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.H. Tocoa, E.E. Maa (Moca) CTOP OHTATOB ME COOOE MATEMATO: HA PMEPE POCC CEPEH XVII HAAA XX BB.1 B cae oaaec, o aeaa ac eop epooce

cooo ac oecex oceoa e oe ee ece op paac apaeo, opeeeo epe ao ooaa py pya. Ocoo ae cea a paccope ao ooe x c Pocc, ocoeo oe XIX aae XX ., oa pycce ceac o eop epooce ca aa ey e o pe, a pycca peca cooo aaa ao paac paax eco cac2. oce pycco ay cpa ac c cocoe ay a aae cooecyeo pee.

ee coa: ao ox ce, eca caca, opaa (pacea) caca, oeca apea, caca, cac ece eo, eopeeca caca, eop epooce.

aa Hoaea Tocoa oop coooecx ay, poeccop ӖB.

Eaea Eeea Maa cyea oo ypca ayea cooo ӖB.

Aop paa yoy aoapoc -py coo. ay .. eo a. oc. ay M.C. oaeo a o, o o a pe poa ca caa oe oee aea.

eca caca ooe apaee peco cooo, pa eec Pocc o opo ooe XIX aae XX . Oo pecao coo cacece pao, pepe o coceoy oy ec opx opao ac acae yep yea (e x coa apooe poooce aoopeoc, poeoc opo, cpoeco opo, oa, cpaxoae, aepaa oo apooy o paoa paooxpae ..). o ece cceoa, poo Cooo: 4M. 2007. 24.

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

Bepoo, a cooo coacc c e, o ae pe poeee coooecoo cceoa eco e cooa oo oo aeaecoo aapaa. Ho, coae, aeo e cea aoe cooae eceo eo (o e cooae aea oae oyee c ee oo ooo, apop e oeoo a o oece). Ocoeo xapaepo o oeece o cooo. oee oo, coepeo co ae, o aco ee pe oe co ocae o aaa (poe, o ox cpa Bocoa oe) o aoc poecca papao ox eoo, o a ocyo coooy epayp, oopo ocac oee eo aop, ocya ac eooo x cooa, o aecy eoo cocae coooecoo opaoa.

Ececeo, cae opoc o pax aoo ooe e , aoe, o o, a opao oo ocaoo coco. ocec ooo acea cya, e pacco pe oopoo, a a , o papaoe ocpyx co coo xoa ee p oo oop. M ee y aa cop opoca. oo, o e a pooo e oe aoo o o coaeoo oec a yyee. B epecye ac cyae o ooee e oee ao, o paccapae ace poccco cop ec a acyae a. Boe oo caa, o oca e oo o aaa, o o cax ce.

ooy paoe ocae oo, a a peece c ooa aeay cooo, pecaec aya.

e a ece cpeca apaee a yee yco ocoo cecoo acee. cooaoc oeco eoo copa opa.

ooe ae yeoc eooo aaa oyex ax. ec caca a cocea opocoecoc, caooepeoc, ae oc cceoa, eae cococoa yye apoa.

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua copec epe a o cooa aea co oo coco o epe poecc ye oeca e eop epooce1. oy oc a copec cypc.

Pacxoee ee, cocoee o, o eop epooc e poaac paaac o oece aaa aapx p, e coce epo. epe e eop epooce eceo poc peyae ea x aopo pao pac c aap pa. Ho ooo copo eop epooc e peca cooo, paac apaeo, ca ao ooaa py pya (pe o pee cxoc pacxoc)2. Aa eeca, poe cooecyx ae B ae pe cceoae, eae aeao cooa aeay pax oacx a, ce oe oop o a aaeo o aea eco oepoa [1]. pecaec, o cao poee o epo oc oo paccapa a o epx ao aea, apaex o ecoc oc. ec aeaa oaaac o ococyx e o ex op po eeppoaoc yaex e. ae, o aop aao ca, B.. Apo, ca oe ecoe c ooae aea c peoaae y cceoaee, cooeceo, pa o- eooyapoo e, po epec pep cop Pocc oa XIX aaa XX ., oa paooyap aea, ao ap coeopaoy oee , ca peep-cpo Pocc. e ec y C.. Be (18491915) (oe, o Apo eepo yaae, e Be oy cee opaoae;

pe oa e o C.-eepypc o, a o Hoopoccco yepcee Oecce [2, c. 66]), y oopoo o, ca, acye yaaoe eee aeao a a a (Be aa x aeaa-ocoa aeaa-cce [2, c. 78]). aee paccop eeoc ee ooo pyccoo aeaa (eep ye oc aa ococo aeaeco o) c po pae paooy ap coca A.A. ypoa (18741926).

Oe, o o oe aa cee oe pycce cooo. C., ap. [3].

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

aecx coooecx e, c ae o pe, o e cococoa oa oo, a aeao cooa eop epooce ae pe (o o ye ac oop, c. [4]).

poe oo, pecaec, o oeo pa o epy, o aya ea eee ee a oee e aeo epe ycoo, o aeaa o ecece oca ye ox coax e, o eo aece aoo a oc a ce oe a eaece ooe.

a, c ceox o meopu epomocme o e aea, yaa aeaece oe cya x e ooa o epooc ox cyax co axo epooc pyx cyax co, c ax a-o opao c ep [5, c. 77].

opoo oe poecc pa eop epooce, c a eo c pae eoopx oxoo ye oeca.

ep nepuo pa eop epooce (XVII ep a ooa XVIII .)1 ca c eeoc aao epoecx yex. Pao, paeae . aca (1623 1662),. epa (16011665), X. ecy (16291695), oc c c oceo pax epooce aapx pax2. C e caa epa, pocea opypoa ooo oc ox ooe eop epooce aoa ox ce, aa 1713 . . epy (16541705) oopa o ce aco acye yaeoo co c eo epooc p opaca ca ca, .e. ca oope paccapae oo oeca yco. coy copeey epoo, epoa pa e eop epooce acye [5].

epo o o eop epooce, aepoe, oo ca coeopa y y acpooa, ocoa, a, aeaa apea . apaa (15011576) a cyaoce (chances) p, oopo oopc o o, a oaa aapa a ae oa pyx.

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua oo caa, o ao epy opayeae cxey ea cx ca c y cxoa. Co pee epy o a o peepe opeeee ee a ce ooe eo opx ooe, ocye eo ee epec.

B 1662 . A oac aea paoa apa a-cyoa . paya (16201674) Ececee o ece ae, epecee paaeo oae ceae a ee cepoc ooa, oopo oopoc o ococe coooe poe pax o o, o opeeeo ae opaca pa acee , o ococe oe cyacex caoy1. B 1690 .

oyoaa oeca apea2 pya . paya B. e (16231687), oopo pe a o ycooc ac o, xapaepyx ooecy, pacey, oec y oeca. Haya oeceoc pa ocoa oo aa, o ecop a o, o eoe ee coo y o, c eco paoc a o pocxo oo o e oeco co, aaoc , acx o o o ex e: pao, cyo .. cea a e oooec o: oaaec, o oeceo cyecy aooepoc, x oo paa ox pax3. Tep oeca apea poo oe ayy.

o apaee ae pe oo o aa oec O opece paya pyx aaex a ocooooo oec o ape opao cac y paec o copee o yee o cop cooo. M e ye aa cooecyx cco. Oao oe, o poecc pooe eop epooce co ae cceoa yo a e oca .M. Taxape (1871 1925) [3]. pecaec, o cao oee ao ya xapaepye ypoe oeeceo cooo XIX aaa XX .

ooe aae aae ooo 10 cpo. C., ap. [6, c. 183].

Booe oop, ycooc aco, xapaepyx oee copo eoeeco , a aeea ee pee pe. Ho ocoae oo a ayoo ama pooo oo XVII .

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

eo caco. apaeo paaoc pyoe apae e oca oeca ocyapcoeee, aao oopoy o ooeo eee epa aaeecoo ypca e, oop a. op (16061681). o apa ee ax epax oo o aa aeceo caco. Ca ep caca poc eo paax ocyapcoee, o peoe 1752 .. Axeae (17191772), oceoaee opa, o epe 50 e, 1798 ., cooa ooae ax eoo oeco ape1.

B 1741 . c oee pao .. ccxa (17071767) oece opo ee poe eoeeco, oep e a o pocxox e poecco poaeoc, cepoc, paoe (co opa ae a aa e, ycooc aco oopo ocec oe oe;

o ee cc cooca c ocyae a e a pyccx caco) poaec ae apaee, oo poe ee epe co e, 1833 . pyax A.M. epp (18021867) oy aae opaa caca. Maea ao o epe peapy a ya. pepo oe cy opeco aeoo acoo acpooa aeaa X.. ae (16561742), oop a ocoe pcax opo ecoe oeco a poe opee pecae pa paoa coco ycaoe epomo pooeoc pax aeop acee. Peya ae a pooe peee a pae, acoc, cpaxoo ee. Oao aee ycooc aco, xapaepy x cocoe oeca, oa paec e cy oo pa eop epooce, aeaa o e coy B a e e xo paccopee cop o caca, pa cooecyx ca aao Epoe. opooe ocae o o oo a, apep, [6].

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua ec opaoe copax ax, xo pep ax o o . Cae, o e ae p pee ocao e aa y ooee o caoapoc acee. o o e paceac a epa opypoa aeeo co peeo eop epooce ooe o eeoc o eca yco peaa paccapaex cyax co1.

B Pocc o pe papao oac eop epoo ce ocycy. Cacece oceoa oeca po oc pepo ex e acaax a ao e ypoe, o a aae [8, c. 25].

Bmopo nepuo pa eop epooce (opa oo a XVIII epa ooa XIX .) aeo epe oe ca c ea aaoepoecx cceoaee: A. e My apa (16671754),.C. aaca (17491827), . aycca (1777 1855), C. yaccoa (17811840). Teop epooce paae c ocoo o oece eoe, acpoo, eop cpe. Oao oe ece aea oopeeo ao epecyc coao caco. Ta, Myap a o aac oeco apeo. B opece a aca, apy c acpooec a (aac ae ao.., acpooo;

cae, c ee aaca caec eee 1786 . o o epx pax;

paa, eec ee, o o o ceao 1784 . Meo;

Haya . 1982. 6.

C. 21), opeeey po pa coae. Paccop o ace eeoc aaca eoo oee opoo.

C oo eopeo-epoocx paccope ye e coay poey: oaae, o ape oe oe-eoe, e ao. pocxo o e cya o. aac eo oae, o cao poee aeaecoo aapaa ec opeeeo epe coaae c oo e Hecoo opoee o opece ae ( epecye ac acee) oo poa [6, c. 185;

7, c. 192].

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

p oye coaoo , ec oop copee ay o, coooecoo a. O e: Teop epo oce ec cyoc e o oe, a pa cc, epeo e a ce: oa ocae cpeca opee c ooc o, o ep y ocae o cy, e aa cee aco co aeoo oea. Ec p o ae, c oo copo, ce aaece coco, oope poea a eop, cy p o, cyax e ocoae, yoey y oy, o opo peye peee x pee paoopax aa, a c pyo oeoee ypee, opaec a ee, aco ee ee pae o, oopoe oa e coe oy ee o cec pee coe ae opoca aypao oco pacex ay;

aoe, ec pe o ae, o ae peeax, e oeax cce, oa po a, aoee ae op c, ayae ac peoxpa ce o aye ya, o pae ye a, o e ay oee ocoo ax pae, oopy o ee o ec ccey a, cocax pee oeceoo opaoa [9, c. 863].

Opa ae ae a oce pay. oea e aaca y ac o cx op e oeo, xo, cae, pay y e coeo cooeecea.

Baoecoa cooo aeaa (oeca apea eop epooce) opece ecoo a eaa . epy (17001782), ea . epy, ec e poeo Pocc, caeo a oe eo Poccco aae ay oepaeo, o c yooce eo a pycca epaopca cya1 [8, c. 29]. B 1766 . o ca a cpaax pyo apco aae ay o oo e B XVIIIXIX . Pocc coaac yco, o yea oo a apaea aao Epo Pocc, a e aoopo, a o ee eco ceac. Toy pepo ooo oo.

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua oe pacea a cepoc, ooe ycpa pac cyex e oc a p cepoc. pe oe ae eo pacea cpee pooeoc paa pax opaco cypyo [8, c. 2930]. ac ao ae o, o . epy e ayx oxo e opaoo o a [6, c. 187].

B paccapae epo a poy apey xo pyc ce yee ceac o eop epooce. P pao o eop epooce, cax c aeaeco cac o, yye M.B. Ocpopac (18011861/62). Bxo B.. yocoo (18041889), eo peya ca c pe ee eop epooce cpaxooy ey, cace e opa.

ep pycc ye o eop epooce a ca eo yoc 1846 . [10]. Aopa oo aa acco pycco aeaeco cac (epaopco aae ay opap aae, poeccop C.-eepypcoo yepcea oop aeaecx ay apco aae).

Pycce aea cox paoax ao oepa, ax coepaex ope poc e e ooe eop epooce. Ta, o e yoc coe peco e: Aaeca eop epooce oaec o pyx poe coo aaa. Aa epooce oepae paccope ceo oee e, ac e o p, e oo coepeo eecx a, o oo pe ae, o aey eee, e oea a peo oe. epeo oe caa, o a eop ec coae ya, aoee oaee eoea, a ya aee a pee ee, a oop ey e ao epe [10, c. 863]. B ae e o e pao oopc: poe ec a eox epeox c, ceaxc ocoe eo ea, ce ppoe pe paceo ocoao a oaax, oee eee paooox;

ooy yee o epooc ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

x, coceo oop, oae o ec py yceo eeoc. Ceaoe ocee eop epooce ca ee a cee aeeo yceoo opy op c peoxpae ya o aye, oope o epeo aae p oepxoco e a pee. Ta, e eoe, oape yo poae, oe oo pee pee peya, eop [epooce] aco po o oa, pae ca. Ta a opeeeoc oee ep oep ao-o pe oaaeo ce, eocya ooeo o, e coe acyae ooo a cee [10, c. 864].

aee aop oop o ex oox ax, oope ea aeaoy cooa a pae oce eop epooce, o oocx eppea peyao ..

pecaec, o oo aa cy eop epo oc, ocyece o eyx pyccx aeao o 160 e aa, ayae ac. Ocaec oo coa e, o opeeee pa pycco ay ceac ypae.

Ec oop o pa paccapae epo aao epoecx cceoa oac peco cooo, o, oeo, ec epy oepe ceye yoy py .A.H. oopce1 (17431794) .A.. ee (17961874) (op a, o cooo a oopce pee ceo eo a coooa aopa aeoo paaa c copeco ap popecca eoe ecoo paya (1794 .), ec aa opa oopce (o ox c., ap., [11, c. 203]) oa ceye, e ae: o oyoa ecoo cae o aay epooce o payco Meoeco oe acax apco aae ay 17811783 . [10, c. 865]. Ca e peae py eo ec pocpa paa o peex o ocy ooco (a e;

o o e oo poa e [12, c. 286287]). Bce o xopoo a pycce yee cepe XIX . poe oo, oopce peoa a aeay yee ape epe peoe 1789 . oep aeo opoe ee Aae e [13, . 3, c. 204] (aop pye o pao .H. To (18941943) e oo caee, o ye .H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua eco oceeo oo oec ceyey, peey ay pa eop epooce), opeeeo epe ocae oeeceo epaype (opeco epoo, apep, [11], o poo [7, c. 2729;

14, c. 130132;

15, c. 3336;

16, c. 230231]1). M opac ec eco aea. B opece aa x yex ae opao aoecoa aea a cooo. C oo copo, aeaa ooaa cooo : oa cceoae a ae oce eop epooce oy oo epecx coooecx peyao. C pyo copo, cooo cococoaa pa aea: o ac a apoc pa ye oeca, yee papaoa p ax e, oope ca oco ao aeay. B aece oo aoee epecx c eoooeco o pe aoe eop cpeeo eoea ee. Oao coe a coee oocoae a eop oya opece pyccx a eaecx caco, o e oe pe e.

Cacece cceoa Pocc paccapae epo oeoy pooa pacpc. Paac o oac e oecoo cacecoo oca cpa [8, c. 27;

17, c. 438]. aaac oco opao cac [16, c. 4].

B oe XVIII . a ocoaa ocoa aepa cac Poccco aae ay [18, c. 479]. paa, pyeo copo epayp. O oo copo-ooec aye e epypcoo yepcea, a e peoaa. Ha a , eo pecae e o epaype oop o poce cae coooa. O ca o eoxo oc ceoe poac ey ayo epaypo: Xyoecea epaypa oaec o cop e yo, a oee po oae e co, o oee o x [13, . 1, c. 9]).

B aax yax opeco ee ocaec eca oepxoco.

pecaec, o aya c o pe copeex eoooecx copo ey coooa o oee opooe cepeoe paccopee a opeca caoo ee, a pea a eo e pyx coooo XIX ., o ao-o epe eae ao paoe.

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

a cae ooceo o aep oeaec, o ep pecae aep, epa1, o yx poaaco oypaopo e Axea Pocc. py coa, yaaa aepa, oeo, a coaa poaa peaa eoo aeceoo apae cace, opa Axea.

Booee caceco ay cce opoc oo ocyapcoee Pocc oocc 1773 oy, oa poeccop Mococoo yepcea Pexe a co cy ae a aco e e, ae ocec o pycc o aae paoe pyooco oa aypa oo, epooo, oecoo yeoo coco eoopx aex ocyapc┻ [18, c. 479]. Oao pyeo paoe oeaec, o opao o epec peca e a pycco caceco epayp, oope o oo yepceco ay. cy ax a o aop [18] ooc p ya 1777-o 1787 .

( M.M. epaoa2 (17331790), poypopa ypco epxe pacpa C. apooa p.), oea, o pao o coe cceaoc o cee cooo xapaepa eca aeaee a epayp oo poa. py co a, yoye pao e oeceo cace.

.. epa (17671838) o ocoaee ayo cac Pocc, oca eecoo yepcea, aeoa aepo cac Ca eepypcoo yepcea, opap aae Poccco aae ay, aa cacecoo oee cepca ypex e. Ey p aea epe pycce eopeece py o cace.

epao ec copo yco eaepcoo pee, copaee pyoce . B acoc, a acaa cop Poccca, aepaa oopo poo ooac H.M. apa (o ae aop eoc o ox eax, oec o x Pocc caoa ax). Heeepeco ae oe, o yoy eo.. aaa ea (17941856), pya A.C. ya. apa c eeo peoc p a y ce ya coeo oo peecea [pocca, 1958, c. 116].

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua ooy x oo ca o oo e oo yepceco, o aaeeco ay, o ceye ca aoo e o xapaepe aep cac Aae ay.

Ooceo e cooa aeaecx eoo p aae caceco opa paccapae e po oo caa eca eoo.

Hecoeo, oo epec c c yaeo a po eao ae yoya [8, c. 2829] ca o o eco apee, o oyoaa Mececoe Aae ay a 1781 . B e ayo-oypo ope xapa epyec ao ox ce, poe yee accox e, po ooecx aopo, ep ececeoo e acee. B pyeo e caaec peoo ee, o aopo ca Mececoe ec .. pa, poc coopae oo yeoo1.

Tpemu nepuo pa eop epooce (opa oo a XIX aao XX .) ca ocoo c paoa pyccx ye x , epy oepe,.. eea (18211894), A.M. y oa (18571918), A.A. Mapoa (18561922)2. cceoa o eop epooce Pocc aa aa eyee eco pe. Haae yee oca pe p ox aa, ooax eope epy aaca. o o cyecy o eo eopeec ac o eop cpeeo eoea ee.

He coo eo oac pa eop epooce aao Epoe, o e opoo oop e ye (epco ec, eycoo, o a Pocce [5, c. 80]). oe coae, y oep Mececoa a 1781 ., e a a pao o oeco apee. o oep ypaa pecae coo ooo ec, oopo opoo ocac yepce aae a pae o ooc: cye, aeape .. o oe coacyec c o aae ypaa [19].

Haepoe, a cye, xo a-o ya eop epooce, ca o ex Mapoa epaece eea.

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

pao eyx acx caco . pcoa (18571936) .O. a (18711951)1, peox p eoo oppe ooo aaa (cc a cooecye pao oo a, apep, [20;

21]). Paac a pece co ooece cceoa (o o c., apep, [14;

15]).

Bopa ooa XIX aao XX . pe ypx cyc c o ooy eooo coooecoo cceoa , ac oc, eooo coao cac. epee oee o pooy oca oo aa pa pycco peco coo o. Ocooe ae ye opecy eyeo pyccoo ca ca-eoooa A.A. ypoa (18741926) yeoo, eeo opo aope a Pocc, a eyapoo ayo cooece. O paea cy ax ceaco, oopx poccco aye aaa XXI ., coae, ocpo e xaae:

oopeeo aeao, coooo-ooco ( acoc, oy a cx opaoa) oa e oe ce-aeaa o ce-coooa. Cooecye copo eo eeoc opaec epeeac.

oop o oaax cooo aea opeo oo Pocc e e a oo, o aoe pycca ec a caca. Cae ecoo co o o aeaeo e pycco .

Haeec, ae ec oypee ae pe oe, aae ea x cceoaee. paa, pycce yee caa apec pecaee aco caceco o, epo oopo pco, p pecx aea. opoee o o c. [20, c. 226].

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua pee ceo popye ae oeec coap poaya Epoa. eca caca eco oeyopeeo cce coa ooaae cacece pao, pepe o coceoy oy ecx ype e. eca caca, cce ecx cceoa, pepx a ece cpeca, ec ac a o eeoc pyccx ec. Heo oooo, o paepa, e eec eco cace ocpax ocy apc [22, c. 492]. B pyeo cae ooee eco cac caec c opeoc e aepa pao paca ecx ooce, eoxooc o ya cee o pooocex yax acee, o a poo opaoa, apoo pa, o eco poe oc, opoe .. Bpaeoe eo, cpaxoae, ooe eo e co cacy. py coa, copaee ec caca cee acac pa coax xapae pc ee pax peoo.

o ceecy pyccoo caca A.. opyaoa (18561925), o opaaopo pycco eco cac ceaco oac paeco, eopeeco cac A.. ypo (18421908;

oe A.A. ypoa) c opoc oeae oce poae ycex cac Pocc a eep ea aeee paee x ycexo pa eco cac [23, c. 3] (o o caao cy e epe cyea, opaoao o cya o A.. ypoa).

Be oce ecx caco oac papa o eoo cceoa. ocpeco copeex ep o oo c eoopo oe peyee caa, o cop ax aacy ocyecc c oo pax op opo ca acee: cooac ooe opoc, paaoe ae, opaoae ep, ae oyc-py, oa opoc pooc a epeeco cxoe.

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

Opooe ae ece cac ye oecee aeoc oyaex oo ( a ae copa, a ae aaa ax), oe peoco oocc eoe poe e cacecx cceoa. Meoecoe aeco ax cceoa axooc a coo ypoe o cpae c e, o pocxoo aao cooo oa, o cpae c copee pec coooec cceoa: a ec, o y x oacoa.

a ye oea, ocoo poe cac a ay ocyo aee ycooc aco cpeaeoc oeo, oaax opeee coca. p ye ax aco c oo oaox a ece cac oc oo pyooc (ocooe ae ye oo cax ocpx poe pycco eco cac opocy o ope ocoa pypo cac ecx ae A.A. ypo [24]).

Bao oepy, o cacec oxo c o pe pyccx yex paccapaeoo epoa axoc a poeye ey xyoece ocae peaoc ee ay paee1. oep ae ax o Coeopaoe uee coooe ey coepae ocpe peaoc cacec a eocppy pycce cae. Oa aec, xyoece opa peaoc oo paccapa e oo a peey cacecx ae ayx ooe, o e, coceo, e e pe, o a peya a (ooe) cacecx ax.

Ta, B.. opoeo eeoe ae Boc ec (aa, 18 cep 1886 ., 201) oea, o xyoecea eepca ae oee eee ooee ap, , a opaeca, aa cpo aepa, e coo cyxa eee epeca. o cy o e oop A.M. op: a .H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua ao eco oe, yeo eo e pecy ac epo pee. Haeec, o oeec y ca oo ca cpeooe oax cpe o ax yex pecae o epecye ac opoce.

oce oo, a ucyccme coca cacece oca ocy ocaoo aope peya , eoeeco, epeca oocoac o ocae aa, cao cpec opee cee eo ycooc, py pocxoe pa, oac aya cac a e oo oepy peya oyex ce x oca ameamuecoy aay c oo copo, poe pa yoo e aae aea opao oca acca c pyo (ypc a. .T., E.M.) [18, c. 476]1.

ae, o o eoxooc ye ycooc ac o coax cceoax Pocc oop e oo yee-cac. B o c pee ay pao pyc coo ocoa C.H. yaoa (18781944), oopoo cac a oo e ooc (ao, o ca o opee coeo poope a peo aepa). B coe acao poee [27, peae 152 ae 9, c. 141] o opaaec opecy A.A. ypoa e ceyee:

To, o A.A. ypo oop o eo ae ycooc o ee e c paa, o oo cpe, oopoo ceye a, e acoy pay [25, c. 565]. py coa, poa cacece ae oo a e copo copoy aea copoy xyoec eo epayp. C ae o pe, o oop o poce ocex yx apae eoeeco eeoc.

ae, o c o pe copeeo ay paa yoo e oe oy oece oac aea. Bo co cyae, oo aac opoo oypoc cpee pyccx caco coooo XIX . ya oa .C. M (18061873) ae pe pacpea, yyea opaoaa e CM-cce (CM apeaypa o o Cap M). C., ap. [26].

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

cacecx ce, peo ooe coooec cpe1: Bepa opaey oeeoc cacecx ce e ocoe coo pacea oac oeceo ... o ococo e ocoe co ce aco, a oeceo xoce. Oo cocae conditio sine qua non [epeeoe ycoe (am.)] ceo copeeoo ooeco o cpo, ooeoc a poo paee pya a oee poya, poo e ce e a aa, a a eope ee po. Ec ca, oopx paac cypo ae opeoc oex , oepe e a pa py oea oa oy, exa apooo xoca e o epac.

a, ocoo pycco peco cooo, cyeco ae ocoo e eco cac, cy cac ece ae, oopee x peyao e oa ox a, aa ocex. p o c cepe XIX .

pycc caca ao cooac e ee, o ce eo eop cpeeo eoea. e ee ao poaa poac. B aece pepa oo aa opeco poec copa eepypcoo yepcea B.C. opoa (18111868), ep oo opeo poaaca e ee, yceo 1838 .

y pece cceoa o ocoax cac (C.)2. oe ae pao ooo eyx pyccx ca co .. coa (18351892) [29;

30].

a opypoa yaoa ceecye o oa oo, o aco oo paccapa a ac cya cpex e, o coacyec c copeeo eope cpex.

a eco, epoe ae ocoo, acaec cooo, ee O eoee pa eo cocooce, o coao o 1835 . O opoe oop, o o aoap op oa ya cec ee o x poeccopo pope o aoe e aee, a paoc Mococo yepcee [28, c. 169].

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua Pycc coooa cea o coceo poee ocooo a eoooeco copoe cceoa, o e ceecye, apep, ee H.. apeea (18501931), oaaeo, o eooo coax ay cocae oco y opac coooeco epayp, oopo ocoo eyc oe cop [31, c. 78]. o acaec eooo ecx aceo pee cooo cacecx eo o, o ce eop epooce.

Ooceo coooe cooae cac ocee o ( oy XIX .) ceoc yp eoooec copa o ooy pao oooc oye coepae o ax oo a ocoe cacecx eoo. Bo eoooec pc. Tao oopo co ecece opao cac poecc pa poo cooo: pac capae epo ca, a eco, c o oec e a ayy e aeco o eoaaca M. Beepa (18641920). Cop c eope cpeeo eoea . p e (18581917) [32, c. 288392] (opoo o o oopc, a pep, [15, c. 36]).

a ocyac opoca : e epe cceoae, coy cacece pe, eoea?

Moe pe eca o a cooo o y aoo eoea copac c epo o, o cacece aoo epoc aeao opaa peaoc, e coepae cc? aoo oo coooee ooeecoo eopaecoo a cooo a oy coco oye a oox o?

aco o pepac cop ey copoa eo oopoo aoc cacecx ae x poa , ca, o cacece co opa ae co ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

oo o y oeoo eoea ooy e oy cy oco o oa poopoa co oeceo .

pecae opo o pe ao opyc a e ee, oaa, o e co eoea po e, ecy e o oece ex ox aoo pa oeca;

eo o eyo pe, oop o oyeo aopao caceco aae eo oceoaee. o o pe cpe caco pepac ocoo oceo ae eeo o. Pea (18151889) . Mapa (1841 1925), a poo oopo A.A. ypo.

aae opoc ooa caco, o ce ce aco-aeao, epecyxc poea coo a eop epooce p ye oeca. Ta, A.A. y po opao accopoa yoy pc c papo o e ee pacpocpaee e eoaaca:

Cpe caco poyaec a coe XIX ea coae eocaooc pa, oapeoc aye oce pa poa eopeeco cce ee, apeae opeoc oee paoax oco o paoaec a pae coco pao. x yc axo oopy o yeo ococo e, oopoe cao c ea Beaa Pepa. A c pyo copo caca poa pyy oo ececocae-aea [33, c. 258259].

Maea.A. Hepaco (18661924) cepeo aac o ceooec poea, ca c cooae ae a pax ayax, o ce yaapx. O oc oco oe cooo ey y, peaa opeee opao epecope eppea ooe ee [34].

a aa ypy pea ayo oeceoc (c., a pep [35]1). epeco oe, o Hepaco, a A.A. y Aop poeccop oco copo-ooeco cye . e opoo Hee, e p ya o cop oco oceoo.

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua po, oe caoo ee o o a aaex eeco. oop o ocex, o e o o, o aacy ce e o cooa eop epooce o epa e epo coo, a oypx epeoe. o e Hepacoa, o ypaop, cpe oopx aae .T. o (18211862)1, A. Baep (18351917), ao aoe c oxo ey ocoe oo (ocoe eapa, aca, e a, eope epooce), yec oo oo ee ocoe. A a oa peyeceo aeo-pec a, coaa a, e ae aeaec yope e. Oa peepo aeaa a pecy copoy, e ye oe cpe aece aepa oy opy, p o ax oee aco oepaa cae ae c oo a po ax aopo yco eeo cxoca opo ceee ocoeca [34, c. 9]. o-o oypaopo c pee ac ec ayy ee acc, o-o aa a cx e cee e2.

Pycce yee-aea, epecyec coooe, yepa, o eo eop epooce, paccapaea aece eoeo ococoo poope, oe a py cceoae aapa, oo ya aooepoc, oyc oee a o cocoe coao cce, a ya ocoeoc aoo eoea. eo acpo e, o aapa ac oooc yec eca ce epecye ac ee, oo pao o opece Hepacoa, ocea ee oa eo ca [36].

o peo poa A.A. ypo cae [37].

ooe e, a eco, e eco ae pe. Hao ae ec o yeec yepa . Ca (16671745). oa epo a e oepa, Apcoe cex x oeaopo, ocex oaaoc oe oo, o epac a oo pacco o cox p ao aoap ycy ca coa coe ooc yoo cae ooca cca poee x aopo [38, c. 304305].

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

ece poe coao-cxooecx ocoeoce o ex e, ae cooo o y aoo, e oe aooepoc, cocee oy oy oecy.

pepa paccop pa a eeoc A.A. y poa.

Ocoo apaeoc eeoc A.A. ypoa oea a ye ea eo oo pao (1896) Teop epooce a ocoa eopeeco cac (peee .A. Hepaco, a Mococo yepcee ypc eop epooce).

Toa eopeeco caco aaac aya, a aac yee peo cceaecoo ae a acco e coao eoea, cocae cex x oca ayo opao x oca. Ta opao, eopeeca caca ec aya emooo ueca , a aoa, pae cyey po pyx ay (ypc a. .T., E.M.) [18, c. 476].

a o opeeee, oo caa, o cao aa e e oo pao ypoa oop o oa ao po oo, o yaape cceoa e oy e e cooa aea ( ao cyae eo p epooce). Toa o ao o oaa1, o ea coae, ceac o ao oaa coa. M e eo . To, po eo cya A.A. ypo co oap, coa coa c ae paax ax ecoex cycc o aeceo oece o oxoax. Ho apyea, cpaaa pey ooe ye x, yaca copa ocaec o eeco, o cyae aece o opeeoo eocea.

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua ypo. Cpe copoo o e eoope epa ce yee, c oop ypo eco oapoa, yac epa ( epco (18961897) Cpacypco (18971901) yepceax), apep, B. ecc (18371914). Oao y y poa o ecoeoe peyeco epe aa ye oooc oaaeca yoyoo ooe o o opac a oe oce pycco eco cac 1 (ypo pepaco oceoe o o xo oo y, o cpe ee ocoaee oe yeoo, e a ca peaee e ooe pao o, oo e apae epeco epx ao ayo pao) a peya pyccx ceaco o eop epooce, a ax o pe, a ye o caao, pye o poo aye (a ypo axoc c eoop x pyecx ooex).

Opac epo eao paoe A.A. ypoa cae Hpacea caca, acao 1897 . coap poaya Epoa [37]. pee ee ep, aoee po oope o o, a aop oae po cac coo o a oeae copec poecc ce o a y po (coopae, caae o cae o cyecy e ocoy ceo aeeo opeca yeoo)2.

Heeepeco oe, o oo ce oy o po ceye coa ecoo eeoo caca.. aa (18421926), poecee oce oo, a A.A. ypo paccaa ey o oo ex Pocc o peae oa copo: a eey cacy eex ca co ooo xopoo c pyc pa yee, o eo oooo oy cceoa, o oopo B paccaa, epa a e oe [39].

a ca A.A. ypoa coo eac coooa. M. Beep, apep, epece c pycc coooo-eoaae .A. coc, ao ocya ayae oae cooo eoooece poe, c ae c paoo o poc, eoxooc, oooc .., ao aepye e A.A. ypoa [40, c. 164165]. O e e e pe [41, c. 491].

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

Ocoae opao cac ccx (y ypo a cx). Oao eo peya, aee pae copeeo, ae a. Bopoee co 20-x oax aeo coe [.e. XIX .] pacea caca o aa, oe ceo oe eopeeco c, ep o o oopoy a ece oo paycx aea o. He eee e oaao oee oax aepa o o paceo cace Bepe cex a pa a e oea y oxy cop paceo cac A. epp1 A. ee. Caca aaa, a peo ae aa ee epp, ee e oeppoa ep e ae , ye oceoaex epepaoo, po x eooy cy oeex ooe. O cpe c op ox eex aoo paceo oo. opaac aooepoc e pace oo opa, epp paec, o e cax oca e aoo-o oce;

o e cae oo oocoa a e ae-o yepe, opaae cooy o.

ee ec cacy oe ox oe pe o ce eae a copeeo, ecoeo, co o ae ay oo e ox. B ocoae coe cce ee ae p, o e, oopx pae po eoe, oe aoa co e ee, a ao ppo [37, c. 404].

ee ae oaae, o ae cacecx aooepoc e e oop o ocyc cooo o y eoea. op o occ xo oecex e e, o eoe, a cyeco oeoe, oaaec o o coe caoco eoc xo coca cooo oeceoo opaa, yeo coe , oeoc co aoa. Co A.M. epp (18021867) aoa p aeoo cye apa, o epx ex eee oac yooo cac, aop epa opaa caca (1833 .).

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua oa o, oopo paaec caocoeoc oc, cyeaec, a oo epexo paccope o ocex py: yy apaeo o y, o pyy co poy, oa ec cyao po, oeo peyae e ee coc y [37, c. 404].

aee cae oopc o eee (ypo a e, a Hepaco oaa, o ca ee e ec eec o), ocoy oopoo ooeo yepee o ocyc cooo o y oex e (oeee eoea opee ec o aoa, ococy oece). e e epe y ee ooee o o, o pacee e oc e e ee aoa, o ecece e, o oye eo cce ee (o ooe yae oy eoey) poc, oca e a aop ypee, cece eo cooecya oa pace o cac aaec ypo exaueco.

py exaecy oy, ypo oepae, o ca ee oop o pex ax p, oycoax cac ece aooepoc ee yx o (ececee oecee, pacee) ypee.

B cooec co a pecaee opo e eo ypo o paceo cac mueco, eoe oaae cooo o, o a cooa e oe oo ecc c pooo. eoe ecye coaco peoa paya. eca oa paccapae oece ocoa eop epooce. ococo cacecx ce ya ae a o, o oo oeceo coe ocac oa o ee oye oo ec, pa ac x cax, o e eec, eo, co , e x ocoa opoc co co ee e o aax co cao pao paceo ycooc [37, c. 405]. eoe e cooee, e oceoaeee poo co pace ea. Cooa ype e ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

eppoaoc ec. eo o o oop ae cacecx aooepoce. ypo pye y oy pe. oa yo a apaee ooy cxey oaa ec aeo e paoaae ayoy oce x [37, c. 404].

p o o, oao, oeae, o pyax eoopx peca ee ecoo apae yepe o coecoc cex ax ee c yepe ao coo oo coac o aao oeco c cacecx aooepoce c ocoa eop epooce.

Copo eco o poa ee c pyo copo ac oaa, o ycoe aco eceoc e a y yco. Oao epee ocac opoc o o, ae oea aco oo c a o, ae a, a ec oy p ep ycooc. ca, pyx cox paoax ypo o aae p eopeo-epoocx ooe, oox oop eo o ax pepx [20, c. 4390;

42].

Tpe eey oy paceo cac y po aae ameamueco (ocoy oa e oopy a eae , epy oepe, eop epooce), ou eco (ocoy oa ece opao pae oe).

a oa pxo oee ooy pee ex aa, a oop ecoo c pecae ecoo apa e [37, c. 406]. ay, xo e cey po, p o paa eop epooc [a e]. p o ypo oeae eaepeoc pao: ee oo eoeaoo, o ceao, oe papocao, e co, e aoeo cc e [37, c. 407]. B o e pe o oop o oe e ox e. B e oo coco?

B ocoa poe eop epooce cace e pecaee o oeo oooc [a e], e ee oopoo o cao c yyee pecae o p oc. Ec aa pa A eoopoo e, oo ee .H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua cooc opeeeoc, o ee eoxoo. Ho ec ee eco e c pa, a eoopa ac ee, o ee ca oc oo oo. Aaecoe cceoae oo e ooo po c ec oeco y e cacecoo eoa, oa a aaecoe cceoa e ooe c eoxouo pxoc a o y [37, c. 407]. oeceoo pae oeo oo oc cy ocoa cea xapaepca, oyaa a ae aeaeco epooc. aee o xapaepc pacpaec aeo eopeo epy: o py e, cox oac o ece ox ex e ox p, oac o ece p, cocex aoy x oeoc c o c e cox, ca oope cex oox co cea peo poopo a x epooc p x ox ycox [a e].

oepe, o oo o peea opypoa a oa ox ce ec ecoo oaec o ocao a aae ca opypo epy. oe aeae o: ypo cae oe epooc c o eoxo oc oooc, c ece po-cecex oo e. Paa aee ooe ( pyx paoax), ye, a a , pe eoop coopae, ea ocoe copeeoo poo (yeoo) aaa, peocx oee e.. aapcea (19011976)1.

Ta, oa, coyea A.A. ypo o ooy oeceoc p , oycoax oo o e cece oeceoc cec, oax o ece oo o e p, oe aoae oy yeoo aaa, ay oooc ocpoe aeao peaoc ep o po cxe. Bcaaoe ee o cyeceoc oo oco eca, o ea epeea oe axoc coxaceco c c p o epeex, x oeoc, yoao acoc o x epeex, x ece, acae co peaaey aapceo oy oepaoaa o.

ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

poo oee caaoo ypo eo epo ya. Oe a oea, ayaoc ocye oopx, a a pecaec, e poaa ae pe.

ep oe acaec ue ooe ey ao oepoc accox e yco ee ex cyae. ypoa pe e o cyecy o coooe coo oecx peaa oaa c o pe eoea, pyoocyeoc eope epooce. o yeoo o c poeyo xapaep ooc opeeec eo o ae aoa ox ce.

ypoa e oec peaca ecop a o, o o coace c ocyce aeoo ec opeoo eoea a o xo e: o oaae, o oceee ec cece oo ocoeca, o ea aa ac py o e opaae ae, yo xo o eceo opeeec e coca oce, a co ca aoo-o cecoo apoa, ooo o cy o ex eo pecaee.

He ec ypo oaco ecop a eo coace c e, o ec aoo eoea oe opeec eo co oo oe. eo o, o, ae oyc oy eep poaoc oex pee, aooepoc accooo pey aa ye a e, a ec pa coe oeee cya opao.

a, opao cace e axo cee oop e, ype eep. peoo, o po ex ypex oo coc ce eoopx pee, a ey ocac o pae c o e epaoc , c ao ocaaaec a eo paco oe ap pye: aooepoc accooo peyaa ye ce a e, o p oye oo eeppoaoc oex pe e. ec oapyaec ecooc o epeec eaec cop a pecy oy [37, c. 408]. o .H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua epe, o cop o o, o epo, o opo oe yco, oopx e eoe, eo a o, aa ec ypo eaec.

Bopo oe acaec poe oa oo oeca yco, coxpaee oopoo ec epee apyo ca oo cyecoa epooc, caceco aooepoc.

Cao ae caceco aooepoc oop o o, o oe yco ocac ee o oa oy, a ec e c ocaec eeo ccea epooce, .e. pa e (apep, opace) py, oopx caaec pac capaea acca, xo ee pepo oo o e ooe, a peeax x py ocac o ee p, eye acye cec.

Ha pecaec, o opooe aee pee peyao eop epooce coax cceoa x ee o, o e oop ypo, ye ocooe ae op ecy ecca. O aac opoco o o, oo peya , paoae a ecoo oycae opo oe ocoax a cyaoc p, epeoc a coe oo e oeceo . pea pee x opoco ep co-o o oeo a x caca oaa eccy, oop ycao oe yoe pep cye o ycooc cacecx ooe. p o o x o oapy, o ycooc o o cex cyax e a ea, a o ya, xo e opa ee cyeco a;

o yec, o poao oce cyae ee eo e c ee, a c ec, o ec aoa, o yco. Ey yaoc oaa o oe aee ocpoe eop epooc cac , o e pe, ae pa ayo-ocopooo ooa [37, c. 408]. Oe, o oee oe o coe ypo pe oy, o ycaoe ecco pep ycooc cacecx po e cea pe ucmopuu omamo ey couooue u ameamuo...

yaa a opae, oop oea ocoae a e o (c., apep [20, c. 224]).

Ta opao, o e A.A. ypoa, oo aea eca oa cac oa, cepeo coya oo e eop epooce, yeeo oaae, a a e cacecx aooepoce oe coeac co co oo o oeoo eoea.

Pycc ye ca aey cpay cop poo caceco c. M ocyc oe a o ac o cpa1. aeo e oo epe paccope a e ace ao aea cooo, o ope opae opece pyx pyccx yex aa pyeoo epoa. Ho xoeoc aec, o ae o eooe, o cye caa ao cae, ae ocoa e ca opeco ax peeceo e oep co ayaoc aae XXI .

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2. Bumme C.. Bocoa. M.: -o coao-ooeco epayp, 1960. T.1.

3. Taxmape .M. Haya o oeceo (Cooo). ., (. o: Taxmape .M. ao cacece caco-coooece:

Caca cooo: Coooce caco-coooec eo ocpoee cooo a oo ay o oeceo // Cooo Pocc XIX aaa XX eo. M.: M, 1997. C. 226244. B. 2).

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5. poxopo .B., Ceacmo .A. Bepooce eop // Bepooc aeaeca caca: oe. M.: P, 1999.

ocaoo ooe pecaee o opece A.A. ypoa oo oy pao [20;

21;

42;

43].

.H. Tocmoa, E.E. Maua 6. oaea M.C. pecop peco cooo // cop eopeeco cooo. M.: Haya, 1995. C. 173189. T. 1.

7. ymu B.. acceca cooo. M.: Haya, 2000.

8. eea .A. peca cooo Pocc Bocoo Epoe.

M.: . o ӖB, 2004.

9. anac.C. O oco eop epooce: oypoe oee oco eop epooce ee poe. M., 1908 (. o: Bepooc aeaeca caca: oe. M.: P, 1999. C. 834863).

10. yocu B.. Ocoa aeaeco eop epooce. C., 1846 (. o: Bepooc aeaeca caca: oe. M.: P, 1999. C. 853869. epea pae : O coe, aee, pa copec oep oceeoo pa aeaeco eop epooce, copae apa opooo coepa ).

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