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Московская финансово-промышленная академия Турук И.Ф.

Самойлова Т.Т.

Лобанова Е.И.

English for Students of Management Москва 2004 Турук И.Ф., Самойлова Т.Т., Лобанова Е.И. English for students of management / Московская финансово-промышленная академия – М, 2004. с.114.

Задачей пособия является научить студентов лексическим основам чтения специального текста по тематике «Менеджмент» и актуализировать знания по грамматике при чтении и понимании текста.

Пособие предназначено для студентов и слушателей всех форм обучения с использованием дистанционных образовательных технологий, а также для преподавателей высших и средних специальных учебных заведений.

© Турук Ирина Федоровна, 2004 © Самойлова Тамара Тимофеевна, 2004 © Лобанова Евдокия Ивановна, 2004 © Московская финансово-промышленная академия, 2004 2 Contents Введение........................................................................................................... Unit 1................................................................................................................. Unit 2............................................................................................................... Unit 3............................................................................................................... Unit 4............................................................................................................... Unit 5............................................................................................................... Unit 6............................................................................................................... Unit 7............................................................................................................... Unit 8............................................................................................................... Unit 9............................................................................................................... Unit 10............................................................................................................. Final Test......................................................................................................... Grammar Reference........................................................................................ Business Case Study........................................................................................ Supplementary Reading.................................................................................. Введение Цель: данное учебное пособие (УПП) предназначено для студентов, изучающих английский язык в условиях дистанционного обучения по специальности «Менеджмент». Задачей УПП является научить студентов лексическим основам чтения специального текста по тематике «Менеджмент» и актуализировать знания по грамматике при чтении и понимании текста.

В лексическом корпусе текстов выделяется терминологический слой, который необходимо усвоить для чтения литературы по менеджменту. Под термином понимается слово (или словосочетание), языковой знак которого соотнесен с соответствующим понятием в системе данной области знаний. Термину свойственно наличие у него строгой, точной дефиниции (определения) и однозначности перевода.

Содержание: УПП состоит из 10 Units, Business Case Study, Supplementary Reading, Grammar Reference, Final Test.

Каждый Unit состоит из 4 разделов:

1. Information for Study.

2. Exercises.

3. Vocabulary items.

4. Test.

В первом разделе представлены оригинальные тексты по менеджменту для ознакомления студентов с разными разделами теории менеджмента, лексическим и грамматическим наполнением их.

Во втором разделе даются упражнения, которые студент выполняет с целью усвоения лексических, грамматических и речевых навыков профессионально ориентированной направленности. В третьем разделе дается список слов по тексту, четвертый раздел содержит тест.

Методические замечания: все упражнения выполняются в той последовательности, в которой они даны в УПП. Большинство упражнений студент должен делать письменно в тетради в соответствии с заданиями. Выполненные задания студент предъявляет «тьютору» (руководитель) с целью выявления правильности понимания и решения задач, а затем выполняет тест, который проверяет по ключу с целью самоконтроля и выявления ошибок. Прежде чем выполнить грамматические задания студент должен повторить соответствующую тему по грамматическому справочнику.

После усвоения учебного материала студент пишет Final Test, который определяет его уровень подготовки по данному разделу курса английского языка в системе дистанционного обучения. Тест оценивается «тьютором» или электронной системой (в случае ее наличия).

Раздел Business Case Study введен в УПП для закрепления полученных знаний и навыков в процессе работы по разделам (Units).

Кроме того, Business Case Study дает дополнительную информацию о конкретных примерах из области управления. Тексты из раздела Business Case Study студент читает и переводит письменно со словарем (выборочно) для получения точной информации и проверки навыка чтения и перевода специального текста, а также письменно отвечает на вопросы по тексту.

Чтение текстов из раздела Supplementary Reading студент осуществляет параллельно изучению Units по смежной тематике.

Усвоенная лексика по данной тематике дает возможность прочесть и понять текст без словаря.

Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW What Is Management?

Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. This definition recognizes that management is an ongoing activity, entails reaching important goals, and involves knowing how to perform the four major functions of management.

Fig. The Functions of management Planning:

Setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them Controlling: Organizing:

Regulating Allocating and activities arranging resources to reach goals Leading:

Influencing others to work toward goals Management functions Planning. Planning is the management function that involves setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. This function also includes considering what must be done to encourage necessary levels of change and innovation.

Organizing. Organizing is the management function that focuses on allocating and arranging human and nonhuman resources so that plans can be carried out successfully. It is through the organizing function that managers determine which tasks are to be done, how tasks can best be combined into specific jobs, and how jobs can be grouped into various units that make up the structure of the organization. Staffing jobs with individuals who can successfully carry out plans is also part of the organizing function.

Leading. Leading is the management function that involves influencing others to engage in the work behaviors necessary to reach organizational goals. Leading includes communicating with others, helping to outline a vision of what can be accomplished, providing direction, and motivating organization members to put forth the substantial effort required.

Controlling. Controlling is the management function that is aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals. To do the necessary regulating, managers need to monitor ongoing activities, compare the results with expected standards or progress toward goals, and take corrective action as needed.

The Management Process Although the four major functions of management form the basis for the managerial process, several additional elements are considered key ingredients of this process as well. The additional elements were identified by management scholars Steven J. Carroll and Dennis J. Gillen on the basis of their review of major studies on managerial work.

Knowledge Base and Key Management Skills Work Management Performance Work Methods Functions (goal achievement) Agenda and Roles • Planning • Organizing • Leading • Controlling Fig. An extended model of the management process As indicated in the model, the functions of management form the central part of the process. However, the model also shows that work methods and managerial roles, as well as work agendas, feed into the management functions. A manager's working knowledge and key management skills also are important factors that contribute to high performance (achieving goals).

To understand how management can influence in an organization, we need to define the organization.

For most of us, organizations are an important part of our daily lives.

By organization, we mean two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to produce goods or services. We all deal with organizations when we attend classes, deposit money at the bank, buy clothing, and attend a movie.

We are also influenced by organizations more indirectly through the products that we use.

It is useful to keep in mind that the management process applies not only to profit-making organizations but also to not-for-profit organizations. A not-for-profit organization (sometimes called a nonprofit organization) is an organization whose main purposes center on issues other than making profits. Common examples of not-for-profit organizations are government organizations (e.g., the federal government), educational institutions (your college or university), cultural institutions (New York's Carnegie Hall), charitable institutions (United Way), and many health-care facilities. Of course, environmental factors (such as the state of the economy and actions by competitors) also have a bearing on ultimate goal achievement.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.*) 2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется герундий и переведите их на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр.

78).

3. Напишите, от каких глаголов образованы существительные, взятые из текста и дайте перевод этих глаголов.

Например: learning (сущ.) – to learn (гл.) – учить.

planning organizing leading controlling management innovation performance 4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

5. Выпишите из текста термины, переведите и запомните их.

6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке:

- management functions;

- managerial process;

- profit-making organization;

- nonprofit organization.

7. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы по содержанию текста:

1) Why is management an ongoing activity?

*) Прослушайте слова на кассете и повторите их за диктором.

2) What are the four major functions of management?

3) What does planning as the management function involve?

4) Which are the parts of the organizing function?

5) Which function of management includes influencing others to engage in the work behaviours necessary to reach organizational goals?

6) What is controlling aimed at?

7) What forms the basis for the managerial process?

8) Why do you think organizations are an important part of our daily lives?

8. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“What is management?” III. Vocabulary items.

management - руководство;

управление;

заведование;

менеджмент;

дирекция;

администрация to achieve goals - достигать цели syn. to reach goals planning - планирование organizing - организация;

процесс организации leading - руководство controlling - контроль;

контролирование to perform functions - выполнять функции to involve - вовлекать;

включать в себя (in);

подразумевать, предполагать to set goals - поставить цели change - перемена, изменение;

сдвиг innovation - нововведение, новшество human resources - людские ресурсы non human resources - нелюдские ресурсы to carry out plans - выполнять, осуществлять планы task - задача job - работа to make up the structure - составлять структуру организации of the organization to staff jobs - набирать кадры для выполнения работ to engage behaviours in - привлекать возможности для the work выполнения работы to outline a vision - нарисовать картину (перен.) to provide direction - обеспечить руководство to motivate - мотивировать to be aimed at - быть нацеленным на...

to regulate activities - регулировать деятельность performance - исполнение, выполнение;

действие;

производительность to conform to - соответствовать чему-либо to monitor activities - контролировать деятельность to compare results - сравнивать результаты to form the basis for... - составлять основу чего-либо key ingredients - ключевые ингредиенты, составные части scholar - ученый work method - метод работы working knowledge - практические знания, необходимые для работы management skills - навыки управления to contribute to - содействовать;

способствовать to deal with - иметь дело с кем-либо, чем-либо to influence through - влиять посредством чего-либо management process - процесс управления profit-making - прибыльные, ставящие перед собою organizations цель-получение прибыли, организации not-for-profit - не ставящие себе целью извлечение organizations = nonprofit прибыли, некоммерческие организации organizations to make profit - получать прибыль;

приносить прибыль charitable institutions - благотворительные учреждения health-care facilities - здравоохранительные организации environmental factors - факторы окружающей среды state of the economy состояние экономики competitor - конкурент IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 5)-m.

1) Management is an ongoing activity, entails a) the organizing function reaching important goals, and involves knowing how... the four major functions of management.

2) The function of planning also includes b) a manager's working considering what must be done to encourage knowledge necessary levels of...

3) Staffing jobs with individuals who can c) compare the results successfully carry out plans is also part of...

4) To do the necessary regulating, managers need d) key ingredients to monitor ongoing activities, … with expected standards or progress toward goals, and take corrective action as needed.

5) Although the four major functions of e) not-for-profit management form the basis for the managerial organizations process, several additional elements are considered... of this process as well.

6)... and key management skills also are f) to perform important factors that contribute to high performance (achieving goals).

7) It is useful to keep in mind that the g) change and innovation management process applies not only to profit – making organizations but also to...

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 5) – g.

1) management a) the management function that involves setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them 2) planning b) two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to produce goods or services 3) organizing c) the management function that involves influencing others to engage in the work behaviours necessary to reach organizational goals 4) leading d) the management function that is aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals 5) controlling e) the management function that focuses on allocating and arranging human and non-human resources so that plans can be carried out successfully 6) organization f) the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.

THE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Most well-run organizations attempt to develop and follow strategies, large-scale action plans for interacting with the environment in order to achieve long-term goals. A comprehensive statement of an organization's strategies, along with its mission and goals, constitutes an organization's strategic plan. To learn where such strategies originate and how they are put into action, we need to examine carefully an aspect of the planning function called strategic management. Strategic management is a process through which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing strategic goal achievement, given available environmental and internal conditions. This definition recognizes that strategic management is oriented toward reaching long-term goals, weighs important environmental elements, considers major internal characteristics of the organization, and involves developing specific strategies.

The Strategic Management Process The strategic management process is made up of several major components. The process begins with identifying the organization's mission and strategic goals. The process also includes analyzing the competitive situation, taking into consideration both the external environment and relevant organizational factors. Once the situation has been carefully analyzed, managers can begin to develop, or formulate, various strategies that can be used to reach strategic goals. The part of the strategic management process that includes identifying the mission and strategic goals, conducting competitive analysis, and developing specific strategies is often referred to as strategy formulation. In contrast, the part of the strategic management process that focuses on carrying out strategic plans and maintaining control over how those plans are carried out is known as strategy implementation. Strategy implementation is increasingly highlighted as a distinct part of the strategic management process because even the most brilliantly formulated strategies must be implemented effectively in order to reach strategic goals.

Importance of Strategic Management Strategic management is important to organizations for several reasons.

For one thing, the process helps organizations identify and develop a competitive advantage, which is a significant edge over the competition in dealing with competitive forces. For example, Disney has been able to gain a competitive advantage in the family entertainment industry by creating amusement parks, movies, and products based on the renowned Disney characters.

Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation assess environmental factors Conduct Identify Develop Carry Out Competitive Current Specific Strategic Analysis:

Mission Strategies: Plans • Strengths And • Corporate • Weaknesses Strategic • Business Maintain • Opportunities Goals • Functional Strategic • Threats Control assess organizational factors Fig. The strategic management process Another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it provides a sense of direction so that organization members know where to expend their efforts. Without a strategic plan, managers throughout the organization may concentrate on day-to-day activities only to find that a competitor has maneuvered itself into a favorable competitive position by taking a more comprehensive, long-term view of strategic directions. For example, the Rayovac Corporation, a battery and flashlight maker based in Madison, Wisconsin, had fallen behind competitors in the early 1980s because of its aging product line, outdated packaging, and slowness in entering the market for alkaline batteries (which became the industry standard). Since that time, a new chairman and vice-chairman, the husband and-wife team of Thomas and Judith Pyle, have rejuvenated the company partially through a variety of innovative new products.

Yet another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it can help highlight the need for innovation and provide an organized approach for encouraging new ideas related to strategies. For instance, Disney has a special procedure for handling major innovations, whereby new ideas and accompanying financial considerations are forwarded to the strategic planning group, which evaluates them for compatibility with the firm's overall strategy.

In addition, the process can be used to involve managers at various levels in planning, thus making it more likely that the managers will understand the resulting plans and be committed to their implementation.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется страдательный залог. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см.

грамматический справочник, стр. 68).

3. В приведенных ниже предложениях заполните пропуски следующими словами и словосочетаниями, опираясь на текст:

4. long-term goals;

a competitive advantage;

strategies;

innovation;

new ideas;

environmental elements;

relevant organizational factors.

1) Most well-run organizations attempt to develop and follow ….

2) This definition recognizes that strategic management is oriented toward reaching ….

3) Strategic management weighs important ….

4) The strategic management process also includes analyzing the competitive situation, taking into consideration both the external environment and ….

5)... is a significant edge over the competition in dealing with competitive forces.

6) Strategic management can help highlight the need for....

7) Strategic management can provide an organized approach for encouraging... related to strategies.

5. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

6. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста:

1) What does the definition of strategic management recognize?

2) What does the strategic management process begin with?

3) What does the strategic management process include?

4) Why is strategy implementation increasingly highlighted as a distinct part of the strategic management process?

5) Why is strategic management important to organizations?

7. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке:

- strategies;

- an organization's strategic plan;

- strategy formulation;

- strategy implementation;

- a competitive advantage.

8. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“The concept of strategic management”.

III. Vocabulary items.

concept - концепция strategic management - стратегическое руководство, ~ менеджмент large-scale action - крупномасштабная акция, ~ операция environment - окружение;

окружающая среда long-term goals - долгосрочные цели strategic goals - стратегические цели environmental - условия окружения conditions internal conditions - внутренние условия strategic management - процесс стратегического управления;

process ~ руководства competitive situation - конкурирующая обстановка external environment - внешнее окружение strategy formulation - формулировка стратегии strategy implementation - осуществление стратегии competitive advantage - конкурентное преимущество;

преимущество перед конкурентами competition - конкуренция competitor - конкурент product line - товарный ряд, ассортимент packaging - упаковка innovation - нововведение, новшество strategic planning group - группа стратегического планирования compatibility - совместимость;

сочетаемость overall strategy - всеобщая стратегия achievement - достижение mission - задача to maintain - поддерживать favorable - благоприятный aging product time - устаревший ассортимент outdated packaging - устаревшая упаковка slowness - медлительность approach - подход IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, а) – 7.

a) competitive advantage l) large-scale action plans for interacting with the environment in order to achieve long-term goals;

b) strategy formulation 2) a comprehensive statement of an organization's strategies, along with its mission and goals;

c) strategies 3) a process through which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing strategic goal achievement, given available environmental and internal conditions;

d) strategy implementation 4) the process of identifying the mission and strategic goals, conducting competitive analysis, and developing specific strategies;

e) an organization's 5) the process of carrying out strategic plans and strategic plan maintaining control over how those plans are carried out;

f) strategic management 6) a significant edge over the competition in dealing with competitive forces.

2. Выберите русские эквиваленты справа, соответствующие английским словам, данным слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 20) – b.

1) an organization’s strategic plan a) задача и стратегические цели организации 2) planning function b) благоприятное положение в конкуренции 3) strategic goal achievement c) анализ конкуренции 4) environmental and internal d) организованный подход conditions 5) an organization's mission and e) медлительность при внедрении на strategic goals рынок 6) internal characteristics of the f) стратегический план организации organization 7) competitive analysis g) внутренние характеристики организации 8) to maintain control h) необходимость нововведений 9) to develop a competitive i) функция планирования advantage 10) a favorable competitive j) развивать конкурентное position преимущество 11) aging product line k) достижение стратегической цели 12) outdated packaging l) внешние и внутренние условия 13) slowness in entering the market m) поддерживать контроль 14) need for innovation n) устаревший ассортимент 15) organized approach o) устаревшая упаковка Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.

MANAGERIAL KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND PERFORMANCE For managers to develop work agendas, act out roles, and engage in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, they need a sound knowledge base and key management skills.

Knowledge Base Although managers often switch companies and work in different industries, they are apt to run into difficulties if they don't have a reasonably extensive knowledge base relevant to their particular managerial job. A knowledge base can include information about an industry and its technology, company policies and practices, company goals and plans, company culture, the personalities of key organization members, and important suppliers and customers.

Key Management Skills In addition to having a knowledge base, managers need three key types of skills to carry out the various functions of management. A skill is the ability to engage in a set of behaviors that are functionally related to one another and that lead to a desired performance level in a given area. For managers, the three key skill types are technical, human, and conceptual.

Technical Skills. Technical skills are skills that reflect both an understanding of and a proficiency in a specialized field. For example, a manager may have technical skills in a specialized field such as accounting, finance, engineering, manufacturing, or computer science.

Human Skills. Human skills are skills associated with a manager's ability to work well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things done through others. Managers with effective human skills typically are particularly adept at communicating with others and motivating them to develop themselves and perform well in pursuit of organizational goals.

Conceptual Skills. Conceptual skills are skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, discern interrelationships among organizational parts, and understand how the organization fits into the wider context of the industry, community, and world. Managers need to recognize these various elements and understand the complex relationships among them so that they can take actions that advance the goals of the organization.

Conceptual skills, coupled with technical skills, human skills, and a knowledge base, are important ingredients in organizational performance.

Performance What constitutes high performance in an organization? Performance actually is made up of two important dimensions: effectiveness and efficiency.

Effectiveness. Effectiveness is the ability to choose appropriate goals and achieve them. Effectiveness, then, has two parts. First, goals must be appropriate. Second, goals must be reached. For example, Nordstrom, Inc., a Seattle-based apparel, shoe, and soft-goods retailer, is carving out an admirable niche for itself by providing legendary good customer service at its 55 department stores (mainly on the West Coast). Sales associates (many of whom are college graduates) gift-wrap packages for no extra cost and have even been known to drop them off at customers' homes in a pinch. Piano players serenade customers while they shop. According to one story, which the store has not denied, a customer got his money back on a tire. Given that the company does not sell tires, the story illustrates the store's dedication to a return policy based on "no questions asked". Bill Baer, a men's clothing salesman in the Palo Alto store, says, "Nordstrom tells me to do whatever I need to do to make you happy. Period." This stance has enabled the upscale chain to expand into new areas of the country such as Washington, D.C., and New Jersey. Nordstrom illustrates that effectiveness is essentially doing (accomplishing) the right things.

Efficiency. In contrast, efficiency is the ability to make the best use of available resources in the process of achieving goals. In the case of Nordstrom, the store enjoys the highest sales per In essence, organizations need to exhibit both effectiveness (doing the right things) and efficiency (doing things right) in order to be good performers.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания:

Пример: They need both a sound knowledge base and management skills.

Перевод: Они нуждаются как в прочной базе знаний, так и в навыках управления.

a) Technical skills are skills that reflect both an understanding of and a proficiency in a specialized field.

b) Human skills are skills associated with a manager’s ability to work well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things done through others.

c) In essence, organizations need to exhibit both effectiveness (doing the right things) and efficiency (doing things right) in order to be good performers.

3. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых употребляется Инфинитив. Определите его формы и функции. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 82).

4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста:

1) Why is a knowledge base important to managers?

2) What do managers need to carry out the various functions of management?

3) What does a skill mean?

4) What skills are associated with a manager’s ability to work well with others?

5) What is the difference between effectiveness and efficiency in organizational performance?

6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке:

- knowledge base;

- technical skills;

- conceptual skills;

- effectiveness;

- efficiency.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“Some ways that managers can acquire an appropriate knowledge base and the key skills”.

III. Vocabulary items.

work agenda - рабочий план, рабочая повестка knowledge base - база знаний management skills - навыки управления to switch companies - менять компании apt - вероятный, возможный;

склонный to run into difficulties - сталкиваться с трудностями relevant - уместный supplier - поставщик customer - заказчик;

покупатель ability - способность;

умение to be related to - быть связанным с level - уровень technical skills - технические навыки proficiency - опытность human skills - навыки общения с людьми to associate - соединять, связывать adept - знаток, эксперт;

сведущий to develop - развивать (-ся) in pursuit of - в поисках conceptual skills - понятийные навыки to visualize - отчетливо представлять себе to discern - различать взаимосвязи interrelationships community - общество;

сообщество to recognize - признавать;

различать to take actions - принять меры performance - исполнение, выполнение, производительность to constitute - составлять dimension - величина;

измерение effectiveness - результативность;

годность;

польза appropriate - подходящий, соответствующий efficiency - эффективность;

подготовленность available resources - ресурсы, имеющиеся в наличии to exhibit - показывать, проявлять in order to - с целью;

чтобы IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 8) – с.

1) Managers are apt to run into difficulties if they a) conceptual skills don't have a reasonably extensive... relevant to their particular managerial job.

2) A... is the ability to engage in a set of b) doing the right behaviors that are functionally related to one things another and that lead to a desired performance level in a given area.

3) … are skills that reflect both an understanding c) skill of and a proficiency in a specialized field.

4) Managers with effective... are particularly d) doing things right adept at communicating with others and motivating them to develop themselves and perform well in pursuit of organizational goals.

5) …, coupled with technical skills, human skills, e) human skills and a knowledge base, are important ingredients in organizational performance.

6) The given example illustrates that f) technical skills effectiveness is essentially ….

7) The following example illustrates efficiency g) knowledge base as ….

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 6) – с.

1) conceptual skills a) information about an industry and its technology, company policies and practices, company goals and plans, company culture, the personalities of key organization members and important suppliers and customers;

2) effectiveness b) skills associated with a manager's ability to work well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things done through others;

3) knowledge base c) skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, discern interrelationships among organizational parts and understand how the organization fits into the wider context of the industry, community and world;

4) efficiency d) the ability to choose appropriate goals and achieve them;

5)human skills e) the ability to make the best use of available resources in the process of achieving goals Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст.

MANAGERIAL JOB TYPES Managerial jobs do vary somewhat on the basis of two important dimensions. One is a vertical dimension, focusing on different hierarchical levels in the organization. The other is a horizontal dimension, addressing variations according to the area for which managers have major responsibility.

Vertical Dimension: Hierarchical Levels Along the vertical dimension, managerial jobs in organizations fall into three categories: first-line, middle, and top management. These categories can be viewed as vertical differentiation among managers because they involve three different levels of the organization.

TOP Vertical Levels MIDDLE of Management FIRST-LINE H R R D M F A E u e e e a i c n m s s v r n c g a o e e k a o i n u a l e n u n r r o t c n e c c p i e t e e h m n i r s & e g n i n g n t g Horizontal Responsibility Areas Fig. Types of managers by level and responsibility area First-Line Managers. First-Line Managers ( or first-line supervisors) are managers at the lowest level in the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of operating (nonmanagerial) employees.

They often have titles that include the word “supervisor”. First-line managers are extremely important to the success of an organization because they have the major responsibility of seeing that day-to-day operations run smoothly in pursuit of organizational goals.

Because they operate at the interface between management and the rest of the work force, first-line supervisors can easily find themselves in the middle of conflicting demands. At the same time, the power of first-line supervisors has been gradually eroding because of such factors as union influence and the increasing educational level of workers.

According to one recent review of research literature on first-line supervisors, the autonomy and influence of first-line managers is likely to ebb still further in the future. One reason is the increasing attempts by organizations to emulate the Japanese emphasis on worker participation in managing the work-place. Another is the trend toward work teams.

Still another is the use of computers to keep track of many activities formerly regulated by first-line managers. Finally, a growing number of specialists, particularly in fields involving sophisticated technology, provide advice and direction to work areas. One implication of these developments is that the job of the first-line supervisor is likely to change toward a greater emphasis on dealing with internal human relations and on representing the unit externally.

Middle Managers. Middle managers are managers beneath the top levels of the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of other managers below them. The managers for whom they have direct responsibility may be other middle managers or first – line managers. Middle managers also sometimes supervise operating personnel, such as administrative assistants and several specialists (such as engineers or financial analysts). Many different titles are used for middle managers. Some typical titles include such words as “manager”, “director of”, “chief”, “department head”, and “division head”. Middle managers are mainly responsible for implementing overall organizational plans so that organizational goals are achieved as expected.

Organizations, particularly very large ones, often have several layers of middle managers. For example, in recent years, giant General Motors has generally had about 14 or 15 management levels. That number reflects a post World War II trend aimed at adding layers of middle management to help coordinate expanding activities. By the early 1980s, however, that trend began to reverse. At that point, many companies began cutting the number of levels of management hierarchy in an attempt to lower costs, reduce the layers involved in decision making, and facilitate communication.

One common result of having fewer layers is that the remaining middle-management levels gain greater autonomy and responsibility.

Top managers. Top managers are managers at the very top levels of the hierarchy who are ultimately responsible for the entire organization. Top level managers are few in number;

their typical titles include “chief executive officer” (CEO), “president”, “executive vice president”, “executive director”, “senior vice president” and sometimes “vice president”. Top-level managers are often referred to as executives, although the term “executive” also is sometimes used to include the upper layers of middle managers as well. Top managers have direct responsibility for the upper layer of middle managers.

They typically oversee the overall planning for the organization, work to some degree with middle managers in implementing that planning, and maintain overall control over the progress of the organization.

Horizontal Dimension: Responsibility Areas In addition to their vertical differences, managerial jobs differ on a horizontal dimension that relates to the nature of the area of responsibility involved.

The three major types of horizontal differentiation among managerial jobs on the basis of responsibility area are functional, general, and project managers.

Functional managers are managers who have responsibility for a specific, specialized area (often called a functional area) of the organization and supervise mainly individuals with expertise and training in that specialized area. Common specialized, or functional, areas include finance, manufacturing or operations, marketing, human resources management, accounting, quality assurance, and engineering.

General managers are managers who have responsibility for a whole organization or a substantial subunit that includes most of the common specialized areas within it. In other words, a general manager presides over a number of specialties or functional areas (hence the term “general”). General managers have a variety of titles such as “division manager” and “president”, depending on the circumstances. A small company usually will have only one general manager, who is the head of the entire organization. Depending on how it is organized, a large company may have several general managers (in addition to the chief executive officer).

Project managers are managers who have responsibility for coordinating efforts involving individuals in several different organizational units who are all working on a particular project. Because the individuals report not only to managers in their specific work units but also to project managers. Project managers usually must have extremely strong interpersonal skills to keep things moving smoothly.

Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and other high technology firms to coordinate projects, such as airplane or computer project development. They also are used in some consumer-oriented companies to launch or stay on top of market development for specific products such as cookies or margarine.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания:

Пример: Managerial jobs in organizations fall into such categories as:

first-line, middle, and top management.

Перевод: Виды управленческой деятельности в организациях подпадают под такие категории, как: управляющий первого звена, управляющий среднего звена и высшее руководство.

a) At the same time, the power of first-line supervisors has been gradually eroding because of such factors as union influence and the unceasing educational level of workers.

b) Middle managers also sometimes supervise operating personnel, such as administrative assistants and several specialists (such as engineers or financial analysts).

c) Some typical titles include such words as “manager”, “director of”, “chief”, “department head”, and “division head”.

d) General managers have a variety of titles, such as “division manager” and “president”, depending on the circumstances.

e) Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and other high technology firms to coordinate projects, such as airplane or computer project development.

f) They also are used in some consumer-oriented companies to launch or stay on top of market development for specific products such as cookies or margarine.

3. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых употребляется причастие настоящего времени – Participle I. Определите его формы и функции. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см.

грамматический справочник, стр. 80).

4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста:

a) What do a vertical dimension and a horizontal dimension differ in?

b) What are first-line managers directly responsible for?

c) Why can first-line supervisors easily find themselves in the middle of conflicting demands?

d) What titles are used for middle managers?

e) Why did many companies begin cutting the number of levels of management hierarchy by the early 1980s?

f) What managers typically oversee the overall planning for the organization?

g) What do functional areas include?

h) What does a general manager preside over?

i) Why must project managers usually have extremely strong interpersonal skills?

6. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке:

- first-line managers /supervisors;

- middle managers;

- top managers;

- functional managers;

- general managers;

- project managers.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“The variation of managerial jobs on the basis of a vertical dimension and a horizontal one”.

III. Vocabulary items.

managerial jobs - управленческая, административная деятельность (работа) first-line manager (first- - менеджер, управляющий первого line supervisor) (нижнего) звена supervisor - контролер;

надзиратель work force - рабочая сила worker participation - участие рабочих work-place - место работы, рабочее место work team - рабочая команда, рабочая группа human relations - связи с людьми middle manager - управляющий, менеджер среднего звена chief - заведующий department head - руководитель отдела division head - руководитель подразделения top manager - главный управляющий;

менеджер верхнего звена chief executive officer - главный управляющий делами executive vice president - исполнительный вице-президент executive director - исполнительный директор;

директор-распорядитель senior vice-president - первый вице-президент executive - должностное лицо, руководитель, администратор (фирмы, компании) functional manager - функциональный менеджер general manager - главный управляющий;

генеральный директор functional area - функциональная сфера, область division manager - управляющий подразделением project manager - руководитель проекта differentiation - дифференциация high technology - высокая технология influence - влияние level - уровень IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 6) – m.

1) general managers a) managers at the lowest level in the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of operating (nonmanagerial) employees;

2) project managers b) managers beneath the top levels of the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of other managers below them;

3) first-line managers c) managers at the very top levels of the hierarchy who are ultimately responsible for the entire organization;

4) top managers d) managers who have responsibility for a specific, specialized area of the organization and supervise mainly individuals with expertise and training in that specialized area;

5) functional managers e) managers who have responsibility for a whole organization or a substantial subunit that includes most of the common specialized areas within it;

6) middle managers f) managers who have responsibility for coordinating efforts involving individuals in several different organizational units who are all working on a particular project.

2. Дополните предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например,7)– m.

1) One dimension is a vertical dimension, focusing on a) first-line different … in the organization. managers 2)... are extremely important to the success of an b) horizontal organization because they have the major responsibility of differentiation seeing that day-to-day operations run smoothly in pursuit of organizational goals.

3) The power of first-line supervisors has been gradually c) high eroding because of such factors as.... technology firms 4) … are mainly responsible for implementing overall d) hierarchical organizational plans so that organizational goals are levels achieved as expected.

5) Top-level managers are often referred to as..., although e) general the term “executive” also is sometimes used to include the manager upper layers of middle managers.

6) The three major types of... among managerial jobs on f) union the basis of responsibility area are functional, general, and influence and project managers. the increasing educational level of workers 7) A small company usually will have only one..., who is g) executives the head of the entire organization.

8) Project managers are frequently used in aerospace and h) middle other... to coordinate projects, such as airplane or managers computer project development.

Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите, постарайтесь понять текст и запишите на полях основные термины.

DEFINING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Operations management is the management of the productive processes that convert input into goods and services. Because of its close association with manufacturing, operations management is sometimes called production-operations management. Recently, though, the term “production” is increasingly being dropped in favor of simply “operations management”, a term that has less of a manufacturing connotation. The operations management function is that part of the organization directly involved in producing the primary goods and services.

In the case of a manufacturing organization such as Fanuc, the operations management function would include plan managers and all the other managers who work in the factories (e.g., production managers, inventory control managers, quality assurance managers, and line supervisors). If an organization's structure had corporate level, operations would also encompass any manufacturing or operations vice presidents that exist as the corporate level, as well as related corporate operations staff (such as those primarily concerned with production, inventory, quality, facilities, and equipment).

In a service industry such as the hotel business, the operations management function would include hotel managers and the various managers who work in the hotels (e.g., housekeeping managers, food and beverage managers, and convention managers). Again. If there were a corporate level, operation would also comprise managers and staff at the corporate level who are directly involved in actually running the hotels (as opposed to managers who are involved in other related functions, such as marketing and finance).

Regardless of whether an organization produces a service, a product, or both, operations managers need to be acutely concerned about productivity.

The productivity-operations management linkage Productivity is an efficiency concept that gauges the ratio of outputs relative to input into a productive process. Effectiveness relates to the extent to which performance reaches organizational goals. In contrast, efficiency addresses the resource usage (inputs) involved in achieving outcomes (outputs). Productivity is aimed at assessing the efficiency aspect of organizational performance – the ratio of outputs relative to inputs. As such, productivity can be a useful tool for managers because it helps them track progress toward the more efficient use of resources in producing goods and services.

Organizational productivity is often measured by using this equation:

goods and services produced (outputs) Productivity = ————————————————————————— labor + capital + energy + technology + materials (inputs) An approach, like this one, that considers all the inputs involved in producing outputs is sometimes referred to as total-factor productivity.

Managers also use partial-factor productivity, a productivity approach that considers the total output relative to a specific input, such as labor. For example:

goods and services produced (outputs) Productivity = —————————————————— labor hours (labor input) Manufacturing versus service organizations Manufacturing and service organizations differ in several important respects. Manufacturing organizations are organizations that transform input into identifiable, tangible goods, such as soft drinks, cars, or videocassette recorders. Typically, the tangible goods they produce can be stored (at least to some degree), and the untimate customer does not usually need to be present while the transformation process is taking place. As a result, manufacturing can often be done in centralized places, and the products can be shipped to customers. In addition, a manufacturing concern can often avoid wasting capacity during slack periods by using available capacity to produce inventory in anticipation of future sales.

II. Exercises.

1. Прочтите и запомните слова в разделе III.

2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляется сослагательное наклонение (см. грамматический справочник на стр. 71) и переведите их.

3. Подберите к словам в колонке слева близкие по значению эквиваленты из колонки справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 1-5.

1) to involve 1) activity 2) to gauge 2) to deal with 3) to concern with 3) to track 4) process 4) to assess 5) to follow 5) to encompass 6) operations management 6) production 4. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь словарем.

5. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1) What is operations management?

2) What is the function of operations management?

3) What are the operations management functions in the case of manufacturing organizations?

4) What are the operations management functions in the case of service industry?

5) What is productivity?

6) How does productivity help managers?

6. Напишите на английском языке как Вы понимаете: “Operations management”.

III. Vocabulary items.

production operations - управление процессами management производства connotation - вторичное, дополнительное значение primary goods and - первичные товары и услуги services to involve - вовлекать, включать в себя corporate level - корпоративный уровень to encompass - содержать, заключать в себе to gauge - измерять, оценивать total-factor productivity - совокупно-факторная производительность (действие) partial-factor частично-факторная productivity производительность (действие) to exist - жить, существовать, находиться to relate - соотноситься facilities and equipment - средства и оборудование service industry - услуги в области промышленности acutely - остро, сильно to track - следить, выслеживать labor (amer) = labour - труд, работа (англ) to store - снабжать, наполнять to assess - оценивать resources - ресурсы, источники manufacturing - производственный customer - покупатель goal - цель IV. Test.

1. Выберите определения к терминам из колонки слева и запишите следующим образом: 10-b.

1. Operations management а) … is an efficiency concept that gauges the ratio of outputs relative to input into a productive process.

2. Productivity b) … are organizations that transform inputs into indentifiable, tangible goods, such as soft drinks, cars or videocassette recorders.

3. Total-factor productivity c) … is a productivity approach that considers the total output relative to specific input, such as labour.

4. Partial-factor productivity d) … is an approach, that considers all the inputs involved in producing outputs.

5. Manufacturing organizations e) … is the management of the productive processes that convert inputs into goods and services.

2. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание справа, запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 1)-m.

1) The operations management function (OMF) a) productivity would include … 2) The operations management function is the b) the primary goods and part of the organization that is involved in services producing … 3) The operations management functions in the c) labor hotel business include … 4) Whether an organization produces a service d) customers or a product, operations managers need to be acutely concerned about … 5) Effectiveness relates to the extent to which e) goods and services performance reaches … 6) Productivity can be a useful tool for f) organizational goals managers because it helps them track progress toward the more efficient use of resources in producing … 7) A productivity approach considers the total g) hotel managers output relative to a specific input, such as … 8) Products can be shipped to … h) plan managers Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) At 3M, a company famous for fostering employee innovation, human resource issues are increasingly an integral part of strategic management.

Thus 3M is at the forefront of a trend toward recognizing human resources as a crucial element in the strategic success of organizations. In a growing number of organizations, such as 3M and CARE, high-level managers within the human resource management function participate directly in strategy implementation. They also help coordinate human resource aspects of strategy implementation. In this section, we review major aspects of the human resource management process before exploring in greater depth the main reasons for the growing strategic role of human resource management.

The HRM Process: An Overview As suggested by the HRM process shown in Figure 12-1, human resource management encompasses a number of important activities. One critical aspect of the process, human resource planning, assesses the human resource needs associated with strategic management and help identify staffing needs. The staffing component of the process includes attracting and selecting individuals for appropriate positions. Once individuals become part of the organization, their ability to contribute effectively is usually enhanced by various development and evaluation efforts, such as training and periodic performance evaluations. Compensating employees for their efforts is another important factor in the HRM process, because adequate rewards are critical not only to attracting but also to motivating and retaining valuable employees.

Finally, managers must respond to various issues that influence work-force perceptions of the organization and its treatment of employees.

In order to explore human resource management in an orderly fashion, the various activities that make up the HRM process are discussed sequentially in this part. The components, though, are actually highly interrelated. For example, when a group of British financiers took over the British arm of F.W. Woolworth from its American parent in 1982, the chain of 1000 stores had a tarnished image and 30,000 employees with a reputation for poor service. Investigation revealed many interrelated problems, such as poor employment interviewing practices (interviews typically lasted minutes), little training for either sales staff mangers, and a components of the HRM process collectively reinforced the service problems.

Human resource professionals operating within human resource departments typically play a major role in designing the various elements in the HRM process and in supporting their use by line managers. Nevertheless, line managers ultimately are responsible for the effective utilization of human resources within their units and, thus, carry out many aspects of the HRM process, particularly as they relate to implementing strategic plans Fig. 12 – Human Development Resource and Staffing Compensation Planning Evaluation Maintaining Effec tive Work Force Relationships The Strategic Importance of HRM Understanding the strategic potential of human resource management in organizations is relatively recent phenomenon. In fact, the role of such management in organizations, as it is known today, has evolved through three main stages. From early in this century until the mid -1960s, HRM activities comprised a file maintenance stage, in which much of the emphasis was on screening applicants, orienting new employees, recording employee-related data for personnel purposes, and planning company social functions (such as the company picnic).

The second stage, government accountability, began with passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which forbids employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) and continued as additional laws, court rulings, and federal regulatory guidelines increasingly impacted various aspects of employment, such as hiring and promotion decisions, pension plans, and health and safety issues. Of course, some laws, particularly those governing relations with unions, existed before 1964, but the mid-1960s ushered in an era of accelerated governmental regulation of employment issues. As organizations attempted to gain greater control over activities that could result in legal difficulties and large financial settlements, the HRM function gained in importance. Indicative of the expense that can be involved, under a 1973 consent decree (a court-sanctioned agreement in which the accused party does not admit wrongdoing but agrees to discontinue a practice), AT&T agreed to raise the starting pay of women promoted to managerial positions so that their pay level would be equal to those of similarly promoted men, at a cost of more that $30 million.

The third stage, which began in the late 1970s and early 1980s, can be termed the competitive advantage stage. In this stage, human resource management is increasingly viewed as important for both strategy formulation and implementation. Thus. under some circumstances, human resources can comprise a source of distinct competence that forms a basis for strategy formulation. For example, 3M's notes scientists enable the company to pursue a differentiation strategy based on innovative products. Under other circumstances, HRM activities may be used to support strategy implementation. For instance, at Honda of America's Marysville, Ohio, plant, an emphasis on differentiation through quality is supported by such HRM activities as training programs, developmental performance appraisal processes, and promises of job security. Human resource management often is an important ingredient in the success of such strategy-related activities as downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. At the competitive advantage stage, then human resources are considered explicitly in conjunction with strategic management, particularly through the mechanism of human resource planning.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Найдите в тексте нижеприведенные слова, определите их функции в предложениях и запишите перевод (см. грамматический справочник стр. 77-78).

building – selling – planning – staffing – attracting – selecting – training – compensating – motivating – retaining – interviewing – 3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста 1) What is an integral part of strategic management?

2) What are the major aspects of HRM?

3) What does HRM encompass?

4) What is one of the critical aspect of the process?

5) What does it associate with?

6) What does the staffing component include?

7) What are the three main stages in the activities of HRM?

5. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке.

- human resource management - file maintenance stage - competitive advantage stage 6. Напишите на английском языке как вы понимаете:

“What is the strategic human resource management?” III. Vocabulary items.

to be famous for - быть знаменитым чем-л.

to foster - поощрять crucial element - решающий (критический) элемент to coordinate - устанавливать правильное соотношение, координировать стратегию implement(ation) - орудие, инструмент;

(выполнение) overview - обзор to encompass - окружать to assess - оценивать staffing needs - персональные (материальные) нужды to contribute - способствовать, содействовать to enhance - повышать (цену), увеличивать to evaluate - оценивать, высчитывать to interrelate - соотносить - переправлять, перевозить tarnished image - запятнанный имидж to reveal - обнаруживать, открывать to be responsible for - быть ответственным за to evolve - развиваться, развертываться to comprise - охватывать, включать в себя to downsize - опускаться, снижаться merger - слияние, объединение acquisition - приобретение to screen - выбирать, просеивать to attract - привлекать to select - отбирать, выбирать, подбирать utilization - использование, утилизация employee - служащий, работающий по найму to compensate - вознаграждать, возмещать (убытки) line manager - образ действия, (поведение, установка) менеджера competitive advantage - преимущественная степень в stage конкуренции activity - деятельность IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 1)-m.

1) Investigation revealed many a) attracting and selecting interrelated … 2) The staffing component of the b) managers process includes … and … individuals.

3) Line managers ultimately are c) effective utilization of HRM responsible for … 4) One critical aspect of the process - d) human resource management … assesses the human resource needs.

5) … encompasses a number of e) problems important activities.

6) … is another important factor in f) human resource planning the HRM process.

7) … must respond to various issues g) compensating employees that influence work-force perceptions of the organization.

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующим терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: 10)-b.

1) Human resource a) … may be used to support strategy professionals implementation.

2) Line managers b) … is an important ingredient in the success of such strategy – related activities as downsizing, mergers, and acquisition.

3) The competitive c) … are responsible for the effective advantage stage utilisation of human resources within their units.

4) Human resources d) … can comprise a source of distinct competence that forms a basis for strategy formulation.

5) HRM activities e) … play a major role in designing the various elements in the HRM.

6) Human resource f) … is increasingly viewed as important for managment both strategy formulation and implementation in the HPM.

Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст. Запишите на полях основные термины.

HOW LEADERS INFLUENCE OTHERS Why do people accept the influence of a leader? One major reason is that leaders have power. In this section, we examine the major sources of power and the ways that leaders can effectively use the power they potentially have available.

Sources of Leader Power Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others. Leaders in organizations typically rely on some or all of six major types of power:

legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, information, and referent.

Legitimate Power. Legitimate power stems from a position's placement in the managerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.

When we accept a job with an organization, we usually are aware that we will be receiving directions related to our work from our immediate boss and others in the hierarchy. Normally, we accept such directions as legitimate because these persons hold positions of authority. Hence legitimate power relates to the position, rather than to the person per se.

Reward Power. Reward power is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others. Most organizations offer an array of rewards, including pay raises, bonuses, interesting projects, promotion recommendations, a better office, support for training programs, assignments with high visibility in the organization, recognition, positive feedback, and time off. The greater a manager's control over valued rewards, the greater that manager's reward power.

Coercive Power. Coercive power depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behaviors. Forms of coercion or punishment include criticisms, terminations, reprimands, suspensions, warning letters that go into an individual's personnel file, negative performance appraisals, demotions, and withheld pay raises. The greater the freedom to punish others, the greater a manager's coercive power.

Expert Power. Expert power is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others. Managers often have considerable knowledge, technical skills, and experience that can be critical to subordinates' success.

To the extent that a leader possesses expertise and information that is needed or desired by others, the leader has expert power.

Information Power. Information power results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans. Managers usually have better access to such information than do subordinates and have some discretion over how much is disseminated to work-unit members. The greater the control over important information, the greater the information power.

Referent Power. Referent power results from being admired, personally identified with, or liked by others. When we admire people, want to be like them, or feel friendship toward them, we more willingly follow their directions and exhibit loyalty toward them. Some observers argue that Lee Iacocca’s initial success in turning around the Chrysler Corporation was based partially on the fact that he possessed referent power in relation to the work force. The more that a leader is able to cultivate the liking, identification, and admiration of others, the greater the referent power.

Effective Use of Leader Power Although all six types of power are potential means of influencing others, in actual usage they may engender somewhat different levels of subordinate motivation. Subordinates can react to a leader's direction with commitment, compliance, or resistance. With commitment, employees respond enthusiastically and exert a high level of effort toward organizational goals. With compliance, employees exert at least minimal efforts to complete directives but are likely to deliver average, rather than stellar, performance.

With resistance, employees may appear to comply but actually do the absolute minimum, possibly even attempting to sabotage the attainment of organizational goals. For example, when Chicago scrap-metal czar Cyrus Tang bought the ailing McLouth Steel Products Corporation, he relied on legitimate and coercive power to gain worker cooperation. Workers reacted with production slowdowns and a wildcat strike that eventually led to the further deterioration of the company and its sale to employees.

Managers usually rely on several different types of power in order to be effective. When Jim Lynn was chosen to be chairman of the Aetna Life & Casualty Company, the firm had just been through the painful process of a competitive price-cutting program, had suffered write-offs from several ill fated acquisitions in noninsurance areas, and was facing the lowest earnings in 9 years. At that point, Lynn, a 6-year veteran on Aetna's board of directors, a previous partner in two prestigious law firms, and a former Nixon administration cabinet member, had a reputation for being effective with both handling people and solving problems. In establishing himself at Aetna, he clearly had the legitimate power of his new chairman's position. However, he relied heavily on building referent power. According to one former Aetna senior vice president, Lynn went out of his way to "portray a peer relationship with everybody". He also used reward power to boost the morale of the heads of Aetna's three principal businesses, each with revenues of more than $ billion, by awarding them the title of president in recognition of their major roles in the company.

II. Exercises.

1. Прочтите слова в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые выражения:

Пример: The greater the price on the good, the greater the tax on the good.

Перевод: Чем выше цена на товар, тем больше налог на него.

1) The more we read, the more we know.

2) The greater a manager's control over valued rewards, the greater that manager's reward power.

3) The greater the freedom to punish others, the greater a manager's coercive power.

4) The greater the control over important information, the greater the information.

5) The more we work, the more we get.

3. Найдите в тексте предложения, где сказуемое выражено в страдательном залоге. Определите время. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 70).

4. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

5. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста:

1) What are the sources of leader power?

2) What does legitimate power stem from?

3) What is reward power based on?

4) What does coercive power depend on?

5) What is expert power based on?

6. Дайте письменно определения к следующим терминам на английском языке:

- referent power - information power - power.

7. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“How do leaders influence others?” III. Vocabulary items.

leader power - руководящая власть (сила) legitimate power - законодательная власть reward power - поощрительная власть coercive power - принудительная власть expert power - экспертная власть information power - информационная власть referent power - власть эталона promotion - содействие (реклама);

продвижение bonus - премия to train - учить, обучать to gain - получать, приобретать slowdown - отсталый, медленный deterioration - ухудшение, изнашивание competitive - конкурентный price-cutting program - программа снижения (уменьшения) цен write-off - списывание со счета;

аннулирование (долгов) ill-fated - злополучный, несчастный acquisitions - приобретения noninsurance areas - необеспеченные районы (области, зоны) revenue - годовой доход, государственный доход IV. Test.

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимые словосочетания справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 1) – g.

1) Managers usually rely on several different a) referent power types of power ….

2) The use of coercive power has a strong b) being effective with tendency …. both handling people and solving problems 3) Nixon administration cabinet member had c) to provoke resistance in a reputation for.... subordinates 4) Nixon relied heavily on building …. d) in order to be effective 5) He also used reward power to boost the e) in recognition of their morale of the heads of Aetna’s three principal major roles in the businesses, each with revenues of more than company $3 billion, by awarding them the title of president ….

2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие терминам слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 5) – h.

1) Power … a) is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others.

2) Legitimate power … b) is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.

3) Reward power … c) results from being admired, personally identified with, or liked by others.

4) Coercive power … d) is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others.

5) Expert power …. e) results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.

6) Information f) depends on the ability to punish others when power … they do not engage in desired behaviors.

7) Referent power … g) stems from a position's placement in the managerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.

Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять текст.

Control as a management process Like their McDonald’s counterparts, managers in other organizations also face important issues related to the function of controlling. Controlling is the process of regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals. As the definition suggests, controlling means that managers develop appropriate standards, compare ongoing performance against those standards, and take steps to ensure that corrective actions are taken when necessary. Since most aspects of organizations ultimately depend on human behavior, controlling is largely geared toward ensuring that organization members behave in ways that facilitate the reaching of organizational goals. Thus controls both highlight needed behaviors and discourage unwanted behaviors. For instance, during their 2-year training program, management trainees preparing to become McDonald’s franchisees work their way through a thick quide that spells out various aspects of what to do and not do in properly running a McDonald’s outlet.

Significance of the control process As you might expect, the controlling function is closely allied to the other, three major functions of management: planning, organizing, and leading. It builds most directly on the planning function by providing the means for monitoring and making adjustments in performance so that plans can be realized. Still, controlling also supports the organizing and leading functions by helping ensure that resources are channeled toward organizational objectives. For example, feedback from the control process might signal the need to reorganize, provide more training to workers, clarify communications, increase leadership influence, or take other actions associated with the respective organizing and leading functions. For instance, after detecting a shortage of workers who could assume some supervisory responsibilities, six McDonald’s restaurants in Fairfax Virginia, have been experimenting with a training program to teach English to workers who have management potential but speak little English.

As part of the control process, managers set up control systems. A control system is a set of mechanisms that are designed to increase the probability of meeting organizational standards and goals. Control systems can be.developed to regulate any area that a manager considers important, such as quantity produced, resources expended, profit margins, quality of products or services, client satisfaction, timeliness of deliveries, or specific activities that are performed in producing a product or service.

For example, McDonald’s has a 19-step procedure that workers have rigidly to follow when they are cooking and bagging french fries. Local managers are expected to ensure that employees prepare and bag french fries in accordance with these steps to that the french fries will conform to McDonald’s standards. This procedure also is one of the operations that corporate evaluation teams check during their unannounced inspections of outlets. Thus the local managers, the corporate evaluation teams, and the standards embodied in the procedure from part of a control system aimed at achieving consistently good french fries at all McDonald’s outlets.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Найдите и подчеркните в тексте модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (см. грамматический справочник, стр. 75).

3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания теста.

1) What is controlling?

2) What does the controlling mean from the management point of view?

3) How are controls related to behaviors?

4) What are the major functions controlling is closely allied to?

5) What is control system used for?

6) What is the role of controls?

5. Напишите определения на английском языке следующих терминов:

- Controlling - Control system - Controlling function 6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“What kind of activities does the control process include?” III. Vocabulary Items.

counterpart - двойник;

зд. коллега controlling - контроль;

процесс контролирования to regulate activities - регулировать деятельность to conform to standards - соответствовать стандартам goal - цель to ensure - обеспечивать, гарантировать syn. to provide human behaviour - поведение людей to behave - поступать;

вести себя to gear - направлять по определенному плану training - обучение;

стажировка training program - учебная программа trainee - проходящий обучение;

стажер franchisee - держатель лицензии (франшизы) to run - зд. управлять outlet - рынок сбыта;

зд. торговая точка to be allied to - быть тесно связанным с to monitor - контролировать, проверять to make adjustment - приспособиться to channel resources - направлять ресурсы на… toward… feedback - обратная связь (информация) shortage - нехватка;

недостаток to assume responsibility - брать на себя ответственность to meet standards - соответствовать стандартам quantity - количество quality - качество profit margin - маржа;

предел доходности;

разница между себестоимостью и продажной ценой client satisfaction - удовлетворение желаний клиента timeliness of deliveries - своевременность поставок procedure - процедура corporate evaluation - отдел контроля корпорации team highlight - основной момент, факт performance - исполнение, выполнение portable computer - переносной компьютер inflation - инфляция to expend - тратить, расходовать research - исследование IV. Test.

1. Дополните предложения слева недостающими совами или словосочетаниями из колонки справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 8-в.

1) Most aspects of organizations ultimately a) resources are channeled depend on … 2) The planning function mainly provides the b) human behaviour means for … so that plans can be realized.

3) The organizing and leading functions help c) to regulate ensure that … toward organizational objectives.

4) As part of the control process, managers set d) corporate evaluation up … teams 5) Control systems can be developed … any e) highlight area that a manager considers important.

6) … check some operations of the procedure f) control systems during their unannounced inspections of outlets.

7) Controls both … needed behaviors and g) monitoring and making discourage unwanted behaviors. adjustments in performance 2. Выберите словосочетания из колонки справа, соответствующие утверждению слева, основываясь на содержании текста. Ответов может быть несколько. Запишите их буквами следующим образом: например – k, f, e, c.

a) quality of products or services b) change and innovation Control systems can regulate … c) portable computers d) profit margins e) timeliness of deliveries f) consumer-products business g) scientific research h) quantity produced i) client satisfaction j) resources expended k) inflation Unit I. Information for study.

Прочтите и постарайтесь понять этот текст. Запишите на полях основные термины.

THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION Communication is the exchange of messages between people for the purpose of achieving common meanings. Unless common meanings are shared, managers find it extremely difficult to influence others. For example, in looking back on his efforts to revitalize General Motors, former CEO Roger Smith says that he would make the same decisions for again regarding the implementation of major changes to rebuild the company foe global leadership in the twenty first century.

Types of Communication In their work, managers use two major types of communication: verbal and nonverbal. Each type plays an important part in the effective transmissions of messages within organizations.

Verbal Communication. Verbal communication is the written or oral use of words to communicate. Both written and oral communications are pervasive in organizations.

Written communication occurs through a variety of means, such as business letters, office memorandums, reports, resumes, written telephone messages, newsletters, and policy manuals. In many cases, considerable time and effort are expended in preparing written communications. According to several estimates, the cost of producing a single letter or memo has risen to more that $7, with one recent estimate placing the figure as high as $25 for the average memo. Yet one study of 800 randomly selected letters from a variety of industries indicates that written business correspondence suffers from significant deficiencies in such areas as proper word usage, clear sentence construction, and precision. A related study shows that more than percent of managers judge the quality of the written communication they receive as either fair or poor. They also did not give themselves very high grades, with 55 percent describing their own writing skills as fair or poor.

Despite some possible shortcomings in writing skills, written communication generally has several advantages over oral communication.

Written communication provides a records of the message, can be disseminated widely with a minimum of effort, and allows the sender to think through the intended message carefully. Written communication also has several disadvantages, including the expense of preparation, the relatively impersonal nature of written communications, possible misunderstanding by the receiver, and the delay of feedback regarding the effectiveness of the message.

In contrast to written communication, oral communication, or the spoken word, take place largely through face-to-face conversations with another individual, meetings with several individuals, and telephone conversations. Oral communication has the advantage of being fast, is generally more personal than written communication, and provides immediate feedback from others involved in the conversation. Disadvantages include the fact that oral communication can be time-consuming, can be more difficult to terminate, and requires that additional effort be expended to document what is said if a record is necessary.

Given the advantages and disadvantages of written and oral communication, it is not surprising that both types of verbal communication are used.

Nonverbal Communication. Nonverbal communication is communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words. Studies estimate of elements that nonverbal aspects account for between 65 and 93 percent of what gets communicated. Interestingly, it is quite difficult to engage in verbal communication without some accompanying form of nonverbal communication. Important categories of nonverbal communication include kinesic behaviour, proxemics, paralanguage, and object language.

Kinesic behavior refers to body movements, such as gestures, facial expressions, eye movements, and posture. We often draw conclusions regarding people's feelings about an issue, not only from their words but also from their nonverbal behaviour, such as their facial expressions.

Proxemics refers to the influence of proximity and space on communication. For example, some managers arrange their offices so that they have an informal area where people can sit without experiencing the spatial distance and formality created by a big desk. Another example of proxemics, which you have probably experienced, is that you are more likely to get to know students whom you happen to sit near in class than students who are sitting in other parts of the room.

Paralanguage refers to vocal aspect of communication that relate to how something is said rather that to what is said. Voice quality, tone of voice, laughing, and yawning fit in this category.

Object language refers to the communicative use of material things, including clothing, cosmetics, furniture, and architecture. If you have prepared a job resume lately, you probably gave some thought to the layout and to the type of paper on which you wanted your resume printed - nonverbal aspects of your communication about yourself and your credentials.

Nonverbal elements form an important part of the messages that managers communicate.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Найдите и подчеркните в тексте, где употребляются причастия прошедшего времени – Participle II – в функции определения и переведите их на русский язык. (См. грамматический справочник на стр.

78).

3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста:

1) What is communication?

2) What kind of communication do managers use in their work?

3) What is verbal communication?

4) How does written communication occur?

5) What are the advantages of written communication?

6) Where does oral communication take place?

7) What do the disadvantages of both written and oral communications include?

8) What can you say about nonverbal communication?

5. Дайте письменно определения следующим терминам своими словами:

- proxemics - paralanguage - object language - kinesic behavior 6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“The nature of managerial communication”.

III. Vocabulary items.

communication - связь;

общение;

сообщение managerial - управленческая связь;

communication административное общение verbal communication - вербальная связь;

~ общение;

~ сообщение common meaning - общее значение written communication - письменная связь;

~ общение;

~ сообщение nonverbal - невербальная связь;

~ общение;

communication ~ сообщение estimate - оценка kinesic behaviour - кинетическое поведение paralanguage - паралингвистический язык object language - предметный язык implementation - выполнение, осуществление transmission - передача, пересылка deficiency - недостаток;

нехватка shortcoming - недостаток;

несовершенство to disseminate - распространять to involve - включать в себя;

вовлекать layout - план;

компоновка credential(s) - полномочия to refer - посылать, отослать, ссылаться IV. Test.

1. Найдите в колонке справа английские эквиваленты следующих русских словосочетаний. Запишите ответы следующим образом:

например, 1)-m.

1) административное общение a) common meaning 2) вербальная связь b) kinesic behaviour 3) общение c) managerial communication 4) общее значение d) verbal communication 5) письменная связь e) object language 6) невербальная связь f) paralanguage 7) кинетическое поведение g) communication 8)паралингвистический язык h) written communication 9) предметный язык k) nonverbal communication 2. Выберите определения справа, соответствующие словам и выражениям слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например: 1) m.

1) Communication is... a)... the written or oral use of words to communicate.

2) Paralanguage refers b)... vocal aspect of communication that relate to to …. how something is said rather that to what is said.

3) Proxemics refers to c) … the influence of proximity and space on …. communication.

4) Kinesic behaviour d)... the communicative use of material things, refers to.... including clothing, cosmetics, furniture, and architecture.

5) Nonverbal e)... the communication by means of elements and communication is …. behaviours that are not coded into words.

6) Verbal f)... the exchange of messages between people for communicational is.... the purpose of achieving common meanings.

7) Object language g)... body movements such as gestures, facial refers to …. expressions, eye movements and posture.

Unit I. Information for study.

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THE NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT If you took an inventory of the items that are in your living quarters, you would probably find many that reflect the increasing volume of business conducted on an international basis. For example, you might have shoes from Italy or Brazil, a television and VCR from Japan, and a shirt made in Korea.

Even items that bear, the brand names of a U.S. - based company may have been produced in a far-off land in the course of international business.

International business refers to profit-related activities conducted across national boundaries. Such activities encompass importing supplies from other countries, selling products or services to customers abroad, or providing for the transfer of funds to subsidiaries in other countries. International management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling in organizations engaged in international business.

Changing character of international business There is strong evidence that the United States is losing its competitive edge in international trade and is facing increasing competiting in world markets. According to some accounts, the United State enjoyed an abnormal advantage for several decades after World War II because the productive facilities of other large industrial powers had been severely damaged by wartime activities. Now countries such as Japan and Germany have become formidable competitors, and developing national such as Brazil, India, and South Korea also are emerging as potential major players. Despite the increased competition, though, international markets are growing rapidly, providing expanded opportunities for many U.S. - based businesses.

Organizations engaging in International management Organizations that engage in international management vary considerably in size and in the extent to which their business activities cross national boundaries. One special type of organization involved in international management is the multinational corporation. Although definitions differ somewhat, the term multinational corporation (MNC) is typically reserved for an organization that engages in production or service activities though its own affiliates in several countries, maintains control over the policies of those affiliates, and manages from a global perspective.

The World's 25 Largest Industrial Multinational Corporations RANK 1988 1987 Company Headquarters Industry 1 1 General Motors Detroit Motor vehicles 2 4 Ford Motors Dearborn, Mich Motor vehicles 3 3 Exxon New Yerk Petroleum refining 4 2 Royal Dutch/Shell Group London/The Hague Petroleum refining 5 5 International Business Armonk, N.Y. Computers Machines 6 8 Toyota Motor Toyota City (Japan) Motor vehicles 7 10 General Electric Fairfleild, Conn Electronics 8 6 Mobil New York Petroleum refining 9 7 British Petroleum London Petroleum refining 10 9 IRI Rome Metals 11 11 Daimler-Benz Stuttgart Motor vehicles 12 16 Hitachi Tokyo Electronics 13 21 Chrysler Highland Park, Mich Motor vehicles 14 18 Siemens Munich Electronics 15 17 Fiat Turin Motor vehicles 16 19 Matsushita Electric Industrial Osaka Electronics 17 15 Volkswagen Wolfsburg(W.Ger.) Motor vehicles 18 12 Texaco White Plains, N.Y. Petroleum refining 19 14 E.I. Du Pont de Nemours Wilmington, Del Chemicals 20 20 Unilever London/Rotterdam Food 21 24 Nissan Motor Tokyo Motor vehicles 22 22 Philips' Endhoven Electronics Gloeilampenfabrieken (Netherlands) 23 27 Nestle Vevey (Switzeriands) Food 24 32 Samsung Seoul Electronics 25 25 Renault Paris Motor vehicles Multinational corporations are not always easy to identify, since it may be difficult to determine from the outside how much control management maintains over the policies of affiliates or whether management actually uses a global perspective. As a result? for purposes of gathering statistics, an arbitrary percentage (such as 25 percent of sales from foreign sources) is sometimes used to distinguish multinational corporations from other types of international businesses. However, there is no single universally accepted percentage of foreign sales that clearly separates multinational corporations from others.

Regardless of their size, companies may decide to expand internationally for a number of different reasons. Some organizations may become involved through unsolicited orders from foreign customers. Others may initiate international efforts in order to open new markets or to preclude foreign companies from entering specific foreign markets and eventually becoming domestic competitors. Still others may be motivated by the need to develop sources of supplies, possibilities of acquiring needed technology or prospects for reducing costs by operating in foreign countries. Whatever the reason, managers need to think through their basic orientation toward international management.

Orientations toward International Management Top-level managers in companies that are expanding internationally (particularly those in multinational corporations) tend to subscribe to one of three basic orientations, or philosophies, regarding a degree to which methods of operatting are influenced by headquarters or by company members in other parts of the world. The three orientations are ethnocentric (home-country oriented), polycentric (host-country oriented), and geocentric (world oriented). A home country is the country in which an organization's headquarters is located, whereas a host country is a foreign country in which an organization is conducting business.

An ethnocentric (or home-country) orientation is an approach to international management whereby executives assume that practices which work in the headquarters or home country must necessarily work elsewhere.

For example, during the period 1973 to 1986, Procter & Gamble lost an estimated quarter of a billion dollars of business in Japan partially because of an ethnocentric orientation. As one former Japanese employee stated, “They did not listen to anybody”. One of the most serious blunders was a commercial for Camay soap that was used in the late 1970s. The commercial showed a Japanese man meeting a Japanese woman for the firs time and immediately comparing her skin to that of a fine porcelain doll. Although this commercial had worked well in the Philippines, South America, and Europe, it was a disaster in Japan. A Japanese advertising specialist who worked on the commercial had warned Procter & Gamble that only an unsophisticated or rude man would say something like that to a Japanese woman, but company representatives would not listen. As the visechairman of Procter & Gamble later noted, “We learned a lesson here [in Japan] about tailoring your products and marketing to the market. Although an ethnocentric orientation often is a phase that organizations go through when they enter the international area, it can prove extremely difficult to eradicate.” A polycentric (or host-country orientation) is an approach to international management whereby executives view host-country cultures and foreigners as difficult to fathom and, therefore, believe that the parts of the organization located in a given host country should be staffed by local individuals to the fullest extent possible. Locals – or nationals, as they are sometimes called – are thought to know their own culture, mores, work ethics, and markets best.

As a result, subsidiaries in various countries operate almost independently under the direction of local individual and are tied to the parent company mainly through financial control. The parent company may maintain a very low public profile relative to the subsidiary, as was the case until recently with Unilever and its U.S. subsidiary. Level Brothers. It is very possible that you only discovered that a Level Brother was owned by a foreign company when you read the individuals run operations in the host countries, they have little prospect of holding senior executive positions as headquarters, largely because they are perceived as having only a local perspective and expertise. Still, a polycentric approach may be successful when decision making is largely decentralized to host-country personnel.

The geocentric (or world) orientation is an approach to international management whereby executives believe that a global view is needed in both the headquarters of the parent company and its various subsidiaries and that the best individuals, regardless of home- or host-country origin, should be utilized to solve company problems anywhere in the world. Major issues are viewed from a global perspective at both headquarters and subsidiaries, which consider questions such as “Where in the world shall we raise money, build our plant, conduct R&D, develop and launch new ideas to serve our present and future customers?” The geocentric approach is the most difficult to achieve because it requires that managers acquire both local and global knowledge.

II. Exercises.

1. Ознакомьтесь со словами в разделе III и запомните их.

2. Найдите в тексте предложения, где употребляются модальные глаголы с Perfect или Passive Infinitive и переведите их (см.

грамматический справочник, стр. 79).

3. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык, пользуясь словарем.

4. Напишите развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы, исходя из содержания текста.

a) What does international business refer to?

b) What is international management?

c) What does MNC mean?

d) What are the three orientations in international management?

5. Напишите определения к следующим терминам своими словами на английском языке:

- international management - multinational corporation - ethnocentric orientation - polycentric orientation - geocentric orientation 6. Напишите на английском языке, как Вы понимаете:

“What is the nature of international management?”.

III. Vocabulary items.

inventory - инвентарь to conduct - руководить, управлять to bear - нести far-off - отдаленный boundary - граница to encompass - заключать в себя (содержать) edge - конкурентно - способное положение abnormal - ненормальный formidable - значительный, громадный to emerge - всплывать, появляться rapidly - бистро to be engaged - быть занятым to vary - 1) меняться, изменяться 2) расходится, различаться extent - степень, протяжение, пространство to affiliate - присоединяться в качестве филиала perspective - перспективный unsolicited orders - невостребованные заказы to involve - вовлекать to subscribe - подписываться headquarters - главное управление, штаб to assume - взять на себя executive - исполнительный to fathom - вникать blunder грубая ошибка subsidiary вспомогательный, дополнительный ethnocentric этноцентрический polycentric полицентрический geocentric геоцентрический IV. Test.

1. Подберите к определениям слева соответствующие термины справа. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, a) – 10).

a) The process of planning, organizing, leading, 1) multinationnal corpo and controlling in organizations engaged in ration international business is....

b) One special type of organization involved in 2) international mana international management is.... gement c) An approach to international management 3) geocentric orientation whereby executives assume that practices work in the headquarters is....

d) An approach to international management 4) ethnocentric orientation where by executives view host - country cultures and foreigners as difficult to fathom and believe that the parts of the organization located in a given host country should be staffed by local individuals to the fullest extent possible is....

e) An approach to international management 5) policentric orientation whereby executives believe that a global view is needed in both the headquarters of the parent company and its various subsidiaries is ….

f) … is a foreign country in which an 6) international business organization is conducting business.

g) … refers to profit-related activities 7) home country conducted across national boundaries.

h) … is the country in which an organization’s 8) host country headquarters is located.

2. Закончите предложения, выбрав необходимое слово или словосочетание слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, а)-1.

1) international trade a) In the inventory of the items you would probably find many that reflect the increasing volume of business conducted on ….

2) international mana- b) The brand names of U.S. – based company gement may have been produced in ….

3) international business c) The profit-related activities encompass important supplies from ….

4) the subsidiary d) The United States is losing its competitive edge in….

5) different reasons e) There is no single universally accepted percentage of foreign sales that clearly separates … from others.

6) other countries f) Regardless of their size, companies may decide to expand internationally for a number of ….

7) a far –off land g) Whatever the reason, managers need to think through their basic orientation toward ….

8) multinational corpo- h) The parent company may maintain a very low rations public profile relative to ….

Final Test (Итоговый тест) Grammar 1. Выберите русский эквивалент из колонки справа, соответствующий английскому предложению слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 9) – f.

1) This function also includes a) Чем больше руководитель considering what must be done to способен вызывать симпатию, encourage necessary level of change желание подражать и and innovation. восхищение у других, тем больше у него власти эталона.

2) Disney has been able to gain a b) Во многих случаях competitive advantage in the family значительное количество entertainment industry by creating времени и усилий тратится на amusement parks, movies, and подготовку письменных products based on the renowned сообщений.

Disney characters.

3) In addition to having a knowledge c) Контролирование также base, managers need three key types of способствует выполнению skills to carry out the various functions организационной и руководящей of management. функций через обеспечение направленности ресурсов на достижение главных целей.

4) Some typical titles include such d) Для выполнения различных words as “manager”, “director of”, функций управления помимо “chief”, “department head”, and базы знаний менеджерам “division head”. необходимо иметь три основных вида навыков.

5) The more that a leader is able to e) Данная функция также cultivate the liking, identification, and включает в себя рассмотрение admiration of others, the greater the того, что должно быть сделано referent power. для поддержания на необходимом уровне процесса изменений и нововведений.

6) In many cases, considerable f) Некоторые типичные названия time and effort are expended in должностей включают такие слова, как preparing written «менеджер», «директор», communications. «руководитель», «начальник отдела» и «начальник подразделения».

7) Controlling also supports the g) Дисней смог получить organizing and leading functions преимущество перед конкурентами в by helping ensure that resources семейной индустрии развлечений are channeled toward the main путем создания парков с objectives. аттракционами, кинофильмов, а также производства товаров, ассоциирующихся со знаменитыми диснеевскими героями.

2. Определите функцию подчеркнутых слов в предложениях и буквой укажите выбранную функцию из колонки справа и запишите их перевод. Например 9) – f.

1) To understand how management can a) обстоятельство цели influence in an organization, we need to define the organization.

2) They are to organize controlling function in b) левое определение international management.

3) He asked the audience to define the Human c) правое определение Research Management (HRM) more.

4) To make the process of management more d) дополнение effective we must include analyzing the competitive situation.

5) He explained the function of controlling for e) подлежащие the second time for us to understand it better.

6) Controlling is the first process to sequlate organization aclivities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals.

Vocabulary 1. Выберите определение из колонки справа, соответствующее термину, приведенному в колонке слева. Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 9) – а.

1) organizing a) a process through which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing strategic goal achievement, given available environmental and internal conditions;

2) strategic management b) skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, discern interrelationships among organizational parts, and understand how the organization fits into the wider context of the industry, community, and world;

3) controlling c) an efficiency concept that gauges the ratio of outputs relative to input into a productive process;

4) nonverbal com- d) the management function that focuses on munication allocating and arranging human and nonhuman resources so that plans can be carried out successfully;

5) ethnocentric orient- e) communication by means of elements and tation behaviors that are not coded into words;

6) productivity f) the process of regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals;

7) conceptual skills g) an approach to international management whereby executives assume that practices which work in the headquarters or home country must necessarily work elsewhere.

2. В приведенных ниже предложениях заполните пропуски следующими словами или словосочетаниями, опираясь на текст.

Запишите ответы следующим образом: например, 9) – а.

1) tool;

2) human resources;

3) directions;

4) signal;

5) disadvantages;

6) multinational corporations;

7) sense of direction.

a) When we accept a job with an organization, we usually are aware that we will be receiving … related to our work from our immediate boss and others in the hierarchy.

b) … are not always easy to identify, since it may by difficult to determine from the outside how much control management maintains over the policies of affiliates or whether management actually uses a global perspective.

c) Written communication also has several …, including the expense of preparation, the relatively impersonal nature of written communications, possible misunderstanding by the receiver, and the delay of feedback regarding the effectiveness of the message.

d) Line managers ultimately are responsible for the effective utilization of … within their units and, thus, carry out many aspects of the HRM process, particularly as they relate to implementing strategic plans.

e) Another reason for the importance of strategic management is that it provides a … so that organization members know where to expend their efforts.

f) Feedback from the control process might … the need to reorganize, provide more training to workers, clarify communications, increase leadership influence, or take other actions associated with the respective organizing and leading functions.

g) Productivity can be a useful … for managers because it helps them track progress toward the more efficient use of resources in producing goods and services.

Text 1. Переведите письменно текст на русский язык со словарем.

Management Skills The three levels of management also differ in the importance attached to the three key management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.

Generally, conceptual skills are most important at the top management level.

The reason is that top managers have the greatest need to see the organization as a whole, understand how the various parts of the organization relate to one another, and associate the organization to the world outside.

In contrast, first-line managers have the greatest need for technical skills. The logic here is that it is the first-line managers who directly supervise most of the technical and professional employees who are not managers. On the other hand, middle managers often may need to have technical skills that are at least sufficient to assist in communicating with subordinates and recognizing major problem. Even top managers must have some technical skills, particularly when technology is an important part of the products or services their organizations produce. Otherwise, upper-level managers will have difficulty fostering innovation, allocating resources efficiently, or devising strategies to stay ahead of the competition.

For example, when Chairman John Sculley joined Apple Computer, most of his experience was in marketing with PepsiCo and he knew little about computers. He realized immediately that he was not going to be able to function well without more technical knowledge. “I’m essentially an intuitive leader, and you can only be intuitive about something you understand.” As a result, he quickly initiated an extensive effort to boost his knowledge of computer technology through such steps as arranging for tutors, reading books, and talking with knowledgeable staff members.

Interestingly, all three levels of management must have strong human skills because they all must get things done through people. In fact, in one recent study, managers at all levels rated human skills as most important for good job performance. Ironically, individuals often are promoted into first level management because they have good technical skills, without adequate consideration being given to the adequacy of their human skills. Individuals who lack sufficient human skills usually run into serious difficulties attempting to deal with individuals inside and outside their work units.

Grammar Reference (Грамматический справочник) The Verb /глагол/ По употреблению в речи глаголы классифицируются на:

1) самостоятельные (смысловые или знаменательные);

he works 2) модальные;

he can work 3) глаголы-связки;

he is a student 4) вспомогательные глаголы;

he is reading Глагол становится служебным, если он выполняет функцию глагола-связки или вспомогательного глагола.

Глагол, выполняющий функцию смыслового глагола в предложении, имеет форму времени, категорию наклонения и залог.

В английском языке глагол имеет следующие видо-временные группы: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous.

Сводная таблица видо-временных форм глагола в действительном залоге Форма глагола Употребление формы Indefinite (or Simple) Present Past Future I ask I I shall Глагол в форме Indefinite asked He He He will представляет действие She She She asks как:

We shall We You 1) факт;

will You We They ask 2) обычное, регулярно You They повторяющееся They ask действие;

3) последовательность действий.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Continuous (or Progressive) Present Past Future Глагол в форме Continuous обозначает:

I am I shall be I 1) процесс, He is He was He asking She will be происходящий в She She We определенный какой-то We We shall be asking are You You were момент (или период);

You They will be asking They They 2) параллельно asking asking происходящие процессы;

3) процесс, охватывающий определенный отрезок времени.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Perfect Present Past Future Глагол в форме Perfect обозначает:

I I shall I have 1) действие, He He have asked He asked will has завершенное к She She She had asked We определенному We shall We You You have asked You have asked моменту и результат will They They They этого действия налицо;

2) Past и Future Perfect выражают действия, завершенные до другого действия и предшествующие ему.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Perfect Continuous Present Past Future Глагол в форме Perfect I shall have been asking I I have been Continuous He He He asking will have been asking has been выражает She She She had been asking We действие, We shall have been asking We You You You have been asking начавшееся до will have been asking They They They какого-то момента и продолжающеес я в данный момент, включая или исключая его (for two hours – в течение 2-х часов;

since 1941 – c года).

The Passive Voice /Страдательный залог/ В английском языке, как и в русском, различают формы глагола действительного или страдательного залога;

формы глагола страдательного залога выражают действие, совершенное подлежащим и направленное на него, в то время как форма действительного залога показывает действие, производимое самим подлежащим.

Например:

Действительный залог Страдательный залог /Active Voice/ /Passive Voice/ He asked them at the lesson They were asked (by him) at the lesson (он спросил их на уроке) (их спросили на уроке) Страдательный залог образуется из вспомогательного глагола “to be” в соответствующем времени, лице, числе и формы Past Participle (Participle II) смыслового глагола (см. Table 1).

Table The Indefinite Tenses in the Passive Voice Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence Present I am asked Am I asked? I am not asked He He he Is asked? is not asked is asked She She she We We we are not asked are asked Are you asked? You You They they They Past I I was asked I He asked? He was not asked Was he She She she We We we were not asked.

were asked Were you asked? You You They they They Future I shall be asked. Shall I be asked? I shall not be asked.

He He he will be asked. Will be asked. She will not be asked.

She she We shall not be asked.

We shall be asked.

Shall we be asked?

You You will not be asked.

you will be asked.

They Will be asked. They they Тable The Perfect Tenses in the Passive Voice Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence Present I have Have I I have been asked. been asked? He not been asked.

He he Has has has She She she We We we have been asked. Have you been asked? You have not been asked.

You they They They Past I I I he He He she She She had been asked. Had been asked? We had not been asked.

We we you You You they They They Future I shall Shall I I shall He He he will will Will She have been asked. she have been asked? She not have been asked.

We shall We shall Shall we You You you will will Will They They they Примечание: Употребление глагольных форм Perfect Passive такое же, как и в действительном залоге и переводится на русский язык формами глагола совершенного вида.

Many new houses have been built.

Много новых домов было построено.

Table The Continuous Tenses in the Passive Voice Affirmative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence Present I am I am Am I being asked now.

being asked? He is not being asked.

He is he Is She is She is she We We we are not being asked.

are being asked.

being asked? You You Are you They They they Past I I I was being asked.

being asked? He was not being asked.

He Was he She she She We we We were being asked.

being asked? You were not being asked.

You Were you They they They Future Эта форма отсутствует. Вместо отсутствующей формы Future Continuos употребляется Future Indefinite.

Примечание: Английский глагол в форме Continuos Passive переводится на русский язык формами глагола только несовершенного вида с окончанием на -ся или неопределенно-личным предложением.

Например:

New houses are (were) being built.

Новые дома строятся (строились).

Сослагательное наклонение Сослагательное наклонение указывает на то, что говорящий рассматривает действие не как реальный факт, а как желательное, предполагаемое, условное или возможное.

Формы сослагательного наклонения 1. Простая форма (синтетическая), которая совпадает с формами изъявительного наклонения за исключением следующих случаев:

а) глагол to be в Present Subjunctive имеет форму be для всех лиц:

I be we be He, she, it be you be they be б) глагол to have в Present Subjunctive имеет форму have для всех лиц:

I have, he have в) остальные глаголы в Present Subjunctive не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице единственного числа:

he speak г) глагол to be в Past Subjunctive имеет форму were для всех лиц:

I were, he were 2. Сложная форма (аналитическая), которая образуется из сочетания вспомогательных глаголов should или would или модальных глаголов can, could, may, might с инфинитивом;

последние частично сохраняют свое лексическое значение.

Система форм сослагательного наклонения Синтетические Аналитические I, he, she Present be, ask, have we, you, they Subjunc- — tive I, he, she Past were, asked we, you, they Subjunc- should или would + tive Indefinite Infinitive I, he, she Perfect had been,had asked we, you, they Subjunc- should или would + Perfect tive Infinitive Грамматическая форма времен в сослагательном наклонении не соответствует действительному периоду времени. Формы Present Subjunctive и Past Subjunctive относят действие к настоящему или будущему периоду времени, а форма Perfect Subjunctive относит действие к прошедшему периоду времени. Все эти формы сослагательного наклонения обычно переводятся на русский язык сочетанием глагола в прошедшем времени с частицей бы или с союзом чтобы.

Употребление сослагательного наклонения В простых предложениях:

Пример: Success attend you!

Перевод: Пусть успех сопутствует тебе!

В сложных предложениях:

1. В придаточных предложениях подлежащих, в том числе после безличных оборотов типа it is necessary, it is important.

Пример: It is necessary that one of the surfaces of a disc be made of some material that has a low coefficient of friction.

Перевод: Необходимо, чтобы одна из поверхностей диска была бы сделана из материала, имеющего низкий коэффициент трения.

2. В придаточных дополнительных предложениях:

Пример: They recommended that thorough laboratory tests should be conducted before the system is installed in the computing centre.

Перевод: Они рекомендовали, чтобы были проведены тщательные лабораторные испытания, прежде чем система будет установлена в вычислительном центре.

3. В придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях цели с союзами that, so that;

lest – чтобы не.

Пример: They give him a list of instructions lest he should repeat the mistake made in his previous work.

Перевод: Они дали ему список инструкций, чтобы он не повторил ошибок, сделанных в его предыдущей работе.

4. В придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях сравнения или образа действия с союзами as if, as though – как будто.

Пример: He listens as if he were greatly interested in our conversation.

Перевод: Он слушает, как будто бы он очень заинтересован нашим разговором.

5. В уступительных придаточных предложениях с союзами и союзными словами though, although – хотя (бы);

even if, even though – даже если (бы), хотя (бы);

whenever – когда бы ни;

whatever, no matter what – что бы ни;

wherever, no matter where – где бы ни;

whoever, no matter who – кто бы ни.

Пример: Whatever the nature of the tubes and the arrangement of the electrode be, an emitting electrode should be present.

Перевод: Каковы бы ни были лампы и устройства электрода, необходим изучающий электрод.

6. В условных предложениях. Условные предложения сослагательного наклонения бывают 2-х типов и выражают:

а) Условие выполнимое, относящееся к настоящему или будущему периоду времени. В этом случае в главном предложении употребляются формы should или would + Infinitive, а в придаточном – простая форма Past Subjunctive.

Условное предложение такого типа переводится на русский язык глаголом в пошедшем времени с частицей «бы».

Пример: If you increased the order they would reduce the price.

Перевод: Если бы вы увеличили заказ, они бы снизили цену.

б) Условие невыполнимое, относящееся к прошедшему периоду времени. В этом случае в главном предложении употребляются формы should или would + Perfect Infinitive, а в придаточном предложении – простая форма Perfect Subjunctive. Такие условные предложения переводятся на русский язык так же, как и условные предложения типа а).

Пример: If we had come some minutes earlier we should have met the delegation at the plant.

Перевод: Если бы мы пришли на несколько минут раньше, мы бы встретились с делегацией на заводе.

Примечание: Следует иметь в виду, что в английском языке существуют условные предложения, в которых сказуемое стоит в одном из времен изъявительного наклонения. Такие предложения переводятся на русский язык в соответствующем времени изъявительного наклонения.

Пример: If further information is required we shall send it immediately.

Перевод: Если потребуется дальнейшая информация мы немедленно вышлем ее.

Условные предложения вводятся союзами и союзными словами if – если;

unless – если не;

provided (that), providing (that), on condition (that) – при условии если, при условии что;

in case (that) – в случае если;

supposing (that), suppose (that) – если, если бы, в случае.

Пример: I should not have been able to realize what a wonderful instrument it was if I had not seen it in action.

Перевод: Я не смог бы понять, какой это прекрасный прибор, если бы не видел его в действии.

Пример: They would finish the work in time, provided they had the necessary material.

Перевод: Они закончили бы работу вовремя, (при условии) если бы у них был весь необходимый материал.

Примечание: Слово provided в предложении может встречаться в различных функциях и в зависимости от этого по-разному переводится.

а) provided –глагол-сказуемое в Past Indefinite:

II Пример: We provided the expedition with all the necessary equipment.

Перевод: Мы обеспечили экскурсию всем необходимым оборудованием.

б) provided – причастие прошедшего времени в функции определения:

Пример: The expedition provided with all the necessary equipment will start tomorrow.

Перевод: Экспедиция, снабженная всем необходимым оборудованием, отправится завтра.

Modal Verbs /Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты/ Модальные глаголы выражают не действие, а отношение говорящего к действию, выраженному последующим инфинитивом.

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