ba, ceee, e o , 15 cax (pepo 45 C. P.) o epycaa. oa cyc pe, aap ye epe a poe. B yee po eac eepax, oope aaa ae. cyc paa ooy ae o xoa, o Mapa ocaoa eo: oco! e cep;

o epe , a o o poe. Ho ae ce-a ooy, cyc oa po ooco: aap! o. e yep, o o pya oa opea eea, o eo oao o ao. cyc oop :

pae eo, yc e (Eaee o oaa, aa II, 24-52).

o pacca o ocpee, oe o peyx, a e oe ca c e eap, a a ec eycceo oopc o pyx ex (ye cep), o ec ocoep pao eceo, a e o cep. oy e, c oea acye cep poo ye epe , poo eopae poecc. ypac . ex cae Cepa copyee, oceo oca copeex pyccx oacpe, e: Ec oep o, o ocpeee aap a copec, o e o oe ooc epeepy eoee ce pecae o cep.

a, a ocaec pa, o ocpeee aap e oc c o pe ay ceye oec yeca. Ce ocpee aap cpeaec oo Eae o oaa ooc ocycye yy, Mapa Mae.

Ee oe ceec o oe o yepx cpeaec y ax aopo. Ee cya, o pea, po yca caxc yep e. Acea, cpec c opeao poecce, cpa: To, oo ee pea xoe, ee ! oecye o ox cyax, oa o pe caoo opee o oa.

eco, o Aoo Tac, ye oc ea oo yepe, coae cex p, ey-eec aoo poa, paa oca po a e o ee.

A o a opeao ocpe poc oo, o ae ye eyac. ooa e yac oca . a.

eop ae po pep oy eyy, oopy peepeeo co yepe.

Bace pe e ooee o yepx o ox e opeceo pa co x. O oopo pec x, o o pox e aa aox opa (Hyfteropotmi).

B oe o acx peo, yc oocc oyc oce eapecoo ca pae acopoeo. O o cooae Pep (1865 1935), eoe ao ecoo a pao, ee oopoo epecoac ae pac aooay, pa Poep aaapc. poeccoaa peopepca ya ooa y oy yooe ae pax copo co , oope oe o cy ey ae coo opeca.

B cop Pa-ppa, e 1888 oy Aaxaae, e pacca Heoaa poya Moppoy yca. ae: B oee ca, o e-o cyecye eco, ya oo ex yco, oope e ecace opac o coco paca aaec. epo paccaa oaaec eo ao ece ecao opae, pao cpo pee. Oyxc o o cep co ca co cex oo cpaca a o. ecae co opaa, ocoo ocaec, e a ecac oooc pac aepx, a yp oo epe pey. Ho ae ec ao-o cea oac a oe eo ocepeae y oxpaa. Ta y oe epe ecax opax, epye , ac oaa cpao ape opoa, oa x e ace oa cep o ooa oee.

O oaee o cpao peepa, paxa a aca paccaae: Bo pe xoepo e ac yoc a coee ee o oo, a yep. oa oaaee a epe pe (xa cyc pee, a aaoc eco pyaoo coe ooo , pacoaaoc a cao epey pe C.

P.), ae a, o xoo oyx oe ac, oa, ec ea-ea , a aoa a op po, oce eo ypee ooaeo. Ec oaeec ecoo pee, a aoa oe a, o ec o-acoey , a ay opoe, a ae aepy ca ( peepa C. P.).

a eapecoo ca peepeeoo opee x ooo a opaee epcco oope. po o epccx aeoo.

ooo oa eoao yepa ea. Ee yo a opeae oc, ecoo eoe ece c ye ca cycac co opoo aa.

Ha pee cyee o ex, o epa a ee opeae oc, ocoyc ya. Hoc cac, a ea oa o coo copce oyac epyac o p. oce oo cya oa poa ee ec e. oo coaac. My coa poea ce, a pae: ee yo a opeae oc oec. oa ca cycac o o pee cye, o y oo pyy a eo oo eoea, oop oa-o ocoyc, ey ey: oa, pe cyea, e ococ! Hecop a ec o o cya, e oe coe, o ee eapecoo ca o xopoo eco epcco y. Be aeo coac a ocoe pacpocpaex ox cyae. o, yc oeee o acypa, o ce e e cya.

O e cpeeeoo Epo oo cy o oe epecoy apy, aaeoy exempla pep. Exempla o opoe pacca, aeo, oope cy oae eeo epoo pooe, ca oxo e, o y, aa, ya opaee pexy pepeoc aoec. pooe peeoa a po ace y cox copeeo ooy e oxo, o cyecy, oo copo , ao c x o pe, a yee, ocop yac cyaee.

pep ace e aepao, a ooy, eo cpe x oaec a epecye ac a.

Bo pep copa XIII ea eap ecepaxcoo, oaxa cepacoo opea. O eoe yep, eo oo a opeae oc oec a ae, o o eao caae c x. Bce, o copac a eo oeae, yace paeac, o epe ooe aeaa opaaec ey c poco: yeo ec xopo apa, a yc ce oe eo cee ooc a yoo eo y. o co pocy, oo opaaec a oe o ypae. pooe oce o pep cey oeape: cpax epe apoo oe epec pee cay cep, o yce apyc oo pecae ep. Ho coye o e pep pyx ee oaaeca e eap cpeeeoo oece.

Bo pyo pep XIII ea. pa a oa, paa Maa.

py, copaae coce pa eo cac co yy. O e, peepea x coea, poc coeo copoa oo ey oy ec apo ooo, a eo cepe o cooo. oa ocae opoc cye cy xoe apa o ooo, oo co ao: Ocae ooo, e ae oo! Cy e, oop ca c c e, o e o, epe cxa ay.

p ce epaypoc aaeoc aoo pepa epoocoe eo oa-o o ea ece o poye oo ooa.

eco, o cpee ea pocx e xopo ox oax, oope opa c pa, oa yo o oo ooo ooa. o oo cy coo aoe ecex ao o ao opeex.

Bepoo, ae cya eceo e eco, o ae p x ae copee paoa x coce c pyx o, e cyeo-ecx, a paceo-aaex. Ta, oo pepe paccaaec, a a peccx poa cepeo paoa ey coo, cyoc a, o a oex ceex py coac o o e e, ocoy paea ooy pxoy, opee oo oe oe. pooo ecxaoe yo;

x ea oepyc ao py pyy, oac ac a, o ope yacoa oo, o, c. poc x oa oxopo pax ecax. Bpaa epeo ocya ypoo ocaxc x, oope oc ppe. e ao a oax-pooe XIII ea eap ecepaxc yepae, o a cop oa pooa eao eco eapx. a , ae a axoe axopoex e e aoecx oax e ae oo a peooee o oooc opee ao. Oe peo oep coepeo aacecy cop o pae epeo, e oaac o eceo cy aoo co.

Moe pep cooa o opae e, oax a o cee, o ae oceo ceecye o oooc eap.

O oax e yce ya opaea a epeo o oo coac, a yoy a coe o coe yco oe. Ho a o cee a eo poca epe eo opo o ao cee, o o poc aeo epy eo yy eo. Bocpecy oax coeac aay , a oo o oae, o cyc yx. ece epoe, o eap ecepaxcxoy o e oea o aa, eceoa c e aao, oopoy coeoac oo.

To e eap ecepaxc paccaae o opae eoea, oaeo oce o a Cpao cye. O ca o o yeo pocec o caoo eo epo oa, ceaeoc ocec oaxo.

oa o ao, o aoe yep e pac, ocpecy oo epe eoe pe.

B pyo pepe oecyec o oo, e pao , ee oopa a opcea pooeo o ao cee, o yepa;

oao e o ao opac coeac.

poo ece paec cya, poce c ea pao aaoo xpypo ox Bopoe Apee Beae (15141564). Co pyo O cpoe eoeecoo ea, a 1543 oy, Bea oo aao copeeo aao. ece cceoa Bea pe eo cooe c aoeco epo. oee co paa o oa, o pepa ayy eeoc a, ce co pyoc ca pop pao Mape, e cyoc o, o peo oo eaoo aaoa e.

O ocex oax Bea eco eoo. B cax eo copeeo caaec peooee, o a cpe yepeo, y oopoo ee copaaoc cepe, poopa Bea cepo a. o yaa opo ca a a aeea aoeco aecy cye pexo. B 1564 oy Bea c eo oep oy Map. Oca ce pcccee, o o opac ae y. Ha opao y epycaa oo Bea p opaepye poe a ocpo ae (pe), e yep 1564 oy.

Ho pepe c Beae aeo e ce ooao. Cya c ca xpecoa oce aoaeco pao cepa. eco, o cepe cyecy a epx ya, oopx oae oyee, oycoaee paoy cepa. ec yaec coxpa eeoo opaa cepa o cepe pya, o o co oepe cao c coxpaee poyee eeoc ex yaco cepa, e ec y. Bo ec-o poec paaa cepea pao opoaoo cepa. oa y eoea oce cep aoaeca eeoc cepex yo cao e coxpaec ee eoopoe pe. o ae oe peo. Bo Bea p cp pya aoyc eo a ao cya. Ho o, eo copee eo e a o cepex yax o x aoaeco eeoc.

Ec o eceo a, o pep c Beae ec e coce oppe cpa aeo paccaa o eap. ec caaec c coepeo ooec ee, e e aoo ooe o cep.

Ho ca cape , aoyc a pae, oaec o copeeo (xpecoao) epc pocec c Beae. pee ocoo eoope x aeoo, a oa po o aa ooe cooe.

Ca aao Beca cpa oy ey, cpaay cepeco oe, oopy o oa epo, ocyc cepa, o aao ooe c.

po yocoep, o o oa oaaa a epe ee p.

Pacae o ce peepeeo cp oepo copo ceo aeoo ya po.

Ca pa aao Beca xoe cpa ooo yepeo cacoo opa;

o oo aa papea pye , o o py o. Ce cyoc e poco oo paecoy pay, o yo e aaoy, oop ye oex ae, a ececocae, cpa oe epe ea, o ce cyae oayc, oey oo eoea oa ep.

Ec aae epoo apaa paccaa o pocec c Beae ee oo peoo ooee aoaecx copae cepa pya oe a pocoee (a aoe, eceo, oa cyaec), o ooa eo co eycceo oop oy eap oaaa a epe ee p. oy e oepyo, o ea cpaaa cepeco oe, a cepeca ca, a ye paccaa, ac oo ocox p o cep cpee ea.

Bo-opo e pepe oyep oae ee o oo, a ey cp pyy ey o copae cepa e oopc eo. Bce o ee pa oaae, o cyae c Beae e eco eapec co.

oy e, paec cya Bea aeo e ece. Hee pa XVIII ea. pe oopa, oyoao 1754 oy ee, ocae ce cyae, oa p cp epx e ae eoope pa .

apa coa, ep cp cacoo opo a XI e oee yacy yac, e yoy a cac op. O, c oc ocyap coeo, a ey ea , pe o pee oee eoa, aoe, o-oy, yep. aepep eo, oop e eoope eapce oae xoe aapoa eo, oa aa cpa py, o ye, o e oo cepe ee oc, o pe ae, o apa oy pyy co yceoy oy eo;

o a cyae oe eo e o o ocye ce ee, apap ce papea oy oey y. Ce cya o pe oapooa.

eco, o o epapa, yy eppape, o a epe aca o cox oxopo po oce oo ee 30 e. y Bope, o cyee Baaa p e IX, pa yep o ac. Ho o pae, oee ocopo, e eo oe, oec eo oceee aa cey. oo peo epyc po ee ocaoo oo, o co pao o ooa a ocy.

Ceeca o eapeco ce axo capx pyccx eocx. Oo cax paax cpa pycco cop ec poaa aacee eoycoa opa a ac yo p ocoo Beoo Bac II Teoo pex coe capeo ca p ocoo, p pea, Bac ocoo, p e p pacoo.

Coep ooepeo pa a Pyc o y, o aap, pa pycce opoa, ya paoycex cax co e eox e.

B 1440 oy opoe ae coac a pa ocoo e, p pac. Ocoeca eo cep oe oe cpa. Bo a oecye o x cox H. M. apa coe cop ocyapca Pocccoo: a pe oe p c cyxa, yca ca;

xoe pacc cx a oo e o, o po epecao a y eo ocy.

Ey ay op, o a pacc. p yooc, peoa , a, acy aac ep. ope oaa , ap oeo, o ecoo caao peoo ey ca e ca a aax o e ope. Bpy epe cy c ce oeo , e opa aa, aa e cxp (epoe ecoe C.P.). Bce oeee o yaca. Paecc cyx o ce ye:

ope aoc o. ee p e oop o yecacex peeax, yaa e, o e cxa eo;

aoe eceo yep c ee coo: o a caa eoc eo eo epe 23 opoe opee Mococo coope apxaea Mxaa aaoc e cx ao e e ce.

Aaoe cee axo e ecoo aoa pyccx epox peoce Ape Hoaea Mypaea (18061874) yeece o c eca pycc. Oca eoecy ycay Apxaecoo coopa Mococoo pe, o coae o eoycoo op a ac ey Be e Bace II Te a e pe pee (co p ocoo) c co: Ma, ocopee aac p ye eo oce cep paa Beoo Bac (Bac I C. P.), ece c e co, oc eo, oy o aaceeee eoycoe ee Pycco. aaoc, eco oe ca cee pecoa oo oo, o o cye eo cpo co oy ya e ye a coo capeo ca, oceeoo cepa eco ea, a oo pyo coepa (oco ocee o pay Bac II C. P.). Bope opa Apxaecx po, oa oa aaa oox, oop eco o poooe ee, ae pe c p, p, pac eo yo, oye o e po, a ocyac e Pycca oce x po! a, Apxaeco coope oo oe ea c p ocoo p co co e e oc pe pac. Ae e pe, aoee eyoo c aoo p pea, p o eo caey ee, paee paoe ea, cao oopoo cao coo epa pece (coe pyccy capecy cay e cy).

Oaaec, oce cep eo eo cao e eee pe, e p , o oapyeo 1987 oy Hoopoe p ocoecax, aoax yeaee ee poa. M oaeo paccae o o oco ae, a oa poo pepay ay.

Ho ec cope po ee (Pycco e C. P.) aa, p, oco ea, o o pac o aa e coeo ceeca co oeo . Bo ee e pecac o, a x Ae, eoaa eo oa ya copeeo.

ycy pee cep, o poc cx a , p e aoa a cxo y, cyc oceee xae;

opa eo opee, o oo, cpoc c ce opao, poo oac epe Eaece coa:

ep e oa eo, o oco ec. Oeee o yaca, ao, a a cap, ea o pay cx opec;

epe e oop oo o e...;

o e e aa, o eo y eo o a yoo. pac ae epoy ec..., c ocpece o cpe , e cee ec, a ayc coe cae, e oa, o ey oop, o yaa e, xo oea e opa;

cpey yo o, a eep coac cpa epe o pe yp. Teo eo peeo a coop Apxaec oaaoc ee p opee a acaa ce oe coe copeea eoc.

Pacca H. M. apaa A. H. Mypaea o o co, ecoo oac eax, opaeo coaa ao, oo pyy pya. Ha ocoa x ceec oe peoaa, o p pac cpaa opaee epao epo cce (c cyxa, yca ca) a oe aeoo oe apepaoo ae, o e ceecye eoe ocooe pooeee. oca ao-o o ao post factum a ocoa opox cee eoc eooo, o epoee ceo o o eapec ea, oop pe ooo coco eap, ooo poy a cep. To, o o poye pac eo e ca e oa, oe ceecoa o eopao opae cyxooo aaaopa, o ae oepae ae peooee o aoea epao epo cce.

He ceo, o oopa cep p pacoo a e cep, a oee e oop pcyo eap. Bce eoc eoyo yaa, o a ee pacoo e o aex pao paoe ae pyx e, a a 23 y o a o Moc pye e epeeo o e eco. To, o o e acy, oop e o coc pacoo (eca coeo, cy o eo oao pe ), a oo o oo: eca epoo, o p pac oopo opee , coco eap.

Cyecoae eoea eapecoo ca poo ao oo coa oocex cao, ce oopx ycoo oo o aa Ca pacaa. epo ca, yooc aooa epeeo ayc oeoe oo, acae a oo-oo e, oo oey pepacoo pa poyae ee o oeee.

Beca ooo, o epoocoo oo cea, oo apoo aa, ocyo eceoe aee eapecoo ca, xo e co eoo, a cae. Ce ce paca cpeaec oe aco. Haoee ece o o cae ap eppo Ca pacaa ooeoy aey. aocoo, coaoy a ocoe o ca, o aeaeoy yy oa ce eocea ce oo, a ae o Cae o epo apee ce oapx A. C. ya.

Cpe oe aepacoo cae Baoa pa (17831859) ec oa, oaeo aoaa ce Ce paca. Haaec oa P a B. Pa a B cao apae oaa eoe, oopac o eceoc, ypa c co co peee. B ocoe oe ea ee epx oacx oceee aa H-op. P a B, oe oe ao, poca c o ecy, a oa epyc co epe, coc, o ca o oo-oo e, eo ocee y eep coce pye , ae oP a Be.

a o aao ca ce P a B c eapec co, o o e coce oppeo. B oe o Ce paca ocoe P a B e ecoo pya opaa oa. o oa ee ao ye eoe cyeoo epea pee, epeo cpeac cpeeeox ceax. p cooe pa x pa epx eoe pe o aopo eoc py ee co xapaep.

oc o eco pepa copo Exempla XIII ea.

c c oo cea, ap Be apa c coo pa eoeo pap opa eo cyc p oa, o pap yee o, o poe c oo epaopo ceo oo p . B oe, oa ya yepeo oaxa poxoa epe ce, eaee oacpe eo eo eao ooc oyx oac oycoc, a oaxy oaaoc, o o yc ce cy e.

y coeo oacp, aoec aa pa o pye paocx pa. Bopac opoa, e ya o ppaa, oaxo. e e ya eo ye, ycxa o eo, o o acoe x oe, oo o e, o opa aee. ocope e, oopy aca ea pex aao, o a eo . Cex op yo pca e.

Ce, cy yx pxocx epx, opa poececy cyy oo x, copac pyy, oa eo paca ocy eccy ocaa co Map. O pexa pepacy epo, e cpe ooaep, a o ooa cy oy papeee opac oo. Ho oaaoc, o o ocycoa e ecoo aco, a co e.

o eoe cyeoo ocp pee, co xapaep cxoo cpeeeooo eoea, epoo, a-o opao ae coe opaee eop ooceoc Aepa ea. Ho o ye ea oeoo cceoa, e ea aoo ooe papaeoy a e eapecoo ca. A ooy poo a paoop o opae ao eapecoo ca apoo oope.

Bo cex cpaax occ apoe cyx o peex ye, cea ox ox o po. Hecoeo, o ee eco eceoc yace pocec c opee o o aa oo coa cao, ee, a pea o pex, o cax o oa poa epeax, o ypaaax, apax, oyax, eax. Hapooy opecy, caoy c po epx, oc oey ay, ec e xoeoc oo ocyc opoca o ooe e o ooa. Hecoeo, ae a ya epeoo yac, e, oyxc oce eapecoo ca, oa a pecaee ocoo pa capac a oo copee o x ac. Haoee paa cpeco caoc oa oco o py aoy oey ooy.

Bo accecoe ocae apa (yp, ypaaa): papo oe oaaec eo e pao paoe, oee oo c py ea, c opoc o, opoo, ooca, c aeec a yax po. aacy po pcycye ae poy.

Ao pacooe ocae ao opeeoo, ceaoe oao Eeo peyae aaa oocex paccao opeex ao: ...o ycye ce cece ey oca, o e oyca eo pocpa py cox... O cc epee ooee coe, o o caoe pe ooeae eo cpeee ox apo o eax pyo. Ty aae o ycoa ece coe oaa, o eo co a epoo pea opee... Mey e oyx cyaec, c apac, py oaec c xae, o pee, po cpec o ce oepc, oca ycyyec, o pe y ce ooc, epae eo coe aae po... Haoceo cx yacx cpaax ypae.

Moo oe oe cxoco oca eeo a yp eoea, oxopoeoo ao. Bepoo, eo axo e, aoxyxc poy, ocy oco oo coa opaa yp. Aa a ee o ypx pacpocpae oceeco, cya x axoo, o, aeo e e.

Oapyee e, eoa opeex ao, ocy ae ocoo coa ooo cax cpax po: o poy epeepyc! O cyeepo ooe axoc eap ceecye a, pee ye yoaec e Eea: Heoopa ea Beape, yopeea ax oax oea yepx, yy eca cyeepa, oea ooo yepeo, oeo cope xoe opea, caaa, o copo pee ee o-y oo e ceeca ype, o yep opa poy aa, o o aea ee, aco peeao eaooyoe pee.

eoe, cy cox poeccoax oaoce aco caac c yep, eco oo, o oaa oo poyaeyc o coco eap, ce copee oxopo eo. ae cya, o, ae e e.

Ho epec e Eea pee ee ecoo pepo oo aaoo pya.

pep 37-. B yoeo oacpe ... ae oe pocpaoo a, ey paae opea c pe ep peea, yoo ea co, oopo o oo pee ooeo a epe ea oaxo o opee. oa ce co, oopo poe ecox epex caee, opa epx, peco aa eo e o, aa ocoeee ocapa, o a a cee ceyy, aeo ceo pao aa, oo oe ea a ee, aepay ac (a aco e C. P.): oco!

oy ! Ocae y, pye o pea yx o! C o eo.

He e o oey! caea ao. Tope! Bo ! Tpe e ye ceae! ope e ypaey! 1735.

pep 38-. o paa paeca opoe... opeeeo o ec ce axoec o coa epo po, pe oa e ac ox ya. Mey po poa a o o op po, oe o o paepyoe opao. Ce po yco, ae oe oao axoc oc, o p pyx po paax oaa ee epoe eo, oeo oao e o poe. Ha cx ocx o ee pax ecax ccoxee co, o oey oo o co e, a o opee ooe p. ae, oe eo oo, ce opao o. a cya ae oca o Bceox yex eoocx o 4 a 1799 oa.

pep 44-. e ep, poypop oa Beoo, oecye, o o caoe pe, oa Opeae yepy ey eo oo oy poy, o ee cyee e o oy xoe c yee epce c py. Ma yepa, ycy cy o p pea aa, aaa pa, pe op cyac ye. pea yco ea caa poa , oyac caao, pa oo. Oa a oo ee ec e, po poa ooo ca.

ca, epeo eo aece op c ep cee opee ao, aacy eo oa co cacee ao opeee. Bo Bpaex ecx... Eea ec ee a aaox pepa o paee cee oco ep Tyye o oe, pacoae pa opooo epc cey oy e oaoo ea Maeypa. B oox cyax oo o, a o cya paee coac o-paoy: ep coac o cya, a opo, o cya aooyoo ocec yeoo xe ocooe o aaa.

peoo ap, xpcac ccoep e, pe ce o pe cocex oxopo p yax oo caa pcoec xopy po poa. Hop ac, eco ecocc, poea a poy, ca eo ep oac pcy co oaoc, cepo opoa opyax, eo o a eo ycac.

Oo, o ee opee ao o eca pacpocpaeo XVIII ee ceecye oec Mxaa yoa Cyo op copa epece Cace ca, epe oyoaa Ca-eepype 1766 oy. O opee ao aop paccaae e co cpaxo, a c opo, a o eca oo ae oo e, a o oo aeoe, opaae pacxoe e ece cya.

B oec oopc a e ooo o a e o oac o coeo cyoo oa, o aae ce eo opo. A cap cpa acoo cy, o oy e aa e, ea o aoo. ae o pe ca o pa ee ea a po. Oa cya ( coo) oooo ocoa ac ypac ea o pa ceo capa, o oa copaac yaa cyy opa. To oac yep.

Heepe ace o e e oxopo coeo oa, a ye aapa ae cay. Caa a eceee, e oxopo, a a a ee ee o cpaeo e pep oe. Ho, oa xoea oc, ac , ycy, cya apac oe cya, o c c eo ae (ca, a ye e pa yeac a pepax, eo aoap aec opa ocoo cpac a ao opeex). a, cya pap oy, a ooa, oopa eo coy aa oy co cpao, o o ea, oopo oo oac.

Mepe o ce c apa Ox, y opa oocc o, ya o oa oy, e ea oe oo e a. Haoe, oo opayc pee oo oo ya o coe aoo, e eca oceo oea oo. pea ep coe oa, ae x aep e ea, pocc ca coeo ca, o y eo , oa ea o ca, o ooa o pe e caa. e epea, cyaac oa coo ooo, o coa c ya opaac a o ce. Cap, oea cy, aa eo epa eca eoo. Mooo , pacop aa y epoo epe coo oa, co ao ec o oa po, ea ee pa cex cee a oo, cap a oc, e oc poyac co cpaxo ea ce epe a opao, a pece. Bo pe y axoc apec oep, oop e coce ee pocac oo e cyac coo, a pye, pocc y opy, e axoc py, oxa oo, ap eo ye po, oa ea o c c ep oo o opy o oo, o o cpe pepae ceo cpaxa acpe x oox... Hecop a c aeooc aoo oa, ec oo yo eoope e ep ao cya, epoo eoopao ee eco.

Bo-epx, o pa oceoc opee, oopa p oo ocyc apoaoo paeoo ocopa (eo pocxoo epee) ac ocoo po peepeex axopoe. Bo-opx, aec op, poya ooa. B-pex, e paoc, a yac ce ce p e oeo epea. , aoe, -eepx, yco oo ooa.

Cy o oecy cax paoopax ceec, opee ao pxoc a XVIII e. , a e aec, o oe aooepo. Ec opac epayp poee o ox, o y, o epo o oy ooy ep coae, aa oopo, opa . . o e poco a epaypo oe, a opaee eceoo cxecoo coco oeca. B XIX ee oopo caoc oo yeo a, a XX po x ye paec e c. Bepoo XVIII ee poo pacpocpae epo-cxece paccpoca, ocec oopx ac eap ooe e coco.

B XIX ee ceec o opeex ao caoc aeo ee.

Moo co o caae c oo Maapo, oop 1824 oy oyc ooco aaoeco eape, oa cae papea eo py. Cece ycaoo, o eo eo o paeo o poao paa. o paaeco cyae epa a ae aceaye, oa paac o y aca ee pacoa. B poy ae aoxyc eoe, py ooa oopoo ceecoa o eycex oax pacp po.

B 1893 . Aeepe y o yepe eaoo o poo e aca pacoa oy. Oa a aea o, o opoaeo. Hacy po, peyae oopx a peeo yep epe ecoo aco.

epac pa-ooepoo. A. poa epeaa e pacca ee ea, M.

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