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METOOO COOOECX CCEOBAH .. eo (Moca) PHHOCT B OEHHOM COHAH B COOOECOM OCHEH: OHTP HOBOO CCEOBATECOO OXOA B cae paccapac epce

coooecoo aaa oce oo peyeceo poo oeoo a o coao pe.

pocee co cyecyx eopeecx peyee eoec x cooce, eax cceaec cceoa x coo oecx eop ax px oee. Oca ee eope ece peya eoece oa, cococye oa ppo po poc oeo a. pocppoa o ooc cooa x ex aopx cepeax ao ex eo.

ee coa: ocpe px ooe, oceeoe ae, eo p po oe, aop cepe, eo eo cceoa coaoo ocp ycaoo.

cceoa oeoo coa ocoaoo a pa o cce oceeoo ocp cooo e oc aoo a pa. ee coo co, acoc, ap ccca eop eoo, cceoa px acc a . pea M. Mocca, eoeooeca cooo , oeo, opa pa pecoo aaa coax a ecoa eo oop coooecx ay, po., a. aepo aaa coax cyo ӖB, a. oeo eop cop coo o cya cooo PAH.

Cooo: 4M. 2007. 25.

.. emo ycaoo, coax pecae e. apaoca opao, oao, pae e cceoaece oxo xo pe ae pou, oopy pae aoe, .e.

eceapoaoe ae ycpoce coaoo pa, e pe ooe cpe coooo ycooo epeca cceoa cocex coo oaaeoo co epa aoo a. B acoc, cooo e coppo aac oepaa eooo cceoa coaoo a a cooyoc aocax pec ooco ax yee, a ae x, apox, cooo ecx cxooecx eop, ocx aaee o coae aoc aooepoc epax ocpaex p cec.

Haoe ae e eop epeo yppoa aece oex ocex po pax coooecx oex (a, apep, oee pe cae cepeo, yaec peyeceo c o pe x eo a ceece ycao o eee), e caoc, oao, peeo aoooo cce oaecoo epeca eoooo. (B aece ce oo o paccapa cceoaecy popay oeooo, oao paa ee ocox ooe pe paa papaaaee oeoooa cepeae pe e x peooe o coao ope, a oope opac yac coaoo ao ec, peyeceo cpeca opa eopeecoo ecpa ee eocpa, e ca oa a pea oyae c x oo peyaa caocoeo eoc.) cceoa ycaoo cooo o, pee ceo, cceoa ooeoo ooaoo ooe oe eeco oooc, apaee a o, py cya. B x cceoax ao a yeec e puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

epoa yee, oope eeppy , o pa e epe, aax cox ocee paoapy x oe ocy. cceoaec epec ooa oe eec acea ycaoo a peoaae oe peopa coaoo aoec, oecoo opa oyaecoo oee epeo ece o aeo a oee yaeae oe ace ycaoo. M ae cpaae pecoeo, a o oo cc yy, pa oa eeo cepa a (o a o ecy o ooe cooecy x oecax), ee o o, ae ep x oeo yc ao e, c o pe pecoeo, p ce c, oce eappyeoe ooee oeee.

Oeoe, eceapoaoe ae o pe a ec poe, a oceoe, peo caoc peeo caocoeoo epeca coooo. ae ceo epec ey coc peocpypoa cceoae ypoe oce oe. Hapep, oeec, o oe yaae o o o, o pecoe eao o occ ooeco popae pax ap, ocoy oco x coac c e, o ocyapco oo pa eyy po ooe, opaae copee ocypoa y cceoae py aoc ey oceo eoc pecoeo o ayo oe ooecoo epaa x oec peoe, ee coc ee apoe eop pecoeo ooceo po co peex ocyapc xoceo a x eop x oecx ycaoo.

Cxo opao cceoa ceaecx pocpac, pocpac ocp yax cce ae, ye ecoo ece coyee e yx ocoa aeopa coax oeo coo, o o oapy aee epeee, opeee oc .. emo paey oc cxoco x oeo co o, o e a ocoa oo o cyecyx po cecex aocx ey ae epe e-paa.

Bece c e pae oo ay ocee e coo ece peo oa yaeao po aoo a o pe e oo eece cox cpyyp yee cx ypoe ceaeco opao. B c ceoax a, oye, ooo pa, oa a ce oee pooe pae oyae ocoa a eop (theory-based) a oeyae pepeea, .e. pecaee o o, o peee aa a acc a, opaoae o oae a ocoao a x o a o pe, a yx eopx, coco x aocax yee o ppoe paoo poa e poecco. Ocooe eco cpe aoo poa x a aae ae px aooepoce [1;

2].

Oco cayc ex px eop, opaax cyecee, c o pe ooo eoea, aoc ey co poecca peao pe, ca c x oeo eaeoc e oo oca oce oo, a ycpoe ec , cae, coa p, o cocooc eoea pecaa ee co a x. B acoc, cceoa ax pocex op oeyao pepeea, a aeopa oce ex oeo, oo poeocppoa aoc p o-cecex ce ey paa, xo oy aeop. B acoc, o oaao, o p aeopa a aaex ececex o (ooecx o, x ecx coee ..), opee eco oepeoo oea-pepa aeop, pyoocyc e poc cco pao, a eoopo x epapxe, yae c eco po-cae pa [3].

puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

B caoe oceee pe oye cepee ce eca oy a aaeo eop po oe, ocae yoe ae e o aeopao p aeoc oeo a npuuy oe, omopo npu au (cocma) ao ameopuu oemo ca c no o eomopoo npuuoo exaua [1;

4]. Ta, ec oc ooac ypoe pepo, ae coc aeop epy oepe ae coca, cae p exaa: e p, e eoe paep, ea, ec a epex, .e. cpyypa ex p ao ao aeop opayeae ae px c e ey coca e p, ea, cpo ea a epex .. (ececeo, apae pep aeop, cae, ae cyae, yy e co ooao oeac aece x cy ocyc eoo px po-cax coc). a e oe oe pacpocpaea a apea, ooe oapa, coa eoc oec peya: x cyax cyece yco yepeoo oece aeop ye ae aopa coc, cax eoop p exao1. B oee cox cepeax oaa peyeca eop po oe ( cpae c oee pa eop oeyao pepeea) oce poecco oye o, popee ecea poax a pax peex oacx.

pe ooe ey xo aeop p aa, coaco eop po oe, oea o Ec pec oee coooec pep, oo peoo, o paeoc oea aeop yx oo oeec a ae po-cae coca, a cpeee aoea oyp oc, acoe oee a eeox paax, cooc yo e ocpa coao oopex yc ...

.. emo yco ayao acep, po ocaooc .., coye ayx (opax) px oex, oope poo pec p oepoa p oo oa cceax cycceoo eea p ao cace. ocpoee apaex pao, opaa x pe ocee pe , poepa p x oee a cacecx ax ao paaa c ocee a ece oac eooo coax ay [5;

6;

7]. Aapa papaoax o oac opa x oee poo oa ye oaa co pooc pepeea px oee, coyex o x oceex, ocoax a pao cce cyex, cea px oee, ex aoe ae [1;

8].

cp popecc oa po oeoo poo a o pe oo aye pae eoo eo ye oa e pe cooca ee coooeco oxoe cceoa oeoo coa paoo cca coax aopo. o e pecye oee pooy pe e e poo oepoa aaa cpyyp eoo coaoo a cooo? He peey a cepa oe, oo yaa o pae epe a a pec a y oee pooo coooecoo ye po apoo coo o yx px oce coao epe , ae ycaoo .. Oo x pec oc xapaep eoo cooo yaeaoo eope ecoo peooe, co oopoo ea acceco co ooeco pa. aee o cae ocapaec oa a, o o peooee cee copeeoo ayoo a oe cac oo. Bopoe pece oc eo ec xapaep cao c exec pyoc cep epoa cooo, oope paoo paccapac aece eex. pyoc, a ocapaec pa puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

e oaa aee, o oo ycpac o oxoa pea a aopx cepeax ao, pe ac cox cceoax ycaoo oeoo coa oee poo oa.

o yaea eopeec peooee cee oo, o ye caao e, eopeec pepaccy o opayeae ocxoee pey yeee co ooo o, o acpae aeop poc, ooo aeop pocpaca pee, axoc eco c c coao opaae c e coo yaea o paya eea oecx oepa, coo oe pecae, eec oopx o e oce oo coooec [9]. coa, cooo co ce a peo ca, o ea e aeop poc, a ae ca, pocpaca, pee eoope pye e coaoe pocxoee, .e. c coao eeppoa aya oe pecae, oope e coo opee yaeae aeop oa, o ce, coa oo oa, coo ca pey oce ocpeco coooecx aeop coax acca (oc a ac ec o o, o acca ee ocpoo acca e). Oao cceoa oaae oo pa ee aee, ocoeo eco paa ec ocee ece, oo yepeo yepa, o coe oe ope o eopeecoe peooee e epo (oop pao, ex ooee peoco eo p coaoo pocxoe eax aeop oo a, acoc, paoe [10]). Cocooc ecoapo ax aee ocpa pocpacey yaeoc yy poeocppoa ee cepea cceoa 60-x . pooo coe. oee c oo ocpoyx eoecx peo oye oepe .. emo oo, o ae oopoee coco opepoac pocpace ooppoa co oye aey aoc o apae eoeecoy oocy. He eee epec peya, cae co cocooc e aox c a coa acca aee paa a opepoac a oeco peex pee o, oao ocoeo a oece epecye ac e oyee x cceoax pece oepe cocooc oyooax aee e aaee po-cecee ooe oea cee coe poc poo oec poooo ea [11]. peya oaa, o o o coaa oe aee e ae oaa eeap a eop ocp poc pocx oece x coooe. Haa poea (xo oaac pa ) cocooc e po-cecee c a ocoe aaex cacecx accoa, cpo epo eccoae e cea ocoaaee pe oe, yae oooc oeceoc eo o o oppe, pecae coo cyecey oce y pay, oopy o cooa cceoax coaoo ocp, ycaoo oeceoo e, o coy aea ac aeo ooe coaoy py oa aeo oceeoo a o e. o o epae ooc ao peoeo . e eaop eoea-c-y a yeoo, ocoaeo co oe, yc ao oa a cox xopoo cpyyppoax, pec poepex cepyx pe c x eopx [12]. Couae cpaeu, oeu u ycma ou, couemaa peau ox e a paoo poa couae npoe om yex oee o peuuo oo cmpeua aumeo epe onpeeemc ma u e aya aue. Ceoameo, a y puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

o um nepeee, onucaue mo aue, au ocumee oeu.

B aece opoo coa pyoce coooec x cceoa oeoo a o coao pe e yoac ae exece, cyyo eoece pyoc , c oop caac o cceoa px ce, ex apoy cxoo, apoy coo o poe e eop. B ocax ex ye ye pyx poe cooo ce ae oac coay cepxcyaa pecoea. oeo, oe aa pecoey cepy, o cy, po opaa po aa ey epecye ac opoc o o, ao, a pep, eo a py c ey opaoae cayco. Oao o y e oee poye, e oa cceoa ao cxocoe ye eocpeceoo opoca oo x oaee. Heopaoae ae, oope oe oy aoo poa ep, yy e oo oepe coo poa cceaec cee, o e pcocoe coocae oao ope. O cay peyao eopaaoo yee oo apy a pecoea oyopee eo oae copy ecy, ocoy aec o ye o ay paoy.

epecyx ac ee ea cceoaec ao o ca aopaop eco cepe, poo coye, acoc, cceoa poecco ceaeco aeopa, oppoa o, aoo pca poc .. cxoo. Oao cooo cyecy xopoo ece opae a cooa e cx cepeax ao a o coopae execo cooc oecee ee ypee a oc peyao coooecx cepeo, ax co cxe oeco eacx ooypoex epeex, a o pa ecx eoecx po .. emo e, oope oa p aypoa po ax coao-eopaecx epeex (apep, oxo, oc). oeo, oe x pyoce peoo, o o eaeo pee coooa e yaaoc coec e aoc pepeeax opox opoco c eco eo ympee aoc paopoaoo, ooep oo (ecoo eacx epeex), ooypoeoo c epea. Oao p eoecx execx oa ocex yx-pex ece cea ooo epa cepea acaoo (o ox cyax oeaoa oo) coooecoo oceoa. ae oa pe oy, o eoope aop aa o ae o c epea ce cceoax ycaoo coa oo ocp [13;

14] (eao, e pe o pax cceoax opeecx peoe o oec x opeax). opoo oxapaepye oa.

epo oaue, ooe peooe opae a cepepoae accox opocax, a exooec a: papaoa ocaoo pooe epee oep oaoo eeooo eppoa. epaoe o epoaoe eppoae pepao papyee yae opoc c paae aoo apaa opoca cpy epepo oepy po pay, oopo aoy appyeoy aopy cooecye oe oepaop. B oe opoca (pee) oepaop cya opao pae ypoe aoo aopa (o peoe aee eaco epeeo), ooa paec o o ypo cooc ooaop cepe.

a oe co yoo co, o eo peaa e opeye uaux ycuu co copo epepa npoem eaeeo co copo pecoea. B xoe ooo ep aec oe poeeo oee ooo cepea, a ocoy paoa coyec e oo p pc puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

a pax aopo, o yp epeex p ca ypoe, o ooceo ypoe eacx epee x ce yco cepea opao yy opooa . o o oo pa yeae co ceee coo p oee caceco aoc peyao. e 1990-e .

a opao oye ae peya cceo ax pacox ycaoo, ooe epao ..

Bmopoe eoe comue pa cepeaoo oxoa cceoa ycaoo, oceeoo ocp x px oee cao c papaoo pac pocpaee coax ayax eoa eo. B co oo pae oo eoa ca, pee ceo, c ea . Pocc, . Tepaa, . Mepa, A. Aepcoa p. B e ceao coae, aco ee, oca coax oeo, o cya, cocaee oex, cceaec appyex epeex-pao.

appyee epeee cya aece cep eax aopo. Cceaec appy aop o eae p cec pax coax yca oo oex aeopa (apep, o aeopa yea oe opa o cyex eepa pc a paoo a ecx cyax), oe cyee oe po-cecex ce eoo, oop oe eo peaoa oex acep eax, accox opocax.

cooae eo coao cxoo cooo, epoo, ocxo pee cxoaoce c 1940-x .

a aae pepaep eoa (ep . ce) oceoo epe caoooe, ypaeo poe .. Oe ee x eo ec peee c ye eco, ocax oa x ep (o po ooox ep), ex p oo ocx opoc o (c. [15]). B ecax-eax aae oa ep .. emo pcac oc ope x paoo c xooecoo oppea. o pe ooe ycpa e ax ypoax aoc aopo, a coaa e aeoc, o cep p.

B cooo exa coecx oca-eo, ccea ec appyx aop, peooeo e a ocpe, ycao e, peac, o ee epe, co opo oo 1950-x. Ta, pa paoa . Cap [16] a ocea cceoa aopo, opeex oeceoe ocpe cxecx oee. Oao o po pa ex eo ocpeco ee epe aop cepea oxo opoca oeceoo e ocyece pe pao. Pocc eo copyo (c. [17] p.). B acoc, oe 1980-x . Tepa, . . Pocc ocyec ee oo cceoae apox pecae o cxecx oex, e cooac aop a co cy a oopo eo (140 opoex, o 50 cyao oo pax eo 7000 aoo opoeoo, aca epeea cyea oea ocaoo ee epco aa o ae ocpaeo cee yeoo paccpoca, eace epeee aaee cxooece o eeece xapaepc epo e, eo coao-e opaece xapaepc, ae ocyce poe c ye opoe poo) [13]. Aa oyex a o cceoa peyao oo cea p ax oo, apep, o oe aoc eo aaex po yx cxoecx coo apoo aoce, .e. coeao pea a oe, cpae, apep, c paa epecc, ooao ocpaeoc ..1 Cey epeco ae, o ocaeo paoe ea oaac pa ec ce coao-eopaece xapaepc oea oe. B poe eo o a pyooco o cxoo eoe oo cceoa O.E. aeo (2004 ., ӖB) opaac a cooeece ( puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

e ae, o exa eo oe pec e pe oaax coo oe cacecoo aaa paeo x cceoax, poee cceaecoo ep poa oex eex py. Hapep, cceoa . Paa . Mepcepa opaecoo ye pe cae eepcoaa ceapoax cxapecx o pae ey aopa oeee, o a ao cxeco oe, cooac poeccoae e-aae ex ox, o poxox cxapecoe eee [18].

Heoopoe oeco cepeax acep eax cceoa oeoo ocp apox coooecx eop o poeeo o a pyooc o p ae yac ocee e. Oee pep eo paoo a cepeax ao opae cpax ao cae (c. poee 1).

oee opooe ocyee oxoo aay ax oy ex x pyx cceoax peyao, aeec, ye pecaeo aex yax.

opa pecoeo, a y Tepaa coaopo, a eeo). B ocee cyae a caee pecoea oe o, opac oea oea. Oo o e oeee (apep, cooc oa, cpa ocya) ocpaoc a eee eopooe, ec oea oe a (epcoae e) e cpeeo opaca.

.. emo POEHE cceoaue C. opuo. Tea: Oeoe ocpe peo oc. a: 4 oecc X 7 aopo peooo oee ye e X 3 aopa coao-eopaecx xapaepc.

puep ucmpyuu pecnoemy:

M poc ao peaaey Baey a aey.

e opoca c ocpe pe oece.

Aea pecae coo ecoo oca e, oao e c yepeoc yepa, c o peo e e c ao.

aoe ocae ee oaoy cpyypy, o ea appy c. B yee cpea oxoe oca, o-o oe oaac Ba ce. ocapaec oea eoea o oca eo!

oayca, aeo poae aoe ocae ocae Bay oey a ae o 1 o 15, oopa aoee cooecye Bae y e o pecaeo eoee.

1 ec a aec, o oca e eoe coce epeoe. aee, e e a, e oee peo ec eoe.

7 (8) oaae, o eoe peoe, o cee eo peo oc e oe coa.

15 Ba aec, o oe (pae) peoe.

Ha, pee ceo, ao a Bae ee o aoy eoey.

Ba oe yy pecae oo ooeo e.

apaee aoap a oo!

Opa uemo:

Ceae Hoaee 55 e. Oa aye. ee cee opaoa e acoee pe oa paoae. O e oo caa ceyee:

oa cpoo oeaec, oc y y yy c ap pya a, a ooy cea opae ao. Oa e opaae ce ope , oao oaeo occ o ec oy.

puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

Ceaa Hoaea cae, o ca pe oa oc opecoa, ae ec oo pec pey ac.

Oe Coce e peo peo 37 e. Oa e aye. ee cpeee opaoae oa e paoae. po ee Ba eco, o: y ee opoa oa cpa oo oa oyec oceo. Oa oceae peoe copa oocye a e. p o oa paye ce pa, a peoe, a ocyapcee.

Ec e oa aoc c , acpoe po pe, oopo oa pepaec, o oe cy c pooopco.

Oe Coce e peo peo cceoaue C. Cyua. Tea: cao o ooe oee ec poe cxecx paccpoc. a: 7 aopo a aex poe cxecx paccpoc X 3 ypo aco poe X 3 coao-eopaecx aopa.

Opa uemo:

Aea, opac 68 e, opaoae eooe cee, a pae, paeea. ocoo cae yco eyooo ooa, oe ec ec e. aco cyax cpex cox ao x. ocoo coeaec paoc coepex ec.

oa oaec, ec o-o e ca. aco e epecyec coceo eoc, e oec.

cxeca eoe oe paccpoco Aoa, 53 oa, opaoae eooe cee, coco pae.

oa oop o coe eoc. ocoo cae, o coce cepxy oecy a ee a-o popo, o eo y ee e ac opa oca y. aco xo o eca epe cyey, e .. emo acya a coeee . ocoo oaec, ec o o e ca.

cxeca eoe oe paccpoco TEPATPA 1. Rehder B. Categorization as Causal Reasoning // Cognitive Science. 2003. Vol. 27.

P. 709748.

2. Causal Cognition: a Multidisciplinary Approach / Ed. by D. Sperber, D. Premack, A.J. Premack. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

3. Ahn W. Why Are Different Features Central for Natural Kinds and Artifacts?

The Role of Causal Status in Determining Feature Centrality // Cognition. 1998. Vol. 69.

P. 135178.

4. Walldman M.R., Holyoak K.J., Fratianne A. Causal Models and the Acquisition of Category Structure // Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 1995. Vol. 12.

P. 181206.

5. Glymour C., Scheines R., Spirtes P., Kelly K. Discovering Causal Structure:

Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Science, and Statistical Modeling. San Diego, CA:

Academic Press, 1987.

6. Glymour C., Cooper G. Causation, Computation and Discovery. Cambridge, Ma:

MIT/AAAI Press, 1999.

7. Pearl J. Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge, UK:

Cambridge University Press, 2000.

8. Glymour C. The Minds Arrows: Bayes Nets and Graphical Causal Models in Psychology. Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 2001.

9. pe ., Mocc M. O eoopx epox opax acca:

cceoa oex pecae / ep. c p. A.. oaa // Mocc M.

Oeca. Oe. oc: Tpy o coao apooo. M.: -o Bocoa epaypa PAH, 1996. C. 673.

10. Bergesen A.J. Durkheims Theory of Mental Categories: A Review of the Evidence // Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 30. P. 395408.

11. Gopnik A., Meltzoff A.N., Kuhl P.K. The Scientist in the Crib: Minds, Brains and How Children Learn. N.Y.: Morrow, 1999.

12. eu . Teop oc: cxoo x ocpyo. C.:

Pe, 2000.

13. Thurman Q.S., Lam J., Rossi P. Sorting out the Cockoos Nest: a Factorial Survey Approach to the Study of Popular Conceptions of Mental Illness // The Sociological Quarterly. 1988. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 565588.

puuocm oeo coauu u couooueco oceuu...

14. Sniderman P.M., Grob D.B. Innovations in Experimental Design in Attitude Surveys: Annual Review of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 22. P. 377399.

15. Oa cxoaoca / o pe. A.A. oaea, B.B. Coa. M.:

-o M, 1987. C. 267278.

16. Star S. The Publics Ideas About Mental Illness. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center, 1955 (Mimeo).

17. Measuring Social Judgments: The Factorial Survey Approach / Ed. by P.H. Rossi, S.L. Nock. Beverley Hills: Sage, 1982.

18. Richman J., Mercer D. The Vignette Revisited: Evil and the Forensic Nurse // Nurse Researcher. 2002. Vol. 9. No. 4. P. 7082.




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