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AHA AHHX .. aya,.E. apyce (Hoocuupc) OPMAHE HEOPMAHE OCPEH HA COBPEMEHHOM POCCCOM PHE TPA B cae a ocoe ax Pocccoo oopa ooecoo

ooe opo acee (PM) aapyec aa opa e opa eopa ocpea a pe pya. Ha ocoa oee, ocpoex eoo oceco pepecc, ocaec coaa aa oex aao pyoycpoca. Pac capaec coa oppe ooecx py, eex eoo acepoo aaa o xapaepy cpae pyoycpoca.

ee coa: po pya, aa pyoycpoca, cpae pyoyc poca, coae ce, oceca pepecc, acep aa.

Copee poccc po pya axoc ca caoe: pocxo oppoae cyoao cpe , oa oe ocpeece cpyyp, pae co ecoa yac pyoycpoce. oee ox cyo ocpeeca yeae oeco oox epa aoa aya oop coooecx ay, poeccop, aeya oeo coax poe cya oo opaa poeoo pooca CO PAH. E-mail: zima@ieie.nsc.ru.

oa Eeea apyce acpaa, a ay copy oea coax poe cya oo opaa poeoo pooca CO PAH. E-mail: polyrom@ngs.ru.

Cooo: 4M. 2006. 23.

opae u eopae nocpeuu...

apao, eae op a, aaeoc oco pa o, ce oee co. Oao paa oaae, o p oce pao ae ceo opaac e opa ocpea, a co po ao, .e. coy e c coae ce. o a CC, cpee a epo c op 2003 . o ayc 2004 . oy aay pyo ycpoca pea 56,3% epaox, o pe a ocy apcey cyy aoc 34,3%, oepecy cyy aoc 3,8%, oaa oe ea o oac a oyoae oe 16,8% epaox, 12,2% c ooa pye coco oca pao, 28,4% opaac eocpeceo paooae [1, c. 237]. Ee oeee a ee poceaec poecce peax pyoycpoc.

pooe peee ceex pecypco poecce pyoycpoc a, o e oca aopo, cao, epy oepe, c eooo opa, pacpyeo o opa aaa, a ae eoepe e [2, c. 174175;

3, c. 217]. Oao, oe a pyoycpoco eaoo acee, peee eopa x pecypco eppopoax acaax oe pec apoc ceea pa pya, oppoa apepo coooo epeee paoo a pe pya [4].

B ao cya pecaec eecoopa copeee ee cooa pax aao py oycpoca, opee peoee aa pyoyc poca pax py acee, a ae py oycoeoc x peoe. B c c o ac poep oe o o, o: a aa pyoyc poca ee cocey coay ay, ocyae o e cee pa pya;

coepae eaepa op, peay opeeee cpae pyoycpoc a;

cya a oao pe pya peypye eo cy oaa cyeceoe e a op cpae pyoycpoca.

.. ayua,.E. apyceu B aece opaoo a a paa ea oa oopa (PM), 2000 . acca ax o oopao 995 eoe, opaaxc e aaa pyoycpoca eee ocex 30 e, peecy x opocy. My e oope pecae pepo oaoo (51,8% 48,2% cooeceo), papoc o opacy o 14 o 82 e (cpeeapaecoe ooe e pao 12,08). oco pecoeo poao o poco ecoc (79,4%), epaoe coca 61,3% opoo cooyoc, a ae, eae ce eco pao, 38,7%.

Cooyoc aopo, oaax e a oeee, caoe c oco pao, oo pae a p aoc ae py, oope poc a pex ypox: coea o, oao yao.

Ha couemao ypoe poecc pyoycpoca pey pyec cceo oecex cyo, oope cpyyp py oceey eeoc opay aoooe ey . pe o e pacpocpaec a cex cyeo pa pya pepo pao epe.

oa ypoe pecae ocoeoc oaoo pa pya (cee apeoc pa pya, ypoe cpyypa aoc, aca epao p.) peypy x eo cyo a eco ypoe, oope cooyoc o oa, o oa ac cocae a o xoy paoy.

Ha uuuyao ypoe oo e ao o ec aop a oypeococooc a a pe pya, oopa oppyec o oece ypo opao a, oa paeco pao ao, a ae coa o-eopaecx xapaepc a (opac, coco e opo p.), .e. ex xapaepc, oope opay eoeec aa. Hae ocyce coaoo opae u eopae nocpeuu...

aaa1 ypee o oae o a a pe pya, pacp yea eo oooc oce oy e paoeo eca, cooecyeo eo apoca. Coac o. ype, coa aa pecae coo cooy oc peax oeax pecypco, cax c oa ae ycoo ce [durable networks] oee eee cyoapoax ooe aoo aoca pa coa, c eco pye [5, c. 528].

Be paccopex e py aopo poec opea a a opeee cayc, cepy opy aoc, ope cooecyx aao pyoycpoca.

Ha ocoa oo oppyec cpae aoc. e e ye pacxoee ey cxo co poeccoao ooc cayco a, e acoee yy oc ooo eca pao e epoee ye opaee a aoee aeoy, c eo o pe, aay pyoycpoc a. Peyao peaa cpae aoc c coa coae c paooaee yco aa o poeccoa o-ooco cayc cocae. eee oceeo oe cy aopo eoc (eeoc) opa oo oo cocoa pyoycpoca c o a.

Ha copeeo poccco pe pya yopy a opae, a eopae ocpe. opae u cmumym nocpeuecma pecae ocyapce cya aoc, ac aeca o pyoycpocy CM, a ae cyo pacpeee yco oce B ao cyae acpapyec o pyx o aaa: oo ecoo, yypoo, acpaoo, oecoo p.

.. ayua,.E. apyceu ooa yeoo aee. oce acoee pe paec e ecye ec copee cee, e pao. ocyapcea cya aoc oo coce o ocpeeca pyoycpoce oe ae y oep coao a epaox.

ace aeca o pyoycpocy acoee pe ocya eoo cee pa pya, o peca coo ao paayc cepy eeoc. a ocpeecx cpyyp pa ocoo pyx opoax.

Oeo epo x eeoc ec o, o oop epcoaa ocyecec a ao ocoe.

Oe o aacx CM aoee cp e opa coco oca pao, oao opa o pao ax paox ecax ec eca opaea e cea o coepa [2, c. 196].

eopa ucmumyma (coua cem) oo cc cooae x ce poecce pyoycpoca, oopoe ee e ocoe op: peocaee opa o paoe ece, oyee ooeo oo pyoyc poce ope peoea / poe. Bopa opa pe oaae, o peoeae ooae cpec c y po ce opae poeyp oope o py oo p ycpoce a paoy. B cyae poe paoee eco paec apapoao cocae [2, c. 189 190]. T ce, oope oy aecoa poecce pyoycpoca, oo pae a e py: pocee c o aocy, cpe oopx oo e poecco ae c [6, c. 5658]. B cyae po poe ae c oyc pocee c, cyae peocae op a eee ece, pyece c c o aocy.

pe opaeu coucame paomoame, y o cpeo, opay oco coco pyoycpoca. ep a coooo aa ceye oec eocao opa opae u eopae nocpeuu...

o paoe ece ycox aoc [7]. o coco oca pa oo paox ec xapaepe aycaepo pa pya a co copo cpoca (eee aooye pep), a co copo peoe (oapoae ap) [6, c. 59].

Aa opaaeoc oe aaa pyoycpoca a epo c 1994-o o 2000 . oo ceyy ao oepoc: aaec yeee ca opae ocy apcee cy aoc p opaca acao c ooa ycy acx apox aec, pepyepcx p CM. poe oo, ao ee pacpe pee coax pecypco p oce pao. o opaxc py ao p pyoycpoce poca a cceye epo c 59 o 76%, a pocea c 29 o 41% (c. pc. 1).

Opa e e ocyapce e cy a oc Opa e e apo e ae ca Opa e e py ao Opa e e poce a 20 Opa e e eocpece o a pepe Opa e e pea 1994 . 1995 . 1996 . 1998 . 2000 .

oe Puc. 1. uaua opaaeocmu pau aaa mpyoycmpocma 19942000 ., % ucy opamuuxc opaaeoc ocyapcee cy aoc p pya pxoc a 1996 . o aa pyoycpoca cooaa o ooa cex yx paoy. Cya a eo eac oce pca 1998 . Oeo, o oycoeo .. ayua,.E. apyceu epeypoc a oco o epaoe, aco x aypaae pae paepa x a o epo. B 2000 . ocyapcey cyy aoc opaa c 27,3% yaxc pyoycpoce.

Coae ce, cy o opaaeoc, paccapac pecoea a aoee ae aa pyoycpoca a copeeo poccco pe pya, pe ocepc epo x pe o cpae c py aaa py oycpoca aeo poc. B 2000 . paec 3/4 cex ea x a ( ce) paoy opaac py / ao a oo pyoycpoce.

eee o opaaxc aoy aao (a cee ocyapcex cy aoc) oop o epe xoe yaa cpae oca pao. Pace o aa, o cpeee oeco aao oca oopa pao ae opoco: c 2,11 1994 . o 2,54 2000 . p ae o ( 1,4 paa) ce o ex, o cooa oo o coco oca pao.

Paccop e pax py aopo a acoy opae oy oy cocoy oca pao. a ye oeaoc, cyoae pa, peypye oeee cyeo pa pya a coeao ypoe, oaa p epo oaooe oece a cocaee, ooy o e yy paccapac ae aae.

Oe e oax po mpya a op aa o pyoycpoca paax coyeo opaoo a o ooo oo o oce aopa. Ta aopo ae cyae ocyo eco poa peco ea. B epaype eoopao oeac ocoeoc pa opae u eopae nocpeuu...

pya opoco ceco ecoc, ax pyx opo ax [8;

9;

10;

11]. Aa oaa1, o cece e p oc e pao ae opoa opaac eocpeceo pao oae, a pepe pee opa eopa ocpea. oeee cecx paoo a pe pya oycoeo, epy oepe, epaoc pacpyyp pa pya ceco ecoc, y opo paox ec, opoc coaoo pocpaca, oa e eoxooc peoeax.

Cpe couao-eopauecux xapamepucmu ca cec aoe e oaa o, aoaa p aeoc, ypoe opaoa, opac ( pye eax).

Bcoc, o y po oy cooc opae eocpeceo a pep, y ocpe o, ey ocyapcee cy aoc, a p pya. Cpe e, apo, aaec oa opa aeoc ocyapcee cy aoc. Oeo, o ocec ee yepeoc e, x o caooe o, a ae cya cpa o ooe e a, oope aac a pae [12;

13].

Ec paccapa e oee ocpeece cpyy p, a x , o cec, o y ae coy ceee pecypc, o pe a e ae opaac opa aaa pyoycpoca (cy aoc, o e CM). ooe o ye e pa oye a poccc, a apye aopa. Hapep, paoe [14] ya oea o o, o y oe o e e oee poe oooc cooa ceex Aa poee a ocoe ce Z-cac ooe aco (oo e aaeo aco o oaeo ycox eacoc, epeoe ce caapx ooe) eax a copeoc cooa pep X-apa.

.. ayua,.E. apyceu pecypco a opaooo aaa poecce pyoycpoc a, ocoy e oee ope e c: poecco ae py oe, cope opaa ..

Hauoae pauu a o ax aopo pecypcx oooce a a pe pya oaa e a op aao pyoycpoca. pecae pa x ecx py ae opaac poce c (ece ce) eocpeceo a pep, e pyc coe aceee. oee ecoe cooae pocex ce, ecx cee ao oep oe ao a pya ec coeopa cocoo aaa ax py acee ooo/peao cpa pax cepax [15].

Bopacm a oce aop oypeococooc a pe pya oaae e a op opax eop ax cocoo pyoycpoca. Cpe opac epao x, opaaxc opa cya pyoycpoca, e, e cpee ao pye.

, aoe, aac opeeee pa ypoe opaoau u, opaaxc pa cocoa pyoyc poca. epaoe, ee cpeee ceaoe opaoa e, peoa cooae opax aao pyoyc poca. o-oy, o oycoeo xapaepo aac, peocaex opa ocpeec cpyypa, cooecy peoa aa cocaee.

poeccuoao-mpyoo cmamyc: cayc aoc, paeoc opeeeo poeccoao-ooco pye, paep apaoo a ( ax), ae o aoo cayca epaooo ( eax).

Cmamyc amocmu. Pace oaa, o epaoe o cpae c paoa, ea ce eco pao, ae opaac opa ocpea, a a ocy apcee eocyapcee aeca o pyoycpocy, opae u eopae nocpeuu...

oe o coox aacx CM, a ae eocpe ceo a pep. Bcoa o opae epaox ocyapcey cyy oycoea, pee ceo, eoxo oc oy oa cayc epaooo, oece a aepay oepy, a ae coece o o pyoycpoce (epeoooy ..).

B cya ocmpo eoxouocmu mpyoycmpocma o oo ce pao (pecoe oo eeeo pcy paoe) aoee epce cp cocoa oca pao pecoea paccapac pe opae a pe pe (paooae) peee ceex pecypco.

Oo cocax poeccoao-pyooo cay ca ec paep apaomo nam. Pace oaa, o coooaaee pao peoa opaac o epece aeca o pyoycpocy. Cpe apaoa aa opaxc eocyapcee cy aoc co cae 2843,6 py., a cpe ce py 1674,4 py. (aee Z-cac ooe cpeeo cocao 2,3). Moo pe oo, o oe cy pyoycpoca (apoe ae ca) ocpac aceee a aoee epce coco a coooaaey, pecy paoy. a pa o, ea apox aec c ace opaa , pee oee coe peoa epcoay. a oea aaa oa, e acx cy oee cocoee , ooae ycy acx aec pe ey ae, e e ocyapcex cy aoc, a ooc pyooee ax ceaco [4].

poeccuoao-oocmo cmamyc ae ec o ax aopo, oaa e a op cocoo oca pao cpe aoo acee. Tpyoycpoc o ye px opae eocpeceo a pepe xa paepo paox (apoax eapoa x), ey oo a oepee epaype [6, c. 59].

.. ayua,.E. apyceu Oe couaoo anumaa oae ac epao x a paoy, y opax ocpeo. Tao o oye a ocoe oe yx epeex ye ee/yeee pya pye aox ecoc o ao yp coao ce (eaco o ooa).

Oea cocmeo nouuu a pe mpya. oy aopy oece: cyea oea ypo poeccoa a, yepeoc oooc a paoy e xye acoe, oaeoe pe oca pao. Cyea oea poec coaa opeeac o eao opoo ae ( ope ec, e a epo cye axoc o, a a ce poeccoa coeo ea). Cpe opaaxc ocyapcee cy aoc, a ae pea oe aaec oee a oea cocex po eccoax aec (4,7 5 cooeceo, p cpee a e o ce oope 5,2;

ae Z-cac cooec eo pa 3,34 2,19). Cpe opaxc oepece aeca o pyoycpocy aeo e o ex, o e coeac cocex acax pyoycpoca.

Aa a copeoc oo oapy e a op, oope oaa cyeceoe e a op aa o pyoycpoca. oe c pe eo oceco pepecc ocpo oe, oca e apaee ooe cpa oee aop o cee x .

o ocpoeo 4 oe, ocae op ax aa o pyoycpoca, a opaee ocyapcee opa, apoe aeca, cooae ceex pecypco (opaee pocea py) pe opae (e yac opae u eopae nocpeuu...

ocpeecx cpyyp). Opaee aoy aay pyoyc poca, a peae oe CM, cy ao pac pocpaeoc, e peca ac epeca.

Xo ocpoee oe e oaa coo pooc eco cocooc (oe eepa eec epae 0,030,08), oao ee x coca epee e a opeee epooc opae oy oy aay pyoycpoca.

Opaeue ocyapcmey cyy amocmu (a. 1).

oyea oe e poope oye paee oa.

a epee oaac o pecoea, cayc a oc (ae/ocyce pao), oea coceoo poec coaoo acepca peoee aco op coc eoc pep. Ta, paeoc ycoy oy, ae pao, a ae opea a acoe pepe (p cpoax pox epeex) pepo oaoo c a ooee aco opae/eopae a 31-36%.

B o e pe yeee caooe poeccoaoo ac epca a ey ( cooec c 9-ao ao) a 9% cae ooee epooce opae/eopae o cyapcee opa o pyoycpocy. He ya oo y yoeapoc (c ey eac epee pepecc), oo cea o, o epooc opae ocyapcey cyy aoc oea y ax y , coo oeax cocee poeccoae aeca peoax paoa a aco pep (a. 1).

Opaeue oepecue aemcma no mpyoycmpo cmy. ao epeeo oce opa apox aec a cocoa oca pao oo ca oo cpe eec ypoe apaoo a. Coaco oea ocpoeo oe, epexo eco e o apa oo ae yeae ooee aco opae/eopa e a 2,9%.

Taua OEHT OCTECO PEPECC X COHEHT C 95%-HM OBEPTEHM HTEPBAAM (aca epeea opaee ocyapcee cy aoc) oep e epa c o e a epee a o e H Bepx o e a pa a pa a My 0,45 0,64 0,46 0, Ha e pao 0,44 0,64 0,45 0, O e a poecc o a oo 0,09 0,91 0,85 0, ac epc a pe o e e ac o op coc e oc 0,39 0,68 0,49 0, pe p o c a a 0, .. ayua,.E. apyceu opae u eopae nocpeuu...

cnooaue cemex pecypco npoecce mpyoycm pocma (a. 2). oce opa coax cee a cocoa oca pao a ceye epeee: eep e pa, eco eca, opac paeoc coao pye.

Bepooc pee ceex pecypco poecce pyo ycpoca e opoco ecoc, y y, a ae cpe caoax.

poae opoco ecoc oae ooee aco opae/eopae 1,9 paa, a paeoc ycoy oy 1,5 paa. ooy e ceye oepa o ey o o, o ocoeoc oaoo pa pya e ep oceeoe aee p ope cocoo pyoycpoca (e cop a o, o caoaoc yeae ooee aco 2,5 paa). T aceeoo ya opaae e oo ocoeo c oaoo pa pya, o paoc aoe ocyoc opax ocpeecx cpyyp.

Bopac ae ec o aopo, opeex opaee coa ce aece ocpea a pe pya. B eo, yeee opaca opaeo cao c e pooc pee ceex pecypco p pyoycpoce.

B ao cyae ooe oee co cooa e opae ocpeece cpyyp p oce pao, e pecae capx opaco, copee ceo cece e ocaooo oea eoeecoo aaa (opaoa, o a pao), oop oo o cooa p oce eaeoo paoeo eca.

pe opaeu. C ee epooc a co coo yy ca oe aac pycce o aoaoc, ye pyoycpoee, o peoae paoa a aco pe p (ooee aco opae/eopae caec a 33-35% p pox pax ycox). Haoopo, epooc p x opae yeaec cpe y ( 1,59 paa), oox Taua OEHT OCTECO PEPECC X COHEHT C 95%-HM OBEPTEHM HTEPBAAM (aca epeea opaee coa ce) oep e epa c o e a epee a o e H Bepx o e a pa a pa a My 0,42 1,52 1,11 2, po a e opoco 0,69 1,98 1,38 2, ec oc Bopac 0,02 0,98 0,97 0, Co a a py a:

c ye , ya ec;

0,59 0,55 0,28 1, pee o e pao a e o 0,06 1,06 0,74 1, pa p a;

e c o ep;

0,54 0,59 0,27 1, a e e a pe p 0,94 2,56 1,11 5, o c a a 1, .. ayua,.E. apyceu opae u eopae nocpeuu...

eeeo pcy paoe ( 1,71 paa), a ae cpe ao ee eccco oeax cocee ac a pe pya (a paoy eooo 1,88 paa). cxo coe o eo pepeccoo oe, oo oxapaepoa p e opae paooae cey opao. pe o pae paccapac a aoee epoa epcea py oycpoca cyae ocpo eoxooc, ooo, peya e eaoo oa opae e ocpeec cpyypa, o ca c eocao pecypc oea o, eyepeoc, o oeo coceo oypeoco cooc a pe pya. p o oy epooc opae ycoo oa apy paooae oo oc xapaepo aac, cocax peyecey ac e cpyyppoaoo pa pya (oapoae, paoe ceaoc, ec py, cyaa aoc).

a, poee aa oo cooyoc aopo, oaax cacec aoe e a op aao pyoycpoca, a ae oe cy o ex aopo ooceo aoo aaa pyoycpoca.

opae nocpeuu oyp opoco ecoc, cpe e epaox. B pye ax eocyapce e aeca o pyoycpocy ae opaac y, coooaaee pao. Couae cemu coy oe opoco ecoc, e ceco. Bop oo a aao pyoycpoca oee cocee ya, e e a. pe opaeu a pepe peoa y , pecae ecx py paoe.

e aoee pacpocpaex cpae py oycpoca, oaex a cooyoc aecoax .. ayua,.E. apyceu aao pyoycpoca, a peea poeypa acepo o aaa eo -cpex, oo paoa c o acca ax. B aece accaox pa o ocy xooece epeee, opaae opa ee oy oy aay pyoycpoca.

B o eoe co acco aaec apop. Hopao o eeo 5 py o, oaxc aopo c oyex cocoo oca pao, eppea oopx ocy ecac a ocoe aaa ae cxox epeex epax oyex acepo. o coepae coopae a acepa oee o eeo epe a pecoeo, paaxc cpae pyoycpoca (pc. 2).

Ceea a eca Ceaa o eca Puc. 2. Pacnpocmpaeocm cmpameu mpyoycmpocma aec cpae xapaepyec opae o o ocyapcee cy aoc. Taa cpae pyoyc poca aeee oypa, ee pepaec a e c cocae aac. Bopa cpae xapaepyec opae u eopae nocpeuu...

peyece cooae ceex pecypco (poce x pyecx ce). ay cpae peaye pep o a cpe ao yx paoy. Cao pacpo cpaeo (52,3%) oaaac ceaa cpae. ee xa paepo coeee opae coa ce c opae apy paooae o pea oe CM. oce cpae pyoycpoca oe oxa paepoaa a oeca, ocoy coeae cee p eee cex oox pecypco, opaee o ce aaa pyoycpoca. ay pyy coca 20% cex aa xc oco pao.

Ceye ae, o op cpae pyoycpoca eocpeceo e ca c eoc epao o o oca (ocycye oppe ey oeco co yex aao cae epao).

peea e acca ocoaa a ax PM a 2000 . poep ee ycooc a poeea acc a a pyx ax (19941998 .). oo ocyec ac epeopoa epeex. oyee peya c eecy o o, o aeee pacpocpaeo a ( oca ec) aeca cpae, a aoee pacpocpaeo ce aa. Ha o ocoa oo ocapoa ycooc peoeo acca a ao peeo poeye.

oca coaoo oppea py o, pea yx eee cpae, cooa pa e pe oppeooo aaa, a copeoc pooc aa Z-cac. pee ceo oe xapaep e ocoeoc o cpae.

mamueca cmpameu. o cpae oo a a cmpameue noyeu couao aum, ocoy o pye e o e (61,7% po 48,4% o ce co oyoc p ae Z-cac ooe aco 2,7), a ae peeo e paoax o pa pa yxoy a .. ayua,.E. apyceu peeo, o opacy, coco opo .. (63,8% po 49,7% o ce cooyoc p ae Z-cac 2,9). Be poee ceo, o py aoee aee ee oy ee oaoo cayca epaooo cooecye aepao oep, e oee o cpe opaaxc oo ocyapcee opa aeo e o ex, o apye pyoycpoc opoe cpo (a 1 ec). B a o pye cyeceo e caooea poeccoao a a, e cpee o cooyoc (5,19 4,73 cooe ceo cxo 9-ao a). Ta opao, aec y cmpameu mpyoycmpocma uupam npeuyecme o me uuu, omope uo oeuam cocmey nouu a pe mpya u paccampuam opaeu o cyapcmee opa, npee ceo, a ooocm no yeu couao aum u noepu.

Cemea cmpameu oca pao oee xapaepa y pecaee ecx py. o cpae co ce cooyoc ec e o ex, o e yepe oooc a paoy (29,0% po 23,0% o ce cooyoc p ae Z-cac ooe aco 2,1). Coua nop mpem uuuo, peauyux cemey cmpameu, um, mau opao, e noe ooao.

Ceaa cmpameu xapaepa pyccx (55,0% po 52,4% o ce cooyoc p ae Z-cac 3,6), ex paoy (60,8% po 52,3% cpe cex opoex p ae Z-cac ooe aco 4,2), pe oco y. Cea cpae pyoycpoca oee co peaoa ecoep eee peeo eae o pa pa (o opo, opacy, yxoy a peeo ..).

Cpe peayx ceay cpae oca pao cyeceo e o ex, o acoo e yepe oo oc a paoy, , aoopo, e ex, o peoaae a paoy opoe cpo (o 1 eca). ec ae e opae u eopae nocpeuu...

o oox eeeo pcy paoe (86,1% o ce cooyoc, 88,2% cpe pepaxc ceao cpa e p ae Z-cac 2,2). Ceaa cpae py oycpoca xapaepa c oee coo caooeo poeccoaoo acepca (5,19 o ce cooyoc, 5,4 ao pye).

Tau opao, ceaa cmpameu nouca paom xa pamepa uuuo, auaux cmauy nouu a pe mpya u paccumaux amu/ceum paomy ocmamoo opomue cpou.

oneca cmpameu pyoycpoca. Cea py , peaye oecy cpae oca pao, ao a. ec e o pecaee ecx py (22,8% po 16,3% o ce cooyoc p ae Z-cac ooe aco 2,8), a ae epaox (70,1% po 61,4% cpe cex opoex p ae Z-cac 2,8). o pe ayx oecy cpae oca pao e cpe opocoo acee, o oycoeo oe pecaeo c ocyoc paoo poa ocpeecx cpyyp opoco ecoc. p o ae oe o oox cpay e pcy paoe, .e. ex, epe e poea py oycpoca co aoee ocpo. Byp o py cye ceo e, e cpe cex yx paoy, caooea po eccoao aa (o 9-ao ae oa coca a 5,19 o ce cooyoc 4,91 ao pye).

oneca cmpameu mpyoycmpocma peauyemc npeuyecmeo meu uuuau, omope uem oee uy oypemocnocoocm a pe mpya, e uem paom, ocmpo oyam eoxouocm nouca paom.

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