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Модальные глаголы имеют не все временные формы, отсутствующие временные формы восполняются эквивалентами модальных глаголов, например: to be able to или to have to.

Модальные глаголы могут употребляться в сочетании с любой формой инфинитива.

Наибольшие трудности представляет перевод сочетаний модальных глаголов с Infinitive Passive и Perfect Infinitive.

Таблица модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов Модаль- Зна- Present Past Future ные чение глаголы и их эквива ленты Воз- can 1. CAN could — мо- am was shall able (to) be able (to) is able (to) were will жность to be able are совер- (to) шения 2. MAY may might — дей am was shall be allowed allowed (to) ствия*) is allowed (to) were will (to) to be are allowed (to) 3. MUST Дол- must — — shall жен- have (to) had (to) to have (to) have (to) will ство- has (to) вание to be (to) am (to) was (to) is (to) were (to) — are (to) should should — — ought (to) ought (to) — — shall be obliged am was obliged (to) is obliged (to) were will (to) to be are obliged (to) *) can – мочь, уметь (я могу, умею) may – быть вероятным, выражает просьбу или разрешение (можете войти. вероятно это интересно).

Сочетание модальных глаголов с Infinitive Passive и Infinitive Perfect Сочетание модального глагола с Infinitive Passive указывает, что подлежащее является объектом, на который направлено действие, выраженное инфинитивом. Поэтому подлежащее английского предложения часто переводится на русский язык дополнением, прямым или предложным.

Пример: The man was so excited that he could not be understood.

Перевод: Человек был так возбужден, что его нельзя было понять.

Модальные глаголы must, may и might в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive выражают возможность или вероятность действия, относящегося к прошлому и обычно переводятся словами должно быть, возможно.

А Пример: He must have lost his book somewhere.

Он должно быть потерял свою книгу где-то.

Б Пример: He may have got the article he needed.

Он возможно достал статью, которая была ему нужна.

Глаголы can и could в отрицательной форме в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive выражают сомнение в возможности совершения действия в прошлом и обычно переводятся при помощи слов не может быть.

Пример: He cannot have made such a serious mistake.

Не может быть, чтобы он допустил такую серьезную ошибку.

Модальные глаголы ought (to), should, could и might в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive указывают на то, что действие, которое могло или должно было бы совершиться не совершилось.

Пример: You should have told her the truth.

Тебе следовало бы рассказать ей правду.

Пример: He could have written that letter, he had a lot of free time.

Он мог бы написать это письмо, у него было много свободного времени.

The Participle /Причастие/ Формы и функции Participle I Participle II Tense Voice Active Passive 1. –ed for regular verbs Indefinite asking being asked e.g. asked Perfect having asked having been 2. specific form for asked irregular verbs e.g. written spoken etc.

Функции Participle I 1. Определение, которое может стоять перед существительным. В этой функции перфектные формы причастия не употребляются.

Переводится на русский язык как причастие, а иногда как обычное прилагательное.

The reading boy – читающий мальчик Participle I может стоять после существительного. В этом случае после Participle I могут стоять прямое дополнение и обстоятельство, которые в целом образуют причастный оборот. Переводится причастный оборот на русский язык придаточным определительным предложением или причастным оборотом.

The boy reading a book is my friend.

Мальчик, читающий книгу – мой друг.

2. Часть сложного дополнения.

I see him speaking with a manager.

Я вижу, что он говорит с менеджером.

3. Обстоятельство времени, образа действия, причины и переводится как деепричастие.

Having discussed this problem they came to the conclusion.

Обсудив проблему, они пришли к заключению.

4. Participle I может быть частью самостоятельного причастного оборота (The Absolute Participle Construction), т.е. такого причастного оборота, в котором перед причастием стоит существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в именительном падеже, являющееся субъектом действия, выраженного причастием.

Такой оборот отделяется запятой и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением, если стоит в начале предложения.

Weather permitting, we’ll continue our search.

Если позволит погода, мы продолжим свой поиск.

Функции Participle II Participle II в предложении может иметь следующие функции:

1. Определения. Стоит перед или чаще после определяемого существительного и переводится на русский язык причастиями на –мый, -нный, -тый, -вший(ся) (предшествовавший).

The translated book – переведенная книга.

2. Части сказуемого в страдательном залоге.

The book was translated last year.

Книга была переведена в прошлом году.

3. Обстоятельства /переводятся обстоятельственными придаточными предложениями времени, условия, причины и др./. Перед Participle II в этой функции иногда могут стоять союзы if, unless, when.

If translated well the book will be a success.

Если книга переведена хорошо, она будет иметь успех.

4. Participle II так же, как и Participle I может быть частью самостоятельного причастного оборота.

The book translated, we shall be able to buy it.

Когда книга будет опубликована, мы сможем купить ее.

The Gerund /Герундий/ Формы и функции Tense Voice Active Passive Indefinite asking being asked Perfect having asked having been asked Будучи неличной формой глагола, герундий имеет категорию относительного времени и залога, может иметь прямое дополнение и определяется наречием.

Имея свойства существительного, герундий выполняет в предложении те же синтаксические функции, что и существительное:

подлежащего, именной части сказуемого, дополнения, определения с предлогом и обстоятельством с предлогом. Герундий может переводиться отглагольным существительным, инфинитивом или деепричастием.

Reading English books is useful. (подлежащее) Чтение английских книг – полезно.

I like reading – Я люблю чтение (читать). (дополнение) Примечание: После глаголов, данных ниже, в качестве прямого дополнения может стоять только герундий:

to avoid (избегать);

to enjoy (получать удовольствие);

to excuse (извинять(ся));

to intend (намереваться);

to need (нуждаться);

to require (требовать);

to want (хотеть).

Герундий может определяться существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже, а также притяжательным или указательным местоимением.

Такие герундиальные обороты обычно переводятся придаточным предложением, вводимым словами:

то, что;

в том, что;

тем, что;

о том, что и т.п.

John’s returning home so late stayed unnoticed.

(То, что Джон вернулся домой так поздно, осталось незамеченным.) His returning home so late surprised nobody.

(Его возвращение домой так поздно никого не удивило.) The Infinitive /Инфинитив/ В английском языке имеются следующие формы инфинитива:

Active Passive Indefinite to translate to be translated Continuous to be translating Perfect to have translated to have been translated Perfect to have been translating — Continuous Инфинитив является основной глагольной формой, от которой образуются все личные формы глагола во всех группах времен в действительном и страдательном залогах.

Infinitive Indefinite употребляется для выражения действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме в предложении.

Infinitive Continuous выражает действие в процессе его развития одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.

Infinitive Perfect выражает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.

Infinitive Perfect Continuous выражает действие, продолжавшееся в течение определенного периода времени и предшествовавшее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.

Форма инфинитива страдательного залога указывает на то, что действие, выраженное инфинитивом, направленно на лицо или предмет, связанный с инфинитивом.

Пример: Any mistake which is present in the calculation must be removed.

Перевод: Любая ошибка, которая есть в вычислениях, должна быть удалена.

Способ перевода инфинитива на русский язык зависит от его функции в предложении.

Инфинитив в английском предложении может выполнять следующие функции:

1. Подлежащего (переводится неопределенной формой глагола).

Пример: To prove this law experimentally | is very difficult.

Перевод: Доказать этот закон экспериментально очень трудно.

2. Именной части составного сказуемого (переводится неопределенной формой глагола, нередко с союзом чтобы).

Пример: Your work | is to observe | the rise of inflation.

Перевод: Ваша работа заключается в том, чтобы наблюдать за повышением инфляции.

3. Части составного глагольного сказуемого после модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов и глаголов в личной форме, обозначающих начало, продолжение или конец действия.

Пример: He | is to make | the experiment.

Перевод: Он должен провести этот эксперимент.

4. Дополнения (переводится неопределенной формой глагола).

Пример: He | asked | to define the unit of measurement more accurately.

Перевод: Он попросил определить единицу измерения более точно.

Если дополнение выражено сложной формой инфинитива, то он переводится придаточным предложением с союзом что или чтобы.

Пример: The students were glad to have obtained such good results in the latest tests of the new model.

Перевод: Студенты были рады, что (они) достигли таких хороших результатов при последних испытаниях новой модели.

5. Обстоятельства. Инфинитив в этой функции с группой последующих слов чаще всего переводится на русский язык обстоятельством цели с союзами чтобы;

для того, чтобы.

Пример: To make the price higher | we must improve the quality of goods.

Перевод: Чтобы повысить цену, мы должны улучшить качество товаров.

Пример: We go to the University to study.

Перевод: Мы ходим в университет, чтобы учиться.

6. Правого определения. В этой функции инфинитив с зависящими от него словами обычно переводится определительным придаточным предложением. Часто инфинитив в функции определения имеет оттенок модальности и переводится на русский язык с добавлением слов следует, надо, должен.

Пример: Fielding | was the first | to introduce into the English novel real characters in their actual surroundings.

Перевод: Филдинг был первым, кто ввел в английский роман реальные характеры в их реальном окружении.

Пример: Experiments have shown that | the amount of work | to be used for producing a given amount of goods | is the same under all conditions.

Перевод: Опыты показали, что количество работы, которое нужно израсходовать для получения данного количества товаров, является одинаковым при всех условиях.

Perfect Infinitive Passive в функции определения указывает на то, что действие, выраженное инфинитивом, должно было совершиться, но не совершилось.

Пример: Another important factor to have been referred to in that article was that there are many functions of money.

Перевод: Другой важный фактор, на который нужно было бы сослаться в той статье, заключался в том, что существует много функций денег.

Если инфинитив в функции определения имеет после себя предлог, как в данном выше примере, то вся инфинитивная группа переводится определительным придаточным предложением с соответствующим предлогом перед союзным словом, а если предлог не переводится, то он придает определенный падеж этому союзному слову.

Инфинитивные обороты в английском языке Объектный инфинитивный оборот (The Objective with the Infinitive) Этот оборот состоит из существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива, между которыми существует связь аналогичная связи между подлежащим и сказуемым. Оборот в предложении стоит обычно за сказуемым основного предложения и синтаксически выполняет функцию сложного дополнения. Он употребляется после глаголов типа: to want, to suppose, to find, to expect, to believe и т.д. Оборот переводится на русский язык придаточным дополнительным предложением, причем инфинитив переводится глаголом-сказуемым в соответствующем времени в зависимости от формы инфинитива, а существительное или местоимение в объектом падеже – существительным или личным местоимением как подлежащее.

Пример: We know him to be the first inventor of an electrical measuring instrument.

Перевод: Мы знаем, что он является первым изобретателем электрического измерительного прибора.

Инфинитив в этом обороте употребляется без частицы to, если он стоит после глаголов восприятия чувств, таких как: to hear, to see, to feel, to watch и др.

Пример: We see the computer work well.

Перевод: Мы видим компьютер работает хорошо.

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (The Nominative with the Infinitive) Этот оборот состоит из существительного или личного местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, связанного с ним по смыслу. Между ними стоит сказуемое, выраженное личной формой глагола в страдательном залоге или глаголом типа to seem, to appear в действительном залоге, или оборотами to be likely, to be sure и др.

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот синтаксически выполняет функцию сложного подлежащего.

Перевод всей конструкции обычно начинается со сказуемого, которое переводится неопределенно-личным предложением (известно, сообщают, кажется и т.п.). Сам оборот переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением, причем инфинитив переводится глаголом-сказуемым в соответствующем времени.

Пример: All these goods are known to be produced by our firm.

Перевод: Известно, что все эти товары производятся нашей фирмой.

Пример: Russian scientists and inventors are known to have discovered electrical phenomena of the greatest importance.

Перевод: Известно, что русские ученые и изобретатели открыли электрические явления величайшего значения.

Business Case Study (Примеры из деловой практики) 1. Ford at Dagenham One of the plant managers, working with his area managers at Ford’s Dagenham plant, had devised a plan for reducing costs by reorganising the work in the area of machine operation. The problem was that if the plan was to work it required two important changes from the workforce - first their co operation in moving from the production of one set of parts to the production or another set half-way through each week. Second, it required the introduction of a new twilight shift. No extra money was on offer nor were any other inducements held out. The ‘case’ had to be sold direct to the workforce (.some 80 people) by the relevant area manager. This was to be attempted at a special meeting in the old canteen at the start of the morning shift.

At the appointed hour, the workers were assembled and seated in a rather cold and uncomfortable setting, unconducive to extended debate. The shop stewards for the area were seated out at tile front. The area manager arrived ‘chauffeur-driven’ in one of the plant’s electric vehicles. Flanked by section heads he strode to the front and commenced his delivery. The style was relaxed, down-to-earth, occasionally jovial, but very direct. In essence, ‘the problem’ was explained as uncompetitive costs in the production of two power-train assemblies. The danger of at least one or these ceasing production altogether, unless the ‘uneconomic’ low volume levels could be compensated for by more flexible switching each week between one job and another was explained.

The ‘solution’ was then described. This involved the introduction of a ‘swing shift’ and the necessity for the shift, on certain days of the week, to be ready to finish the scheduled run in ‘Power Train I’ and relocate themselves to a different area of the factory to commence work on ‘Power Train II’.

Questions were then invited and the area manager fielded these himself. One issue of concern was the extra time that would be needed reporting to work and in lost break time because of the distance between the two work locations.

The area manager dealt with this by promising to keep it under review during the first few weeks of the new work scheme.

After about 40 minutes the area manager and the rest of the management team departed and the shop stewards were left to address the meeting. The tone was essentially a realistic one of the economics of competition and the poor state of ‘Power Train I’ because of its age and its low volumes. While some minor problems were noted with the management plan, the overall message was that rearganisation was necessary. There was very little opposition from the floor. A vote was taken and the plan was accepted almost unanimously.

(a) Identify the aspects of management that are taking place in this situation.

(b) What leadership qualities did the plant manager and the area manager demonstrate?

(c) What type of leadership style is the area manager adopting?

(d) What factors may have influenced this choice of leadership style?

(e) Use the leadership theory of Fiedler to explain why the strategy adopted by the area manager was successful.

2. Marketing the Theatre In all branches of the theatre today, marketing expertise is crucial.

When planning your strategy, the first step is to read the play which you are going to be marketing. When you know a show it is sometimes easy to find strong selling points.

Use these selling points in the design your posters and other publicity material. These must be got out in good time, at least six weeks before the show is due to open. Try to find ways to maximise local publicity about the production: does something about the play itself, or its cast perhaps, give you a key which will unlock local radio and press coverage?

It is important to think of possible group bookings – for example, you can do useful business with school coach parties when you have a play which is on the ‘A’*) level syllabus.

There will probably be a box office revenue target (largely determined by the production cost of the play) and this will influence prices. Market research of your potential audience is useful before setting prices. The careful use of discount prices and concessions can be an important tactic.

It is interesting to consider Table 1 and the range of average ticket prices charged for the different types of production and the varying extent to which use is made by box offices of discounting.

Table Average Ticket Prices and the Average Discount on Ticket Prices, Type of Production Average Ticket Average Discount Price () on Ticket Price (%) Modern Drama 12.59 10. Comedy 13.08 8. Modern Musicals 18.28 1. Traditional Musicals 17.26 9. Revue 15.11 0. *) “A” – advanced – продвинутый уровень в обучении.

Opera 30.20 8. Ballet 21.05 3. Classical Plays 11.82 17. Children’s Shows / 10.79 4. Pantomime 13.28 5. Thrillers & Others At the box office, the theatre business depends, to some extent, on the custom of tourists, particularly those from the United States. However, according to the Society of London Theatres, the relative importance of tourists has been declining. While 42% of the West End audience came from overseas in 1985, this had fallen to 32% by 1991.

Theatre managers do not like having to rely on tourists because it means that there will be regular seasonal troughs in demand when the number of foreign visitors falls off in the winter. For this reason, it has been quite common for up to half a dozen shows to be forced to close during the first few months of the year.

Moreover, there are inevitably going to be bad years for tourism, for example, during periods when the Dollar is weak, or when the threat of terrorism in Europe dominates the headlines (such as in the periods after Hie Libyan bombing in 1986 and the Gulf War in 1991) and serves to discourage people from travelling abroad.

Case Study Question 1: You are the business manager of your school or college play which is to run for a week in the main hall. This means that you have the take of selling 1,000 tickets. What are the main marketing steps you must take?

Case Study Question 2: You decide to set your seat prices so that the production will ‘break-even’. What are the main fixed and variable costs that you should expect to incur.

3. High Lane VI Form College High Lane VI Form College acquired designated status on 1st April 1993. This meant that control for the funding of the college moved from the local authority to central government. In addition, the complete management of the budget would be carried out by the principal of the college rather than the local education authority. Finances for the college would be allocated by the Further Education Funding Council and could depend, in the main, on the number of students it could attract and on whether the college had achieved its mission statement. This is a document that set out of college’s future goals and objectives in terms of curriculum development and delivery and the pastoral programme for student guidance and support.

The principal and governors of the college decided to restructure in order to meet the challenge of the future. In the past the structure had four levels – the senior management team (the principal and two viceprincipals), senior tutors (responsible for the pastoral programme), heads of departments and main scale teachers. It was recognised that the senior management team needed to be expanded. Senior tutors were given extra responsibilities and made part of the senior management team. In addition a new team of curriculum leaders (CLs) was created. The team was made up from heads of departments in the different curriculum areas, such as the social sciences and sciences etc. and was responsible for curriculum development and delivery.

Much of the success of the college would depend on how well this group worked together.

The group certainly had a variety of personalities in it - from those with new, innovative ideas to those that more concerned with administration and day to day problems. The group met formally once a fortnight to discuss issues concerning a quality curriculum. It became apparent, however, that the meetings rarely achieved concrete suggestions for future action. The meetings seemed to be used as 'talking shops’ for curriculum leaders to air grievances about the happenings of the week.

Some of the curriculum leaders were also part of an informal group of friends who would socialise at lunchtimes and after college. It was often at these informal gatherings/meetings that the real issues were raised and ideas discussed. Other curriculum leaders who were not at such gatherings would usually have any important issues raised communicated to them through the ‘grapevine’.

The informal meetings became a focal point for CLs to attack the lack of focus in the official meetings and also the fact that their ideas were very rarely accepted by senior management. They felt that senior management was made up of individuals who had caused a decline in the number of students by their inaction over the last five years. Their main complaint, however, was that although they had been assured by the principal that they would be the ones who would make decisions on curriculum matters, the senior management team would often intervene and veto their proposals. For example, CLs suggested that gNVQs (general national vocational qualifications) should be more fully developed in the college to attract students that had normally gone to the local FE colleges.

This idea was, rejected by the senior management team as not fitting into the academic tradition of the college. Joan, the CL for Economics and Business, felt exasperated by this decision. She said: “CLs were meant to be part of the management of the college with responsibilities for curriculum development and delivery. We meet formally and informally, communicating in a variety of ways to each other, trying to advance a common view on curriculum development. But at times we just don’t seem to have the authority to make things happen. I just don’t know what we can do.” (a) What new formal groups did the Principal and Governors set up in April 1993?

(b) How did communication take place in formal and informal groups at High Lane?

(c) Comment on the likely effectiveness of:

(i) formal groups;

(ii) informal groups;

at High Lane.

(d) What problems might High Lane face as a result at the way group decision making is organised?

(e) Suggest 2 methods High Lane management could have used to solve the problems suggested in your answer to question (d).

4. More Than Just a Leisure Park The Dome Leisure Park is Europe’s largest multi-facility leisure development under one roof, with a total floor area of 15 100 square metres.

Since its opening in October 1989, it has regularly welcomed more than one million visitors through its doors per year, making it one of the UK’s top five leisure attractions, ranking it alongside Alton Towers and the Chessington World of Adventures.

The Dome is located in Doncaster, South Yorkshire. Its site gives quick and easy access to the Ml, M18, and A1(M) motorways, thus giving good communication links to surrounding towns and cities such as Sheffield, Leeds, and Nottingham. Alternatively, the nearby mainline railway station offers rail links to London, Birmingham, Manchester, and Edinburgh.

The land on which The Dome is built and surrounding areas comprise 350 acres of council owned waste land on the Southern edge of the town, opposite the prestigious race course. The Dome can therefore be expanded without complication, or nearby land sold to other private sector investors attracted to the area.

The Aims of the Dome The Dome was a Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council (DMBC) initiative, first conceived in 1985. It was designed, built, and opened at a cost of 25 million, which was wholly funded by the council through the receipts of sales of land.

The main objectives of The Dome are:

1. To offer the residents of Doncaster a dramatically different leisure option.

2. To position Doncaster as the focal point for leisure and tourism following the decline of the town’s more traditional industries of heavy engineering and mining.

3. To act as a catalyst for the economic and qualitative regeneration of the surrounding area and to act as an expression of confidence in the future of the community.

4. To attract investment to the town.

The Mission Statement of The Dome is:

‘To enhance the quality of life of residents and visitors to Doncaster and South Yorkshire by means of a wide range of well publicised, affordable and enjoyable leisure opportunities in an attractive, healthy and safe environment”.

The Management of The Dome The council knew that much depended on the success of The Dome, and as such, good management was imperative if they were to justify the initial cost the development demanded. They wanted the Dome to not only be a successful leisure centre, but to provide the catalyst in attracting other developers and investors to the town. In short, successful management could turn the initial 25 million into investment, rather than expenditure. With this in mind, a private limited company, Dome Leisure Management, was formed to oversee the commercial viability and day-to-day running of the project.

Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council (DMBC) recognised that it required the highest levels of commercial management and decided that a ’stand alone’ operation, whereby a Private Limited Company runs the concern for the Council, provided the best opportunities for success. A similar strategy is illustrated by the success of the council-owned, privately-run, race course in the town.

The Marketing Strategy When the Dome first opened the marketing of the Centre as a whole, and of specific events, was of prime importance. Without a high company profile and influx of customers, the Dome would fail to satisfy its aims and objectives. Due to this, the management enlisted the specialist skills of Colbear Dickson, an external marketing agency, to work with a group of managers including the General Manager and the Marketing Department.

They would identify promotions and initiatives for the coming months for the Marketing Plan.

Each year the Marketing Department has had a different goal to reach in promoting The Dome. In its first year it aimed at creating a corporate identity, in a bid to get the name of The Dome known throughout the region, if not the country. In the second year, its task was to promote day-trip business and the third year concentrated on promoting corporate business.

Market research is carried out periodically to ascertain the needs of the market. Access and Visa customers are sent mail shots with information regarding future events, but no system is set up as yet to monitor the success of this initiative.

The role of the Marketing Department focuses very much on the promotion of The Dome and public relations activities. In addition, several sales methods have been constructed as a result of market research, such as offering joint tickets to both the water and ice facilities, as well as a Kids Club aimed at the younger, energy-packed visitor.

Now that the Leisure Park has an established track record. The Dome Management rely to a certain extent on the name and The Dome’s reputation to do much of the marketing and selling for them. A large amount of the Dome’s publicity comes in the form of press releases focusing on specific events and new initiatives being launched, in the hope and expectation that local newspapers will use the story, thus providing the public with information about the centre. This tactic enables the Dome to reach a large audience at little or no cost.

Local press and radio advertising tends to focus on specific high profile events, such as forthcoming concerts and basketball matches. Leaflets advertising the general facilities offered by the Dome are displayed in tourist office’s throughout Yorkshire and Humberside.

The Business Operations of the Dome Apart from being successful in attracting customers, the Dome also needed to be seen as having a strong corporate identity, in order to give the confidence of potential investors in the area. After all, it is to a large extent the Dome’s customers that feed all the other commercial developments on the site. To this end, the Dome needed a resourceful management and competent staff.

Senior management posts were filled largely with personnel from outside the local community with experience of the leisure industry, whereas positions lower down the hierarchy were filled from the large pool of labour available locally. This enabled the Dome to find an acceptable balance between experienced, specialist staff brought into the area, and personnel from the local community.

Any senior positions becoming available now are advertised internally in the first instance. This offers several advantages to the company, in that it motivates staff as they believe that they have a chance to succeed in the organisation. Also, the induction period (the first few weeks in the new job) is made smoother as the employee is already familiar with the working environment, its people and its policies. Disadvantages of promotion from within are that no new blood is brought into the company which could lead to a lack of innovative new ideas.

If internal advertising for management level positions fails to provide suitable candidates, the Dome management prefer to ‘headhunt’ in order to save time and expenditure involved with advertising externally. The headhunting process involves contacting people known to the staff who are working in, or have worked in, a similar position within the leisure industry.

They can be attracted to the Dome by offering larger salaries, additional benefits, or better future prospects. Headhunting is particularly suited to senior positions or ones where the post holder requires specialist skills or knowledge.

The Dome management place great importance on the induction, training and development of all staff. Every employee within the organisation receives an induction period upon taking up employment. The amount of time taken in induction will depend on the position within the organisation. An annual appraisal system is used thereafter to assess an individual’s overall performance. This gives employees л formal opportunity to discuss with their managers their role within the company, where they think their job is going, and how it could be improved to the benefit of themselves and the organisation as a whole.

A common training theme runs throughout all levels of the hierarchy.

In 1992, for example, training concentrated on improving quality;

whereas in 1993 training aimed at improving sates techniques. In addition to this themed training, job holders also receive a training programme tailored to their needs.

Most training is carried out in-house, giving the advantages of minimal time spent away from the workplace and avoiding the expense of hiring an external training agency. The Dome is currently carrying out a Training Needs Analysis, which is partly funded by the Doncaster and Barnsley Training and Enterprise Council ‘TEC’.

Due to the dynamic nature of the leisure industry, the Dome management need to effectively manage change in order to maintain their competitive edge. most changes implemented tend to be customer led. The ethos is that if customer demand is sufficient/the management will try and ensure that the facility or activity is included.

It is not just current customers’ wishes that need to be met, however, in order to sustain the growth needed to meet the council's expectations. If the Dome is to live up to all of its original aims, it must evolve to become a Leisure Park large enough to pull visitors from further afield. With a proposed Channel Tunnel Terminal being sited at Doncaster, it is now feasible to expect visitors from France and the rest of the EU. Because of this the council is continually updating its proposed expansions of the site. Current initiatives involve the development of an artificial lake for water sports, a business and office complex, a holiday village, and an all-seater sports stadium. If it is to continue to attract private sector development, it must continue to invest in, and expand on, the current provisions offered.

Such a large scale development is obviously likely to upset some people in the local community, due to problems such as increased traffic, noise, litter etc. Dealing with such groups is seen largely as a public relations exercise. If the Dome management and the council give them a fair hearing and lay down the basis of, and advantages of their proposals, or even bow to the wishes of local groups where this seems to be the best strategy, the council will maintain the much needed respect and support of the local residential and business community.

Private Sector Investment For the Dome to provide maximum benefit for the local community, and Doncaster as a whole, it needed to attract private sector investors to the area. This was the best way for the DMBC to recoup their initial investment, as they sold off land to companies attracted to the area. The revenue from land sales far outweighs profits obtained from the operations of the Dome. This has already paid off in the form of a 50 bedroom Campanile Hotel situated in two acres of land. The French hotel chain has the scope to add another bedroom annexe to their existing 1.2 million development. Just prior to the official opening of The Dome, Keith Brown Properties Ltd opened a 1. million Ten Pin Bowling Alley covering one acre and providing 60 jobs. In 1990 an Asda Superstore opened covering 12 acres. Warner Brothers soon followed with a multi-screen cinema development situated on a six acre site at a cost of 6.5 million and providing 100 jobs.

The 500 full time jobs and 100 part time positions created by the million worth of private sector investment in the first phase of the Park’s development has given a boost to other commercial concerns in the local economy. Unemployment has fallen, spending power has increased, and this spending has led to further employment in other businesses.

The council are hoping that further development of the park will transform this area of Doncaster into a role model of private and public sector co-operation in economic revival.

Conclusion The Doncaster Dome was never intended to be a means to an end. It was never intended to be merely a leisure park. It was intended to trigger new hope and investment for the town. So far it seems to have worked.

The General Manager of the Dome was right when he said “The Dome is a household name on nil regional lips, is well known in the Leisure industry, is admired by its rivals and is the envy of other Borough Councils”.

It is certainly that, and to the people of Doncaster, much more besides. It has provided hope in what was otherwise a seemingly bleak future for a town where traditional industries (e.g. mining and engineering) are in sharp decline.

Questions for discussion 1. Why do you think that the Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council decided that a stand alone operation, whereby a Private Limited Company runs the concern, provided the best opportunities for success? What alternatives were open to the Council?

2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Dome’s marketing strategy? What improvements could be made in marketing both the Dome, and the Leisure Park as a whole?

3. Explain the links between the Public and Private sector that have emerged as a result of the Leisure Park’s development. What benefits has each received as a result of this co-operation?

4. What benefits has the Leisure Park’s development brought to the town of Doncaster? Are there any groups in the community that may feel threatened by the development?

5. What were the “opportunity costs” of the Dome? How would you justify the expense to opponents of the Dome’s development?

6. Conduct a S.W.O.T. (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis for the Dome Leisure Park. From your findings, do you feel that the Council were justified in investing 25 million in the project?

Supplementary Reading (Дополнительное чтение) What is management?

Unit 2 explained that managers are an important group involved in business activity. It is difficult to define exactly what is meant by ‘management’. However, many agree that managers are responsible for ‘getting things done’ – usually through other people. The term manager may refer to a number of different people within a business. Some job titles include the word manager, such as personnel manager or managing director.

Other job holders may also be managers, even though their titles do not say it.

It could be argued that managers:

• act on behalf of the owners – in a company, senior management are accountable to the shareholders;

• set objectives for the organisation, for example, they may decide that a long term objective is to have a greater market share than all of the company’s competitors;

• make sure that a business achieves its objectives, by managing others;

• ensure that corporate values (the values of the organisation) are maintained in dealings with other businesses, customers, employees and general public.

The functions of management Henri Fayol, the French management theorist working in the early part of this century, listed a number of functions or ‘elements’ of management.

Planning This involves setting objectives and also the strategies, policies, programmes and procedures for achieving them. Planning might be done by line manners (unit 63) who will be responsible for performance.

However, advice on planning may also come from staff management who might have expertise in that area, even if they have no line authority. For example, a production manager may carry out human resource planning (unit 51) in the production department, but use the skills of the personnel manager in planning recruitment for vacancies that may arise.

Organising Managers set tasks which need to be performed if the business is to achieve its objectives. Jobs need to be organised within sections or departments and ;

authority needs to be delegated so that jobs are carried out. For example, the goal of a manufacturing company may be to produce quality goods that will be delivered to customers on time. The tasks, such as manufacturing, packaging, administration, etc. that are part of producing and distributing the goods, need to be organised to achieve this goal.

Commanding This involves giving instructions to subordinates to carry out tasks. The manager has the authority to make decisions and responsibility to see tasks are carried out.

Co-ordinating This is the bringing together of the activities of people within the business. Individuals and groups will have their own goals, which may be different to those of the business and each other. Management must make sure that there is a common approach, so that the company’s goals are achieved.

Controlling Managers measure and correct the activities of individuals and groups, to make sure that their performance fits in with plans.

The management process Peter Drucker worked in the 1440s and 1950а as a business adviser to a number of US firms. He is credited with the idea of MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (unit 50), used by some businesses today. Drucker grouped the operations of management into five categories.

• Setting objectives for the organisation. Managers decide what the objectives of the business should be. These objectives are then organised into targets.

• Organising the work. The work to be done in the organisation must be divided into manageable activities and jobs. The jobs must be integrated into the formal organisational structure (unit 63) and people must be selected to do the jobs (unit 53).

• Motivating employees (unit 48) and communicating information (unit 62) to enable employees to carry out their tasks.

• Job measurement. It is the task of management to establish objectives or yardsticks of performance for every person in the organisation. They must also analyse actual performance and compare it with the yardstick that has been set. Finally, they should communicate the findings and explain their significance to others in the business.

• Developing people. The manager should bring out the talent in people.

Every manager performs all five functions listed above, no matter how good or bad a manager, Drucker suggests. A bad manager performs these functions badly, whereas a good manager performs them well. He also argued that the manager of a business has a basic function – economic performance.

In this respect the business manager is different from the manager of other types of organisation. Business managers can only justify their existence and authority by the economic results they produce.

Being a manager In contrast with Fayol or Drucker, Charles Handy argued that any definition of a manager is likely to be so broad it will have little or no meaning. Instead he outlined what is likely to be involved in ‘being a manager’.

The manager as a general practitioner Handy made an analogy between managing and staving ‘healthy’. If there are ‘health problems’ in business, the manager needs to identify the symptoms. These could include low productivity, high labour turnover or industrial relations problems. Once the symptoms have been identified, the manager needs to find the cause of trouble and develop a strategy for ‘better health’. Strategies for health might include changing people, through hiring and firing, reassignments, training, pay increases or counselling. A manager might also restructure work through job redesign, job enrichment (unit 50) and a redefinition of roles. Systems can also be improved. These can include communication systems, reward systems, information and reporting systems budgets and other decision making systems, eg stock control.

Managerial dilemmas Handy argued that managers face dilemmas. One of the reasons why managers are paid more than workers is because of the dilemmas they face.

• The dilemma of cultures. When managers are promoted or move to other parts o! the business, they have to behave in ways which are suitable for the new position. For example, at the senior management level, managers may deal more with long term strategy and delegate lower level tasks to middle management more often. If a promoted manager maintains a ‘culture’ that she is used to, which may mean taking responsibility for all tasks, she may not be effective in her new position.

• The trust-control dilemma. Managers may want to control the work for which they are responsible. However, they may have to delegate work to subordinates, trusting them to do the work properly. The greater the trust a manager has in subordinates, the less control she retains for herself. Retaining control could mean a lack of trust.

• The leader’s dilemma. In many firms, junior managers often want to work in project teams, with a clear task or objective. This can mean working ‘outside’ the normal bureaucratic structure of a larger organisation.

Unfortunately, there can be too many project groups (or ‘commando groups’) for the good of the business- The manager must decide how many project groups she should create to satisfy the needs of her subordinates and how much bureaucratic structure to retain.

Managerial roles Henry Mintzberg suggested that, as well as carrying out certain functions, the manager also fulfils certain roles in a firm. He identified three types of role which a manager must play.

• Interpersonal roles. These arise from the manager’s formal authority.

Managers have a figurehead role. For example, a large part of a chief executive’s time is spent representing the company at dinners, conferences etc. They also have a leader role. This involves hiring, firing and training staff, motivating employees etc. Thirdly, they have a liaison role. Some managers spend up to half their time meeting with other managers. They do this because they need to know what is happening in other departments.

Senior managers spend a great deal of time with people outside the business.

Mintzberg says that these contacts build up an informal information system, and are a moans of extending influence both within and outside the business.

• Information roles. Managers act as channels of information from one department to another. They are in а position to do this because of their contacts.

• Decision making roles. The manager’s formal authority and access to information means that no one else is in a better position to take decisions about a department’s work.

Through extensive research and observation of what managers actually do, Mintzberg drew certain conclusions about the work of managers.

• The idea that a manager is a ‘systematic’ planner is a myth. Planning is often carried out on a day-to-day basis, in between more urgent tasks.

• Another myth is that a manager has no regular or routine duties, as these have been delegated to others. Mintzberg found that managers perform a number of routine duties, particularly ‘ceremonial’ tasks.

• Mintzberg’s research showed that managers prefer verbal communication rather than a formal system of communication (unit 62).

Information passed by word of mouth in an informal way is likely to be more up to date and easier to grasp.

Leadership The ability to lead within organisations is of growing interest to businesses. This interest has resulted from the need to lead companies through change, brought about by an increase in competition and a recessionary climate in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Earlier in this unit it was shown that a manager might have a leadership role. To be a good leader in business it has been suggested that a manager must know what direction needs to be taken by the business and plan how to achieve this. Leaders will also be able to persuade others that the decisions that they have taken are the correct ones.

Leaders are often thought to be charismatic people who have ‘something about them’ that makes them stand out from others. It has been argued that there are certain personality traits (unit 47) that are common to leaders. However, studies have failed to prove this is the case.

In order to identify ‘leadership’, studies have shifted to examine what leaders, and in particular managers, do – that is, what behaviour is associated with leadership. This is dealt with in the next sections.

The qualities of leadership One approach to find out what makes good leaders is to identify the qualities that they should have. A number of chагасteristics have been suggested.

• Effective leaders have a positive self image, backed up with a genuine ability and realistic aspirations. This is shown in the confidence they have. An example in UK industry might be Richard Branson, in his various pioneering business activities. Leaders also appreciate their own strengths and weaknesses. It is argued that many managers fail to lead because they often get bogged down in short term activity.

• Leader need to be able to get to the ‘core’ of a problem and have the vision and commitment to suggest radical solutions. Sir John Harvey-Jones took ICI to 1 billion profit by stirring up what had become a ‘sleeping giant’.

Many awkward questions were raised about the validity of the way things were done, and the changes led to new and more profitable businesses on a world-wide scale for the firm.

• Studies of leaders in business suggest that they are expert in a particular field and well read in everything else. They tend to be ‘out of the ordinary’, intelligent, and articulate.

• Leaders are often creative thinking and innovative. They tend to seek new ideas to problems, make sure that important things are done and try to improve standards. One example might have been the restructuring of BHS by David Dworkin so that unsold stock did not remain on the shelves.

• Leaders often have the ability to sense change and can respond to it.

A leader, for example, may be able to predict a decline of sales in an important product or the likelihood of a new production technique being available in the future.

Leadership styles Another approach is to examine different styles of leadership. There are a number of styles that managers might adopt in the work setting. Table shows the different ways in which leaders can involve others in the decision making process.

Autocratic. An AUTOCRATIC leadership style is one where the manner sets objectives, allocates tasks, and insists on obedience. Therefore the group become dependent on him or her. The result of this style is that members of the group are often dissatisfied with the leader. This results in little cohesion, the need for high levels of supervision, and poor levels of motivation amongst employees.

Autocratic leadership may be needed in certain circumstances. For example, in the armed forces there may be a need to move troops quickly and for orders to be obeyed instantly.

Democratic. A DEMOCRATIC leadership style encourages participation in decision making. Managers may consult employees or could attempt to ‘sell’ final decisions to them. It is argued that, through participation and consultation, employees know and believe the objectives of management because they have had some involvement with it. This will result in employees being more motivated and willing to work harder.

Democratic leadership styles need good communication skills. The leaders must be able to explain ideas clearly to employees and understand feedback they receive (unit 62). It may mean, however, that decisions take a long time to be reached as lengthy consultation can take place.

Laissez-faire. A LAISSEZ-FAIRE type of leadership style allows employees to carry out activities freely within broad limits. The result is a relaxed atmosphere, but one where there are few guidelines and directions.

This can sometimes result in pool productivity and lack of motivation as employees have little incentive to work hard.

Table Leadership style Autocratic Democratic Laissez-faire Type of Autocratic Persuasive Consultative Laissez leadership faire Leader Leader makes Leader There is no makes decisions consults formal decisions alone. with others structure to Method alone. Others are before decision Others are persuaded by decision is making.

informed the leader that made. There The leader and carry out the decision is will be does not decisions. the right one, group force his or i.e. leader influence in her views ‘sells’ the the final on others.

decision to decision, the group. even though it is made by the leader.

Factors affecting leadership styles The type of leadership style adopted by managers will depend on various factors.

The task. A certain task may be the result of an emergency, which might need immediate response from a person in authority, The speed of decision needed and action taken may require an authoritarian or autocratic style of leadership.

• The tradition of the organisation. A business may develop its own culture which is the result of the interactions of all employees at different levels. This can result in one type of leadership style, because of a pattern of behaviour that has developed in the organisation. For example, in the public sector (unit 4) leadership is often democratic because of the need to consult with politicians etc.

• The type of labour force. A more highly skilled workforce might be most productive when their opinions are sought. Democratic leadership styles may be more appropriate in this case.

• The group size. Democratic leadership styles can lead to confusion the greater the size of the group.

• The leader’s personality. The personality of one manager may be different to another manager and certain leadership styles might suit one but not the other. For example, an aggressive, competitive personality may be more suited to an authoritarian leadership style.

• Group personality. Some people prefer to be directed rather than contribute, either because of lack of interest, previous experience, or because they believe that the manager is paid to lake decisions and shoulder responsibility. If this is the case, then an autocratic leadership style is more likely to lead to effective decision making.

• Time. The time available to complete a task might influence the leadership style adopted. For example, if a project has to be finished quickly, there may be no time for discussion and an autocratic style may be adopted.

Why do leaders adopt different styles?

A number of theories have been put forward to explain the most appropriate leadership style when dealing with certain situations or groups at work.

Fiedler. In l976, F. Fiedler argued that it is easier to change someone’s role or power, or to modify the job he has to do, than to change his leadership style. From his 800 studies he found that it is difficult for people to change leadership styles - an ‘autocrat’ will always lead in autocratic style whereas a leader that encourages involvement will tend to be ‘democratic’. Different leadership styles may also be effective depending on the situation. He concluded that, as leaders are unable to adapt their style to a situation, effectiveness can only be achieved by changing the manager to ‘fit’ the situation or by altering the situation to fit the manager.

In business it is often difficult to change the situation. Fiedler suggested that a business should attempt what he called leadership match – to choose a leader to lit the situation. Leaders can be either task orientated or relationship orientated. So, for example, a business that faced declining sales might need a very task orientated manager to pull the business around, even if the tradition of the firm might be for a more democratic style of leadership.

Hersey and Blanchard. P. Hersey and K.H. Blanchard argued that a leader’s strategy should not only lake account of the situation, but also the maturity of those who are led. They defined maturity as the ability of people to set targets which can be achieved and yet are demanding.

A leader will have task behaviour or relationship behaviour. Task behaviour is the extent to which the leader has to organise what a subordinate should do. Relationship behaviour describes how much support is needed and how close personal contact is. Together these will decide which of the following leadership styles will be used.

• Delegating leadership is where a leader allows subordinates to solve a problem. For this type of leadership style to work, subordinates need to be mature and require little support at work.

• Participating leadership is where a leader and subordinates work on a problem together, supporting each other. In this situation subordinates are slightly less mature than when a leader delegates and so need more support.

• Selling leadership is where a leader persuades others of the benefits of an idea. Workers are likely to be only moderately mature and require a great deal of support.

• Telling leadership is where a leader tells others what to do. Workers are fairly immature. They are told exactly what to do and little contact or support is needed.

Wright and Taylor. In 1984, P. Wright and D. Taylor argued that theories which concentrate on the situation or maturity of those led ignore how skilfully leadership is needed.

They produced a checklist designed to help leaders improve the performance of subordinates. It included the following.

• What is the problem? An employee may, for example, be carrying out a task inefficiently.

• Is it serious enough to spend time on? This could depend on the cost to the business.

• What reasons may there be for the problem? How can it be solved?

• Choosing a solution and evaluating if it is the most effective one.

• Evaluation of the leader’s performance.

This can be used to identify the most suitable leadership style in a particular situation. For example, if the problem above is caused because the employee has been left to make his own decisions and is not able to, a more autocratic leadership style may be needed. One the other hand, if the employee lacks motivation or does not have the authority to make decisions, greater discussion or delegation may be needed.

Key terms Autocratic leadership – a leadership style where the leader makes all decisions independently.

Democratic leadership – a leadership style where the leader encourages others to participate in decision making.

Laissez.-faire leadership – a leadership style where employees are encouraged to make their own decisions within limits.

Management by Objectives (MBO) – a management theory which suggests that managers set goals and communicate them to subordinates.

Summary 1. State 5 functions of management.

2. Briefly explain the process of management by objectives.

3. Give 3 examples of a managerial dilemma.

4. Why might a good manager not always be a good leader?

5. Briefly explain 5 qualities of leadership.

6. Under what circumstances might an autocratic leadership style be useful?

7. State 6 factors which might affect the choice of leadership style.

8. According to Fiedler’s theory, why should a business attempt a leadership match?

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Managing people in business Since the mid-Eighties the term ‘Human Resource Management’ (HRM) has replaced ‘Personnel Management’ to describe the function within business which focuses on the employment, training, use and welfare of people. What does this signal about human relations in industry?

For people to be referred to as ‘human resources’ sounds mechanical and yet the objectives of the approach are precisely the opposite. The intention is to emphasise a total strategy related to a firm’s most valued resource rather than the set of functions which a personnel management department was commonly expected to undertake.

The process begins with effective workforce planning which links intentions related to employees with the internal organisation and the overall objectives of the business. This sees employees not simply as people who perform a set o functions, narrowly contained within a job specification, nor as groups catered for by collective agreements with unions. Rather, it stresses the extent to which employees will have an active role within most of the decision making which surrounds their 'job' in the firm. One of the best examples of this which you will be familiar with is the approach summed up in the phrase ‘quality circles’. Employees are considered to be part of a team and not simply individuals working for the firm.

From individual to team member The classic texts present employees as individuals working in a firm and devote attention to individual human needs. You will be familiar with this approach in the work of Maslow, who describes a hierarchy of human needs and stresses the importance of satisfying the higher needs (see Figure 1).

Herzberg takes a similar approach (see Table 1), dividing the factors which can be identified in the work situation into those which must be there if people are to work at all (hygiene factors) and those which might be likely to provoke a positive response (motivating factors).

Table The Herzberg model Hygiene factors Motivators Working environment Achievement Supervision Responsibility Company policy Work itself Relationship with superiors Advancement Relationship with Recognition subordinates Organisational culture The human resource approach centres more on people working in groups, looking at the firm as a whole and developing the idea of a ‘culture’ which the firm will evolve and to which employees will respond. The spotlight is less on the individual employed through a job description and tightly defined role and more on efficient working teams through which better performance can be identified and achieved.

Where emphasis is placed on the needs of the individual and on individual records, a wide range of indicators can be identified through which high or low morale can be measured. These include absentee rates, lateness, accident figures, low productivity and many others. This approach is rather like viewing a class of A-level Business Studies students as individuals.

The alternative view of the class is as a set of sub-groups, not always the same groups, working together to achieve learning objectives which the teacher, as manager of the class, determines. These will be in line with overall objectives as represented by the syllabus and the way it is assessed.

Translating this to the work situation implies an approach which allows considerable decision-making responsibility to be given to teams of workers.

In McGregor’s language, it is very much a Theory Y approach since it demands much greater self-motivation and personal responsibility for outcomes (see Table 2).

Table McGregor's Theory X and Y model X Y Dislikes work Is satisfied by work Avoids work Seeks work Is lazy and selfish Works well, cooperates Is directed, controlled, Is self-directed threatened Seeks responsibility Avoids responsibility Seeks satisfaction of higher Little ambition needs Money motivates All needs motivate From negative to positive Much of what is traditionally implied in personnel management approaches centres on negative performance measures: the reduction in labour turnover, the avoidance of industrial disputes, the minimising of lateness and absence through such things as timeclocks and flexitime. The philosophy of HRM, in contrast, is that members of teams have a responsibility to each other which is a more compelling motivator than a rather generalised responsibility to the firm.

Again I cannot resist comparison with the management of a class.

Students working in sub-groups work much more for each other than for the class teacher. Evidence suggests that this leads to more continuous and more positive contributions than a whole class or individual student approach commonly produces.

The broader perspective of employment If the philosophy of HEM is effectively practised, the view of employment as finding people who will offer individual job skills diminishes.

The focus of workforce planning, selection, induction and training is very much broader. Its consequence is both to require and to develop good communication skills and a greater sense of identity with the organisation.

HRM implies a movement away from ‘us and them’ towards a cooperative concern for the same objective based on differing but equally valued contributions.

Some might argue that this is true 'Taylorism' in the sense that there is a common goal to be achieved which requires a solution-centred approach. It is not based on different sets of objectives which have to be harmonised in a way which is problem centred and designed to limit or prevent conflict.

Mary Parker Follett’s view that conflict is not only inevitable but is desirable takes on a new dimension within the framework of HRM because it is through the creative resolution of positive conflict that high performance can be achieved. The approach does not deny the significance of individual human needs. Rather, it sets their satisfaction in a cooperative culture which is more likely to give scope for satisfying higher needs than any approach based on the individual job.

Why change now?

No doubt a variety of reasons can be found for the rapid acceptance of an HRM approach, but I want to confine my self to two reasons apparent in the changing environment of business. The first is the rapid pace of change itself. This is both absorbing and creating innovation at a speed which can only be tolerable within a cooperative, creative and flexible working environment. The second reason is linked to this process – the thrust for better and more complete quality assurance within all aspects of organisational behaviour.

Innovation The environment is an ever-changing one. This tends to produce uncertainty, fear and conflict when what is required is cooperation, flexibility and contribution. Working within a team is more supportive, allows greater involvement in decision making and an increased opportunity for making a contribution.

Such a dynamic environment also needs a stable workforce – one that can move with the changes without changing too much itself, one that can live with a higher level of risk and greater uncertainty about the future.

Quality assurance History has shown us that the old method of inspecting work and rejecting where necessary is not very effective. It is better to involve workers in the process. Most will work better if they know what the quality objective is and by what criteria completed work is to be assessed. Motivation is futher enhanced if workers participate in making decisions about all aspects of these processes.

Quality is an agreed objective rather than an external standard, but the pressures of the market place make it increasingly important that quality assurance targets are met. The contribution HRM can make to this process is to develop worker involvement in deciding the goals of the organisation and therefore far greater commitment to their achievement.

From theory to practice?

How real are these changes? Can they be seen in the way organisations are run or is this largely the human relations writers talking to each other?

Drucker predicts that new organisations which embody HRM will rapidly appear in the next twenty years with flatter organisation charts and much more responsibility centred around the workers. A large, number of individual studies, particularly of large organisations in the motor industry, provide further evidence of such changes, but it will no doubt be some considerable time before they are commonplace in the business and industrial parks of our town.

David Dyer is Head of the Economics, Geography and Business Education Department at the University of London Institute. He is Director of the Cambridge Business Studies Project, Chief Examiner for Cambridge Modular and Oxford & Cambridge Modular and Linear courses, and Chairman of our Business Review editorial team.

LIFE AT THE TOP What do top managers actually do?

Andtew Karabadse discusses the varied nature of their work and stresses the importance of top managers in ensuring that an organisation functions effectively as a team.

On being asked ‘What do you do?’, Ian Prosser, Chairman and Chief Executive of Bass, didn’t hesitate. He stressed the contribution he makes to the organisation’s growth and development, and provided a strategic outline for the company. Sir Graham Day was asked a similar question about his days at Rover. His answer emphasised the sensitivity and care needed to introduce change effectively and grow an ailing business. Colin Sharman, UK Partner of the global consultants and auditors Peat Marwick, responded with a smile and a question: ‘Where do I begin?’.

So here are three top managers, each displaying a different view as to what their job really involves. Unusual? No – this is absolutely normal.

Prescribed work Broadly speaking, any manager’s job can be divided into two parts – prescribed and discretionary. The prescribed part refers to the daily structured tasks someone needs to accomplish in order to achieve the basics. The person has little choice but to do what is required (just as a GP’s prescription spells out what sort of drugs the patient needs, the quantity, and over what time period).

The job may need a low or a high level of skill. For example, routine work is likely to involve people completing a set number of tasks, often conducted in a particular way, on a daily basis. Strangely enough, the work of a surgeon, although high level with respect to skills and status, is also ‘prescribed’. Surgeons specialise in particular aspects of surgery and have a set number of units of work to fulfil.

Apply this thinking to the role of sales manager. The manager is probably given a geographical region to cover, and sells a part or whole of the company’s product range. There are likely to be revenue targets to achieve: a certain volume of sales within certain periods of time. And there may equally be cost targets: you are only allowed to spend so much in order to achieve the target sales.

Sales managers may say their ambitious revenue targets are impossible with the limited number of sales people they have. They need more people.

The answer is: ‘No. Sell more – but with the people you have got!’ Hence the job of the sales manager is to a large extent prescribed.

Discretionary work The second type of managerial work is known as discretionary. This means you have the choice of what to do according to what you think is right.

Sales managers who stop and think about their position do have choice: ‘OK, the targets are tough. So do I motivate my people to work longer and harder?

Or do I get my assistants to manage my people, while I focus on those valued customers who may require personal attention?’. That is a common dilemma for a sales manager to consider. One crucial aspect of discretion is that the manager in question decides. No-one else can really say what is best.

Research clearly shows that in most organisations, greater degrees of discretion accompany more senior roles. The chief executive has the most discretion. It is up to the job holder to provide the necessary leadership and direction. So much depends on what that person feels is the best way forward, bearing in mind the company’s strengths and weaknesses, likely future patterns of consumer behaviour and the impact of competition.

Where choice is so broad, vision is required, meaning the view a person holds about the future. This is as much about beliefs as about facts. Why should Bass, a brewing and pub business, purchase a global hotel network? So much depended on Ian Prosser’s belief that the Bass Group would be stronger if it entered the hotel market. He believed it could achieve synergy by integrating the beer and pub business with the hotel business. And Prosser’s character and leadership style are crucial to making the new-look Bass work.

The top manager's role A production manager would need product knowledge and an understanding of the manufacturing processes. For a manufacturing director, however, these skills may be useful but not vital. The crucial thing is overall capacity for the role of director. This involves a number of different elements:

an ability to apply specialist skills, such as financial or production skills;

being able to think clearly about the issues and challenges facing the business, and how to respond to them;

and a style and sensitivity to communicate with people in order to win their trust and confidence as their leader.

Each director/general manager is going to form a view as to how to make the organisation successful. The chairman or chief executive officer holds one view, but you, as a general manager or director, may not agree with the boss. Perhaps the chairman of the company feels that the way forward is to buy another company – as a lever to entering into a new market. The marketing director may disagree, believing the market concerned to be too uncertain and the extra borrowing needed to make the acquisition too risky.

The two managers may disagree, but both are rightly exercising the discretion in their role. So what can prevent such disagreements becoming dangerous and divisive?

Working as a team The importance of a positive team spirit so that senior managers pull together and yet discuss frankly all the key issues is self-evident, but this is not easy to achieve. Why should a group of top general managers and directors get on? They are quite likely to disagree with each other as to the best ways forward. Even if they agree, they may not like each other's style and personality.

A Cranfield top executive leadership survey in several countries found that about one-third of companies report fundamental splits of vision at top management level. Even more interesting is the fact that more than half of the companies report personality tensions and style differences. To allow such tensions and differences to continue unabated would be destructive. To try and prevent disagreements would be equally counter-productive. The secret is to achieve an openness of conversation while maintaining a positive team spirit.

Hence an additional element of discretion is achieving good teamwork.

Where there are several different views on how to make the company successful, an acceptable way forward is likely to emerge from a robust dialogue between the top managers. What does each senior manager consider are the strengths, weaknesses and challenges the company faces? What does each think are the appropriate steps to improve current conditions? If disagreement exists, why is this? (There may be good reasons for differences of view.) A good team is one where the top managers have a sound relationship, where they can bring their disagreements to the surface.

What if the relationships among the top team members are not well developed? What if people feel too inhibited and sensitive to talk to each other? What if people feel that to make critical comments about one’s boss or colleagues could lead to being sacked? What happens if top managers feel that to speak out is inappropriate?

Knowing the nature of the company’s problems is not sufficient. Senior managers may still not speak out. People can have all the necessary insights as to what is wrong and what to do about it, but still end up doing nothing.

Bringing certain issues to the surface may be too uncomfortable.

Therefore the final aspect of using the discretion in one’s role effectively is maturity. Are the top managers of the organisation sufficiently mature to talk about sensitive issues? Nobody is born with maturity – it is a quality that people can develop during their life if they so choose. In fact, many people seem to be unduly lacking in this personal quality. Maturity helps individuals cope with situations of ambiguity, disagreement and tension by enabling them to listen, discuss and contribute with others. A piece of sound advice for any senior manager is to leave your ego at home. That way, others find it easier to talk to you.

The activities of top managers Forming a broad but accurate view about the company now and in the future is important. And speaking your mind and team work are just as crucial. But what do top managers actually do?

The answer is that they do a great deal in little bits: attending meetings, sometimes just to discuss and sometimes to make decisions;

listening to what staff have to say;

winning the support, trust and confidence of shareholders;

meeting with and entertaining key clients;

listening to advisers;

reading and digesting a large number of reports;

holding confidential one-to-one discussions. These activities are often being conducted while other demands are being made on their time, causing interruptions and new priorities which upset existing schedules. For many top managers, these are normal experiences. A single error of judgement in this busy schedule could lead to resignation. Life is demanding, precarious and constantly changing.

Top jobs require managers to address big issues and daily details almost within the same breath. Making sense of such a demanding and diverse world requires a rare combination of energy, maturity and vision. As Sir Graham Day commented about his days at Rover: ‘I abandoned the historical documents I had inherited with the business, and started with a clean sheet of paper. I then tried progressively to engage people in discussion about realistic strategies for the business...’ With the problems of Rover, this approach might not have worked. Yet in 1993 Rover was the only car company in Europe which increased its market share. The simple fact is that the strategy worked because Graham Day made it work!

Andrew Kakabadse is Professor of Management Development at the Cranfield School of Management. He recently completed a major world study of chief executives and top executive teams.

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